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A Glimpse of Iowa in 1846
By John B. Newhall

Pages 70-79

Page 70.




     Methodist Episcopal, (brick)  Pastor, Rev. Mr. Norris.
     Congregational, (brick,)   Pastor, Rev. Mr. Salter.
     Episcopal Church,  Pastor, Rev. Mr. Bachelder.
     Roman Catholic, (brick,)  Pastor, Rev. Mr. ______
     Old School Presbyterian  Pastor, Rev. Mr. Bracken.

     Des Moines County Temperance Society.- Dr. J.F. Henry, President; George Partridge, Secretary.
     Historical and Geological Society. - David Rorer, President; G.H. Hoit, Corresponding Secretary.
     (This institution solicits exchanges from similar institutions throughout the Union.)
     Mechanics' Institute. - Jas. McKell, President; S.A. Hudson, Secretary.
     Lodges. - Des Moines (Masonic) Lodge, No. 1, Washington Lodge, (Independent Order of Odd Fellows,) organized in April, 1844.
     Burlington Library Association. - Wm. B. Ewing, Librarian and Treasurer.
     Daguerrian Gallery. - Mr. Schram.
     Burlington Brass Band.
     Schools.- There are about a dozen schools in the city of Burlington, for the instruction of youth of both sexes, in several of which al the elementary branches of a classical education are taught.
     Physicians.- Drs. E. Lowe, L.W. Hickock, S. Ransom, G.H. Hoit, J.F. Henry, H. Houghton, E.D. Black, A.F. Bruning, Dr. Brown.
     Dentists.- A.F. Bruning, J. Garner.
     Lawyers. - Grimes & Starr, Hall & Mills, Stockton & Walker, E.W. Eastman, G.W. Bowie, D. Rorer, M.D. Browning, Wm. H. Starr, J.R. Fayerweather, Jas. W. Morgan, J.S. Dunlap, Jas. W. Woods, S.R. Thurston.
     Magistrate. - J.P. Wightman.
     Postmaster. - Levi Hager.




     Mayor.- J.L. Corse.
     Aldermen.- Ward No. 1; Silas A. Hudson, H. Moore.
     Aldermen.- Ward No. 2; Luke Palmer, Lyman Cook.
     Aldermen. - Ward No. 3; Harvey Ray, Richard Wait.


Page 71.

     Treasurer.- Wm. B. Remey.
     Recorder.- A.E. Harker.
     Marshal. - Jeremiah White.
     City Solicitor.- S.R. Thurston.
     Market Master.- James Wells.
     Market Days. - Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.




     Sheriff of Des Moines. - A.W. Carpenter.
     Recorder. - Wm. B. Remey.
     Judge of Probate. - O.H.W. Stull.
     Clerk of District Court.- John S. Dunlap.
     County Treasurer. - George Blickhahn.
     Coroner.- J. Byles.




     Burlington, which was formerly known as the "Flint Hills," and more familiarly by the Indians as "Shok-o-quon," had long been an old trading post for the Indians, and from time to time, to the present period, the frequent excavations in the streets and cellars bring to light the mouldering remains of the departed race, with the usual appendages of savage burial, viz; the war club, the pipe and hatchet.

     The first settlers who came to Burlington were Morton M. McCarver and Simpson S. White. Early in 1883 these enterprising individuals, with their families, ventured upon the western shore of the Mississippi, enduring many suffering and privations incident to the settlement of a new and wilderness country, literally encompassed by savages.

     In the fall of 1833, Dr. William R. Ross and Major Jeremiah Smith brought each a stock of merchandise to the "Flint Hills," which may be considered the first commencement of trade, by the whites, in this now flourishing city. At that period the Flint Hills contained but a solitary Indian trading house, perched upon the river bank, near the site of the old Wisconsin Hotel, on Water street, being encompassed by thick foliage, hazel thickets, &c; and the nearest plantation that our "Flint Hill" trader had access to (upon the Western shore of the Mississippi) was the extensive improvement of old Maurice Blondau, who lived near the head of the Des Moines Rapids, between Montrose and Keokuk.

