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Historical Sketches Of Jefferson County Doctors

The following is a collection of articles from 1934 about the county's doctors as printed in "The Fairfield Ledger" over the course of several months, from January to May. After May 16th, the articles disappear for some reason. They were subsequently published in the Journal of the Iowa State Medical Society, and are transcribed from that Journal from mid-May forward.

"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Friday, January 5, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 2 and 3

Historical Sketches Of Jefferson County Doctors

This Series of Articles is Prepared by Doctor Clarke And Will Later Appear in The State Medical Journal. He Welcomes Any Contributions About the Lives Of These Early Doctors.

A short sketch of the life and activities of one of Jefferson county's first doctors:

Dr. John Jackman Smith, 1780-1873

In the year of 1780, John J. Smith was born in the State of Virginia. His parents moved to Kentucky when he was ten years old and settled near Lexington. His father was a slave holder and while living in this community decided to divide his estate between his two sons. John, the subject of this sketch, did not believe in slavery, so when the two hundred slaves, his share, came into his possession, he immediately gave them their freedom.

In 1803, he engaged to go with Lewis and Clark on that famous exploring expedition up the Missouri river and on to the Pacific ocean. Because of a severe illness he was compelled to give up this journey and as long as he lived regretted that he did not get to go.

Dr. Smith was married while living in Kentucky, and in the year of 1815, he and his family moved to Ohio, where they resided until the spring of 1837, wehn (sic) they emigrated to Wisconsin Territory, now Iowa. They made the long journey with ox teams and settled in Jeffeson county in the fall of that year. It has been impossible for the writer of this sketch to learn just how or where Doctor Smith studied medicine, but we do know that his services as a doctor were very much in demand in the then new territory. He was called to many homes for miles in all directions as long as he was able to travel.

In those days a good horse and saddle bags were the equipment necessary to the country doctor.

A great-great-grandson has in his possesion (sic), at this time, the lance that Dr. Smith used to "bleed" his patients with. Also a cane that was carried to every presidential election as long as Dr. Smith lived. This cane was handed down from one generation to another until the great-great-grandson has it and now proudly carries the same cane on election day that was carried to presidential elections for the past one hundred years or more. Dr. Smith was considered a wealthy man in those days and it is doubtful, in the mind of the writer, if he ever made a charge for his services as a doctor.

John J. Smith built his first log cabin on the south bank of Cedar Creek in Liberty township, in the fall of 1837. He lived here about three years, then built a large double log house farther south, near the edge of the prairie on land that is possibly still owned by the heirs of John Bishop(.) He lived within one mile of where he first settled until he died in November, 1873, at the ripe old age of 93 years.

Dr. Smith was an active officer when Jefferson county was organized and at the first election of Jefferson county officers, he with Daniel Sears and B. F. Chastin, was elected county commissioners, and under their direction the first survey of twenty-five blocks was made in Fairfield. This was in the spring of 1839. It is a matter of record that said commissioners followed up the surveyors and drove the stakes at the corners of the lots.

Dr. Smith made his money in Ohio. It was brought to this county in an old cow-hide trunk, all in gold. This trunk is in the possession of a great-great-grandson, in Gary, Indiana. He purchased 5,000 acres of land in Jefferson county, including the present site of the Jefferson County Home. He also loaned money to many of the early settlers with which to purchase land, priced at that time at $1.25 per acre.

Dr. Smith did not own even one lot in Fairfield, the beautiful city that he helped lay out -- was not buried there -- but in the Fell cemetery, near Libertyville.

South of Fairfield, is a bridge across Cedar Creek that is still remembered by the older residents of Jefferson county as "Smith's Ford."

Dr. Smith was a large portly man, weighing near three hundred pounds. He was well posted on general subjects and was considered a man of good judgment. At one time he served as Justice of the Peace continuously for over twenty years. He was kind hearted and always willing to help those in need. He was a member of the Masonic Order. Chiefs Blackhawk and Wapello were frequent visitors at this home. Dr. Smith had in his possession a "mad stone," which was prized very highly in those days and was also very much in demand.

Every year, he gathered fresh herbs, roots, berries and bark, which were used in his medicine and spent much of his time preparing them for use.

During the last few years of his life, Dr. Smith was blind, but was mentally alert and interested in community affairs until he was called to his last rest.


(Note: As the heading for each article was the same, it will be eliminated from this point forward, for the sake of saving space. The publication and date will be included, however.)

"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Tuesday, January 16, 1934
Page FOUR, Columns 5 and 6

(FOREWORD -- The following history has been compiled from so many sources that a biliography (sic - bibliography) is too long to publish. Dr. Throckmorten of the Iowa State Medical Library, Hon. C. J. Fulton of the Fairfield Library, and many citizens of Jefferson county have all given me generous assistance, for which I wish to express my sincere thanks. I feel sure, however, that many interesting data exist in the memory or private libraries of our people that have not yet come to light. For this reason it has been decided to print the history in installments and in a somewhat abridged form, in the Ledger and to request the readers to make corrections and additions, so that in it's (sic) final form the document may be more authentic and complete. Following the narrative portion of this history will be an appendix containing a sketch of every doctor who has lived in Jefferson county, insofar as data can be obtained. Within this narrative portion but few of these doctors will be even mentioned for the purpose here is to briefly show the progress of medicine through the century. The more elaborate biographies in the appendix will attempt to do justice to each individual doctor. Doubtless the limit of space in the Iowa Medical Journal will preclude the publication of many photographs, which I should like to publish. Again, I earnestly request every reader to give me information about the early doctors of Jefferson county. Anyone who is so interested as to desire a reprint of the final history will be supplied until the supply is exhausted, if his or her name is filed at my office. --Dr. J. Fred Clarke.

A History of Medicine In Jefferson County, Iowa

The part of southeastern Iowa known now as Jefferson county, was first a part of Des Moines county and later a part of Henry County. Jefferson county began it's (sic) independent existence in March 1839. Since the first white settlers came a few years before this date, the medical history of Jefferson county covers a period of almost one century. This has been the most momentous century in all medical history.

This tract of rich, rolling prairie land, eighteen by twenty-four miles in extent, was occupied by the Sac and Fox Indians until sometime after their legal removal to the west by the treaty of 1842. The first white settler came into this area in the spring of 1835. The first house was built here in 1836. The first death among the white settlers, occurred in 1837. The population of the territory which became Jefferson county in 1837, was 110.

Fairfield, the county seat of Jefferson county, was incorporated in 1847, and this town has had a great majority of the county's doctors. A doctor, William Waugh, built the first frame house in Fairfield, and later Dr. Huey built the finest residence in the town. Later Glasgow, Wooster, Lockridge, Salina, Merrimac, Pleasant Plain, Baker Post Office, Abingdon, Perlee, Brookville, Batavia Packwood and Libertyville each had one or more resident doctor almost continuously. A number of these village doctors lived on farms and the practice of medicine was, for them an avocation. Good roads, telephones and automobiles have so lessened the work of doctors in some of the smaller communities that these towns are now without a physician.

The early pioneers came into Jefferson county from the East, driving oxen or horses across Illinois or sailing down the Ohio, and up the Mississippi to Keokuk, Iowa, and then treking westward for settlement. Ultimately the inhabitance (sic) of Jefferson county were people of various origins. They came from nearly every Eastern and many Southern states, and there were established in various parts of the county, settlements of the peoples of Sweden, Germany, France, Ireland and Poland, ad (sic) a considerable settlement of the Society of Friends, who named their portion of the county Penn township.

Jefferson county became therefore a little cosmos of peoples united in what is probably a typical Mississippi Valley community. It's (sic) medical history therefore, since it typifies that of very many such communities of the middle west, should be of more than local interest as a picture of rural medicine in this most interesting of all centuries of medical advancement. How long it took new medical ideas to travel from Berlin, Paris, London or Philadelphia, to Jefferson county can possibly be revealed.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Wednesday, January 24, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 3, 4, 5, and 6


Jefferson county has a soil that varys (sic) from a rich black gumbo to variously colored clays. It has annual rainfall of 32 inches with usually a high humidity of the air. The winter snows often made drifts covering the fences. In the early days there were no roads. The first roads made were cut below the land. The rains of the spring and fall, and the snow of the winters often made travel impossible. Iowa mud is proverbial. The temperature varies from 109 degrees above to 32 degrees below zero. There were in the beginning no bridges for the streams. The prairie grass was for large areas so high that one was easily lost in crossing treeless areas. Dr. Shaffer writes, September, 1854: "I started for home at 7:30 p.m.," (He was three miles from Fairfield), "got lost, and came to William Pope's and came on through a road on this journey, which cannot be surpassed for roughness and crookedness and fullness of brush -- home 10:00 p.m.'

With such conditions the hardships that the early doctors experienced in visiting their widely scattered patients can hardly be imagined today. As late as 1890, there were frequent times when the doctors must walk to see their patients. Dr. Fordyce, in the winter of 1877-78, at Glasgow, walked as much as forty miles a day in his professional visits, because the roads were cut into furrows by wagon wheels and then became frozen, making them impassable for his faithful horse to travel. All the older living doctors relate tales of such experiences, but none other, so far as we know, walked forty miles in a single day. Dr. Thomas Mealey of Pleasant Plain (1857-76) always walked, from choice, to see his patients. This sturdy dictor (sic), reading as he walked across the fields, was a familiar sight for years to the quakers of Penn township and he is a tradition yet today in Jefferson county. Although for some years now the roads have been built up above the level and given lateral drainage, it is only since 1927 that the Jefferson county doctor has been "lifted out of the mud" by pavement. The writer's mother, a doctor's wife, has told him often of her anxiety, in the early times, during the two and three days absences of her husband, who was unable to return home because of swollen bridgeless streams or drifts of snow.

What a journey meant in time and effort in 1840 is illustrated by this record: The nearest mill for Jefferson county was in Illinois, one hundred miles away. With oxen it required 29 days to take the grain to this mill, have it gound and return to Fairfield. In 1853, Dr. James T. Musselman went on horseback from Fairfield to Keokuk to replenish his medical supplies. He develped pneumonia from the exposure and died at the early age of 29 years. Many doctors died far too early in life from the exposure of these strenuous times.

Dr. J. M. Shaffer in August, 1855, on returning from a visit to Pennsylvania took a coach at Burlington at noon and reached Mt. Pleasant (28 miles) at 8:00 p.m. He left Mt. Pleasant the next morning at 8:00 o'clock and reached Fairfield (22 miles) at 3:00 o'clock in the afternoon. "The roads were rough and bad" is his comment. The truth, indeed, when a journey of 50 miles required 15 hours of trapel (sic), a journey now accomplished in one hour by automobile.

The native fauna of Jefferson county in 1835 included the rattlesnake, the bear, the wildcat, deer, foxes, and possibly the buffalo. From these there was rarely danger of injury, but there were also myriads of anopheles mosquitoes and domestic flies, the most dangerous animals in the world. These insects were allowed to swarm about the unscreened houses. The settlers were entirely unconscious of the dreadful havoc these small enemies were causing in the community.

The writer well remembers, as late as 1876, many a long country dinner table loaded with delicious viands, where the constant services of two or more people were required with splendid peacock feather brushes, to try and keep the flies away from the food. The efforts of the fly brush bearers were always without success.

Such was the background, the stage setting, for our picture of the lives and labors of the more than two hundred doctors who have lived in Jefferson county during the century of progress, since 1835.

Long after the red men had gone, the tradition remained among the white settlers of Jefferson county that Indian medicines were possessed of wonderful healing powers. It was believed that Indian remedies had a peculiar potency. This probably was based on an older eclecticism: Mother Nature grew indigenously her plant remedies and revealed to her primative, her native children, their special uses? As late as 1876 remedies, supposedly of Indian origin were sold abundantly in drug stores and by fakers on the streets. The then common belief is still held by the older people of this county, that "vegetable" medicines are not as poisonous as are the "mineral" drugs of the white doctors. Calomel unless "worked off" is deposited in the bones and has mysterious evil consequences, much to be dreaded?

Careful study has dispelled the Indian medicine myth: proven it to be as groundless as that other legend of the wonderful Indian marksmanship with the bow and arrow. The writer, raised on Copper's Indian tales, many years ago challenged the Indians of the community to shoot for pennies placed on sticks. To his amazement the red boys missed more often than they hit the mark.

The medical history of this county begins in 1836, when Dr. William Stevenson, living in Henry county, came over into Jefferson county territory to care for the sick. He is the first doctor of record to treat a patient in what is now Jefferson county. There were doubtless other doctors of Henry county who had a practice extending west into this area. None other is revealed, however, until 1843, when Dr. Charles S. Clarke (then of Mt. Pleasant and later a resident of Fairfield) is known to have had patients in eastern Jefferson county.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Tuesday, January 30, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 3, 4, and 5


The first doctor to reside in Jefferson county was Dr. James T. Moberly who came to Fairfield in 1837. He built a small brick house at what is now 500 South Main street. Among Dr. Moberly's patients were many Indians who called him "Big Medicine." These Indians came to Dr. Moberly's office in large numbers and bothered him very much. He is said to have kept a large stick at hand and would often shake his stick at the red men, and say to them: "Puck-a-chee" (get out of here).

Little can be learned of Dr. Moberly's early life and education. Possibly, like so many doctors of those days, he was not a graduate of any school but as was customary, he had "read medicine" with some older practitioner and attended a course of lectures in the East.

Dr. Moberly was "humane and generous." He had the respect of all the people. He was a good talker, had a rich fund of humor and took a leading part in community affairs. He cared for the suffering regardless of fees. He was altogether a worthy leader of the profession in Jefferson county.

Closely following Dr. Moberly, Dr. John Jackman Smith brought his family from Ohio by ox team and settled in Liberty township, in the fall of 1837, near Cedar creek. One of the early crossings of this creek, now bridged, is still called "Smith's Ford." Though not a graduate in medicine, Dr. Smith's services were in demand far and wide to bleed people for various ailments. Being elected County Commissioner, Dr. Smith helped survey and lay out Fairfield in 1839, and his important public services are remembered more today than his medical prowess.

Following Dr. Moberly, more than two hundred doctors have lived and practiced medicine in Jefferson county, Ia. Of these 200 men and women, no one has made any important contribution to the science of medicine. Most of these doctors, like the great mass of the profession, have lived quiet lives. The few who have become measurably distinguished, are remembered through other than professional activities. This is necessarily true. A doctor's daily medical work is secret and does not have public recognition. In the books of States history and biograph, few doctors are mentioned. Only by searching inquiry among the older people may there be developed the dramas, tragedies, and comedies which fill each doctor's life.

Several of the pioneer physicians of Jefferson county were men of outstanding personality. Some were "born nurses," with kind hearts and deft fingers. These human qualities together with their abilities in nonprofessional activities won for them a love and respect out of proportion to their therapeutical knowledge. Dr. Moberly, and many others, left splendid names among their fellow citizens. These citizens cared not where doctors had years of medical schooling or had learned scholostic (sic) degrees. The verdict of the public and that of his fellows in the profession may have a wide difference in the daily trials of a physician.

