Dubuque is the great metropolis of the
mineral region; is under the municipal regulations of a city charter, and one of
the most important points of the upper Mississippi. It is handsomely situated,
upon a natural terrace, on the west bank of the Mississippi, directly opposite
the dividing line between Wisconsin and Illinois. Dubuque is 1,065 miles above
New Orleans, 424 from St. Louis, 176 above Burlington, and 324 below the falls
of St. Anthony, and contains a population of about 3,000 inhabitants. It is the
seat of justice of Dubuque county; contains the Surveyor-General's office for
Wisconsin and Iowa; U.S.Land office for the northern district of Iowa; a
tasteful and spacious Catholic cathedral; a brick Court house; several neat and
commodious churches; a bank; several good hotels; two printing offices; numerous
tasteful residences, and between twenty and thirty extensive mercantile
establishments; likewise, most of the trades and mechanical operations usually
found in the Eastern cities.
The soil, upon which Dubuque is built, is composed of a
which renders the city always exempt from the unpleasant annoyance of muddy
streets. From the high cliffs, which bound the western side of the town, the
prospect is surpassingly beautiful. The eye of the traveller traces the city,
almost beneath his feet, stretched out on the broad plateau of green, the
compact portion presenting its parallel streets, with the uniform ranges of
houses and lofty stores, together with numerous neat and tasteful residences
that are sprinkled over the suburbs of the town, the whole presenting a panorama
of rare and attractive beauty.
DUBUQUE DIRECTORY - 1846
Wholesale and Retail Dealers in Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Produce,
|Emerson & Shields
||Early & Bonson
|Langton & Hayden
||Wm. Lawther & Co.
|Thos. H. Benton
|P. & Wm. D. Waples
||Markle & Hammonds
|Murphy & Burke
||Thompson & Finley
|Wm. L. Johnson
||Gilham & Co.
|Goodrich & Brother
|Evans & Watkins
Watches and Jewelry.- Wm. Robbins, A. Garner,
Saddle and Harness Makers.- H.R. Rololph, P.
Drugs & Medicines.- T. Mason, E.M. Bissell,
Tailoring Establishments.- Fitzpatrick &
Phipps, C.O. Hare, G. Kelley, P. Bony, D.M. Gouldrick, J.L. Coe, _ McGueegan, P.
Carriage and Wagon Makers.- Hartsock &
Hewitt, J.C. Westerby, Evans.
Bakers & Confectioners.- C. Desmoineaux, F.
Mangold, J. Shaufner, J. Kries, Morrow & Morin.
Dauguerrian Gallery.- R. Plumbe & J. Woods.
Books and Stationery.- T. Sullivan.
Silk and Wool Dyer.- J.P. Kriebs.
There are two Cabinet Ware Rooms, six Blacksmith
Shops, five Shoe Manufactories, three Paint Shops, one Paint and Oil Store, two
Coopers' Shops, two Tan Yards.
Insurance Agencies- National Insurance Company, New
York, E. Lockwood Agent; office, 71 Main street. Protection Insurance Company,
Hartford, Conn., Eustace H. Smith, Agent.
Hotels.- Western Hotel, George McHenry; Jefferson
Hotel, A. Cline; Iowa House, John Coffee; Washington House, Moses Eggleston;
Farmers' Home, Henry Potzer; Farmers' House, Joseph Evans. A spacious four-story
brick hotel is now being finished, and will be opened for business in a short
Coffee Houses.- Coffee House, N. Neadon; Curren
Saloon, L. Malory; Preemption House, Wm. B. Smith & Co.; Saloon Xavier,
Rienfield, and several others.
Methodist Episcopal; Pastor, Rev. J.J.
Congregational Church; Pastor, Rev. J.C. Holbrook.
Baptist Church; Pastor, Rev. Mr. Parish.
Christians' Church; Pastor, Rev. Mr. Lancaster.
Roman Catholic Cathedral; Pastor, Rt. Rev. Bishop Loras.
The Episcopal Society has it in contemplation to erect
a handsome church, the present season.
Physicians.- Drs. H.B. Dews, R.S. Lewis, J.W.
Finley, A. Crane, T. Mason, R.C. Coppfle, J. O'Brien, Huttawa & Gal.
Lawyers.- S. Hempstead, Thos. Rogers, James
Crawford, Geo. Greene, H. Joshua Barney, Platt Smith, J.E. Sanford, T. Davis,
Magistrates.- Geo. L. Nightingale, A. Cline.
Postmaster.- John King.