     Burlington was first laid off in the fall of 1833, by A. Doolittle and S.S. White. In 1837, the whole town was resurveyed by Albert M. Harrison, Esq., Galena, Ills.

Page 72.

     Among the early merchants and other enterprising individuals who soon followed the footsteps of the first settlers, in the years 1834-'5-'6 and '7, may be enumerated the names of Gray & Stevens, Col. Geo. H. Beeler, Jesse Webber, James Davidson, James W. Nealey, Gen. George W. Hight, David Rorer, George W. Kelley, David Hendershott, Col. H. Bennett, Thomas Cooper, Amos Ladd, James W. Grimes, Edward Marlow, William Copperthwait, Chase & Kimball, J.B. Newhall &Co., John S. David, George W. Cook, Dickenson, Hedge & Sears, Jeremiah Lamson, and numerous others, not less deserving of notice.

     Such is the brief retrospect of Burlington-from the solitary "Flint Hills" of 1832 to the gay and bustling metropolis of 1846. Its rapid growth is an evidence of what enterprise and industry can effect, in a few short years, unaided by fictitious capital or the inflated puffs of speculators.





    Dubuque is the great metropolis of the mineral region; is under the municipal regulations of a city charter, and one of the most important points of the upper Mississippi. It is handsomely situated, upon a natural terrace, on the west bank of the Mississippi, directly opposite the dividing line between Wisconsin and Illinois. Dubuque is 1,065 miles above New Orleans, 424 from St. Louis, 176 above Burlington, and 324 below the falls of St. Anthony, and contains a population of about 3,000 inhabitants. It is the seat of justice of Dubuque county; contains the Surveyor-General's office for Wisconsin and Iowa; U.S. Land office for the northern district of Iowa; a tasteful and spacious Catholic cathedral; a brick Court house; several neat and commodious churches; a bank; several good hotels; two printing offices; numerous tasteful residences, and between twenty and thirty extensive mercantile establishments; likewise, most of the trades and mechanical operations usually found in the Eastern cities.

     The soil, upon which Dubuque is built, is composed of a sandy loam,

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which renders the city always exempt from the unpleasant annoyance of muddy streets. From the high cliffs, which bound the western side of the town, the prospect is surpassingly beautiful. The eye of the traveler traces the city, almost beneath his feet, stretched out on the broad plateau of green, the compact portion presenting its parallel streets, with the uniform ranges of houses and lofty stores, together with numerous neat and tasteful residences that are sprinkled over the suburbs of the town, the whole presenting a panorama of rare and attractive beauty.

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Produce, &c.

Emerson & Shields Early & Bonson
Langton & Hayden Wm. Lawther & Co.
Thos. H. Benton H. Simplot
P. & Wm. D. Waples Markle & Hammonds
Murphy & Burke Thompson & Finley
V. Glenat M. McNamara
Wm. L. Johnson Gilham & Co.
Goodrich & Brother L. Malony
Evans & Watkins Francis Smith

     Watches and Jewelry.- Wm. Robbins, A. Garner, J. Kadsurss.
     Saddle and Harness Makers.- H.R. Rololph, P. Williamson.
     Drugs & Medicines.- T. Mason, E.M. Bissell, John Finley.
     Tailoring Establishments.- Fitzpatrick & Phipps, C.O. Hare, G. Kelley, P. Bony, D.M. Gouldrick, J.L. Coe, _ McGueegan, P. Halloren.
     Carriage and Wagon Makers.- Hartsock & Hewitt, J.C. Westerby, Evans.
     Bakers & Confectioners.- C. Desmoineaux, F. Mangold, J. Shaufner, J. Kries, Morrow & Morin.
     Dauguerrian Gallery.- R. Plumbe & J. Woods.
     Literary Depot.
     Books and Stationery.- T. Sullivan.
     Silk and Wool Dyer.- J.P. Kriebs.
     There are two Cabinet Ware Rooms, six Blacksmith

Page 74.

