Polk County is situated in the central portion of the state, and has a considerable variety of surface, the streams running through it determining in a great measure its topography. It is a good agricultural county, having a soil as rich and diversified as any in the state, and yielding as abundantly to the skill and industry of the husband-man. The rivers and streams which flow through this county collect their waters from Southern Minnesota and from a large area in Central Iowa, forming a water system of perhaps greater extent than that of any other county in the state, and affording numerous sites for mills and manufactories. The principal river is the Des Moines, which flows through the county in a southeasterly direction, receiving its tributaries—Beaver Creek, North River and Raccoon River—from the west, the latter emptying into the Des Moines within the city limits. The tributaries on the east side are Four Mile Creek, the Chicauqua, or Skunk River, and Indian creek, besides several smaller streams, among which may be named Camp Creek, Mud Creek and Spring Creek. Big Creek flows into the Des Moines from the north. The larger of these streams contain fine fish of various kinds and are more or less rapid in their course, passing between banks of various heights, from the slight elevation of the bottom lands to bluffs and hills of considerable altitude. The margins of the streams are well timbered, and indeed throughout the county considerable timber prevails-much of it useful for manufacturing purposes, such as black walnut, hickory, white oak, maple, ash, elm and sycamore; and detached groves are found in many parts of the county, which relieve and beautify the prairie landscape.

Quarries of limestone are found in different parts of the county, and sandstone and coal are universal and inexhaustible. Many coal mines are in successful operation, and the price of coal for fuel in the city of Des Moines ranges at about $3.00 per ton.

In point of health, Polk County ranks among the best in the state, the surface being elevated several hundred feet above the level of the Mississippi. There is hardly any marsh, a very small proportion of wet land, and only one or two sluggish streams in the whole county. After rains, and after the frost leaves the ground in the Spring, the soil is freed from surface water and mud with astonishing rapidity. This is especially noticeable since the country has been generally brought under a state of cultivation, and fevers and ague, which were common in the early settlement, are now almost wholly unknown. The climate is milder than that east of the Alleghany Mountains in the same latitude, the winters less severe, the snows lighter and frosts not so deep. Polk County lies south of latitude 42°, the same as Connecticut and Northern Pennsylvania, and the climate here is not so rigorous as in either of those states.


Purchase of the Territory. –The territory embraced in Polk County was originally included in the purchase made by the United States Commissioners of the Sac and Fox Indians, at Agency City, of the 11th of October, 1842. By the terms of this treaty the Indians were to remain in the exclusive possession of the “Purchase” till October 11th, 1845. In the Fall of the last-mentioned year most of them were removed to their reservation in Kansas, the balance being removed in the Spring of 1846.

Fort Des Moines. – Meantime, for the protection of the Indians, Government erected Fort Des Moines within the limits of the “New Purchase”. The expedition for the erection of the fort was conducted by Captain James Allen, the future commandant, an officer of the fine military talents and experience, who arrived up the Des Moines River from Fort Sanford on the 9th of May, 1843, with a small detachment of United States troops, on board of the steamer IONE. This was the first steamer that ever ascended the Des Moines as far up as the present capital of Iowa. Effecting a landing at what is now the foot of Court Avenue, the troops and military stores were disembarked, and Captain Allen returned with the steamer to Fort Sanford, to make arrangements for bringing on the rest of the soldiers and supplies. In due time, they arrived to join their comrades, amounting in all to one hundred and twenty-five officers and men, and set to work to erect the fort, which soon reared its log palisades near the mouth of the Raccoon, at its confluence with the Des Moines.

Thus was established another fort within the Indian country, the outpost of an advancing civilization destined soon to sweep away the last vestige of that once powerful race from the continent. The barracks were built of rough logs, one story high, with stone chimneys and "puncheon" floors. The buildings, including stables for the horses, numbered about twenty-five. Captain Allen had his headquarters not far from where the old Collins House once stood, on Market Street. Under him were Lieutenants Greer, King and Potter, the first serving in command of the artillery, the others of the Infantry. Doctor Griffin was surgeon of the post; Major Beech, Indian agent; and Joseph Smart, interpreter.

Indian Traders. – Soon after the arrival of the troops a trading post was established on the east side of the river, by two noted Indian traders, bearing respectively the names of Washington George and George Washington Ewing, brothers from Ohio. According to a memorandum kept by Benjamin Bryant, “the Ewings landed in a keelboat, on the east side of the Des Moines River, May 3rd, 1843, with goods, corn, some provisions, and tools to build a trading house.” They also built a log cabin to live in. Among the treaty stipulations was an important clause, that no whites should be allowed to settle on the New Purchase without special permission from the officers of the agency, until the Indian title should expire. On the 6th of May, 1843, Benjamin Bryant, who had lived a good deal among the Indians, was allowed to make a claim, and J. B. Scott, trader, James Drake, gunsmith and blacksmith, John Sturtevant, Robert Kinzie and Alexander Turner, were also permitted to locate claims and to improve a small tract of land as attaches of the garrison, to raise corn for the Indian agency. Phelps & Co., of Fulton, Illinois, received a permit from the Government as Indian traders, and built a log house on the east side of the Des Moines, near where Tuttle’s packing house now stands.

Early Settlers. – In February, 1844, Peter Newcomer obtained permission of Captain Allen to make a claim on the prairie east of town about four miles, on condition that he would build a bridge over Four Mile Creek, a road having been laid out in the Fall of the previous year from the fort to Toole’s Point, now Monroe, Jasper County. Here Mr. Newcomer erected his solitary cabin and endured the hardships and privations of frontier life for many years.

One of the earliest settlers in the county was Honorable Thomas Mitchell, who came from Fairfield, Iowa, in April, 1844. He built his cabin on a farm which he named Apple Grove, on the Iowa City road, in Beaver township, where he kept a house of accommodation for the traveling public for many years.

In May, 1846, Joseph Slaughter built a cabin about a mile south of Skunk River, where it makes its eastward bend to Colfax. Joseph Kintz settled to the north, on Clear Creek. These pioneers and the Tooles were Mr. Mitchell’s neighbors.

John Saylor settled near the fort in April, 1845, having obtained a permit to supply the garrison with hay and other produce. In October of the same year, Isaac Cooper, now a wealthy citizen of Des Moines, opened his cabin in Delaware Township. Mr. Cooper was the pioneer chairmaker in the county. He fashioned a chair from a black walnut tree, making the seat of strips of bark, which rustic heirloom is still in possession of the family.