Emerson says that an institution is the "lengthened shadow of the man." In like way, medical history is the biography of a very few men. The practice of the most learned and the least educated doctors of their day must encompass between them a fairly true picture of a period.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Thursday, February 1, 1934
Page TWO, Columns 5, 6, 7, and 8


Dr. James (sic - Joshua) Monroe Shaffer, a most scholarly man, lived in Jefferson county from 1852 to 1874. He left a daily record of his professional work. Because of this fortunate circumstance, the writer is able to present to his readers an unusually accurate picture of the practice of medicine in these early years. This picture will, however, be unfair to many other doctors. Beginning in 1933, to collect material for the medical history of a county is far too late to make such a record just to all. Of many of the early doctors one can now learn but a name. Their acquaintances have followed these physicians into the great unknown and what was possibly a full and useful life is today a vague tradition. Many a kind hearted doctor who sacrificed himself for others, who stood by his neighbors through anxiety and suffering, is so far forgotten, by this generation, that his picture in any gallery will have an entirely inadequate lighting.

Of the more than 200 doctors with whom we are concerned, very few were criminals: condemned even by their fellows if not by the courts. Nearly all were honorable men and women; good and useful citizens in their communities, making mistakes, of course, but not of the heart. Of all the doctors who have lived in Jefferson county, but one has gone to the state's prison for crime. The members of the profession know that if justice prevailed, a few more doctors would have been in restraint--only a few. Legal evidence concerning the crimes of physicians is extremely hard to produce.

Financial Conditions

We are often told of the pioneer doctors, that they were "careless of fees." This is possibly one contrast with doctors in Iowa today. It seems that in common with other classes of the American people, doctors of medicine have in large numbers become commercially minded. Possibly this is because the profession has become overcrowded and must struggle for material existence. Possibly it is a reaction against the wrongful, carelessness of the pioneer members of the profession, who were in this matter unjust to themselves. We learn from Dr. Shaffer's diary that the attitude of laxity toward the paying of the doctor's bills is not different today than that of 80 years ago. Such a habit probably has as it's (sic) chief cause, the "carelesness of fees" of the pioneer doctors. Today Boards of Superfisors (sic) who expend the public poor funds, pay attorneys and grocers their bils (sic) in full, but expect and require physicians to cut their fees for indigent care to at least one-half.

Dr. Shaffer writes in March, 1854: "James Tilson offers me $5 on his account, cashing in full for $7.75--would not touch it; told him I could not think of it." This seems hart-hearted? (sic) But note this kind heartedness, in November, 1854. He writes: "Mrs. D. paid $20 on a bill of $106.75 and I gave her a clear receipt."

Illustrative of financial conditions of those early days may we quote from a letter written to his Ohio home, by Dr. Charles Shipman Clarke, Dec. 10, 1843: "A new country is not so completely perfect as many have imagined. As age gives experience and wisdom so it will take time and toil to make this country equal to Ohio. There are two groceries and one drug store; four regular old school physicians, two steamers, one rootist and one compound or steam and roots besides every other man and every woman in town professes to know what ought and what ought not to be done for the sick. The mass of this community are moral and intelligent. I settled in this town four months ago. In that time I have charges on my books of about $500. I have not taken in enough money to pay one-fourth of my medicines, which cannot be bought for trade. I have really groaned and sweat for a little money. I feel well satisfied with the amount of custom and business done. I have been fortunate and successful. There has been more sickness than is usual the past season in this section. The cause is mainly attributed to the large emigration and to want and exposure. If people here had plenty, with comfortable dwellings they would be as sure of good health as in the older countries. An observer and judge of cause and effect would not think strange if sickness prevailed in floorless open log cabins. The practice of medicine is not so easy as in an old settled country; proper rooms, diet and nursing are not at command." No thought, then, that mosquitoes and flies were more harmful than open, floorless cabins.

In the first decades of our history's century there were in Jefferson county no medical "specialist" in the modern sense of this term. The general practice of medicine was in itself a specialty for many of these early doctors. The physician was, at that time, also a farmer, a druggist, a tavern keeper, a minister or had other varied avocations. Dr. Henry Ream of Abingdon, in 1845, was a botanic doctor, a Campbellite minister, a tavern keeper, a druggist and managed a farm of 300 acres of land. He was also unique in that he drove a team of reindeer. Several other of the county's doctors were ministers of the gospel, but the most versatile physician who has lived in Jefferson county was Dr. J. M. Shaffer, a list of whose activities is of great interest.

Dr. Shaffer was a scholar and had a large medical practice. He was for years Secretary of the State Agricultural Society and managed the Iowa State fairs for 15 years. He was a taxidermist of note, recognized by the Smithsonian Institute at Washington. His large collection of stuffed birds, mammals and reptiles went to Ames, to Washington, D.C., and to the Paris Exposition. Dr. Shaffer was librarian of the Fairfield library, a state representative, a state senator, a trustee of Iowa Wesleyan college at Mount Pleasant. He wrote and delivered many lectures. He taught a Sunday School class and he was a trustee of the Methodist church. He was an entomologist and ornothologist and an astronomer. He was a cook and gardener, raising in his garden plants for his medical use. He wrote, read and spoke Latin, French and German. He was recruiting officer at Burlington throughout the Civil war, making almost daily trips to Fairfield to look after the sick. In all these activities, Dr. Shaffer won distinction and throughout all this time he read voluminously in medicine.

Such was the varied life of one Jefferson county doctor of whom we have ample recorded. Many other pioneer physician's life story, because of his intimate relations with so many citizens should be of interest in this history, had he but recorded his daily activities. The doctors who followed closely the vanishing Indians; who watched the early storks fly over our prairies; who saw the grim reaper gather Home the first of the pioneers -- these men and women had lives well worthy of permanent record. It is to be regretted that of the 214 names in our appendix of many we can find in the records only a name.


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Monday, February 5, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 3, 4, 5, and 6


Until 1850 or later the source of medical and surgical supplies for Jefferson county was Keokuk, Iowa. Many medicines were prepared by the doctor himself from plants gathered in the neighborhood or raised in his garden. Opium and Calomel, the great essentials, were obtained by a long horseback journey. At one time we note one doctor bought two pounds of calomel. It has always been the custom for the doctors of Jefferson county to carry their own medicines and "make" their own prescriptions. Dr. Shaffer often says in his diary: "I made several prescriptions." He does not say that he wrote several prescriptions -- he actually made them. Few indeed have been the prescriptions filled by pharmacists even in the later years. The writer clearly remembers as a boy, passing Dr. Myers' office and seeing on his tables piles of herbs drying ready to be compounded into remedies for all ills of man, camomile flowers to be given for measles that would not "come out" and stramonium or slippery elm bark for poultice for pneumonia.

Drug Stores

In spite of the fact that the doctors did not write prescriptions, first after the grocery store and general store, drug stores were located in Jefferson county's larger towns. The druggist was often a doctor and as Dr. Charles Clarke said in his letter to Ohio: "Every other man and women in town professes to know what ought to be done for the sick." The drug store carried crude, dried drugs in large bottles and packages ready for these men and women to take home. The writer an early drug store clerk, remembers having sold many an ounce of digitalis leaves with which to make an infusion. No question arose as to the potency of the leaves. It was possibly fortunate many times that these leaves, in the unskilled hands, were not too potent.

The drug store of those early days in Jefferson county had on one side of the room long shelves of drugs in large gold labeled bottles. The other side of the room had long shelves of patent medicines and school books. In the cellar were barrels of paint and oil, rosin and sulphur. This was the stock. The front window displayed large wonderfully designed containers of colored liquids while outside was perhaps an enormous mortar and pestle.

What a contrast to the pharmacy of today? There has been swept away the large gold labeled bottles of drugs and to a great extent the "patient medicines." In their place is every thing one can imagine and sandwiches are made in wonderful variety. The colored liquids in the windows are replaced by Park Davis' and Squibbs' handy packages of tablets with which any layman can cure himself. The druggists have here always prescribed freely for their customers but now some large Eastern firms save the local pharmacist this waste of thought. For he who runs may read in the window display just what is needed for a cough or for the bowels.

Our pharmacists will probably consider the above remarks made in poor grace since our profession has always refused to utilize the ability of their profession.

The doctor here today having prepared for his use exactly assayed and physiologically tested medicines put up in beautifully made tables and ampules, wonders at the faith of his fathers in crude drugs. In the early days in Jefferson county many of the druggists were doctors. These doctors prescribed many of the "patent" medicines. Nor was this prescribing of the secret mixtures limited to doctors in the drug stores. The leading doctors of those days used "patent" cough syrups and linaments and "bitters." This prescribing saved time and labor and too, non-secret mixtures were not available as they later were in gallon bottles. The later custom of giving to the patient a four ounce bottle filled from one of these gallon bottles is no less to be condemned even though the formula was not secret. The writer pleads guilty to this lazy mode of life.

The Making of a Doctor

It was the custom eighty years ago for one who wished to become a doctor to "read medicine" for a time in the office of some established physician and then to attend one course of lectures in one of the medical schools. After a few years of practice many of the Jefferson county doctors returned to the schools for a second course of lectures, thus holding degrees from two medical schools even though one degree was not required. He who so wished could practice medicine and some of the best loved doctors had a very meagre education. Possibly some of us today leaning too heavily on our scientific equipment have lost the kindly touch and sympathetic manner that made our predecessors so much esteemed by their patients.

The making of a doctor about 1850 is an interesting procedure in contrast with that of today. Daniel Reem (sic), a boy, came to Jefferson county with his father, Dr. Henry Ream, in 1846. He began the study of medicine with his father in Abingdon, when 16 years of age, while working on the farm. When 18 years old he cared for the patients during his father's absences. His first patient was a woman bitten by a rattlesnake. She recovered under Daniel's treatment. Later, in his father's absence, he treatd a case of "bilious fever" in a child. On the father's return Daniel urged him to take the patient but Dr. Henry Ream refused to interfere approving his son's treatment. This child with "bioious fever recovered in a few weeks." Daniel, now "Dr. Daniel Ream" in the community, went to the Eclectic Medical Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio, and attended a course of lectures in the winter of 1851-52. Graduated in medicine he went to California in the "gold rush" of 1852. He went in a caravan of ten wagons of which he drove one. He settled in Yreka in Siskiyou county where he died in 1907 the best loved citizen of that county, a most distinguished physician. Dr. Daniel Ream's education was certainly inexpensive either in time or money.

A second example of the making of a doctor of which we have more detailed information, is in the life of James (sic) Monroe Shaffer. He graduated from Washington college in Pennsylvania when 18 years of age and at 19 years began the study of medicine in the office of his brother, Dr. John E. Shaffer. James had a fine preliminary education. He read and wrote Latin, French and German. He was a diligent student.


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Tuesday, February 20, 1934
Page FOUR, Columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7


James (sic - Joshua) Monroe Shaffer began his studies with Watsons practice. Of this he says "Watson's style is exceedlingly fine and captivates the reader." Next he read "Hamilton on purgatives." (This must have been an important book in those days.) He planted "Ricinus" and "Momerdica balsamina" in his preceptor's garden; "the former much used as an active cathartic, the latter is not officinal but the ripe fruit mashed with lard makes an excellent ointment for chapped hands and when mascerated in proof spirit is used as a styptic on fresh wounds and cuts."

Another day he writes in his diary: "I cleaned the doctor's horses and made his pills. The doctor cut my hair. I mended my pantaloons and saved a quarter," and later, "I cupped Mrs. Bryan in the left hepatic region." An other day in June he notes: "I made a couple of hundred of Dr. Chapman's dinner pills and commenced the second volume of Anatomy." James kept an accurate account of the number of pages of the medicinal books that he read daily and it was a considerable number.

Through his daily notes one can see this young man of 19 years working for his brother, the doctor, saving his money, reading diligently in English, Latin, German and French and preparing himself well to follow Dr. Moberly into Jefferson county, Iowa, when 22 years of age. He attended church and prayer meeting regularly, taught a Sunday school class, played the fife in the local band and played for military drills. In July, 1850, he exclaims: "I have gone through the medical course. How little do I know of it? No man in one year or one century can acquire half the knowledge that belongs to the science of medicine." With how much more appreciation of their truth can we today repeat these words?

One day this Shaffer boy "made Dover's powder and compounded tincture of cinnamon" for his brother and then remarks: "Pharmacy is the prettiest business in the world." Though the July temperature was 94 he studied all day" reading the second volume of anatomy in six days.

After completing a full year of "reading medicine" James Munro Shaffer attended a course of Lectures at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia. For that day, then, very fully equipped, he came to Iowa.

One indicent in Dr. Shaffer's student days in Pennsylvania is so revealing of the enlightened practice of 1850 that we wish to relate it in his words: On July 30th, a Dr. Stewart was "unwell in the forenoon attacked with vomiting and purging but he came to town from 11 to 2 o'clock shopping. At 3 o'clock he called two doctors and they pronounced the disease cholera. Consultants were called from the city who approved the treatment of the local doctors and urged a continuance. Nothing would lay on his stomach" and poor Dr. Stewart died at 9 p.m. What was the "approved" treatment? It was brandy and "spreads of 300 grains of calomel in four hours." Monroe Shaffer then comments: "It is a terrible reflection that a healthy, rigorous man should be attacked with disease and in less than twelve hours fall victim to its power. In the midst of life we are in death." We comment: Three hundred grains of calomel even though "spread" over four hours seems to us now appalling. Given to a patient with cholera this is incomprehensible today. This was approved by the best doctors of that time.

For the first 15 years of our medical century we have no details of the diagnosis, only the treatment or the mortality from disease in Jefferson county. In 1852 Cr. Charles S. Clarke came over into the county in consultation. The patient had been ill three weeks and it was determined that he could not live. Dr. Clarke confided to Mrs. Corbin that the attending physician "had not done enough in the first place. He was attacked very violently and ought to have been reduced at the first very low by bleeding and physic." Then Mrs. Corbin says in her letter: "He is much reduced in flesh but has great strength. He could stand on his feet and step with help to a chair. He was up in a chair one hour before he died."

Probably this was typhoid fever and the patient was "up in a chair often." Mrs. Corbin's letter reveals the then prevalent local Fever was a disease entity and must be fought by bleeding and physic. In our reading of an earlir time we are amazed at the widespread belief in witchcraft. To many of us this idea of "reducing" and salivating patients is as hard to understand. This was the teaching in the best medical schools of the day.


In the early decades of Jefferson county history an important role was played by midwives. In the earlier years doctors were not always available for obstetrics, but even after the Civil war women midwives were trusted and successful. Of these midwives Mrs. Rachel C. Pierce, born in 1809, who practiced her profession in Fairfield from 1850 until long af- distinguished. (sic) She had a set of instruments in a carpet bag and some fine books in her library. She attended during these years 1000 confinement cases with not a single death. She did version successfully many times. In one family she attended Mrs. L. during the birth of eight children. Mrs. Pierce always wore a "slat" sunbonnet and a plaid schall on her professional visits. "When we children," writes one of the oldest daughters, "saw these garments in the hall, we knew there would be a new baby in the family."