Shops, five Shoe Manufactories, three Paint Shops, one Paint and Oil Store, two Coopers' Shops, two Tan Yards.
    Insurance Agencies- National Insurance Company, New York, E. Lockwood Agent; office, 71 Main street. Protection Insurance Company, Hartford, Conn., Eustace H. Smith, Agent.
     Hotels.- Western Hotel, George McHenry; Jefferson Hotel, A. Cline; Iowa House, John Coffee; Washington House, Moses Eggleston; Farmers' Home, Henry Potzer; Farmers' House, Joseph Evans. A spacious four-story brick hotel is now being finished, and will be opened for business in a short time.
     Coffee Houses.- Coffee House, N. Neadon; Curren Saloon, L. Malory; Preemption House, Wm. B. Smith & Co.; Saloon Xavier, Rienfield, and several others.


     Methodist Episcopal; Pastor, Rev. J.J. Stewart.
     Congregational Church; Pastor, Rev. J.C. Holbrook.
     Baptist Church; Pastor, Rev. Mr. Parish.
     Christians' Church; Pastor, Rev. Mr. Lancaster.
     Roman Catholic Cathedral; Pastor, Rt. Rev. Bishop Loras.
     The Episcopal Society has it in contemplation to erect a handsome church, the present season.
     Physicians.- Drs. H.B. Dews, R.S. Lewis, J.W. Finley, A. Crane, T. Mason, R.C. Coppfle, J. O'Brien, Huttawa & Gal.
     Lawyers.- S. Hempstead, Thos. Rogers, James Crawford, Geo. Greene, H. Joshua Barney, Platt Smith, J.E. Sanford, T. Davis, Wm. Coriell.
     Magistrates.- Geo. L. Nightingale, A. Cline.
     Postmaster.- John King.
     Printing Offices.- The "Miners' Express," published every Wednesday, by Geo. Greene, editor and publisher; and a prospectus issued for a new paper, by A.P. Wood.
     Flouring Mills in the neighborhood of Dubuque, - Du Buque (or Cat Fish) Mills, Centre Grove Mills, Cascade Mills, Canton Mills, Sageville Mills.
     Steam Saw Mill.- C.H. Booth and Wm. Carter, proprietors.
     Butchers.- Bush & Wigell, Geo. Strasser, A. Fulwiler, Geo. Peacock.

Page 75.

     Livery Stables.- Hone & Hutchings, Mr. Lyman, Turney & Van Hagan.
     Gun & White Smiths.- D. Sheets, M. Scott.
    Institutions and Lodges- Mechanics' Institute, ___ President; R.O.C. Anderson Secretary; Dubuque (Masonic) Lodge No. 3; Dubuque Lodge of Independent Odd Fellows; Catholic, Washington and Dubuque Co. Temperance Societies- numbering, collectively, 850 members; Dubuque Brass Band.
     Schools.- Three males schools, one young ladies' boarding school, under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, and three additional female schools.




     Mayor - F.K. O'Ferrall.
    Aldermen.- J.G. Shields, John Blake, T. Faning, Elisha Dwelle, R. Rogers, J. Thedinga.
     Marshal.- J. Jos. Leist.
     City Solicitor.- Geo. Greene.
     City Clerk.- Wm. B. Smith.
     Market Days.- Wednesday and Saturday.




     Sheriff.- Geo. Cummins.
     Recorder- Geo. W. Harris.
     Judge of Probate.- Charles Corkery.
     Surveyor-Alexander Calhoun.
     Clerk of the District Court.- James Ross Wells.
     Clerk of County Commissioner.- G.I. Nightingale.
     Notary Public.- G.L. Nightingale.
     Treasurer.- J.E. Hooten.
     Coroner- M. McNear.
     Smelting Establishments in Dubuque.- (for the smelting of lead ore.)- Waller & Bores, J. & T. Burton, P.A. Lorimer, Wm. Johnson & Co., O'Ferrall & Wharton, J. Walters & Co. Amount of lead smelted per annum, four million of pounds.