Rev. Mr. Pardoe, an itinerant minister, preached the first sermon in the county at Apple Grove, in the Fall of 1844. Present as hearers: Mr. Mitchell’s family, two hired men, the servant girl, and some half-a-dozen travelers.

The first well dug in the county was operated by Mr. Cooper, with a pair of skillets left by the retiring Indians. This well was twenty feet deep and had an unfailing supply of water.

Capt. Allen commenced a sawmill on Middle River, a short distance from Carlysle, in the Fall of 1843, and took in as a partner J. D. Parmalee. The enterprise became a success. Corn was afterwards cracked and ground for food at this mill. It was the first mill in Polk County. In 1844, facilities for grinding wheat were added to it, and in the Winter farmers came in with their grists. Previous to this they had to go as far as Bonaparte, 150 miles over bridgeless roads.

In April, 1846, Eli Grulliger settled in Franklin Township, and gave his name to the grove of timber that sheltered his cabin. In May of the same year, Michael Lavish commenced making improvements at Lavish’s Grove. Corey’s Grove, in the corner of Elkhart Township, was settled by Walker Corey and John Fisher, in 1846.

The year 1846 marks the first settlement in Delaware Township in the advent of Riley Thornton, who built his cabin on a branch of Four-Mile Creek. James Smith, now a wealthy pomologist living south of Des Moines, made a beginning in Douglas Township in 1847. He and his son dug a hole in the side of a hill and completed their first residence by putting up a few logs and poles, to the front entrance of which was attached a slab door. Here he began the first nursery in the county, which in a year or two he sold to Nathan Thornton.

Hon. J. C. Jordan built his cabin in Walnut Township, about six miles west of Des Moines, in 1848. His cabin was noted for having the first battened door in the county, the fashion having been to rive out lumber from walnut logs and fasten the rude planks to a cross-piece with wooden pegs. This primitive door was usually hung on wooden hinges and fastened with a wooden latch, from the outside of which depended a string, a symbol of the free and easy access of the visitor to the cabin of the hospitable pioneer.

Addison Michael was one of the first settlers in Saylor Township before he moved to Fort Des Moines. In his cabin was born the first baby in the township, in April, 1846. John Bradley lived in a cabin made of cornstalks with a pole roof, and quilts hung about the beds to protect the sleepers from the storm, a partition of quilts dividing the main apartment into kitchen and dormitory.


The Indian title to the lands in this portion of Iowa expired at midnight, October 11, 1845. This period was impatiently awaited by those who were already here, for after that time each was at liberty to make a claim of 320 acres, which could be held until Government brought land into market, and then purchased under such regulations as are now in force. Long before the expiration of the Indian title, the settlers around the fort had made arrangements with each other, and the most valuable tracts were already considered claims. Some claims were even measured and staked off, but this was of no validity, and done only for convenience, or to facilitate such subsequent survey as was absolutely necessary to establish and identify it. So eager were the settlers, who had previously remained only at the sufferance of the General Government, to have permanent houses near the fort, that during the fore part of the night preceding the 11th of October, men were stationed in all directions around with instructions to immediately begin the measurement of claims as soon as midnight arrived.

Precisely at twelve o’clock, the loud report of a gun at the agency announced that the empire of the red man had ended here forever, and that of his master race had begun. Answering reports rang sharply on the midnight air in quick succession, till the signal was conveyed for miles around, and all understood that civilization had now commenced her reign in Central Iowa. The moon was slowly sinking in the west, and ere long the landscape was shrouded in darkness save the fitful flashes of torches and lanterns carried by the claim makers, or the wilder glare occasioned by the burning of some Indian wigwam, set on fire to light the pioneers in their work. Throughout the country thousands of acres were laid off into claims before the dawn. Some who had not axes, marked the boundaries of their claims by cutting their initials on trees with their pocketknives. Such was the case with Jacob Frederick and Jeremiah Church, in the vicinity of Fort Des Moines – the latter cutting his initials by the light of a burning wigwam in the old Indian village.

Mr. Church started the of Liberty in 1846; but it was afterwards abandoned, and Dudley sprang into existence in its stead.

There was some quarreling after the eventful night of October 11, as might naturally have been expected; but the difficulties were finally adjusted in a satisfactory manner by a claim committee.


The Territorial Legislature, in session at Iowa city, passed an act January 17, 1836, organizing Polk County, with certain boundaries which were afterwards changed, by transferring four townships to Warren County in the interest of Fort Des Moines, it not being in the center of the county without the proposed change. These townships were, however, returned by legislative action in 1852, after they had been used in the interest of the seat of justice of Polk County.

The organization of the county was an exciting subject in the little hamlet. Where will the county seat be located? was the main question. Honorable Thomas Mitchell, Doctor Fagan, and two other gentlemen were the lobby members from the Fort. Starting on horseback one cold February morning to go down to Iowa City, they reached Bennett’s Cabin, four miles east from Newton, nearly frozen. Corn bread and sour bacon, and sleeping in a trundle bed, did not dampen their determination. "Des Moines must not be beaten," was the war cry.

Brooklyn was in the field against Fort Des Moines. The Legislature appointed Thomas Hughes, of Johnson, M. T. Williams, of Mahaska, and Giles M. Pinneo, of Scott County, commissioners to locate the county seat. These gentlemen did not immediately attend to their duties, and local excitement ran high. Among those who ardently fought for the championship of Fort Des Moines over Brooklyn, was A. D. Jones, Esquire, who first made his appearance in this section at Meacham’s Tavern February 13, 1846. Mass meetings were held on the day following, both at the garrison and at Brooklyn, and parties nominated for County Surveyor – Mr. Jones at Fort Des Moines and Mr. Woodard at Brooklyn. In the election which followed it was claimed that Mr. Woodard received a majority of the votes cast, but Mr. Jones contested the point and received the certificate of election.

The county seat was located by the commissioners at Fort Des Moines, May 25, 1846.

The first election in Polk County occurred on the first Monday in April, 1846. In Fort Des Moines the polls were opened in one of the dragoon houses near what is now called “The Point.” There were three places of voting in the county: At Thomas Mitchell’s, in Camp Creek precinct; at J. D. Parmalee’s, near Albany Mills; and at the Fort.