Mrs. Pierce charged two dollars in gold for her services and these two thousand dollars were for long buried in the cellar of her home. That she had been paid so many dollars speaks well for the class of patients she attended. Few doctors then or since have such a successful record as had "Aunt Rachel Pierce," who died in 1890. Her experience is well authenticated. She was an educated student of obstetrics. In her day doctors, in general practice, attended cases of infectious fevers. At that time in Jefferson county no one knew of germs and disease transmission. Probably the chances for life for a pregnant woman were better if delivered by cleanly women who attended none but obstetric cases, than by the average doctor of the day. Such was the truth discovered by Semmelweis in his hospital at Vienna in 1845. A truth, like many, disregarded by the profession for 50 years.

The doctors in those days, had contempt for the midwives. Probably many women who practiced midwifery were ignorant. Dr. Shaffer in his journal mentions a puerperal case in 1855 "Mrs. S-- (attended by a Mrs. Kultner, midwife) gave birth to a small child. The midwife made her sit on her husband's knees -- a most dangerous and absurd practice. She took no medicine until the 5th day." This was remarkable? The doctor then took charge, gave the patient medicine and carried Mrs. S.-- through a stormy convalescence to recovery. His final remark is: "The midwife said 'pains were in the bowels and due to my medicine'." In this case as in all others then recorded there being no clinical thermometer, we cannot judge of its severity.


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Thursday, February 22, 1934
Page FIVE, Columns 5 and 6

(EDITORS NOTE: The most versatile and most widely known doctor who has ever lived in Jefferson county is Dr. Joshua Monroe Shaffer. In several places, in the sections of the history printed thus far, the writer has confused his name with several other doctors whose names also happened to be Shaffer. Those who are saving this series of articles, are asked to take a pen and correct the name of Shaffer to read "DR. JOSHUA MONROE SHAFFER," as his is the only name which has been mentioned thus far in this history. Later there will be other doctors by the name of Shaffer. The reason for the pre-publication of this history is to have such corrections made, and I welcome criticism and suggestions, for I am anxious to have the final history correct. --Dr. J. Fred Clarke)


Dr. Joshua Monroe Shaffer arrived in Fairfield, May 9th, 1852. Three days later he rode to the country to see a case of "dropsy," but the family of the patient refused his aid. They decided to try some "pills" made from a recipe from Nantuck that were "never known to fail." The pills did, however, fail in this case. The dropsical woman died two days later. Symptoms were then "diseases." No one sought for basic causes.

Thus began in Jefferson county the busy life of this new doctor, whose education was more elaborate and mose (sic) costly in time and money than that of Dr. Daniel Ream.

Dr. Shaffer kept a daily record of his work and from this record we are able to get a picture of the practice of medicine in 1852. He formed a partnership with the well established Dr. Huey. Dr. Shaffer was to receive one-fourth of the income. We begin to read the doctor's notes of June 1852. He has a girl patient who has inherited "the scrofulous diathesis." She had, "coxalgia." She had been treated by Dr. G-------- for rheumatism' Dr. Shaffer put on a splint and gave mercury and chalk, "mercury to purge" and "morphine for rest." Again and again through the years this treatment recurs for many conditions.

Next of interest we see the doctor with a boy who has varicocele. Dr. M. and P. had put on a spring truss which Dr. Shaffer discarded and prescribed "Saturning lotions," a certainly more rational treatment. Perhaps one day's notes, from the doctor's diary, will give us the best picture to contrast with our work today. He had only his five senses with which to work out a diagnosis. He had no germ theory to help in making a mental picture of the case.


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Thursday, March 1, 1934
Page FOUR, Columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7


Saturday August 14th 1852. "Got up at 4 o'clock and went to market, then fixed up things about the office and attended to the horses. Moore came in and told me Sam was worse. Went out through the rain and got there at seven o'clock found Sam very much prostrated--bowels irritable--discharges frequent, bloody, bilious, mixed in character, pulse 130 weak, compressible perfectly regular. Surface irregularly heated, abdomen very hot--clear sound on percussion, no tympanitic distension, breast and hands moist with perspiration, foci in certain parts of the body cold yet he complains of being very hot." "Gave a teaspoonful of brandy and one of emulsion of spirits of turpentine containing about 10 drops of oil, alternately every hour. Also a large blister on the abdomen.

Five o'clock went out and found all symptoms improved. Discharges continuing, gave an injection of six grains of sulphate of zinc. This kept the bowels for more than two hours. Went out on foot just before 11 o'clock tonight. Patient soporose, pulse 130, extremities cold, tongue coated deeply with brownish black fur--tip and edges red, gave Tr. opii and brandy alternating with emulsion of turpentine with the effect of equalizing the circulation of cutanious surface and reducing the pulse to 110--fuller and better.

About 12 o'clock there was considerable jacitation and restlessness--patient thinks himself away from home. At 1-2 o'clock a.m. had a motion of the bowels, small fetid, reddish brown, unmixed--then had no motion for three hours--borborygmi frequent, quite audible at a distance from the bed. Three o'clock violet screaming with desire to go home--evacuation in bed--got easy--I left at 4 o'clock he being better--of course I got no sleep this night."

Such details from 1852 are interesting to the doctor of to-day? The struggle without instruments; without bacterial knowledge; the description of the hot and cold parts of the body; the minute description of the tongue and the stools, all so ineffectual in forming a true mental picture of the disease.

Sam died the next Monday. More died in those old days before "Homeopathic King" and others of his school had taught the doctors that the tenth potency of nothing given in cold water allowed Nature to build an immunity faster than did turpentine emulsions and calomel. Typhoid fever, typhus fever, malaria, dysenteries, enteric fevers, all were confused undifferenciat- (sic)

Undreamed of were temperature charts and blood examinations, mosquito bites and fly screens, cold baths and fresh air and water in their relations to these and day labor of one of the best educated doctors of his day brings forcibly to realization the progress of our century.

Very often in his practice, Dr. Shaffer prescribed calomel and Dover's powder "with the view of establishing the peculiar impression of mercury on the system." The opinion seemed to prevail that salivation should be produced as rapidly as possible. In one case, that of Mrs. A, there was a consultation and Dr. Hury (sic - Huey) was of the opinion that this lady had an idiosyncrasy preventing her taking a large dose of calomel, so the final decision was to give her "only" ten grains. Opium was given "to quiet pain and produce stasis in the circulation with calomel to rouse the secreretions.

This young, highly educated doctor coming to Jefferson County in 1852 had a lanset in his pocket, but he had no clinical thermometer, no hypodermic syringe and no stethoscope. He probably had no microscope and of course had no means of counting blood cells or of taking the blood pressure or of making X-ray pictures. How could one practice medicine without these helps to a diagnosis?

Dr. W. W. Keen of Philadelphia says that Dr. S. Weir Mitchell brought to him from London in 1876 the first self registering clinical thermometer that he had ever seen. D. O. A. Geeseka of Mt. Pleasant, Iowa tells me that in 1878 he had a clinical thermometer, though it was not self registering. Dr. Geeseka's thermometer was six inches long with an elbow and had a long rectangular bone plate on which the scale of degrees was placed. The self-registering thermometer was invented by Dr. Clifford Allbut in 1868. It must have been 1880 or later, before the first one was used in Jefferson County. Who first used this instrument of precision in this county we cannot learn.

When the hypodermic syringe was first used in Jefferson County is also uncertain. It was invented by Prevez in 1852 and used by Fordyce Barker in the United States in 1856. Dr. S. K. Davis of Libertyville, Iowa had a hypodermic syringe in 1888 but no tablets. He had to weigh out two grains of morphine (the best his scales would do) and devide this in eight parts with his knife. Dr. Geeseka used the hypodermic syringe first in 1878. Dr. Keen thinks that there were "not a half dozen hyodermic (sic) syringes in the army of the Potomac in 1865. Probably it was 1880 before many doctors in this county made use of hypodermics. The writer in 1890 found a hypodermic injection much dreaded by his patients.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Friday, March 9, 1934
Page EIGHT, Columns 2, 3, 4, and 5


Medical Practice In 1852

Because the material at hand is co complete and unique, it seems worth while to present, in extenso, Dr. Shaffer's descriptions of the methods of practice in the eighteen fifties and later.

In August, 1852 Dr. S. ordered for Mrs. S. a "hot pedularium comulated with red pepper, and gave six C C. pills at one dose(.) Dr. Shaffer rode 34 miles on this Sunday, on professional calls. He writes in the evening: "This Sunday was spent in the practice of my profession and though prevented from meeting with my friends in the church, yet my spirit often communed with my savior. Got to bed at 12 o'clock some fatigued but pleased with the reflection that I was not altogether useless for the day." This private record reveals the finest spirit of this good man. In the light of the knowledge of today, we doctors may think that many of these weary hours of the 1852 doctor's labor were "altogether useless." How will it be eighty years from to-day? The doctor of the year 2013 may know that our most earnerst efforts were of little avail?

Sept. 8th. Dr. Shaffer gave Mr. R. "A big dose of rhubarb calomel and soda" and later "18 grains of quinine and 24 grains of Dovers powder." The next day Mr. R. was up at the table and eating well. Evidently this patient had tertian malaria but here, as throughout his diary, there is an amazing failure to differentiate the fevers then so prevalent. Drakes "Diseases of the Mississippi Valley" published in 1850 shows the same confusion of all the fevers of that time.

September 26th. Dr. Shaffer has a patient who is about to die. To show the doctors religious solicitude we quote his diary: "I told him he must die in all probability and urged upon him the necessity of seeking the preparation of the gospel, but all he said was: 'if I must die Doc, make my death as easy as you can but do not give me anything to cloud my mind.'"

On one occasion Dr. Shaffer was called to Isaac Kings at Bushes' mill 9 miles from Fairfield. Isaac had been taken at midnight with severe pain in the bowels. From the description we would diagnose the attack appendicitis. Before the doctor's arrival Mr. King had taken a cup of spirits of camphor, a dose of castor oil, and a teaspoonful of spirits of turpentine and a teaspoonful of Bateman's drap. On his abdomen was "a big bag of roots made hot and wet, poultice that had been left on a former occasion by Dr. Ream. Dr. Shaffer ordered "hot applications to the feet, mustard to the belly and a powder of calomel, opium and ipecac by mouth. "The calomel to purge, the opium to relax the spasm and thus aid the calomel, the ipecac to modify the stimulant effects of the opium and to direct to the skin."

Dr. Ochsner would certainly have pitied poor Isaac King and would have considered his recovery hopeless after this treatment. Incidentally, the faith of the people in drugs is shown by the preservation of Dr. Ream's bag of roots" from a former occasion to be reheated for a poultice. The final outcome of Mr. King's illness is not recorded in the diary. He may have survived the cup full of spirits of camphor and castor oil, and all the other drugs. Miracles happen in every age.

December 23rd, 1852. Dr. Shaffer himself had a severe pain in the side. A neighbor called at 2 o'clock a.m. and bled him. "About a quart or more." This blood was examined and here is recorded a typical blood examination of 1852:

"The blood was neither sizy, buffed or cupped but did not have quite as much serum as in health." The doctor took two grains of calomel and 1-4 grain each of opium and ipecac every two hours and at 8 a.m. castor oil. He recovered.

The clinical examination of the urine and of the blood in 1855 was not a routine procedure. Dr. Shaffer remarks of one specimen of urine that it was "very good to appearence." No tests were made. In other cases however he did examine for albumen by mixing the urine with nitric acid and boiling. On another occasion the doctor says "I hinted at the probability of Bright's disease and sent for a bottle of his urine. On the application of heat it made no cloudyness, to nitric acid it yielded a copious white precipitate which was not redissolved by heat. As to blood examinations they were confined to the physical appearances of the gross specimens removed by phlebotomy. There was no counting of cells. In all Dr. Shaffers patients from 1852 to 1860 there but two instances where the diagnosis was "anaemie" and how these diagnoses were made we do not know.

In October 1852, Dr. Shaffer tells us that the business of Huey and Shaffer for September was $190 and he adds that this was "good." Dr. Shaffer's income for the month was then $47.50 and he calls this good. As against this may we quote a few items of his expense accounts to compare with our day? "Stopped for dinner. Dinner and feed for two horses 35c. "The livery man charged me two dollars for a horse and buggy--told him this was too much but paid it." These were items in 1854: Pants $3.75, socks 25c, hat $2.00, knife $1.75 brandy $7.00, coat $15.00, cap 75c cravat $2.50, gold watch $150.00." That was a fine watch for a young doctor and a $2.50 cravat must have been fine for a small town physician?

This is Dr. Shaffer's summary of his practice for 1852 (from May to December). He traveled professionally 689 miles. He saw 155 patients. He read 4770 pages of medicine. He was sick only one day. He wrote 109 letters and received 94 letters. His personal income was $735.00 and his expenses were $270. This left a net income for eight months of $465.00. His largest single fee was $3.00. He notes that there were in Fairfield at that time the following doctors: Mohr, Clarke, Oliver, Woods, Ware, Hurst, Hufford and Shaffer. Fairfield had a population of about 1000 at that time.

In the latter part of 1853 Dr. Shaffer complains that "business is very dull." He remarks: "I have made a post mortem examination." This was probably the first such examination made in Jefferson county. Few--far too few, have been made since. From stray notes we learn that, for the next few years, $12.00 a day was a noteworthy income for a Jefferson County doctor and 30 miles' travel in one day was a long day's travel on country calls.

Surgery in the Eighteen Fifties

Surgery in the eighteen fifties and sixties was serious business in Jefferson County, Iowa. Few operations were done. Most wounds became infected and the death rate from accidental wounds was high. A transcrip (sic) of the few surgacal cases picture the conditions.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Saturday, March 17, 1934
Page TWO, Columns 5, 6, 7, and 8


April, 1854. A farmer of good constitution, stricty (sic) temporate habits and independent living, consulted me in relation to a tumor of the scrotum. He gave the following history: About six years ago he was kicked by a young horse, above the groin. Some slight pain ensued, which lasted for a few days but did not prevent him from working. Slight swelling ensued which gradually kept increasing for three years. He then showed it to Dr. Stark, who pronounced it sarcocele or malignant testacle and advised castration. During the past three years has increased very much in size, no pain, but sense of weight, dragging or inconvenience is experienced. Swelling commenced at the lowest part of the scrotum and increased upward. On inspection found a large elastic tumor on the right side of septum scroti, covered by borrowed integument. Fluctuation indistinct--no transparency--swelling extending to the internal ring--softer above where the cord could be distinctly felt. No impulse or coughing. Pronounced it hydrocele and described to the patient its nature and the operation necessary for a cure. In the meantime I asked a week or so to study on the case. He was next examined by Dr. Stark, who pronounced it scirrhous of the testacle; next Dr. Steel, who on cursory examination coincided with him; next Prof. Sanford of Keokuk and Dr. Steele, who agreed that it was hydrocele. Yesterday Dr. Stark examined it in my office and was not entirely positive that it did not contain a drop of water. "Cut through the tumor and it will be perfectly solid." In this difference, I desired that puncture be first performed and it if should be scirrhour, why ten castrate (sic) if proper. This morning, at 10:30 o'clock, Dr. Steele, in the presence of Dr. Stark and myself punctured the tumor with a trochar and canula and evacuated 13 fluid ounces of straw colored heavy liquid--then injeced (sic) with pure port wine. Patient pained and fainted. Drew off the wine and put to bed--sick 1/2 hour with some nausea--slight cramp--disagreeable smarting in scrotum. Visit again in the evening. Patient passed a good day, pulse 72. Patient easy and comfortable at 8 o'clock p.m. On the application of heat the fluid evacuated was converted almost entirely into albumen. Sealed 4 ounces and put away. 12th, patient comfortable, some slight swelling, just enough. 13th, pulse 64--no operation of the bowels for 4 days--gave a dose of salts." This patient recovered, but 9 months later the fluid returned and Dr Shaffer repeated the operation.