     Dubuque is the residence of one of the Judges of the United States Court, of the Catholic Bishop of the Territory, of the Surveyor General of Iowa and Wisconsin, and of the Register and Receiver of the United States Lands.

     A stage road from Galena, Ills; a military road from the north line of the Missouri, via Iowa City; a road from Fort

Page 76.

Atkinson via Jacksonville, the seat of justice of Clayton county; a road from Delhi, the county seat of Delaware county; a stage road from Burlington, via Belleview; a road from Potosi, W.T.; a road from Andrew, the county seat of Jackson, and several county roads, terminate at this city.




     On the 22d of September, 1788, Blondeau, Basil Piar, Ala Austin, Quirneau Tobaque, and Antague, chiefs of the Reynard [Fox] tribe of Indians, signed an article at Prairie Du Chien, granting to Julien Dubuque, a native of France, called by them the Little Night, (la petit nuit), "148,176 arpens of land, situate at a place called the Spanish Mimes, on the river Mississippi, at a distance of about four hundred and forty miles from St. Louis, forming in superfices, about 21 leagues, beginning at the heights of the little Manquaquetois to the heights of the Mesqualiemanque, being in front of said river seven leagues, by a depth of three leagues, the whole forming the said tract forming the Spanish Mines." This extensive and valuable grant was confirmed by His Excellency, the Baron De Crondelet, the Spanish Governor, November 10, 1776 [1796].

     Upon this grant is situated the city of Dubuque, which derives its name from the original grantee.

     In the summer of 1830, Mr. Lucius H. Langworthy struck the first mine of lead at this place, the range of which produced upwards of 5,000,000 pounds of lead; and in the autumn of 1832, that gentleman, in company with Mr. David G. Bates, erected the first regular lead furnace ever established here; and received goods by the steam boat "Warrior," on the first vessel that ever landed freight at this point.

     On the 1st of August, 1830, the miners were driven from this place by a detachment of the United States troops under the command of Lieutenant Abercrombie, because the lands here belonging to the Indians were, by treaty stipulations, under the government protection. The military kept possession of this point until the Black Hawk war broke out in 1832. At the close of the war, in the September of the same year, a treaty was made, by which the United States acquired the lands, and this circumstance induced the miners to return in the fall, when they erected buildings and furnaces, and resumed their mining operation; but owing to

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the fact that the treaty was not then ratified, the miners were again driven off by the troops, and were not permitted to return until the 3d of June, 1833; when full permission was given them by the Government Agent, John P. Sheldon, Esq., to make farms and re-occupy the mines and furnaces here.

     The first institution here for "teaching the young idea how to shoot,"  was established in 1834, and Col. George Cubbage was appointed "Knight of the Ferulaj."

    The Methodists erected the first meeting house here in 1834. It was a log building, situate between Locust and Bluff streets.

    The Catholic Cathedral, a handsome edifice of hammered lime-stone, was commenced by the Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli, in 1835, and was completed in 1839.

     The first judge appointed for this place, was the present worthy Post Master, John King, Esq.. He received his commission as Chief Justice of this county, from Governor Mason of Michigan, in 1835.

     The first newspaper established west of the Mississippi, and North of St. Louis, was published at Dubuque, by John King, Esq., a native of Virginia. It was styled the "Dubuque Visitor," was Democratic in politics, and is dated June 8th, 1836.

     The population of Dubuque is eminently heterogeneous, including natives of every New England State- all the middle States, Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, with a "sprinkling" from every other State in the Union, together with Irish, French, English, Anglo-Canadians, Germans, Scotch, Welch, Poles, Norwegians, Swiss, Danes,- beautifully illustrating how happily all "nations, kindred and tongues," can commingle together under the benign influence of our free institutions; for a more orderly, law abiding, generous and intelligent people, are no where to be found.