Printing Offices.- The "Miners'
Express," published every Wednesday, by Geo. Greene, editor and publisher;
and a prospectus issued for a new paper, by A.P. Wood.
Flouring Mills in the neighborhood of Dubuque, -
Du Buque (or Cat Fish) Mills, Centre Grove Mills, Cascade Mills, Canton Mills,
Steam Saw Mill.- C.H. Booth and Wm. Carter,
Butchers.- Bush & Wigell, Geo. Strasser, A.
Fulwiler, Geo. Peacock.
Livery Stables.- Hone & Hutchings, Mr.
Lyman, Turney & Van Hagan.
Gun & White Smiths.- D. Sheets, M. Scott.
Institutions and Lodges- Mechanics' Institute, ___
President; R.O.C. Anderson Secretary; Dubuque (Masonic) Lodge No. 3; Dubuque
Lodge of Independent Odd Fellows; Catholic, Washington and Dubuque Co.
Temperance Societies- numbering, collectively, 850 members; Dubuque Brass Band.
Schools.- Three males schools, one young ladies'
boarding school, under the charge of the Sisters of Charity, and three
additional female schools.
CORPORATION OF DUBUQUE.
Mayor - F.K. O'Ferrall.
Aldermen.- J.G. Shields, John Blake, T. Faning, Elisha Dwelle,
R. Rogers, J. Thedinga.
Marshal.- J. Jos. Leist.
City Solicitor.- Geo. Greene.
City Clerk.- Wm. B. Smith.
Market Days.- Wednesday and Saturday.
Sheriff.- Geo. Cummins.
Recorder- Geo. W. Harris.
Judge of Probate.- Charles Corkery.
Clerk of the District Court.- James Ross Wells.
Clerk of County Commissioner.- G.I. Nightingale.
Notary Public.- G.L. Nightingale.
Treasurer.- J.E. Hooten.
Coroner- M. McNear.
Smelting Establishments in Dubuque.- (for the
smelting of lead ore.)- Waller & Bores, J. & T. Burton, P.A. Lorimer,
Wm. Johnson & Co., O'Ferrall & Wharton, J. Walters & Co. Amount of
lead smelted per annum, four million of pounds.
Dubuque is the residence of one of the Judges of the
United States Court, of the Catholic Bishop of the Territory, of the Surveyor
General of Iowa and Wisconsin, and of the Register and Receiver of the United
A stage road from Galena, Ills; a military road from
the north line of the Missouri, via Iowa City; a road from Fort
Atkinson via Jacksonville, the seat of justice of Clayton county; a road
from Delhi, the county seat of Delaware county; a stage road from Burlington, via
Belleview; a road from Potosi, W.T.; a road from Andrew, the county seat of
Jackson, and several county roads, terminate at this city.
On the 22d of September, 1788, Blondeau,
Basil Piar, Ala Austin, Quirneau Tobaque, and Antague, chiefs of the Reynard
[Fox] tribe of Indians, signed an article at Prairie Du Chien, granting to
Julien Dubuque, a native of France, called by them the Little Night, (la petit
nuit), "148,176 arpens of land, situate at a place called the Spanish
Mimes, on the river Mississippi, at a distance of about four hundred and forty
miles from St. Louis, forming in superfices, about 21 leagues, beginning at the
heights of the little Manquaquetois to the heights of the Mesqualiemanque, being
in front of said river seven leagues, by a depth of three leagues, the whole
forming the said tract forming the Spanish Mines." This extensive and
valuable grant was confirmed by His Excellency, the Baron De Crondelet, the
Spanish Governor, November 10, 1776 .
Upon this grant is situated the city of Dubuque, which
derives its name from the original grantee.
In the summer of 1830, Mr. Lucius H. Langworthy struck
the first mine of lead at this place, the range of which produced upwards of
5,000,000 pounds of lead; and in the autumn of 1832, that gentleman, in company
with Mr. David G. Bates, erected the first regular lead furnace ever established
here; and received goods by the steam boat "Warrior," on the first
vessel that ever landed freight at this point.
On the 1st of August, 1830, the miners were driven from
this place by a detachment of the United States troops under the command of
Lieutenant Abercrombie, because the lands here belonging to the Indians were, by
treaty stipulations, under the government protection. The military kept
possession of this point until the Black Hawk war broke out in 1832. At the
close of the war, in the September of the same year, a treaty was made, by which
the United States acquired the lands, and this circumstance induced the miners
to return in the fall, when they erected buildings and furnaces, and resumed
their mining operation; but owing to
the fact that the treaty was not then ratified, the miners were again driven off
by the troops, and were not permitted to return until the 3d of June, 1833; when
full permission was given them by the Government Agent, John P. Sheldon, Esq.,
to make farms and re-occupy the mines and furnaces here.