Today we consider this 1854 case history "much ado about nothing," but then, with no thermometer and asepsis all operations were grave. Had there been a hypodermic syringe the doctor could, in one minute, have made a positive diagnosis. The remarkable statement in all this was: "No operation of the bowels for four days." This in that day of purgatives.

Simple wounds were serious in 1855. "George Crosby was bitten by a bear. It gave the appearance of a poisoned wound--laid on a cloth covered with stramonium ointment and strapped it down tight." After a somewhat stormy period this man recovered.

The word Erysipelas was used commonly for many inflamations. For "phelgmonous erysipetlas" of the neck, Dr. Shaffer used "Shamp's linament.' In another case he used calomel freely "to salivate the case as speedily as possible to prevent the disorganizing effects of inflamation."

A man presented himself with a hay knife wound of the leg. The edges of the wound had been drawn together with four sutures by another doctor. Dr. Shaffer found the wound "hard, and sanuous discharge." He removed the sutures but drew the edges together with adhesive and gave morphine and compound cathartic pills. "I did not bleed for the pulse was 112, hard and irritable." This man finally died.

April, 1865. Doctors Steele, Shaffer and Cook amputated a finger and though "Dr. Steele did a fine operation," later there was a "big slough of the tissues" and a long stormy recovery.

One more case is worthy our attention in showing the contrast of the management of that time, with the treatment of today. On June 22, 1855, Johnny Harris had a spinal disease. Dr. Shaffer says: "It is described as caries vertibrae" and he thus gives his treatment: "Put on a spot of emplastrum canthraides as large as a dinner plate, with a strip of adhesive and so apply it that I might get a denuded surface on each side of the spine--operated nicely--open blisters--peel off the loose skin and reapply--caused some discharge of pus.

24th. "Place a glass bead on the blistered surface and find that the patient complains. However I strap it down tight."

25th. "Visit Harris boy -- no good--put a piece of wood instead of bead, which falls out."

26th. "Apply blister."

27th. "Apply sulphate of zinc as an escharotic, cries some."

July 1st. "Strapped pair of glass beads in the cavity left by the eschar--complained a good deal."

4th. "Bead embedded--take away dressing--dress with unguentum cantharides."

6th. "Apply again beads for an issue. Gave Brother Harris a bonus of $45 to go to Chicago and purchase withal a suitable instrument for the support of the aforesaid back. Hope it will be efficient in its cure and cause a thorough restoration of the boy to health."

23rd. "Boy much better--find the irritating plaster causes much healthy pus."

Johnny Haris (sic), son of the minister, recovered(.) With how much deformity, we cannot learn. How ones heart aches for this boy and all the Johnnies who through these years, suffered the tortures of the orthodox treatment for tuberculosis of the spine. Whether the $45 "bonus" was from the church or from the doctor himself we are not sure, but knowing his kindness in many other cases we believe that Dr. Shaffer himself purchased the splint. The splint of course affected the cure in spite of the blisters and beads and blocks of wood. Thankful, indeed, should be those of us whose childhood fell in a later age than that of Johnny Harris. The great medical profession in its sweep down through the ages has done more for the world than any other learned group of men but contemplated in retrospect many points in this journey of the centuries present pictures now incomprehensible.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Saturday, March 31, 1934
Page SIX, Columns 6 and 7


A stray note here and there in Dr. Shaffer's diary, sheds more light on the medicine of this period. He and his colleagues considered tuberculosis hereditary. Heart disease was from "transmitted rheumatism"(.) In babies illnesses, "the blood is the prime source of all mischief." To-day we consider the stomach the center of all the storms(.) They blistered the nape of the neck for apoplexy. He gave a four-year-old child 20 grains of quinine in one dose.

Dr. Shaffer leaves a record of every case treated from May 15, 1852, to December 31, 1854. He had 931 separate cases. Of these 20 percent were "remittant fever," 4.5 percent dysentry, while diarrhoea, "lientery" and "irritation of the bowels" composed 6.8 percent. The reader wonders how 'diarrhoea' could be recognized when there was in the treatment of all cases such a free use of purgatives. Intermittant, internal fever, tertian, internal fever quartan, irregular intermittant, and irregular dumb quartan, composed 5.7 percent, or 53 cases. The reading of this list alone pictures the confusion of diagnosis due to the lack of the clinical thermometer. There were recorded but two cases of 'typhoid fever' in all this thousand. The beginning of a differentiation?

The doctor had 318 cases of the above fevers, one-third of all the cases treated. Among them were a number of cases of unrecognizable appendicitis. In addition to the above, he records the diagnoses: Pernicious fever, fever, ague (one case only), catarrhal fever and inflammation of the bawels (sic). In all his cases the doctor made 150 separate diagnoses. He had 24 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, many more than any one of us has had today in a like period. In addition, there were 19 cases of bronchitis, which may in part have been tubercular. He had 15 cases of dyspepsia, 42 of conjunctivitis, and hysteria and catarrh were quite common. Later in Fairfield, Mrs. Dr. Keck made and bottled a catarrh cure, the sale of which made the doctor wealthy if it did not cure her patients.

"Chylopoietic derangement" it seems was a favorite diagnosis in the fifties, and whiskey and delerium tremens are often mentioned. Smallpox was much more prevalent than today. From May 1, 1852, to Dec. 3, 1863, Dr. shaffer records 76 deaths, not complete for all Jefferson county. Of these deaths there were:

Contagious diseases of childhood, 23.

Diseases of the chest and the lungs, 12.

Diseases of the alimentary tract 22.

Diseases of the nervous system, 9.

Accidents, 2.

Diseases of the kidneys, 2.

Miscellaneous, 6.

A number of death in groups other than the first were of children. We have learned only since about 1910 to save children from 'cholera infatum' and a very large factor has been the improvement of the nursing bottle.

Not a single note of gall stone colic is found in all Dr. Shaffers records, and very little is said of puerperal fever and of diseases of the kidneys, all of which must have been prevalent but unrecognized.

A few of the 1882 prescriptions are of interest:

"Ague" Recipe--R. Elix. Vitriol fzl; Quinine zt; Piperine SVII; S lacine (sic - Salacine?) ZSS; Brandy 1/2 pint. Pop it down heavy.

"Cholera Infantum"-- R. Acct. Plumbi GRIV; Sac. Alba, GRIV; Pulv. Ipecac, GRIV; Hydrarg. Chloe. Mit. GRII; Pulv. Doveri GRXIV; M. Div. in Chart No. VIII. Three per day.

"Lapes Divinis"--R. Aluminae et Potass Sulphas et, Cupri Acetas aeq. p. Fuse by strong heat and pulverize. The fusing dispells the water of crystalization. Given me by a Hungarian surgeon who came to the office 'out of soap.' He says it is recommended by the most eminent oculists of the continent of Europe in all cases of ophthalmia. Two, three, or four grains to the ounce of Aq. Dect.

Any reader of this narrative who may be in Keokuk, Iowa, will be amply repaid if he spends a few hours in the Keokuk Library reading Dr. Shaffer's diary. It contains besides his medical notes one of the first weather records of Iowa and descriptions of his work as a taxidermist; running comments of a scholar on the philosophy of life; and through it all the romance of his life, more interesting than many a work of fiction.

(To be continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Wednesday, April 11, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 1 and 2

The Civil War Period

When the great War of the Rebellion came to disturb the prosperity and development of Jefferson county, as it did the whole country, Jefferson county doctors took their part in the struggle. Two only won great distinction in the army. Dr. P. N. Woods became a Division Surgeon, and went with Sherman to the sea. Dr. R. J. Mohr became a Brigade surgeon and had a distinguished army career. (See details in appendix.) Dr. Lesher was a hospital steward. Dr. Bartow served in Co. A, 36th Iowa. Dr. J. W. Hayden was for thee years a hospital steward. Dr. J. E. King was in Co. E, 20th Illinois. Dr. C. G. Lewis was assistant surgeon of the 30th Iowa Infty. Dr. H. M. Shaffer was with the 4th and the 10t (sic) Ohio Volunteers. Dr. Charles S. Clarke was with the "Home Guards" and Dr. J. M. Shaffer examined recruits at Burlington. The doctors left in Jefferson county during the war were: Myers, Ware, Steele, Clark, Collins, Dial, Mealey and Ream. Dr. Shaffer made almost daily trips from Burlington to Fairfield to care for his patients.

During Dr. P. N. Wood's absence in the army, Dr. C. W. Dial took charge of his patients. The only records now known of the life of Dr. Dial is an old account book and a death notice in the Ledger. This account book is quite revealing, however.

Among Dr. Diel's (sic) patients were the most prominent cictizens of the town and his interlined notes are full of interest as they are interpreted by C. J. Fulton in the "Annals of Iowa." He rode about in a sulky over the bad roads of that day. We know this because of his bills for broken springs. He charged 50c for a call in town and as much as $3 for a long call in the country. Because dollars were scarce, he accepted other things than money as pay for his services. Here are some of the credits in this interesting account book. Corn, hay, wood, coal, flour, beef pork, ham, chickens, eggs, potatoes, tomatoes, groceries, honey, apples and blackberries, stockings, jam, vitals, bottles, making a linen coat, making a pair of pants, cassimeres and lining of pants, tailored vest, cutting wood, shoeing a horse, repairing a sulky spring, a violin, an oil painting. The prices at which these things were credited were: Corn 16c and 20c; oats 15c; hay $2 a ton; flour $1.75 a hundred weight; beef 3c, pork 2 1/2c; chickens $1 a dozen; eggs 3c a dozen.

Mr. Dial died September 1, 1864 at the early age of 31 years, "loved and respected by all who knew him," says the Weekly Ledger.

The most interesting part of Dr. Dial's accounts, however, are such notes as these written in here and there, among the settlements: "I hereby donate the above to Mrs. A., as she has lost her husband by death in the army of the United States," and again: "I hereby donate the above claim to this family because of the father's death in the army of the United States and of the Lord." There is one claim not donated, but after it is written: "Deserter to his country, God, too I believe."

A kind hearted, generous, patriotic, just man was this Dr. Dial. Now in 1933, in this depression, the barter for medical services is again becoming common.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Friday, April 20, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 1, 2, 3, and 4


Homeopathy in Jefferson County

Then came Hahnemann to Jefferson county, in the person of Dr. Joel E. King in 1865. Dr. King arrived at the Fairfield hotel at an opportune moment: when the son of the hotel keeper was desperately ill, with (probably) typhoid fever. The two attending pahysicians met Dr. King in consultation and surrendered the case to him. Dr. King's daughter, in a family biography, says: "Father knew that he not only had the sickness to deal with but the results of strong medicine." Dr. King took charge and the patient recovered. Dr. King's reputation was made and his practice rapidly grew to large proportions.

Dr. Joel King's father was a regular physician. In his early life, before coming to Fairfield, Joel had been a minister, a circuit rider, and later a hospital steward in the war. After his discharge from the army he studied Homeopathy and began its practice. When we today read Dr. Shaffer's diary do we wonder that Dr. King changed his school of medicine(.) The regular school bitterly opposed him. Dr. Shaffer calls the new doctor in one note: "Homeopathic King" and again when taking charge of a patient he remarks: "He has been ill some days and has been subjected to that most unmitigated of all humbugs, homeopathic treatment." This "subjected" patient, we learn later in Dr. Shaffer's diary, died of cancer of the liver, diagnosed at the autopsy.

The writer, when he bagan to practice medicine in Fairfield in 1890, together with all his colleagues fought Homeopathy. Dr. J. V. Bean, one of the best read physicians of his time in Fairfield, at an even later date threatened in a society meeting, to have the Jefferson County Medical Society disbarred from the Iowa State Society because it voted to admit Dr. Conner, a Homeopathist, to membership. Today it seems to the writer, we should bless Hahanamann because, though many of his teachings are absurd, yet from it came the blessing of a turning of the regular medical profession away from over medication. Hahanamann, inadvertently taught us that people get well without calomel to salivation, bleeding to prostration and bliters (sic) to produce "a healthy pus." Our Johnnie Harrises with Aelbe bone splits and peaceful rest become strong and well today with only fresh air for medicine.

Today the regular physicians of Jefferson county have changed their antipathy from homeopathy to "Christian science," "osteopathy," and "chiropractic" because they know these cults have no sound scientific basis. There is no doubt that the profession's disregard for psychology and manual manipulations has opened the way for the development of these tangents to medical practice. These "schools of healing" may serve a useful purpose in forcing regular doctors to give more attention to mental influences and message. All such cults are comparatively unimportant in the march of time because their leader's meager knowledge of scientific facts leads them to illogical extremes.

As an illustration of the fondness of the laity for the laying on of hands and positive assertions by the doctor (regardless of his real knowledge) as to the pathology of the condition and the action of his drugs, are these remarks of one of our honest and most popular post war doctors. Dr. David Stever won his success by the "laying on of hands" and his graphic, positive declarations of the battle of disease and his medicines inside the patient. This Dr. Stever told a conferee, was the easily understood cause of bronchus without any trouble but those on the left kept "a eating and a eating until they ate the Miss A's death. She had two ulcers on the right bronchus and three on the left. The doctor healed up the ulcers on the right bronchus right off; the lung fell down over the heart and smothered her to death." To another patient he described how he had valves all along his small bowels. What the doctor had to do with cathartics was to get these to "shedding the right way"--then everything would be all right. Two of Dr. Stever's favorite diagnoses, after looking intently at a patient across his desk, were: "the trouble is with the finer urinifesous tubules of your left kidney" or again "the trouble is with the peptic glands of your stomach," as the case might be. The writer knew the doctor well and believes his opinions were sincere and honest. By what mental process he arrived at these conclusions is a mystery. How satisfying to a patient to feel that the doctor knows just what is the matter?