     In concluding this description of Dubuque, I shall avail myself of a highly graphic sketch of the early condition of this flourishing city, which appeared in the "Miners' Express" in 1845 over the signature of "Peosta," entitled  "The Past.- Where was the town of Dubuque on the first day of June, 1833? "Solitary and alone" stood a single cabin, about eight logs high, at the foot of Main street, where its

Page 78.

owner, now no more, was "monarch of all he surveyed." But not long alone; for the Red Man had barely bid the graves of his fathers adieu when the oily-tongued Yankee, the Sucker, the Von Krouts, the Bulls, and the Paddies vied with each other in "paddling the light canoe" across the Father of Waters, to seek their fortunes in the bowels of the earth, whose surface may be seen, here and there, disturbed and burrowed like a buffalo lick, by the Indian miner who had been initiated by the "Petit nuit." The rocks soon howled, and the hills reverberated. The valley resounded to the woodman's axe, and the sturdy oak fell prostrate to the dust, that its branches might be fuel, and its trunk be constructed with its fellow, into a temporary hut for the abode of Man, where the same aperture served a double purpose-for the ingress of light, and the egress of smoke.- The winter of that year shut in upon those pioneers of civilization with all the privations to a new home.- Rude cabins; scant of provisions. No female hand to comfort them, and the demon of intemperance stalking in their midst. True, the number of inhabitants was not few, for the time. Coarse merchandise, blankets, and buffalo robes, were open to purchase, but yet their wants were many, as provisions of all kinds were scarce. The sick may die without nursing; the cholera found its victims, unchecked by medical aid, and the necessaries to administer to their comfort were no where to be found.

     "The spring of 1834 opened under more favorable auspices, as a transient steamboat arrived from St. Louis and "the last best gift of God to man" dropt in occasionally.- Yet, the first anniversary of their settlement found them in a state of anarchy, for the parent Government had neglected them; no State or Territorial law had yet protected them, and we doubt if the Divine code could be found in their midst, unless, perhaps, in the hands of that pioneer patriarch, Father Johnson.

     "The Aegis of the laws of the Territory of Michigan, first spread its mantle over them on the 4th of July of that year, and freedom first dawned upon our infant colony on the glorious anniversary of our National Independence. Justices, and county courts were then established, and our fellow citizen, Gen. Lewis, was first J.P. Chief Justice King, our present worthy Post-master, presided in the county court,

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and superseded his Honor, Judge Lynch; but no Superior or District Courts were established until the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, in July, 1836; nor was any court of that nature held here until 1837. During this long lapse of time, the perpetrators of all higher crimes went unwhipt of justice, unless, perhaps, an occasional well-applied application of the cat-o-nine tails, or the more degrading coat of tar and feathers. Sensitive minds may revolt at such barbarous punishment, but in the absence of more cruel, but refined, barbarity, we can  vouch, by experience, for their salutary effect. Grog-shops, too, were numerous in those days. The miner who kept no "panther" behind his door, was too mean an associate for a respectable man, and our streets then were well chequered with playing cards."






Is the seat of justice of Lee county, and is beautifully situated on a curve of the west bank of the Mississippi, twenty miles below Burlington, and about twelve miles above the head of the Des Moines Rapids. Its situation and appearance indicate a natural site for a city. In commercial importance Fort Madison may be regarded as the fourth important point in the Territory. It contains a population of about 1600 inhabitants, and is under the municipal regulations of a city charter, which authorises the election of a Mayor and Board of Aldermen.

     Fort Madison contains the Territorial Penitentiary, likewise a handsome brick Court House, constructed at a cost of about $13,000, several neat churches, a number of good hotels and extensive brick warehouses, together with numerous trades and mechanical establishments.




     Mercantile Establishments.- Miller & Albright, J.W. White, D. McCon, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Henry Cattermole, H.L. Montandon, H. Lindemuth, Charles Stewart, W. Hawxhurst, Bronnel & Bros., Charles Brewster, Parmer & Brother, J.P. Reaves & Co. 

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