The whole number of inhabitants, at that time, in Polk County, exclusive of the military, was between two and three hundred. At the election the following county officers were chosen: Thomas McMullen, Recorder; William F. Ayers, Treasurer; Addison Michael, County Collector; A. D. Jones, County Surveyor; James Phillips, Coroner; Benjamin Saylor, William H. Meacham and E. W. Fouts, County Commissioners.


Polk County, at its organization, was included in the second judicial district, of which Honorable Joseph Williams was judge. He presided at the first court held in the county, which convened on the 2nd of April, 1846, one of the log shanties of the garrison being appropriated as the temporary abode of justice. Here court was opened in due form, and with as much dignity as the unpropitious circumstances would allow. John B. Larsh, United States Marshal; Thomas Baker, District Attorney; and Perry L. Crossman, District Clerk were present. It appearing that no grand jury had been summoned, the court adjourned till the next day, when the sheriff returned his venire, with following named grand jurors: William Lamb, John B. Scott, Samuel Dilley, John Baird, George B. Worden, J. M. Thrift, Samuel Deford, Samuel Shafer, W. W. Clapp, Benjamin Saylor, Peter Newcover, Newton Lamb, J. D. Parmalee, James Davis, J. J. Meldrum, Thomas Leonard, T. McMullen, Jeremiah Church, Thaddeus Williams, A. Brannon, G. B. Clark, and Williams F. Ayers.

The grand jury being empaneled, sworn and charged, were given in custody to Lewis Whitten, bailiff, and went out as usual to consider such matters and things as might perchance be brought to their notice. Happily, crimes had been but few, and they found nothing demanding their attention; consequently, they brought in no “true bills” except for their fees. They soon returned to court, were discharged, and the court adjourned till the next term. Jeremiah Church, one of the jury, says in his journal, they were an uncouth and barbarous looking set; that he felt constrained to apologize to the judge for their rough appearance, but Mr. Church does not state whether his habiliments were altogether up to the dignity of a grand jury or not. Judge Williams jocosely told him that men might have clean hearts under dirty shirts, and that in a new country every allowance was to be made for personal attire and appearance.

The first duly solemnized marriage that ever occurred in the limits of the county, and perhaps in the new purchase, was that of Benjamin Bryant to Miss Elvira B. Burge. The ceremony was performed by Aaron D. Stark, Esquire. It was Esquire Stark’s first essay at performing a marriage rite, and he is said to have introduced some variations from the ordinary ritual.


The first land sales of the land embraced in the last Indian purchase occurred at Iowa City, which was the nearest land office, in the Fall of 1848. The sole tenure by which many of the settlers in this vicinity held their lands up to this time was the precarious right of claim, which involved the liability of being obliged to give up their lands at any time to speculators and parties who might supersede them in pre-emption. Speculators industriously scoured the country, noted the most valuable portions, and determined to seize upon them, even though they were the claims of others, the moment they came into market. To protect themselves the settlers formed an organization, at a public meeting held at Fort Des Moines, on the 8th day of April, 1848, at which the committee reported the following resolutions:

In pursuance of the fifth resolution, the following committee was appointed: J. B. Scott, Thomas Mitchell, John Saylor, Doctor P. A. Fagan and Thomas Henderson. Nearly all the prominent men of the settlements signed the resolutions, and in some cases earnest work was necessary to carry out the purpose of the association.


Such was the case in the “Fleming war,” which occurred in the Spring of 1848. Asa Fleming held a claim a few miles south of Fort Des Moines. One B. Perkins, a neighbor, filed an intention of pre-empting it. Both were members of the claim club, and on this account public opinion grew warm against Perkins. Fleming gathered a crowd; the claim members armed with guns and other weapons, and after expostulating in vain, went for Perkins, who barely escaped being shot by mounting a horse and riding with all speed to Fort Des Moines, where he arrived not a moment too soon to hide himself from the fury of his pursuers. In a few days he recovered from his fright and swore out a warrant to have Fleming arrested for shotting with intent to kill. The warrant was served, and Fleming was brought into court by George Mitchell, constable, to be tried before Justice Luce; but before any of the formalities were entered into, a crowd of Fleming’s friends broke into the office and rescued him, carrying him away by main force. He was placed upon a horse and escorted to his cabin by the exultant crowd, amidst cheering and waving of handkerchiefs. In a little while Fleming was again arrested; but his friends, eighty strong, determined that he should not be tried and appearing at the Raccoon ferry, ordered the ferryman, Mr. Scott to take them over. He refused, so long as they were armed and threatening the town. Word by this time had reached the village, and such was the excitement that business for the time being was suspended. They rushed to the ferry to witness the fight that seemed to be impending. The Fleming crowd swore at Scott and threatened to go round and set fire to the town. But the ferryman, with intrepid coolness, told them to stack their guns and they should be immediately set across. After some controversy, and seeing that Scott was determined, they concluded to stack their guns and were all set across and marched into town unarmed. Fleming was examined in due form and found guilty of the charge preferred by Perkins. He gave bonds for his appearance at the next term of the District Court. The grand jury, however, by that time failed to find a bill against Fleming; and Perkins, finding himself so unpopular in the matter, was obliged to give Fleming a bond, and this ended the battle.


The first courthouse was erected in 1848, on a lot purchased by the county of Thomas McMullen for $35. The building cost about $2,000 and was built by John Saylor. The jail was erected in 1849 by Messrs. Shell & Guerrant, at a cost of $750.

The present courthouse, including jail in the basement, was begun in 1858, and not completed for several years. It was first used for court purposes in October, 1866. The cost of the building, as now completed, was over $100,000. Dyer H. Young, of Des Moines, was the architect and Isaac Cooper the contractor and builder.


The Polk County Poor Farm and Asylum are situated seven miles north of Des Moines, in Saylor township. The farm contains two hundred and ninety acres and is in a good state of improvement. The house is a three-story frame building, forty by sixty, and the average number of inmates is about thirty. Mr. Nathan Parmenter, Supervisor for District No. 3, Madison township, is Superintendent of the county poor and has appointed as steward of the farm and asylum, Mr. William S. Fisher.

In October, 1852, an agricultural fair was held in the courthouse yard – rather a slim exhibition for the infant Polk Agricultural Society; but in the next Autumn, in September, on the grounds of the district fair on Raccoon bottom, the agricultural resources of the county made a fine showing for a new section.