The methods of the practice of medicine in Jefferson county during and following the Civil war continued, in the main, unchanged from those of pre-war times. There were yet no clinical thermometers, no hypodermic syringes, no microscopes. Vaccination for small pox was not common. As late as 1874 the vaccine used was the "scab" from a former vaccination. At times there resulted from vaccination a very severe cellulitis. The writer's sister nearly lost her life from the violent infection following such a vaccination. So frequent were these mixed infections that people feared and refused vaccination and smallpox often occured in a severe form. At a time, shortly following the rebellion, Dr. George Myers was paid $100 a day to care for the smallpox cases of the county. He was allowed to do nothing else. When a death occured the patient's body was buried at night and the burial attendants were given new clothes. Those worn at the interment were burned.

In 1865 Dr. Shaffer gave ether to Mrs. Hughes and extracted her teeth. This was the first anesthetic of record in Jefferson county. December 28th, 1866, Dr. Shaffer had a new "coal oil" lamp. Such lamps were made in 1863. Probably not many were in use in 1866. The doctor's early expense accounts show frequent purchase of "candles."

In 1866 a case of foot infection "with red lines to the knee" Dr. Shaffer used an elm poultice. In 1871 Hughes and Mrs. Darling both had "remarkable cases of dropsy." Mrs. Darling came to autopsy and was found to have had cirrhosis of the liver. Mr Hughes oedema was never diagnosed. Dr. Shaffer, much later, says "the urine is throwing down plenty of sediment." No chemical examination was made.

In 1870 Dr. Shaffer's brother was ill. While Dr. Shaffer was away Dr. O. called to see the sick man. Dr. S. has this to say of Dr. O's visit: "Dr. O. like the cursed fool that he is, went to see Chris., and retailed how he himself had once been in a similar fix and finally wound up in a lunatic asylum! This was so comforting to Chris's nervous system that he well nigh went off in a conniption fit and it took a dozen hours to recover himself." Every doctor in his practice has had similar experiences. They are not confined to any historical period. The best friends of our patients relate to them the sad outcome of "similar" cases. One then agrees with Mark Twain in considering people "mostly fools."

At a meeting of the Iowa State Fair society at Burlington in June, 1858, Dr. N. Steele was present from Fairfield. As a delegate. At the Des Moines valley Medical society organization at Ottumwa in 1873 Dr. Richard J. Mohr and Dr. J. C. Ware were the only doctors present from Jefferson county.


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Thursday, April 26, 1934
Page FOUR, Columns 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7


There was no Jefferson County Medical Society in 1876. Dr. G. H. Blair of Fairfield, was elected secretary of the Iowa State Homeopathic Medical Society in 1870. These are the only records found of activities of Jefferson County doctors in medical societies before 1885. In 1876 there were 14 doctors in Fairfield.

1880 And After

As late as 1878 there continued in Jefferson County the prevalence of malaria which had existed from an early day. It's (sic) cause was considered to be "night air" and the green algae so prevalent on the stagent (sic - stagnant) waters. The writer remembers, as a young drug clerk, making and selling dozens of bottles of an emulsion of chinodine whoch every farmer demanded., Quinine was quite expensive and the cruder alkaloids of cinchona were more frequently used. Dr. David Stever, who had the reputation of being an excellent nurse, related this experience to a colleague: He had a patient in the country very ill with "typho-malaria." He had in his saddle bags, a quart of whiskey and an ounce of quinine. He "dissolved" the quinine in the whiskey, stripped the patient and rubbed this all "into the skin." The patient recovered. The doctor triumphed over death. The solubility of quinine sulphate in whiskey; the absorbability by the skin of an alcoholic solution; the effect of 480 grains of quinine in one dose if absorbed; these minor questions were not considered in the emergency. The diagnosis "typho-malaria" was common in Jefferson County as late as 1890.

Dr. Harry woods, now himself 76 years of age, remembers of compounding medicines for his father, Dr. P. N. Woods, in this post war period. His method of making "Neutralizing Cordial" was as follows: "Take two ounces of salaratus, one ounce of cinnamon bark and one ounce of yellow root. Put these (After pounding in a big iron mortar) in one pint of 50 percent alcohol. Macerate for two weeks. Then add 1 1/2 pounds of sugar and water to make one gallon and peppermint to flavor. This cured most children's complaints. Fortunate children, had they be been born thirty years earlier they must have taken much less palatable mixtures.

Probably in every community there are many folk stories current in the profession, and illustrative of the time before the law required the doctor to have an education. A very few such from Jefferson County: Two doctors are riding into the country for a consultation. They fall into a discussion of the death, from "inflamation of the bowels" of a patient of another practitioner. Do you know what I would have done in that case? asked Dr. A. "No" replied Dr. B. I have no idea." (No one would, for Dr. A. had spent two whole months in a medical school). "I would" replied Dr. A. "have introduced a Gouleys Trochar into that abdomen and poured in two ounces of compound tincture of capsicum on those G-D-intestines and seen how they liked that." Dr. B. said that he would not himself have thought of that procedure.

At a later date the writer was called in consultation with Dr. A. in a case of pneumonia. As requested he took out a trained nurse for the patient. Finding the sick woman nearly moribund the writer suggested that the nurse give a hypodermic of strychnia immediately. This was given in the left chest. Dr. A. then asked the nurse "May I ask why you gave that to the left of the circle?" The puzzled nurse then asked "what circle?" Dr. A. replied "The circle of Willis." Thep ooor (sic) nurse was mystified.

(To be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Monday, April 30, 1934
Page FOUR, Columns 5 and 6


Dr. Richard J. Mohr was probably the first Jefferson County Physician to use a microscope in his practice. Even he used the instrument more in general microscopy than in his practical daily work. He organized a Microscopical Club in Fairfield and there came to be at this time (1882-1884) eighteen compound microscopes in this small town, probably more than in any other town in Iowa at that time. Dr. Mohr had a corresponding acquaintance with Dr. Robert Koch of Berlin, Germany, and Dr. Koch sent to him a stained specimen of the tubercle bacillus in 1883 which was exhibited at his microscopic Club meeting. Dr. Geeseka of Mt. Pleasant tells me that he first used the microscope in 1888 but only to a limited extent until 1893. Dr. Fair of Mt. Pleasant was probably the first doctor in Iowa to use the microscope in his private practice in 1875. He belonged to the American Microscopical Society as did the writer in 1883. In 1883 there was but one doctor in Jefferson County using the microscope in clinical examinations. Today it is a part of every doctors equipment.

The writer had the privilege as a mere boy (1880) to be a protege of Dr. Richard J. Mohr and he "assisted" him in a number of surgical operations. Dr. Mohr, was a man of extreme neatness and orderely (sic) habits. His army experience had been extensive. His equipment was the best possible for that day. This was, of course, before the days of asepsis and considered in retrospect the healing of Dr. Mohrs operative wounds is a never ending marvel.

As is well remembered the doctor would enter the sitting room of a patients home, spread a clean towel on the center table; open his velvet lined instrument case and take from it the shining knives and scissors and forceps, laying them in neat rows on the towels. Soap and water washed the patients face or limb and the doctors hands. Then, a boy, myself, giving ether the operation was deftly performed without other assistants. Each instrument was then carefully wiped clean and restored to the case. Because of Dr. Mohr's scrupulous neatness and cleanliness his wounds healed rapidly.

On another occasion we visited a patient in the country. There was an intercostal opening discharging pus. In this sinus was a "seton" of fat pork. The dressing consisted of removing the seton and replacing it by another piece of fat about 1-3 inch in diameter and 3 1/2 inches long.

A boy friend of the writer shot himself through the wrist. Dr. Mohr put him to bed for 10 days and kept a weak carbolic solution dropping on the wrist continuously from a suspended conically bottomed can. Great layers of white skin came away from the hand and wrist but there was no inflamation, and the hand was perfectly useful and undeformed today.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Tuesday, May 1, 1934
Page Eight, Columns 3 and 4


The older citizens of Jefferson County have been able to follow the gradual spread through this western community of hygenic knowledge. The writer, as a drug store clerk, in the seventies sold many nursing bottle tubes. The favorite big tube had a bone disk next to the nipple so that it could not be swallowed. It had a perforated cork and an interbottle glass tube. The bottle could lie beside the baby--did not have to be held by the nurse. The sale of these uncleanable conveniences was coincident with the prevalence of "Cholera infantum." Gradually sanitary nursing bottles have been adopted and all people have learned about sterilization and cleanliness.

It was the custom in Jefferson County in the 1880-1890 decade and before to keep in the stores a bucket of drinking water for the convenience of clerks and customers alike. This water bucket was covered by a board on top of which stood the drinkers cup. The thirsty clerk lifted the bucket cover, dipped the cup in the water and drank, replacing the cup ready for the next user. The writer knows of one instance where a lady clerk in our best store followed in drinking a man who had mucus patches in his mouth. She developed a "chancre" on the lip. This was diagnosed as "Cancer" by her wise women neighbors. Fearing "the knife" the infected woman went to a "cancer specialist" in a nearby town and had a considerable portion of her lip removed by a "Cancer paste." In 1880 in Jefferson county a common drinking cup hung by a chain at the well in every school yard and all children used it. At that time and before fly screens were uncommon and imperfect and flies on the dining table were not looked upon with horror as they are today.

There is little wonder that "typho-malarial" fever was prevalent. A considerable part of a doctors work then was treating typhoid and malarial fevers and the differential diagnosis was then in doubt. Years later it was learned that Nature and not the doctor cured typhoid fever and only recently that the doctor can prevent typhoid fever fro (sic) occuring.

An instance of the prevalent lack of the hygiene sense among the people of the early days is the following:

Dr. Fordyce made a night call in the country and had to stay for several hours. The patient had a severe bronchitis and was using the family skillet for a sputum dish. When time came for breakfast the good wife emptied the skillet and cooked in it her "bacon and eggs." Dr. Fordyce who saw the preparations for the meal lost his appetite; remembered an urgent appointment and left the family alone for their food.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Tuesday, May 8, 1934
Page FOURTEEN, Columns 5 and 6


The County Medical Society

At some unknown date in Jefferson county a medical society was organized but its records were lost and its early history is unknown, except for one resolution that it passed. On January 20th, 1885 the Jefferson county medical society passed unanimously resolutions favoring the legal regulation of medical practice in the state of Iowa. The delegates to the Iowa State Medical Society were directed to urge the General Assembly to pass such legislation. A circular asking cooperation, was ordered sent to all county medical societies of Iowa.

This was possibly the beginning in Iowa of an effort to regulate the practice of medicine?

In 1890 the practice of medicine in Jefferson county was becoming modern. Lister's principles were being adopted in surgery and medication was becoming more rational. Rarely was a patient bled but the diet of typhoid fever patients was so limited that on recovery the patient had extreme emanciation (sic). Malaria was comparatively rare but diptheria (sic) was frequent and much dreaded. Dr. Calvin Snook Dr. J. V. Bean, Dr. D. H. Worthington of the regular school and Dr. Eugene Campbell Homeopathist in Fairfield and Dr. W. Fordyce in Glasgow were the leading doctors. They were all well educated men and did good work. Most of the major surgical operations were one (sic - done) by surgeons imported from the large medical centers or the patients were sent to Chicago for operations.

The Jefferson county medical society was "reorganized" on July 10th 1903. It has been impossible to find any society records prior to this date. The following notes represent all the important meetings and action taken by this society for the following years as shown by a careful study of the minutes. During 1903 about seven members were present at the meetings. In 1904 only one meeting was held; that of December to elect officers. In December 1905 it was decided by resolution to withdraw all professional cards from the newspapers and for doctors not to allow their names to be mentioned in connection with accident cases. April 1906 the question of raising the fees for a city call from $1.00 to $1.50 was discussed. The general sentiment, led by Dr. Fordyce, was against such an increase of fees.

Doctor's fees for a city call were 50c until after the civil war. From 1889 to 1910 they were $1.00. From 1910 to 1919 the fee was $1.50, after 1919 it was raised to $2.00. In the early days the maximum fee for a country call was $3.00. Since 1889 the milage was supposed to be 50c a mie (sic) one way. Often this was not charged.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Thursday, May 10, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 3 and 4


Not until 1908 was there held a meeting of any size of the Jefferson county, Medical Society. Then there were eleven doctors present and there was a printed program. In April 1909 it was decided to hold semi-annual meetings. April 14th, 1910 the county medical society adopted a resolution favoring a national department of health with a cabinet officer and copies of the resolution were sent to the Iowa Senators and representatives. The doctors were informed by the society that the State Board of Health furnished diphtheria anti-toxin to the druggists for free use. Dec. 9, 1910 it was resolved to hold a meeting with the dentists concerning a hospital. Jan. 10, 1911 a meeting was held and Dr. Boice of Washington reported on his county hospital campaign in Washington. Dr. J. Fred Clarke was appointed to have full charge of the campaign for Jefferson county.

On March 3rd, 1911 quarterly meetings were considered. These for the next year were held in the smaller towns of the county. These meetings during 1912 were held with Dr. S. K. Davis at Libertyville, Dr. Bishop at Glasgow, Dr. Sherlock in Lockridge and Dr. Stephenson at Libertyville. The doctors wives were taken to these meetings. The most interesting note in the minutes of each meeting seems to be that there was "An excellent fried chicken supper." The meetings of the county medical society were in the main social or business meetings. At times papers were read on medical or surgical subjects but the scientific work of this society throughout these years was negligible.

The Jefferson County Hospital was at that date established and the first "Advisory Committee" to the Hospital board as noted by the secretary's minutes was: Dr. J. Fred Clarke, Dr. J. V. Bean, Dr. L. D. James. Feb. 28, 1913 a resolution was passed to care for the county poor free in the hospital--each doctor to serve in turn.

During 1913 and after clinics were held in the county hospital by Dr. C. P. Howard of the State University and others. Doctors of nearby towns were invited to read papers and at the County Chautauqua assemblies, picnics were held by the county Medical Society. Dr. L. D. James was the secretary of the County Medical society at this time and to his initiative was due the activities of the society. No other doctor, in the memory of the writer, had so continuously stood for good society work. In spite of Dr James labors a general inertia defeated his efforts and until a much later date the County Medical Society meetings were not of great value.

(To Be Continued)


"The Fairfield (Ia.) Daily Ledger"
Wednesday, May 16, 1934
Page THREE, Columns 2 and 3



July 27, 1871, Dr. Shaffer said in his diary "Oh that I had a good nurse." Many, many times every doctor has felt like making a similar exclamation. It is a secret known to the intelligent few that in serious illness good nursing is often of more importance than the doctor's pills and potions.

In the early days of this medical history the doctor himself did much of the nursing. The early doctors would stay for hours with their patients, give enemas, or baths and applying blisters and poultices. Between these calls of the doctor members of the invalid's family and neighbors did the nursing. It was true then that a case of typhoid fever incapacitated not only the patient but exhausted a whole family or a whole neighborhood. This neighborly help in time of illness among the early settlers of Jefferson County was one of of (sic) the beautiful things of this pioneer life. Not that such practices were limited to the pioneer days for all through the years this neighborly kindness during suffering and illness has been manifest in Jefferson County. However warm the heart and however self sacrificing the services of relatives and neighbors during illness, nursing is such an art and science that nurses need to be trained. Before the days of typhoid vaccine, a man of Fairfield took a friend, who was suffering with typhoid fever, who was without family, into his home and cared for him. Three members of this helping neighbors family acquired typhoid fever and one died. The original patient recovered. Such tragedies through neighborly helpfulness were not uncommon. More frequently the unskilled nurses with the kindest of intentions used irrational procedures which hastened the death of the patient.