The first institution here for "teaching the
young idea how to shoot," was established in 1834, and Col.
George Cubbage was appointed "Knight of the Ferulaj."
The Methodists erected the first meeting house here in 1834.
It was a log building, situate between Locust and Bluff streets.
The Catholic Cathedral, a handsome edifice of hammered
lime-stone, was commenced by the Rev. Samuel Mazzuchelli, in 1835, and was
completed in 1839.
The first judge appointed for this place, was the
present worthy Post Master, John King, Esq.. He received his commission as Chief
Justice of this county, from Governor Mason of Michigan, in 1835.
The first newspaper established west of the
Mississippi, and North of St. Louis, was published at Dubuque, by John King,
Esq., a native of Virginia. It was styled the "Dubuque Visitor," was
Democratic in politics, and is dated June 8th, 1836.
The population of Dubuque is eminently heterogeneous,
including natives of every New England State- all the middle States, Ohio,
Kentucky, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri, with a "sprinkling" from
every other State in the Union, together with Irish, French, English,
Anglo-Canadians, Germans, Scotch, Welch, Poles, Norwegians, Swiss, Danes,-
beautifully illustrating how happily all "nations, kindred and
tongues," can commingle together under the benign influence of our free
institutions; for a more orderly, lawabiding, generous and intelligent people,
are no where to be found.
In concluding this description of Dubuque, I shall
avail myself of a highly graphic sketch of the early condition of this
flourishing city, which appeared in the "Miners' Express" in 1845 over
the signature of "Peosta," entitled
"The Past.- Where was the town of Dubuque
on the first day of June, 1833? "Solitary and alone" stood a single
cabin, about eight logs high, at the foot of Main street, where its
owner, now no more, was "monarch of all he surveyed." But not long
alone; for the Red Man had barely bid the graves of his fathers adieu when the
oily-tongued Yankee, the Sucker, the Von Krouts, the Bulls, and the Paddies vied
with each other in "paddling the light canoe" across the Father of
Waters, to seek their fortunes in the bowels of the earth, whose surface may be
seen, here and there, disturbed and burrowed like a buffalo lick, by the Indian
miner who had been initiated by the "Petit nuit." The rocks soon
howled, and the hills reverberated. The valley resounded to the woodman's axe,
and the sturdy oak fell prostrate to the dust, that its branches might be fuel,
and its trunk be constructed with its fellow, into a temporary hut for the abode
of Man, where the same aperture served a double purpose-for the ingress of
light, and the egress of smoke.- The winter of that year shut in upon those
pioneers of civilization with all the privations to a new home.- Rude cabins;
scant of provisions. No female hand to comfort them, and the demon of
intemperance stalking in their midst. True, the number of inhabitants was not
few, for the time. Coarse merchandise, blankets, and buffalo robes, were open to
purchase, but yet their wants were many, as provisions of all kinds were scarce.
The sick may die without nursing; the cholera found its victims, unchecked by
medical aid, and the necessaries to administer to their comfort were no where to
"The spring of 1834 opened under more favorable
auspices, as a transient steamboat arrived from St. Louis and "the last
best gift of God to man" dropt in occasionally.- Yet, the first anniversary
of their settlement found them in a state of anarchy, for the parent Government
had neglected them; no State or Territorial law had yet protected them, and we
doubt if the Divine code could be found in their midst, unless, perhaps, in the
hands of that pioneer patriarch, Father Johnson.
"The Aegis of the laws of the Territory of
Michigan, first spread its mantle over them on the 4th of July of that year, and
freedom first dawned upon our infant colony on the glorious anniversary of our
National Independence. Justices, and county courts were then established, and
our fellow citizen, Gen. Lewis, was first J.P. Chief Justice King, our present
worthy Post-master, presided in the county court,
and superseded his Honor, Judge Lynch; but no Superior or District Courts were
established until the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, in July, 1836;
nor was any court of that nature held here until 1837. During this long lapse of
time, the perpetrators of all higher crimes went unwhipt of justice, unless,
perhaps, an occasional well-applied application of the cat-o-nine tails, or the
more degrading coat of tar and feathers. Sensitive minds may revolt at such
barbarous punishment, but in the absence of more cruel, but refined, barbarity,
we can vouch, by experience, for their salutary effect. Grog-shops, too,
were numerous in those days. The miner who kept no "panther" behind
his door, was too mean an associate for a respectable man, and our
streets then were well chequered with playing cards."