Messrs. McGlothen and Mitchell made a rail pen for sixteen blooded stock – short horns, exhibited by Mr. Bennet, bought in Massachusetts. They were beautiful animals. Mr. Mitchell, of Apple Grove, showed a fine Durham bull – all were thoroughbreds. Jacob Frederic and his son, B. F. Frederick, of Four Mile township, exhibited fine wooled sheep; good horses by Doctor Brooks, the President. There were fine specimens of wheat and corn, immense squashes and potatoes. The directors of the society this year were Honorable Thomas Mitchell, of Apple Grove, Captain F. R. West and Honorable B. F. Allen, of Fort Des Moines. The ladies brought no fancy work, nor was there any exhibition of equestrianship on the grounds. Mr. Morris was a prominent exhibitor at this fair.

The Polk Agricultural Society, re-organized in 1872, held its fairs during the two following years. In 1875 it was absorbed by the District Association, embracing several adjoining counties. The fairgrounds of this association are located on a spot admirably fitted for the purpose, on the north bank of the Coon River, and within the limits of the city of Des Moines.

GEORGE C. BAKER, Auditor.J. H. McCLELLAND, Clerk of Court.
WILLIAM LOWRY, Treasurer.J. C. READ, Recorder.
D. M. BRINGOLF, Sheriff.D. G. PERKINS, Supt. Public Schools
FRANK PELTON, County Surveyor.     J. B. BISSELL, County Attorney.
A.M. OVERMAN, Coroner.




Des Moines, the seat of justice of Polk County and capital of Iowa, is situated at the confluence of the Racoon with the Des Moines River and occupies nearly a central position in the state. It is 161 miles northwest of Keokuk, 174 miles west from Davenport, and 357 miles by railroad from Chicago. The distance to Council Bluffs and Omaha on the west is 142 miles.

Des Moines has the advantage of six important railroads, viz.: The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; the Keokuk & Des Moines; the Des Moines & Fort Dodge; the Des Moines, Indianola & Missouri; the Des Moines, Winterset & Southwestern; and the Des Moines & Minnesota; all of which are in successful operation, and there are other in the way of completion.

The situation of Des Moines is picturesque, occupying chiefly the valley and slopes of the hills on both the east and west sides of the river, the hills swelling into a grand circle of bluffs, which sweep the horizon on nearly all sides. From these bluffs fine views are obtained, and on their sides and summits are many of the most costly and elegant residences of the city.

From the western extremity to Capitol Hill on the east, the sweep is grand and imposing, and is best witnessed from the elevations of Park Hill, south of the Coon River – a point commanding a view of the entire city.

The city is not compact except in its business portion, but scattered over considerable territory, the corporation extending two and a half miles from north to south, and four and a half miles from east to west. The traveler is apt to be deceived in the number of inhabitants, as many of the residences are scattered far back on the wooded hills, where they are invisible from the business part of the city.

The level portion is capacious enough to accommodate the business of a large commercial metropolis. Here the streets are well laid out and the buildings and business blocks solid and substantial, composed chiefly of brick, from two to four stories in height. The courthouse, post-office, opera house, and several of the blocks and hotels make a fine appearance.

The Des Moines River, which flows through the heart of the city, is spanned by four

Page 430

costly bridges, 600 feet in length, while the Coon has two bridges, affording to South Des Moines, and the rich prairies beyond, easy communication with the various parts of the city. Owing to the location of the Capitol, the east side is scarcely less important than that west of the river, and in the future development and growth of the city, it will all become one compact mass, with its continuous streets joined by bridges on both sides. The principal streets running east and west are laid out in the manner and are numbered from the river each way, east of the river being East Court Avenue, East Walnut Street, etc., and vice versa.

The situation of Des Moines, as to commercial advantages, compares favorably with any city in Iowa. Although it has not the river navigation, like the cities along the eastern border, yet its location is central in the midst of a large area unoccupied by and any rival city, and in one of the richest agricultural districts in the country. Besides its railroad system – becoming more and more the rival of water navigation every year and destined at no very distant day to supersede it almost entirely – gives it great commercial advantages, the roads centering here and radiating into all parts of the country east, west, north and south. While Des Moines has a just pride in being the seat of government of a state which in comparatively few years has attained to the rank of third in agricultural importance in the Union, yet her growth and stability by no means depend upon the location of the Capitol, and the advantages derived from the business which it creates and fosters. She has resources of her own, derived from the rich surrounding country, the agricultural and mineral wealth of the vicinity, and her facilities and advantages for manufacturing.


Like many other places which have since grown into importance, the original nucleus of Des Moines was a fort erected by the government in an Indian country. It was built in 1843 by Captain James Allen and was called Fort Des Moines from its situation on the Des Moines River. The name was also for some time attached to the straggling frontier village which gradually grew up around the garrison. Several settlers came in and obtained permission from the military authorities to make claims before the expiration of the Indian title. Among these were Peter Newcomer and John Saylor, the first settling about four miles east of the fort in 1844, the latter north of it, opening a garrison farm in April, 1845. These pioneers were often at a loss for the conveniences of civilized life. Mrs. Newcomer, for example, had a cow giving good, rich mile, but how to make the butter was the problem, as she had no churn. The ingenuity of her husband was equal to the emergency. He took a section of a hollow log, and putting in a board bottom, fashioned a dasher out of a hickory pole. It is common among pioneers to find hollow logs serving the purpose of smoke house, barrel and leach tub, but Mr. Newcomer’s genius seems to have transcended them all in utilizing this species of hollow-ware, which nature furnishes to the hand of the pioneer.

The Sac Indians often camped about the fort, except when they were off hunting or down to their village. In those days, they were quite harmless and inoffensive. Their great warriors were dead; they had no care for anything to eat; their time was spent in playing cards and target shooting. Their enemies, the Sioux, were to be feared, and at one time made a demonstration of attacking the fort, which caused a good deal of excitement among them and the soldiers. But the philosophical Sac turned on his complacent heel, fled to the house for safety and quietly commenced a new game of poker. It was dull times for the soldiers as they daily went through the manual arms, and these little occasional excitements afforded them some diversion.