Later in our history from 1870 on to today unemployed women were hired as nurses. They are called now "practical "nurses in contra-distinction to "Graduate" or "trained" or "Regestered" nurses. Splendid, conscientious, self sacrificing women, were many of the "practial" nurses but they, in serious illness could not do all that the patient's best interessts (sic) required. "Oh that I had a good nurse" was often the doctor's thought.

The first graduate, "trained" nurse was brought from Philadelphia to Jefferson county in May 1892; thirty-two years after the founding of Florence Nightengale's school. This nurse, Miss Eva Mullen, came to care for a patient who was taking the famed Wier Mitchell "Rest Cure." Since that date the number of educated nurses has increased steadily and finally the Jefferson county hospital began graduating nurses in 1915. Now the number of regestered nurses available is in excess of the demand.

For her to help the doctors of this county when trained nurses were few, should be specially mentioned Miss Elizabeth Heaton. She was an educated nurse from the hospital at Galesburg, Illinois. She understood antisepsis thoroughly and was unsparing of herself in the care of the sick. She finally made her small house into a hospital for the care of surgical cases.

(To Be Continued)


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 6 (June, 1935)
Pages 323 and 324

(Note: The numbers in superscript refer to the listing of doctors.)


In 1898 came the war with Spain. Jefferson county furnished a company of soldiers in which was J. S. Gaumer, afterward a Jefferson county doctor.66 The only physician from the county going to this war was James Frederic Clarke,30 Major Surgeon of the 49th Infantry. In the Florida camp Dr. Clarke was detached from his regiment and made head of the medical side of the second division hospital of the Seventh Army Corps, located in Jacksonville, Florida. This division hospital with a capacity of 700 beds was soon filled with typhoid fever cases. Dr. Clarke, long convinced of the value of trained women nurses, requested them for this army field hospital. This request shocked the regular army surgeon in command and he refused to consider "bringing women into the field," saying "A boy's comrades are his best nurses." Over the head of the Corps Surgeon, Dr. Clarke appealed to the governor of Iowa, Leslie M. Shaw. The governor persuaded Secretary of War Alger to allow him to send nurses to Jacksonville. Thus twenty-five women nurses were sent to the field hospital and were accepted by General Lee. These nurses proved such a success that the policy of employing women nurses in such position was adopted by the army of the United States, and a Jefferson county volunteer doctor shares with Governor Shaw the credit of introducing female nurses into other than base hospitals of the army. Such a claim is confirmed by recent correspondence with the surgeon-general's office. In the World War this practice was universal. Female nurses were sent with shock teams even to advanced dressing stations. For this presumptive act, in sending his request for nurses over the head of the corps surgeon, Dr. Clarke was detached from the division hospital and sent back to his regiment, but a lieutenant nephew of the corps commander presented the facts to General Fitshugh Lee, and Dr. Clarke was soon restored to his former position in the division hospital, and later given command of a convalescent hospital at the seashore. A simple instance of the revolution made by the women nurses in the care of the sick was the demand for a comb by one on the day of their arrival. On this first day, a nurse came to the writer and asked for a comb to care for the sick men's hair. On search it was found that such an implement had not been used by a "comrade nurse" since the establishment of the hospital. This is a slight intimation of the transformation accomplished by these women nurses. To the many other good characteristics of Governor Shaw should be added his constant solicitude for the Iowa soldiers in the Spanish War. In this war, though the bullets injured few, the house fly killed many by spreading typhoid bacilli over the soldier's food. Studies in these Florida camps developed the indictment of Musca domestica; the most dangerous animal, next to the mosquito, in the world.


Although Lister taught antiseptic surgery in 1867 it was nearly twenty years before anitsepsis was used in the surgical operations in Jefferson county, and then a simple appendectomy was considered by the laity a serious procedure. In 1890 Dr. J. Fred Clarke, than an interne (sic) in the Philadelphia Hospital, transferred a patient from the medical ward to Dr. John B. Deaver's surgical services with the diagnosis "appendicitis." The next morning he met the doctor in a hospital corridor and Dr. Deaver said to him: "How did you know that case was appendicitis?" At that date "typhlitis," "peri" and "paratyphlitis" were much more common diagnoses, and that a mere interne should make a correct differential diagnosis was surprising. It was no more surprising to the surgeon than to the interne himself, who had chosen at random this one from four possible names. The writer believes that he performed the first appendectomy in Jefferson county in 1891. It is continuously surprising to read the notes of the early doctors and to discover how few surgical operations of any kind were done in Jefferson county before 1890. The people dreaded "the knife." The education of the laity to the fact that an operation gave less risk than allowing an appendix to rupture; that operations could be done without the production of "laudable pus" required years of labor. For his part in this education the writer was called a "butcher" and various like names.


The army death rate during the Civil War of 97 percent for blood poisoning and 89 per cent for tetanus was repeated in Jefferson county until long after the Civil War. Tetanus antitoxin was novel and not kept in drug stores in 1900. The writer remembers having telephoned to Chicago in 1900 for tetanus antitoxin for his first case of lockjaw and of losing his patient because the material was delayed in arrival. Antitoxin had probably been used here before that date but was not commonly used. There was much hesitation about giving antitoxin because one sudden death in Fairfield from diphtheria paralysis followed immediately upon giving a hypodermic dose of diphtheria antitoxin. This occurrence prejudiced the whole community. Antitoxins for diphtheria and tetanus, although available in 1890, were not in general use in Jefferson county in 1900. It will be noted that after 1900 the advances in medical science were much more quickly introduced into Jefferson county than the improvements of the earlier dates. This was because of a world wide change in the profession. Laboratory and statistical investigations were everywhere replacing the older methods of following precedent theoretically. Science was displacing metaphysics. In 1930 the doctors of Fairfield donated their services, the women's club paid for the materials and all school children were given anti-toxin for diphtheria immunization. This was repeated each year and diphtheria in Fairfield was abolished. In 1934 school children were given the tuberculin test for tuberculosis in the six upper grades of the schools.


After years of ineffectual effort to have a local hospital the Jefferson County Hospital was built under the new Iowa county hospital law. Stimulated by the address of Dr. Boice of Washington at a county medical society meeting, as already mentioned, Dr. J. Fred Clarke was appointed early in 1912, a committee of one, to take charge of a campaign to carry a special election to sell bonds to build a hospital. Each local doctor was given $100 to create a fund for this campaign. Credit for local impetus given in the launching of this campaign is due Dr. L. D. James.93 Coming to Fairfield in 1908 fresh from an internship in an excellent hospital he was full of enthusiasm, and renewed Dr. Clarke's hopes and efforts of twenty years to build a hospital. Dr. C. A. Boice of Washington furnished many ideas and much encouragement for this campaign. He had, in Washington county, built the first Iowa County Hospital under the "Munger" law because Dr. E. E. Munger of Spencer succeeded in getting it through the Iowa legislature.

Dr. Clarke obtained the permission of J. W. Dole, chairman of the Democratic County committee; J. S. McKemey, leading "stand pat" republican, and Dillon Turney, the leading "progressive" in the county, to sign their names to all campaign material issued. By spending $700 of his own money, besides that contributed by some of the other doctors, Dr. Clarke began an active educational campaign which was successful in carrying the project at the polls; and $25,000 of bonds were voted to build a hospital. This was the first time in the world (excepting in Washington, Iowa), when a rural people voted a tax on themselves to build a hospital. In every precinct outside of Fairfield the proposition lost by a small majority. Fairfield's preponderant majority carried the election.

This $25,000 was used to erect the building. It was furnished and equipped by private donations. One of the chief of these donations was the furnishing of the operating room by the widow of Dr. Richard J. Mohr, then living in Pasadena, California, in memory of Dr. Mohr. Many citizens of Fairfield made liberal contributions to the hospital equipment, the result of which was that the people of Jefferson county acquired a $50,000 hospital for the $25,000 tax.

The first president of the hospital board was Mr. E. D. Y. Culbertson and the first secretary Mr. Dillon Turney. They served in this capacity for years and with Mr. Lucian Marcy, Mr. Charles W. Wade, Mr. John Fritz and Mr. Thomas Ross, made an efficient governing body. Miss Amy Beers, assistant superintendent of the Hackley Hospital of Muskegon, Michigan, was chosen as superintendent of the hospital and served for years.

It was at this time, in 1912, that Jefferson county surgeons first began to wear rubber gloves during operations. A revealing incident of this time (1914) illustrates the danger of poorly educated men being allowed to operate in rural hospitals. The operating room nurse in the Jefferson county hospital threw away one of the two pairs of rubber gloves owned by one of the surgeons, because they were full of holes. The doctor reprimanded this nurse for her wastefulness, saying: "Those were my obstetric gloves." Again we may remark; better a clean midwife than a surgeon with tattered gloves.

the Jefferson County Hospital, dedicated September 17, 1912, and opened October 2, 1912, became an efficient institution, with a training school for nurses. It developed a considerable reputation, and inquiries came from many states and Canadian provinces concerning this Iowa county hospital plan. The superintendent of this small hospital was twice elected president of the Iowa Nurses' Association, and served on the Board of the State Examiners of Nurses for several years. Miss Beers, prominent in state and national nursing circles, added to the distinction of this hospital. It was not long until farmers who had voted against the hospital changed their minds, and approved the local hospital idea.

(To be continued)


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 7 (July, 1935)
Pages 423 and 424

(Note: The numbers in superscript refer to the listing of doctors.)

The first fourteen months of this hospital's existence it had 296 patients. There were 26 births. The total days of patients' treatment were 4,300. There were 181 surgical operations. During the twelve months of 1913 the income paid 79.70 per cent of the expenses for that year, which were $9,140.00; so that in the first year, with the people still to be educated to the use of the hospital, the excess of the expenditure over the income was only $1,170.00. This was paid by county tax as provided in the hospital law. In the opinion of the writer, after these first fourteen months, the citizens of the county were so pleased with the hospital that they would not have given it up under any considerations. There is no doubt that many lives have been saved by emergency operations through the years of the existence of this hospital. On the other hand the hospital furnished opportunities for unskilled performances of unnecessary operations. It has been impossible to prevent this abuse in an institution supported by public taxation and without a controlled staff. Attempts to have the surgical work in this hospital checked by the pathologist of the State Univesrsity have as yet been ineffectual. There is no doubt in the minds of the best thinkers that rural hospitals are essential to each community. A great desideratum is, however, that some system may be devised to check and control the surgery of unskilled and commercially minded operators who prey on the people.

Not until July 1, 1928, did this hospital have a technician and blood counts became common. The first technician regularly employed in the hospital was Miss Minerva Peters. The first regular staff meetings of the hospital doctors began January 12, 1931, and continued to September 26, 1932. These were again revived in October, 1934, and are to be held monthly if present plans prevail.

In all records before, during and following the Civil War in Jefferson County there was little operative surgery. In many of the operations of that period there was "laudable pus." Though Lister taught antisepsis in England in 1867 it was more than twenty years before his principles were used in common practice in Jefferson County, Iowa. It was usual in 1890 and for some years later to send surgical patients to cities, or have a city surgeon brought to Jefferson County for the opeartions. Dr. Calvin Snook was the leading local surgeon at that time and did excellent, careful work. Excepting Dr. J. V. Bean, few of the other doctors did other than minor surgery.

Taking blood pressure as a routine measure in practice was not common in Fairfield until 1911. On August 17, 1911, Dr. William S. Sadler, of Chicago, lectured at the Fairfield Chautauqua and took the blook pressure of several from the audience. This awakened the public interest in the subject and the Jefferson County doctors were compelled to equip themselves with machines for making studies in blood pressure. In the following years this became a routine procedure.


The automobile is now an essential item to the doctor. In the beginning of our century many doctors came to Jefferson County in wagons drawn by oxen. In the early practice they rode horseback with saddle bags across the saddle. We illustrate the saddle bags carried by Dr. P. N. Woods in 1864 and after. The saddle bags contained bottles, almost all of which were filled with liquid medicines. There were no tablets and no capsules as we have today. After roads were made the doctor used a sulky--a two-wheeled buggy, drawn by one or two horses. Several of the doctors thought much of their horses. Dr. Huey had a driver and a fine team. He was probably the most patrician physician who ever lived in Jefferson County. Accustomed to servants he never himself did any manual labor. Judge Leggett said, "Dr. Huey was the most cultured gentleman that I ever met." Dr. Stever, a lover of horses, drove a high stepping team. Dr. Fordyce's beautiful mare, that had served him well for many years, was so famed that she had a long death notice in the papers when she died.

Finally came the automobile and Dr. J. Fred Clarke had the first automobile brought into Jefferson County in 1903. Dr. Clarke then began the education of the horses of the county to a tolerance for these new machines. He had to stop beside the road and help lead by nearly all the teams he met. The language used by the farmers as they passed on their way will not be recorded here. Many a "run-away" resulted in spite of the care exercised and it was probably "bad business" to introduce the new invention; but Mr. Ford came to the rescue, everybody bought automobiles and roads were built; but not until 1927.


The coming of the World War disturbed the directors of Jefferson County as it did all people in the country and in the world. General Jefferson R. Kean, of the Army Medical Corps, was assigned to organize Red Cross hospital units for the United States Army. Dr. J. Fred Clarke had served under General Kean in the war with Spain and Dr. Clarke was asked to organized a medical unit for this war. The outcome was the organization of Hospital Unit R at Fairfield consisting of twelve medical officers, twenty-five nurses and fifty enlisted men. Major J. Fred Clarke, Captain L. D. James93 and Captain Roy McGuire116 were the doctors from Fairfield in Unit R. These were joined by nine other doctors from nearby towns. On the return from the services, Dr. I. N. Crow40 of Unit R located in Fairfield. Dr. S. K. Davis45 of Libertyville was desired in the unit but he failed to pass the physical examination in Des Moines and was refused a commission, much to the regret of the commander and his associates. Dr. J. S. Gaumer66 had served in the Medical Corps on the Mexican Border before the World War, was retired because of physical disability, and because of this disability was refused a commission in Unit R. Hospital Unit R served sixteen months in France and the doctors from Jefferson County made an excellent though not notable record. Each was promoted. Drs. James and Mcguire returned as majors, and Dr. Clarke as a lieutenant colonel. Dr. Crow became a captain in France and was the only one to receive a wound medal. Other Jefferson County doctors in the army during the World War were Dr. E. G. Myrick134, lieutenant, served in Kansas, and Dr. J. H. Baldridge6, lieutenant, with service in the Philippine Islands. Dr. W. Fordyce gave a valuable service as a recruiting officer on the draft board. His sterling honesty adapted him well for this difficult position. Dr. James K. Stepp176, who had been a hospital steward in the regular army from 1912 to 1915, rendered valuable services in examining the privates for Unit R enlistment. All Unit R men and women were volunteers. Dr. F. F. Winsell201, afterward in Fairfield, was a commissioned captain in the Army Medical Corps and served in this country.

Since the World War the practice of medicine has continued to advance--discoveries like insulin have been quickly adopted. Medicine here today is probably like that of every community in the United States. The public prints keep the intelligent people well posted, and doctors must give the most advanced service.

Probably no group of men does more for the people, without pay, than the doctors of medicine. As noted before, Dr. Shaffer in 1854 gave Mrs. D. "a clear receipt" for a bill of $106.75 on the payment of $20.00, and in 1864 Dr. Dial "forgave" the entire bill of a widow whose husband had died in the "army of his country and of God." These are typical incidents in every doctor's life.

Dr. William Fordyce, when practicing at Glasgow, had many patients in the Swedish settlement a few miles northeast of his home. Many of these Swedish people were very poor and having no money to pay the doctor they did not call him until the patient was extremely ill or even dead. Dr. Fordyce urged these Swedes to call him earlier, before the illness became so serious, telling them he would wait for his pay. He finally educated them in this plan and he records he never lost one dollar on these accounts. We believe that many of the Jefferson County doctors can testify to this honesty of the Swedish people. Dr. Fordyce related an interesting experience of that time: One winter when the roads were impassable and one of these families had no money, a child died. Because of the severe weather and his inability to pay an undertaker the father wrapped the child's body in heavy coverings and tied it high in a tree until a favorable time for burial. This instance of a return to an old Indian custom is unique, insofar as we know, among the white people of Jefferson County.

(To be continued next month)


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 8 (August, 1935)
Pages 466 - 468

(Continued from last month)

The problem of the care of the indigent poor of Jefferson County has never been satisfactorily settled in all these years. For long it was the custom for each doctor to submit his bill to the board of supervisors. During this time when a doctor was called he must get the permission of "the overseers of the poor" to attend the case. There was frequent friction between the board and the individual doctors as to the bills. A number of times a board has employed one doctor to care for all smallpox cases during an epidemic. At times the board made a contract with one doctor to care for all the poor in Fairfield. The board of supervisors has nearly always required the doctors to accept less than the regular fees for county work. We believe that attorneys and grocers, in fact everyone but the doctors, have their bills paid in full, with no reductions. The cause for this exception of the medical profession has never been explained.

In April, 1929, a committee from the Jefferson County Medical Society met with the county board of supervisors to consider a contract for the medical care of indigents. The expense for the medical care for the entire county, including the county home during the previous year had been something over $3,200.00. A contract was entered into for the medical care, including medicines, of the indigent sick in the city of Fairfield, the West End Addition, and all patients brought to the Jefferson County hospital from any part of the county, for the sum of $1,600.00 annually, to be paid to the secretary of the county medical society, monthly. All orders for medical care were issued by the county overseer of the poor or the township trustees. The contract was renewed each year in 1930, 1931 and 1932 for the same amount. As the number of indigents increased about fourfold during those years, when the contract was renewed in 1933 it was on a differant basis. The present contract for one year, dated May 1, 1933, stipulates that medical care shall be rendered to the indigents from the same area as before, but the compensation is based upon the fee bill approved by the Iowa State Medical Society, and a discount of 50 per cent of the amount of services rendered under the above mentioned fee bill is paid to the Jefferson County Medical Society, monthly.

The year 1934 is now drawing to a close. Almost one century has passed since the first white settler came to Jefferson County, Iowa. This county now has a population of 16,000 people. These people are served today by nineteen regular physicians, one homeopathist, ten dentists, three osteopaths, five chiropractors, one "Christian Science healer" and one "bonesetter." There are in addition six druggists who, with their clerks, freely prescribe and sell the handy packages of medicines put up by and advertised by the large pharmaceutical houses of the country. These packages of tablets have, in a great measure, replaced the "patent medicines," in popular esteem. The doctors of Jefferson County write few prescriptions. Each carries, in his office, a supply of medicines. The county hospital, by bringing the doctors together, where each observes the work of all, has helped much in mutual education. More and more the technician is employed in laboratory work.

Scientifically considered the practice of medicine in Jefferson County is, in 1934, fairly abreast of the times. The mass of the people are well educated in asepsis and hygiene. The health of the community is good. However, through the scientific journals of the day are coming to us glimpses of new studies of chromosomes and genes; of protons and neutrons; of vitamins and the relations of certain metals to metabolism; a few glimpses into the beginnings of a new century in medicine that is to pale the advances of the century just passed. The world today is a community more intimate than was the territory of Iowa in 1835. The practice of meicine in Jefferson County, Iowa, in 1934, is like that of all communities of the more civilized world.

From its financial aspect the medical profession of Jefferson County is at a low ebb in 1934. For five years the people of this county have been in the throes of the greatest depression ever known. Banks have failed, closed and reorganized. This year has witnessed an unprecedented drought. The farm crops are all ruined. The doctor's income has sunk to a minimum. Debts generally are not paid and all except the most imperative medical services are avoided. Because of the lack of money the doctor must, as of old, accept other commodities in payment for his services. State medicine is much discussed. Profound changes in medical economics seem imminent. The scientific advancement, the economic developments of the next hundred years we cannot estimate.



To Dr. Clarke's History of Medicine in Jefferson county, Iowa. Figures in parentheses are years of practice or residence in Jefferson county.

The doctors who have practiced medicine in Jefferson county from 1835 to 1934 include:

1. Allen, E. C.; (1908). Practiced in Fairfield in 1908. No data.

2. Aylesworth, William H.; (1895-1896). Came from and went back to California. Failed in practice and worked in the Louden factory.

3. Bailey, C. W.; (1899-1931). Born in Iowa in 1871. Read medicine with Dr. Norris of Birmingham. Graduated, Keokuk Medical College, 1897. Practiced in Pleasant Plain. Was councilman and mayor of his town. Had a friendly disposition. Strongly opposed the building of the Jefferson County Hospital. Died October 10, 1931.

4. Baker, Charles H.; (1881-1884?). Practiced in Fairfield for several years. No data can be found. Was an educated gentleman and taught Hygiene in Parsons College while a resident here during the years 1882-1884.

5. Baldridge, Milton D.; (1857-1907). Born in Ohio in 1826. Father was a doctor. Graduated in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1826. Practiced in Batavia. Son is a doctor practicing in Batavia. Died in Batavia in 1907.

6. Baldridge, John H.; (1904-1917; 1930 to this date). Born in Batavia, Iowa, in 1878. Attended schools and academy, Quincy, Illinois. Graduated Keokuk Medical College, 1904. Postgraduate work in Chicago. Practiced in Batavia 1904 to 1917 then entered Army Medical Corps. After duty at several army posts was stationed in Philippine Islands and China three and one-half years. Was discharged from army (resigned) in 1920. In charge of Industrial Hospital for the Insular Lumber Company at Fabrica, Occidental Negroes, 1920 to 1925. Went to Singapore, east and north coast of Africa, Egypt, Algiers. Returned to his Iowa home and again went to the far east for five years, in the same hospital. Spent one and one-half years at sea of the thirteen years away from Batavia, making two complete and four trips one-half way around the world. Since October, 1930, has been practicing in Batavia. Is certainly the most traveled Jefferson county doctor.

7. Barney, A. F.; Practiced in Jefferson county in 1884. No data.

8. Bartow, G. P.; (1862-1885). The first doctor to reside in Blackhawk township at Baker post office. Born in Ohio, 1837. Graduated, 1858, Cincinnati Medical Institute. Owned and managed a farm of 396 acres. Served in Company A, 36th Iowa Infantry in Civil War. Discharged in 1864. Read medicine and practiced, before taking a course of lectures, with Dr. S. K. Tracey. Helped write "The Centennial History of Jefferson County". Wife was "Aunt Susie" to the whole community, "a splendid lovable woman and helpmate". Was killed in a duel. Was kind to his patients and accepted anything in payment for his services. Was a man of great courage and strong convictions.

9. Bean, John Victor: (1887-1919). Was born in Pennsylvania in 1842. Graduated from the Bellevue Medical College in New York in 1868. After graduating from the Academy at Conneaut, Ohio, read medicine with Dr. A. K. Fifield. Served as contract surgeon in the United States Army at Fort Stephenson, Fort Buford, Fort Shelly, and Fort Randall, all in Dakota territory. After practicing at Moulton and Burlington, Iowa, came to Fairfield in 1887. A man of good education, beloved to national, state and local medical societies and for fifteen years lectured on Hygiene in Parsons College. Was health officer in Fairfield and his enforcement of health laws was notable; spared no violator. Was a man of strong integrity. Stood for a rigid code of professional ethics as noted in the preceding history. Was an educated, Christian gentleman and an excellent citizen. In his early professional life published a volume of "Family Medicine" which he later regretted. Was not a brilliant surgeon. His colleagues resented at times his criticism of what he considered their ethical waywardness but they knew him to be honest and steadfast to his trust.

10. Beard: Practiced at Lockridge for a short time about 1920. In an attepent to board a moving train he fell under the wheels and both legs were mangled. Died after a double amputation in the Burlington Hospital.

11. Billingsley, J. S.: (1883-1885). Born in Glasgow, Jefferson county, in 1856. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1883. Began practice in Glasgow in 1883 and in 1885 moved to Belleville, Kansas. Died in 1917, greatly respected by all who knew him.

12. Bishop, Carl S.: (1884 to this date). Born on a farm in Jefferson county, October 21, 1864. Graduated from Parson College in 1888 and from the Keokuk Medical College in 1894. Studied medicine with Dr. David Stever in Fairfield. Began practice in Glasgow in 1894 and has since been in active practice in the same location. With a natural adaptation to his profession and an an excellent education Dr. Bishop has been unusually successful. In his early years of practice he lived through the hardships of pioneer days, walking many miles on his professional calls, when the roads were impassable for his horses. At one time he was five hours going five miles because of drifts of snow.

13. Bissel: (1865?). Practiced in Fairfield in 1865. No data.

14. Black. Practiced in Batavia. The only fact known is that he committed suicide.

15. Blackmer, George M.: (1884?) Practiced in Batavia about 1884. Moved to New York. No data.

16. Blair, George H.: (1871-1884). Born in New York in 1830. Graduated from the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College in 1851. Served as surgeon in the United States Marine Hospital in Cleveland and was professor of theory and practice of medicine in the Women's College of Cleveland. Was President of the Iowa State Homeopathic Society in 1874 and for a time was the examiner of the Homeopathic Medical School of the University of Iowa. Was one of the few homeopaths who have had a large practice in Jefferson County.

17. Boets, George: Practiced at the Baker post office. No data. Vague reports show no excellence of education or work.

18. Bonnell, F. S.: (1915 to this date). Born in Iowa in 1884. Educated in the public schools. Worked in stores, in a photograph gallery, for railroads. "Roamed" Mexico and Texas "riding the rods". After a course in the Dallas Medical College he worked in a drug store, then two years in St. Louis College of Pharmacy, with night courses in Brown College in 1913. Was an interne in the Methodist Hospital, Des Moines, Iowa, for one year, thence to Ottumwa and then to Fairfield in 1915, where he has practiced as a specialist in diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. Perhaps no doctor of the county has had such varied experience in his pre-medical career. Hobby is building and renting business houses. Perhaps it is fair to say that with him the practice of medicine is an avocation. His vocation is building and improving business properties to the amazement of his colleagues who themselves feel unable to finance any such projects.

19. Boyer, Edward: (1840) Practiced in Jefferson County in 1840. Dirst doctor in Des Moines township. No data.

20. Bradshaw, A. C. D.: (1879-1905) Born in Jefferson County, 1846. Graduated at the University of Michigan in 1897. Had one year of postgraduate study at Rush Medical College, 1879. Practiced in Salina and in 1879 moved to Fairfield. Owned a drug store with R. H. Hufford as a partner, and later was with Louis Thoma for twenty-five years. Was known in Fairfield as a druggist and as president of the Fairfield Furniture Company. Was an active business man and in later years did not practice medicine. Died in 1905.

21. Bradshaw, Joel Benjamin: (1872-1876?). Brother of Dr. A. C. D. Bradshaw. Born in Jefferson County, 1850. Graduated from Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 1872. Practiced at Salina a few years, and then located at Stiles, Iowa, where he died in 1884.

22. Brooks, S. H.: Practiced at Lockridge. No data.

23. Campbell, Eugene: (1878-1893). Born in Fairfield, Iowa, 1856. High school graduate, two years in academy. Read medicine with Dr. Joel King. Graduate, New Hork Homeopathic Medical School, 1878. Practiced in Batavia, 1878-1879; then in Fairfield to 1893, with one year's absence. Moved to Los Angeles in 1893, and has since practiced there. Took postgraduate work in London and New York City. Was a member of the American Institute of Homeopathy. Lectured on pharmacology in the Homeopathic Medical School of the University of Iowa. Was a commissioner of insanity for Jefferson County and was on the United States Pension Board for some time. An educated gentleman highly respected. He had a large practice in Fairfield.

24. Campbell, S. M.: (1881-1882). Born in Fairfield, Iowa, in 1853. Graduated at the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College in 1881. Practiced in Batavia and in Fairfield for a year and then moved to Omaha, Nebraska, where he died.

25. Carpenter, Marcellus C.: (1885-1925). Born near Ottumwa, Iowa, in 1857. An Iowa Wesleyan College graduate. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1885. Practiced in Fairfield from 1885 until his death in 1925. Was a quiet unassuming man who kept the even tenor of his way undisturbed by the events of the world. Was honest and respected by all. Served long and well on the Pension Board but other than this, his energies were given entirely to his patients.

26. Carter, C. W.: (1904). No data. Practiced in Lockridge. Lived in Jefferson County but a short time.

27. Castle, Curtis H.: (1878-1881). Born in Illinois in 1848. Graduated from Northwestern University Medical School in 1872. Post graduate work in Keokuk, Iowa, 1876-77. Practiced at Merrimac. Was much interested in socialism. Went to Merced, California, in 1888.

28. Childress, Moses: (1898-1902). Born in Iowa in 1870. He was a druggist several years. Studied medicine and graduated from the Louisville Medical College in 1897, and from the Barnes Medical College of St. Louis in 1898. Began practice in Packwood and moved to Oskaloosa, Iowa, in 1902, where he is still in successful practice.