At one time two or three renegade scoundrels captured several horses belonging to the Sacs, after obtaining their friendship by giving them whisky and presents. Captain Allen sent out a detachment of cavalry to bring the thieves to justice. But the prairies were wide and the grass high, so that all escaped except one – Jonas Carsner. The Indians could not bring direct evidence that he was the thief, but after a trial by the officers, he was delivered over to Sergeant Haley, Goodell Smart, and another man, disguised as Indians, who administered to him a severe whipping. This should have made Carsner a better man, but it proved otherwise. One of the horses was found. This animal they lent to a man named Fish, who also had two horses stolen from him by the same party while he was bringing in supplies to the settlement. Fish started out to hunt for his team on the Indian’s horse, and while passing through a skirt of the forest, Jonas Carsner came out of the brush, dexterously cut the saddle girth, unhorsed Fish, and bore away at full speed the horse he had before stolen. Poor Fish had nothing else to do but to foot it back to camp and tell his story of defeat to the Indians, whose curses were not only loud but deep. These renegades and outlaws infested the frontier settlements for a time, but disappeared as the settlements increased and law and order became established; not however, in many places, without a struggle on the part of the honest settlers, who often had to organize into associations for self-protection.

The dangers and privations of the pioneer settlers were great in those early times. Mrs. Saylor lived alone in her cabin in the midst of Indians and wolves for six weeks while her husband was gone to Van Buren County on business. The wolves would chase the house dog across the door step and look in at the windows with their fiery eyes as she sat at her sewing. Mr. Saylor hollowed out a log for a bread tray to mix bread in, and the family was often reduced to close rations when their scanty supplies of provisions gave out. They obtained a little game, roasted crab apples and acorns and drank slough water.

At one time thirty half drunken Indians came to the cabin and demanded Mr. Saylor’s meat. Instead of being frightened and giving up the precious supplies he had just bought, he took a good-sized sapling and knocked down a half-dozen of the topers, and by telling them the soldiers were coming succeeded in driving the rascals off.

The soldiers were all removed from the fort in June, 1846. Among the early settlers were Isaac Cooper and Dr. T. K. Brooks. Isaac Cooper at one time went to Oskaloosa to buy corn and carry it to mill. The Skunk River was so high that he could not ford it. There was no bridge nor ferry, and he was obliged to float his corn across on logs. He afterwards sold his meal at $2 per bushel in Fort Des Moines.

The first white child born within the present limits of Des Moines was a son of the first tailor, J. M. Thrift, in January, 1845. This was on the east side. Shortly after this, in February, occurred the birth of a child of Lieutenant Grier’s, at the quarters on the west side. The first death was that of the last-mentioned child in the Autumn following. Ezra Rathbun, a colored minister of the Methodist church, and the first who ever preached at the Fort, attended the child’s funeral.

A class, or Methodist Society, was organized at Fort Des Moines in the Fall of 1845.

Benjamin F. Hoxie established the first grocery store, after the sutler left, on the east side, near Shepherd’s mill and R. W. Sypher sold general merchandise in a log building on the Phelp’s place, near where Tuttle’s pork-house now stands.

Brooklyn was then laid out on the east side, two miles from the river, and for a long time was the rival of Fort Des Moines – on paper. Dr. Brooks, Jeremiah Church and William Lamb, were its godfathers. Alexander Turner and Jacob Frederick wished it well and bought a lot apiece. But it never had a building erected on its site. W. W. Clapp kept grocery on the west side.

The first regular mail route was opened to Fort Des Moines in April, 1846. Josiah Smart was appointed postmaster but would not serve. Dr. Brooks was appointed in his place. Jeremiah Church and Peter Newcomer signed the Doctor’s bond. A. D. Jones, Esq., swore him into office. The mail was weekly, arriving on Wednesday. The through route was to Keokuk, via Toole’s Point, Oskaloosa, Eddyville, Ottumwa and Agency City.

In 1847 Rev. Mr. Post, of Pella, carried the mail on horseback – about a hatfull in all. Hon. P. M. Casady was then postmaster, the successor of Dr. Brooks.

The town of Fort Des Moines was laid out June 4, 1846, by A. D. Jones, surveyor, assisted by Dr. Fagan. The first town officers of Fort Des Moines were: Reverend T. Bird, President; Hoyt Sherman, Esq., Honorable P. M. Casady, L. P. Sherman, C. D. Reinking, R. W. Sypher and Jesse S. Dicks, members of the council. The sale of lots began in the village July 15, 1846. Lot 5 in Block 31, corner of Walnut and Court Avenue, sold at $35. Lot 1, in the same block, cost its owner the enormous sum of $18.

In July, 1846, Des Moines had thirty-one houses, twenty-three families and one hundred and twenty-seven souls, all told. The first frame building was erected on the 25th of July, 1846, by David Solenberger – dimensions of 18x20, and one-story. Most of the settlers who came in that year occupied the old garrison houses, the soldiers having been removed. The year 1846 was a fruitful season, crops were good, and immigration received a new impetus.

The lawyers conspicuous in the Fall campaign were Major McKay, Colonel Thomas Baker, Honorable P. M. Casady, W. D. Frasee, S. D. Winchester and A. D. Jones, Esq., all of Fort Des Moines. The physician on the east side was Dr. Brooks; on the west side Doctors Fagan and Kirkbridge. There was on the west side a little apothecary shop. Mr. Vanatta made chairs and had a turning of lathe; William F. Ayers did tailoring; and J. A. Campbell had a grocery and a place of amusement for the young folks to hold singing schools and dances. During this year, Addison Michael put up a frame store. The first brick building in town was erected by J. A. Campbell in 1848.

The United States Land Office was established at Des Moines in March, 1853. On the 7th of June, Isaac Cooper was appointed Chief Clerk; Honorable R. L. Tidrick, Register.

In 1850 the population was 515. In 1860 it had increased to 4,181. In 1870 it was 12,035, showing an increase in the decade preceding of 7,854. Since 1870, the increase has been about a thousand a year, the present population being about 17,000.

The name was changed to Des Moines I the adoption of a city charter, in 1857. The first city officers were the following: Colonel W. H. McHenry, Mayor; W. A. Hunt, J. F. Kemp, F. R. West, L. White, Isaac Cooper, W. C. Burton, R. L. Tidrick, M. Lawrence, J. W. Stanton, G. W. Connor, H. H. Griffith, J. A. Williamson, W. A. Scott and J. Hyde, Alderman.

On the 22nd of September, 1851, the citizens of Fort Des Moines voted to have it incorporated as a town. Hon. P. M. Casady, Rev. Thompson Bird, and L. P. Sherman, Esq., were the committee to draft articles of incorporation, which were adopted by the people October 18, 1851. By act of the Legislature the town was incorporated in 1853.

In 1851 bills were introduced into the House of Representatives to remove the Capital of the State from Iowa City to Pella and Fort Des Moines, and that designating the latter place seemed to have the support of a majority of the members but was finally lost on ordering to a third reading. The following session a bill was introduced into the Senate for the removal to Fort Des Moines, which was barely defeated upon the final vote. The effort was renewed at the next session, and was this time successful; and on the 15th of January, 1855, the Governor approved the bill relocating the seat of government within two miles of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines and providing for the appointment of commissioners for that purpose. The spot was accordingly selected in 1856, and the land donated by the citizens and property-holders of Des Moines. An association of private individuals erected the building for a temporary capitol, leasing it to the state at a nominal rent. Governor Grimes, on the 19th of October 1857, issued his proclamation declaring the City of Des Moines the Capital of Iowa. The removal of the archives was completed in December; the safe of the Treasurer of state, being drawn on two bob-sleds by ten yoke of oxen, entered the new capitol; and on the 11th of January, 1858, the Seventh General Assembly convened at Des Moines, now made by the State Constitution the permanent seat of government. The state obtained title to the “Old Capitol” building by purchase in 1864. The corner-stone of the new capitol building was laid with appropriate ceremonies November 23, 1871. Thus, Des Moines became the State Capitol, and the prestige and influence thus gained have not been without their effect in promoting the rapid growth of the place.


The first train of cars that entered the city came over the Des Moines Valley (now Keokuk and Des Moines) Railroad, in August, 1866. The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad was completed in September, 1861; the Indianola and Winterset branches in 1873; and the Des Moines & Minnesota in July, 1874. Des Moines has now six railroads in operation, as follows:


The pioneer church through its peculiar system of itinerancy was early in the field to plant its standard of Christianity upon the outposts of civilization. We have already spoken of Reverend Ezra Rathburn’s first preaching at the fort. Prior to 1845, or during the early part of that year, the Methodists sent out a missionary, whose circuit included Madison, Polk, Warren, the north half of Marian, and the south half of Jasper and Dallas Counties. This was performed on horseback by Reverend Mr. Russell, his saddle-bags sometimes scantily filled with corn bread and a slice of bacon, a worn bible and a clean shirt completing his outfit, as he journeyed from one sparse settlement to another, preaching in log cabins. In the Fall of 1845, a class was formed at Des Moines. A prayer meeting was held regularly for many years at John Saylor’s house. Elijah Crawford was class leader in 1848. The first Methodist Episcopal Church of Des Moines was erected in 1848 and was the first building for church purposes on the line of the Newton road west of Iowa City.

In 1848 the New School Presbyterians sent out a Home Missionary, Rev. Thomas Bird, who was a faithful and self-sacrificing laborer. He preached extensively in the cabins and built up little churches in many parts of the county.

The first Presbyterian church of Des Moines was organized June 4, 1848, at the house of John Dean, on the east side of the river. It started with thirteen members, Reverend Salmon Cowles, pastor for a short time, and was incorporated November 24, 1854. In July, 1856, the lot on Locust Street was purchased, and in a few years the present edifice erected at a cost of about $8,000.

Reverend J. A. Nash, a Baptist clergyman, now resident of the University of Des Moines, was the first pastor of the Baptist church, which organized in 1850. Mr. Nash has been closely identified with the interests of education, as well as the upbuilding of his own church. The church edifice was erected in 1850, on a lot donated by the County Commissioners.

Mr. Bird founded the Central Presbyterian Church in Des Moines, with seven members, one man and six women. In 1857, it had fifty-four members, Mr. Bird still pastor. He died a few years since, much lamented.

May 22, 1856, the Protestant Methodists organized themselves into a church in East Des Moines, having a membership of sixteen, and meeting at first in the Lyon school house, under the ministry of Reverend William Remsburg.

The Lutherans organized July 7, 1855, with twelve members, which soon increased to sixty.

St. Andrews (Catholic) church belonged to the Diocese of Dubuque, in 1855. The same year its members built a part of the old brick church, forty-three by sixty feet. In 1857, its membership was five hundred and sixty.

In July, 1856, the Christian church was organized under the preaching of Reverend N. Summerbell, with a membership of seventeen. The Episcopal church (St. Paul’s) was organized in 1855, Rev. E. W. Peet, Rector. In 1857 it numbered twenty-five members.


Not having the space to follow the history of all the churches in detail, we give the following summary: Des Moines has twenty-three churches, viz.: First Baptist, Burns Chapel, Centenary Methodist, Central Presbyterian, Church of Christ, Des Moines Mission, English Lutheran, Evangelical Association, Fifth Street Methodist, First Presbyterian, German Lutheran, German Methodist, African Methodist, Plymouth Congregational, Second Baptist, St. Ambrose Catholic, St. Mary’s German Catholic, St. Paul’s Episcopal, Swedish Lutheran, United Brethren, United Presbyterian, Universalist, Wesley Chapel, and Hope Chapel.


The first luminary that rose upon the political horizon, in the shape of a newspaper, in this locality, was the Iowa Star, issued by Barlow & Granger, editors and publishers, July 26, 1849. It was a Democratic organ, the party at that time being largely in the ascendant throughout the state. Judge Bates, of Iowa City, had an interest in the journal; the party was interested in its success, and all of Polk County was proud of the enterprise, for it gave that strip of country a great advantage over its less energetic neighbors. The Democrats of Iowa at this period seem to have been as much opposed to the extension of slavery into the territories as the Whigs, for at the Fairfield Convention, June 17th, they adopted a resolution saying: “We have no doubt of the right of Congress to prohibit by law the extension of slavery into the territories of the United States.” Thomas H. Benton, in a famous speech had taken this ground, and Mr. Granger supported him in the Iowa Star. These views were generally accepted at that time by the Democrats of Des Moines. Mr. Granger was a clear and forcible writer.

On the 22nd of February, 1850, the Star passed into the hands of Bates & Johnson, Judge Curtis Bates assuming the editorial management. Some time during the year Mr. Johnston died of small-pox, and Judge Bates conducted the paper alone, till he formed a partnership with Dr. A. Y. Hull, in 1852. The paper was continued by them till the Winter of 1854, when the office was transferred to Will Tomlinson, who changed its name to the Iowa Statesman. In January, 1857, the office was purchased by William Porter, and the name of the paper changed to the Iowa State Journal. Mr. Porter continued editor till 1860, when he sold to Stilson Hutchins, now editor of the St. Louis Times. His partner, Todd, and himself changed the name back to the Iowa Statesman. Stevens & Hoxie then published it for a while as the Commonwealth, and sold to J. B. Bausman, who changed its name to the Iowa Times. He, and the company who owned a part of the paper, sold to Colonel W. H. Merrit, who, in 1862, changed its name back again to the Iowa Statesman, and continued its publication about three years, when he sold to Staub & Jenkins, who were succeeded by C. J. Snow, till the Barnhart Bros. & Witmer purchased the material, in 1869, and continued the publication of the paper under the name of the Iowa State Leader.

In January, 1873, the office was purchased by W. W. Witmer, J. W. Witmer and W. E. Andrews, who incorporated the establishment under the firm name of The State Leader Company, under which it is still doing business. W. W. Witmer, President; W. E. Andrews, Secretary; J. W. Witmer, Treasurer.

The Iowa State Leader is published both daily and weekly from the Hawkeye Insurance Building and is an able and successful journal.

The Fort Des Moines Gazette. – In November, 1849, L. P. Sherman, from the Cincinnati Gazette office, made preparations to start a Whig paper in Des Moines in the interest of his party. The printing press and material was shipped from Cincinnati and hauled from the river, and in a little frame building, not far from Sherman’s Block, the first number of the Fort Des Moines Gazette was issued January 11, 1850. Mr. Sherman continued the publication of the Gazette one year, when it was changed into the State Journal by Peter Myers & Co., who were unsuccessful, and in 1852 Mr. Sherman sold the material to the Iowa Star.

The Iowa State Register. – In February, 1856, Thomas H. Sypherd and A. J. Stevens established a paper in the City of Des Moines called The Iowa Citizen. In 1857 the first named gentleman retired and was succeeded by W. H. Farner. Later in the same year the paper went into the hands of J. C. Savery, soon after which Mr. Farner retired, and J. M. Dixon, the now unfortunate blind man, was made the editor, continuing till December, when the whole establishment passed into the hands of John Teesdale. Mr. Dixon was retained as associate editor and was a talented writer.

On the 15th of February, 1860, the name of the paper was changed to The Iowa State Register, its present name.

On the 8th of May, 1860, the Register establishment was purchased from Mr. Teesdale by F. W. Palmer, afterwards member of Congress. On the 13th of January, 1862, Mr. Palmer issued the Register as a daily for the first time, as a twenty column sheet. In 1864, the size was increased to twenty-four columns.

In 1866 the paper and the entire establishment were purchased by Mills & Co., and on the 1st of May, 1867, enlarged to thirty-two columns. On the 8th of September, 1869, it was still farther enlarged to a thirty-six column sheet and issued on entirely new material.

On the 6th of December, 1870, the Register newspaper establishment was purchased by Clarkson Brothers, the present proprietors of the daily and weekly Iowa State Register. The firm consists of R. P. & J. S. Clarkson. Office, Walnut Street, corner Third, Des Moines, Iowa.

The Register is one of the ablest papers in the state, a journal well fitted by its commanding talents and enterprise to occupy the central position it does, and the controlling influence in both local and general state politics. Hon. R. P. Clarkson, the chief editor, is also postmaster of Des Moines.

The Iowa State Journal was originally established as the Iowa Review by Waterman & Speed, December 31, 1870, and by them conducted till May 18, 1872. It was then purchased by the Republican Printing Company, and the Daily Republican established, G. W. Edwards, President and Managing Editor; G. A. Stewart, Secretary and Associate Editor. The Daily Republican was continued till October, 1873, when it was purchased by the State Printing Company, and its name changed to the State Journal. The Printing Company continued it till the following April, and sold to G. W. Edwards, who managed it for a short time.

On the 26th of October, 1874, it was purchased by Williams, Blair and & Pierson, the present proprietors. J. E. Williams, Editor; J. G. Blair, Business Manager; R. J. Pierson, Superintendent and Bookkeeper.

The Journal has always been a strictly Republican paper, its editors and managers supporting the regular party nominations. It is issued both daily and weekly. Office on Mulberry Street, near the courthouse and post-office.

The Analyst, the only strictly mathematical publication in the country, is edited and published by J. E. Hendricks at the office of the State Journal. Established in 1874. Devoted exclusively to pure and applied mathematics. Circulation about 500. Monthly.

Iowa Homestead and Western Farm Journal (weekly) is published by the Homestead Publishing Company, 315 Court Avenue.

Iowa State Record (weekly), Fuller, Heartwell and Orwig, proprietors, 117 Walnut Street.

Iowa Staats Auzeiger (German weekly), Eiboeck & Gehr, proprietors, Hawkeye Insurance Building.

Plain Talk (weekly), M. H. Bishard, editor, East Walnut, corner Fifth.

Industrial Motor (monthly), T. G. Orwig, proprietor, 507 Mulberry Street.

Iowa Gazette (monthly, real estate and immigration organ), J. P. Bushnell & Co., publishers, 207 Fifth Street.

Western Jurist (monthly), Mills & Co., publishers, Mills Block.

Iowa School Journal (monthly), C. M. Greene, proprietor, 312 Walnut Street.

Des Moines Monthly Magazine, E. M. Day, editor and publisher, McCain Block.

State Printing Company, (publishers of auxiliary sheets), J. H. Brooks, president; A. R. Fulton, secretary; H. B. Speed, manager; Mills Block.

Des Moines City Directory, J. P. Bushnell & Co., publishers, 207 Fifth Street.

Des Moines Trade Circular and Business Directory, J. P. Bushnell, compiler; Pierson & Blair, publishers, 207 Fifth Street.


University of Des Moines. – This is a prosperous college under the auspices of the Baptist denomination, Rev. J. G. Nash, president. The building has the following history: In May, 1855, at the Lutheran Conference, Knoxville, a college was determined upon, to meet the wants of that denomination. Des Moines, through the influence of Dr. Grinnell and other members of the church, gave $10,000 as a building fund. In November, 1855, a Board of Trustees was elected, and a charter obtained from the legislature the same year. The building was finished in the Fall of 1857. A literary society was established in the interest of the college and made successful by a ”brilliant array of home talent”, in a course of popular lectures lasting through the Winter of 1856-7. The college was duly inaugurated under the name of Iowa Central College. In 1868 the Lutherans sold the institution to the Baptists. The building has been improved under their hands, and everything in connection with the college indicates a fair degree of prosperity.

Des Moines Literary Association, with library and reading room, open daily to the public, except Sundays and holidays. John Mitchell, President; W. T. Dart, Secretary.

Des Moines has three active temperance organizations – Peoples Temperance Association, and two lodges of Good Templars – Union Lodge No. 263, west side, and Des Moines Lodge, on the east side.

The Citizens Association. – C. P. Holmes, Secretary, furnishes information and works in the interest of the city.

The Early Settlers Association. – Hoyt Sherman, Corresponding Secretary, preserves many reminiscences of pioneer life.


The bands are three in number; Harmonia, string band; Hartung, string band; Mechanics Silver Cornet Band.


There is a military organization called the Olmsted Zouaves, attached to which is the Baker Battery.


Free Masonry is represented by seven lodges, viz.: Capital Lodge, No. 110; Pioneer Blue Lodge, No. 22; Temple Commandery, no. 4; Capital Council, No. 9; Corinthian Chapter R. A. M., No. 14; Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Masonic Mutual Benefit Association.


Of Odd-Fellows there are four lodges, viz.: Ebenezer Encampment, No. 10; Fort Des Moines Lodge, No. 25; Capital Lodge, No. 106; Jonathan, No. 137.

The Germans have a Turner’s Association and Harmonia Society, and there is one society of Red Men. The printers have a Typographical Union, and the city a Union Relief Society, with its committees distributed in all the wards.


Des Moines has been liberal in providing for popular education. The school system in the city is divided into two independent districts, those of East and West Des Moines, with their respective boards of education.

West Des Moines District. – the number of school buildings in this district is four, containing twenty-eight rooms, and seats for 1,716 pupils. The number of children of school age is 2,728. The enrolled is 1,750, or 64 1-5 per cent of the whole number eligible, a considerably larger per cent than is found in most cities of the United States, except Boston and San Francisco, where the per centage is 95 and 81 respectively.

The value of school property in the west district is as follows:

The second ward building is a remarkably fine brick structure, accommodating the High School of the city. It was erected in the Summer of 1867, and cost, exclusive of lot, $75,000. The third ward building, erected in 1870, cost over $60,000. The fourth ward building is now (1875) in process of construction, and when completed will cost about $25,000. These, with a smaller building erected in the first ward in 1874, constitute the school buildings of West Des Moines district.

The number of schools is twenty-four, viz.: 1 ungraded school, 13 primary schools, 9 grammar schools, and 1 high school. The teachers employed are twenty-seven – four males and twenty-three females. The course study in all grades is thorough and progressive, and in the High School extends through four years, embracing the languages, natural philosophy and higher mathematics.

Page 431

Superintendent, J. H. Thompson; President Board of Education, C. A. Dudley, Esq.; Secretary, J. M. St. John.

East Des Moines District. - This district has two brick school buildings, and a third is about to be erected in the Sixth Ward, corner of Sixteenth and Locust Streets. The schools are graded, embracing Primary, Intermediate, Grammar, and High Schools. The building containing the High School is an elegant three-story brick structure, and cost the district about $30,000, inclusive of furniture. The number of children of school age in the district is 1,570. Teachers, including the Principal of the High School, 17. E. M. Cotton, Superintendent and Principal of High School; Joseph Brewer, President Board of Education; W. M. Day, Secretary.


Des Moines has six banks, eighteen hotels, a woolen mill, oil mill, three immense packing-houses, four breweries, two stoneware factories, two school furniture factories, five foundries and machine shops, three plow factories, one brass foundry, two boiler shops, four carriage shops, several planing mills, two marble works, a spice mill, a paper mill, and one scale manufactory. There is also a reaper factory, sewing machine factory, several water and steam flouring mills, a publishing house, extensive coal mines, and the usual variety of smiths and mechanics.

J. H. Given, who established the first plow factory in Des Moines, in 1851 – making 200 plows – now manufactures 1,500 in the course of the year and does an immense business in other departments of his foundry. He owns the Given House, as well as the immense factory, 133 feet in length, and 39 in width, 50 feet front, three stories high, near the Rock Island Depot.

S. Green, foundryman, who was first employed by H. N. Hemingway as a moulder in the pioneer foundry in 1857, has a large building eighty-five feet in length, thirty-eight wide, near Given’s plow factory. Both buildings are fire-proof, from Pitman’s patent, and are creditable to the enterprising proprietors.

J. & J. D. Williams, proprietors of Farmers Mill, do a heavy business in the flour trade. This mill was built on the site of the old Stutsman mill in East Des Moines – has two run of burrs and makes a good brand of flour.

The Post-office in West Des Moines makes a fine showing in the money order department. Amount of money orders issued for 1873, $66,727.95. Paid, $194,261.65. Number of money orders, 14,214. 50,000 newspapers are distributed yearly at this office. Hon. J. S. Clarkson, Postmaster. The Post-office is located in the splendid and costly United States building that was erected in 1871-2 and cost $150,000.

Terrace Hill, the home of Hon. B. F. Allen; Cole Chester, Judge Cole’s residence; General Tuttle’s, J. Gilcrest, and others, which we have not room to notice, are some of the finest private dwellings in the state.

Des Moines has the Holly system of water works, erected in 1871 – street cars, gas and two bridges that ought to be free to all who enter her borders. The depots are to be enlarged some time, when the rich railroad corporations take “a good ready.”

A. NEWTON, Mayor.ADAM HAFNER, Marshal.
C. P. HOLMES, Solicitor.A. BRYAN, Deputy Marshal.
G. M. WALKER, Treasurer.L. A. CRANE, Police Judge.
TAYLOR PIERCE, Clerk and Auditor.  
PHILIP NAU, Supt. of Markets and Sealer of Weights and Measures.
First Ward. – C. Bates.Seventh Ward. – D. Rees.
Fifth Ward. – A. Christy.First Ward. – M. McTighe.
Seventh Ward. – J. R. Gilcrest.Third Ward. – J. R. Rollins.
Third Ward. – S. Johns.Fourth Ward. – H. L. Skinner.
Sixth Ward. – M. H. King.Fifth Ward. – S. Stansbury.
Second Ward. – William Merrill.Sixth Ward. – J. Williams
First Ward. – P. McGlew.Fourth Ward. – J. J. Williams.

Transcribed by Kathy Dozler from "A. T. Andreas Illustrated Historical Atlas of the State of Iowa" Chicago: Andreas Atlas Co., 1875, pp. 429-431, November, 2023.

Copyright © 1996 The IAGenWeb Project      
IAGenWeb Terms, Conditions & Disclaimer