29. Clarke, Charles Shipman: (1843-1882). Born in Marietta, Ohio, 1814. Studied medicine in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1835, and after active practice in Kentucky, took another course in Cincinnati, graduating in 1843. Came to Mt. Pleasant in 1843, his practice extending into Jefferson County. Moved to Fairfield in 1857, where he conducted a drug store and practiced until his death in 1882. Was the medical member of a commission appointed by Governor Grimes to study eastern institutions and establish the first insane hospital for Iowa. The hospital was located in Mt. Pleasant in 1885. Had an excellent general education, was an omnivorous raeder, had a wide acquaintance among the intellectual people throughout the United States and his Fairfield home was the center of the intellectual life of the community. Here met the Emerson Club and other study groups. A strong believer in absolute prohibition; he never sold alcohol in his drug store. About the coal stove in Dr. Clarke's drug store was the assembly place for a group of the intellectual leaders of Fairfield. Such a group of men discussing the abolition of slavery, the reconstruction of the country, Emerson's Essays, Bryants' Thanatopsis, the founding of the first public library in Iowa, the location of railroads in Fairfield--these were the topics of conversation. Such a forum, such an outstanding group of men, no longer exists in this county. Dr. Charles Clarke's life of twenty-five years in Jefferson County was that of an ideal citizen. A learned consultant for physicians; a business man of the highest ethical principles, refusing to profit by the sale of liquors or anything which might injure his customers; a leader in every movement for the advancement of the community. He was prompt in meeting every personal obligation. He gave freely to the poor. He was the first president of the school baord. His faith in mankind made him a firm believer in Universal salvation at a time when it was orthodox to people heaven with a select few. The writer never has heard any criticism of the character of this exemplary man.

(To be continued)


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 9 (September, 1935)
Pages 516 - 518

(Continued from last month)

Addendum--No. 18. Bonnell, F. S. Frank Sumner Bonnell attended four full sessions in the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, and received the doctor of medicine degree on June 7, 1913.

30. Clarke, James Frederic: (1889 to this date). Born in Fairfield, 1864. Attended Parsons College. Graduated B.S., University of Iowa, 1886; M.A. University of Iowa 1889. Graduated from the Medical College of the University of Pennsylvania in 1889; two years an interne in the Philadelphia General Hospital. Postgraduate work in John Hopkins University and University of Gottingen, Germany, and several seasons at the New York Post Graduate School. Dr. Clarke entered the Spanish War as major and surgeon of the 49th Iowa Infantry. Detached service in charge of medical wards of the Second Division Hospital of the Seventh Army Corps in Florida and Cuba. While in Florida Dr. Clarke obtained the first emplyment of trained female nurses in the United States Army in field hospitals. Dr. Clarke organized Unit R for the World War and served as major and lieutenant colonel in Farance in Base Hospital No. 32, at Contrexeville and Red Cross Hospital No. 5 in Paris, both of which hospitals he commanded in the final weeks of this service. Was lecturer of Hygiene in the State University of Iowa, Colleges of Medicine and Dentistry. Also lectured in Parsons College. Dr. Clarke was in the main responsible for the building of the Jefferson County Hospital in Fairfield. Served as mayor of Fairfield and represented this county in the General Assembly 1906-1907. Has twice been vice president of the Des Moines Valley Medical Association, and the Southeastern Iowa Medical Society. Is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, of the Iowa Academy of Science, and the American Medical Association. Made the first x-ray pictures in Jefferson County; did the first appendectomy and introduced organotherapy in the county by developing infantile myxedema by thyroid feeding in 1901. Was for thirty years local surgeon of the C. B. & Q. and of the C. R. I. & P. companies. He was the first president of the Iowa Assembly of the Agassiz Societies and the founder of the first golf club in Iowa; the founder and three years President of the Fairfield Rotary Club. His fad is the studying of fungi.

31. Clement, Harold Eugene: (1891-1908). Born in Wisconsin in 1853, educated at Vanderbilt University in Tennessee. Began his medical studies at the Vanderbilt University and completed them at Keokuk College in 1884. Practiced in Richland and Trenton, Iowa, coming to Glasgow in 1891. In 1908, because of ill health was forced to move to Texas. Tried to retire from practice in Sinton, Texas, but was continuously consulted and gave freely of his advice. Died in 1912 in his fifty-ninth year. The writer remembers Dr. Clement as a genial, likable, well educated man who came to an untimely death through the hardships and exposure of a country medical practice.

32. Cole, D. B.: (1849?). Practiced in Fairfield about 1849. Was associated with Dr. N. Steele and was a druggist or chemist. No data. Moved to Des Moines in 1851.

33. Collins: (1854 ?-65?). No data. Practiced in Libertyville. Mentioned frequently in Dr. Shaffer's diary.

34. Conner, Warren Hamilton: (1895-1929). Born in New York, 1855. Graduated Iowa State University College of Homeopathy 1893. Practiced in Fairfield 1895 to 1929. Moved to California in 1929 where he now lives retired.

35. Conrad, Albert Everett: (1897-98). Born in Iowa in 1869. Graduated at the Hahnemann College, Chicago, 1895. Practiced in Pleasant Plain. No data. Died in Decorah, Iowa, 1929.

36. Converse, C. V.: (1887?). No data. Practiced at Libertyville for two years. Lived at Hillsboro, Van Buren county, before and after his Libertyville residence. Died in Hillsboro. Was a graduate in medicine and was well read.

37. Cook: No data. Mentioned April 10, 1865, as a consultant in Fairfield by Dr. J. M. Shaffer.

38. Cook, K. G.: (1929 to this date). Born in Illinois in 1901. He graduated from the Carthage, Illinois, College; took the degree M.S. at the University of Illinois in 1924; graduated from Rush Medical College 1928, and was an interne in the Illinois Central Hospital, Chicago, for the year 1928-29. Began practice in Fairfield in 1929.

39. Cottle, William Wallace: (1846-1880). Born in Ohio, in 1817. Of English-Quaker ancestry. Lived on a farm, later learned the carpenter trade and when twenty-one studied medicine two years with Dr. Benjamin Kester and practiced in Ohio five years. Came to Glasgow in 1846. During 1847-48 took medical lectures in the Missouri University and graduated. Returned to Glasgow and practiced twenty years. Represented Jefferson County in the state legislature 1860-61. Retired in 1868 and devoted himself to business and banking in Iowa and Missouri. Located in Fairfield in 1877 and lived here until his death in 1880. Dr. Cottle, erect, six feet tall, weighing two hundred pounds, was quiet and reserved. Had a deep sense of justice, honesty and honor. Was public spirited and generous in private and public affairs. Was held in high esteem by all who knew him.

40. Crow, Ira N.: (1921 to this date). Born in Iowa in 1881. He took two years premedical work at Iowa City Academy. Graduated from College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 1908. Member of faculty in this college 1905 to 1914. Took his master's degree in 1914. Postgraduate work at Harvard 1910. with Hospital Unit R in France as lieutenant and captain in Medical Corps, United States Army. Detached service regimental surgeon 168th Infantry of 42nd Division. Wounded in action, June, 1918. In evacuation hospital and Base Hospital No. 32, Contrexeville. Had graduate work in New York City after his discharge and came to Fairfield in 1921. With his fine education and experience Dr. Crow has received many medical honors. He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons; secretary of the local medical society for six years; chariman of the Section of Ophthalmology and Otology, State Medical Society, 1925; Chariman, Committee on Nurses Training 1903-31-32; Secretary of the Southeastern Iowa Medical Society, 1933; President of the Tri-County Medical Society in 1934. Active, progressive, always a student. Dr. Crow is taking a prominent place in his profession. He has no avocation, but devotes all his time to his professional labors.

41. Crumley, A. C.: (1900-03). Practiced in Pleasant Plain from 1900 to 1903. Came from Missouri and returned to Missouri. No data.

42. Curfman: (1852). No data. Mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary.

43. Davis, Ezra: (1870?). No data. Practiced in Glasgow. He was a brother to Dr. Moss Davis. Moved to Abingdon from Glasgow. Was a kind and sympathetic man.

44. Davis, Moss: (1870?). No data. Practiced in Glasgow. Was a brother of Dr. Ezra Davis. Died in Boulder, Colorado, in 1890.

45. Davis, S. K.: (1888 to this date). Born on a farm in Pennsylvania, 1863. Graduate Parsons College and of the Pleasant Plain Academy and of the University of Iowa. Read medicine with Dr. David Stever in Fairfield. Graduate from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, in 1888. Began practice in Libertyville in 1888, where he has precticed successfully to this date. President of the Des Moines Valley Medical Society and of the Southeastern Iowa Medical Society. President of the local bank and of the school board. Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Genetics Association. Has two sons, both physicians. Dr. Davis is an exceptionally well educated man and is a philosopher and poet. He is the leading citizen of his community. An omnivorous reader of the best books, he is a valued member of social and literary clubs. He was eager to serve in the World War and would have been a member of Hospital Unit R but failed in his physical examination. Quiet and unassuming, with a high sense of honor, he is altogether an ideal citizen.

46. Day, A. L. No data. Practiced in Blackhawk township.

47. Dean, Elijah L.: (1844-50). Born in Pennsylvania in 1808. No data. Moved to Wapello County in 1850 and died there in 1879.

48. Dearduff. No data.

49. DeArmond. No data. Practiced in Packwood.

50. DeMarsh, Clark C.: (1902-03). Practiced in Perlee and Fairfield. Graduate Homeopathic Medical College, University of Iowa, 1891. Began practice in Ottumwa, Iowa. Retired from practice and took up photography in Fairfield. Died in Fairfield in February, 1934.

51. Dial, W. C.: (1862 ? -64). No data except an account book and death notice. Took Dr. P. N. Wood's practice while he was in the Army of the Civil War. Probably came from Ohio. Excellent notice of him in Annals of Iowa, volume 14, No. 7, by Hon. C. J. Fulton. Had a large practice among the most prominent citizens of Fairfield. Died September 1, 1864, at the early age of thirty one years, "loved and respected by all who knew him". Probably buried at Mt. Pleasant.

52. DuBois, John W.: Practiced in Batavia. No data. Moved to South Dakota.

53. DuBois, Reuben: (1892?). Practiced in Batavia. No data. Moved to Kansas.

54. Dunkel, George Kasper: (1905 to this date). Born in 1879. Graduate University of Iowa, College of Medicine, 1905. Began practice in Fairfield and is still an active practitioner here.

55. Elms, B. C.: (1891 ?). Born, 1843. Graduated, Chicago Homeopathic School of Medicine, 1880. Professor of physical diagnosis in the same school. Practiced in Fairfield from 1891 for a time. Died in 1915 in Chicago.

56. Emerson, C. D.: (1893 ?). No data. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1893. Practiced in Abingdon, then moved to Packwood. Was greatly handicapped by extreme deafness.

57. Fellows: No data. Practiced in Farifield about 1880.

58. Ferris, Thomas, E. V.: (1880-1882). Born in Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, in 1846. Read medicine with his father. Began practice in 1874. Attended St. Louis Medical College in 1876. Moved to Lockridge in 1880 and practiced there two years. In 1882 quit the practice of medicine and moved to Fairfield, where he still lives in retirement.

59. Fleenor, John G.: (1889). Born in 1853. Graduated from College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, in 1888. Practiced in Pleasant Plain in 1889. Moved to Pritchell, Colorado.

60. Fordyce, Winfield: (1872-1928). Born in Jefferson County in 1848, on a farm in Liberty Township. Educated in local schools. Read medicine in 1869 with Dr. J. M. Norris, of Birmingham. Attended College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, 1871-72. Located in Glasgow. After two years practice returned to Keokuk for further study, 1877-78. Dr. Fordyce was a splendid example of the old school family physician: "The idol of the pioneer home, the theme of poets, the hero of romances". By a gunshot accident he lost the third and fourth fingers of his right hand. After beginning obstetric practice he found this deformity a great advantage in manual examination. He considered his accident "fortunate". Dr. Fordyce had little faith in the "germ theory" of disease and in many "new fangled" ideas that were distressing the medical profession. He progressed, however, far beyond the days of universal bleeding and salivation. The writer is greatly indebted to Dr. Fordyce for the incidents and folk stories of the preceding history. His only official services were his many years on the Insane Commission and on the "Exemption Board" for the drafted men of the World War. For these positions his honor and unswerving fidelity to right and justice made him an ideal public servant. No one ever questioned the integrity of his decisions. One illuminating incident known to the writer will illustrate the character of this good man. A neighbor doctor, well known as an abortionist, died. The friends came to Dr. Fordyce and asked him to be one of a group of doctors to act as pall bearers. His reply to this: "I will go to the funeral of Dr. ------ as a neighbor should, but I will be damned if I will help carry that old abortionist to the grave as a member of the medical profession." Dr. Fordyce died in Fairfield April 16, 1928, honored by everyone who knew him. To live and serve one community for fifty years is a rare privilige (sic). Always to be prompt in business obligations; to be fair and just to all citizens; to support every movement for community improvement; these are the qualities of an unusual man such as was Winfield Fordyce.

61. Freeman, B. F.: (1858?). No data. Practiced in Brookville. Died in 1860.

62. Folson, W. Z.: (1887). No data. Practiced in Pleasant Plain in 1887.

63. Gabbert, B. F.: (1885?). No data. Practiced in Batavia. Graduated in Keokuk, Iowa, 1885. Moved to Missouri and died there.

64. Gableson, A. No data. Practiced in Merrimac.

65. Gantz, Byron Noble: (1887). Born in 1860. Graduated from the "General Medical College (homeopathic) Chicago, 1885. Dr. Gantz seems to have been for years an active believer in birth control. Finally the federal court, objecting to his method of practice, sent him to Fort Madison, where he now resides. As far as we can learn, he is the only doctor of Jefferson County ever convicted of a felony.

66. Gaumer, James Stewart: (1906 to this date). Born in Victor, Iowa, 1872. Graduated from Parsons College with the degree B.S. Obtained his professional degree from Rush Medical College in 1900. Began practice in Danville, Iowa, and moved to Fairfield in 1906. Before his medical course Dr. Gaumer taught country schools. In one he received $20.00 a month for a three-month term. Served in the war with Spain as a sergeant of Company M in Florida. Helped to establish the Jefferson County Hospital. Served as first lieutenant in the National Guard on the Mexican Border before the World War. Is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and belongs to national, state and district societies. Taught obstetrics to the Nurses Traning School of the Jefferson County Hospital throughout the existence of that school. Dr. Gaumer's hobby is Masonry. As a Mason he has a wide acquaintance and has held high offices. He is highly respected throughout Jefferson County. Has lived an honorable, industrious life and is an excellent, dependable citizen. His labors for the county medical society have been preeminent. Is concerned with every infraction of medical ethics and always intolerant of cultists who prey on the credulity of the people.

67. Gitler, Ludwig: (1930 to this date). Born in Germany, 1898. Lived in Nuremburg until 1924, when he came to the United States. Had an excellent education, graduating after nine years' study in the gymnasium in 1917. Had four years at the University of Erlangen at which institution he took the state's examination in medicine in 1922. Interned in the Municipal Hospital in Nuremberg, 1923. Interned North Chicago Hospital. Assistant physician in hospitals in Erlangen. Pathologist and x-ray substitute director of Jackson Park Hospital, 1925-26. Industrial clinic, Detroit, Michigan, 1927. General practice in Chicago in 1928. After this most excellent training Dr. Gittler came to Fairfield in 1930, and is now in active practice.

68. Graber, Frederic J.: (1900). Born September 24, 1868, in Jefferson County. Read medicine with Dr. John Norris, Birmingham. Graduated Keokuk Medical College, 1891. Practiced in Fairfield in 1900. Moved to Stockport, Iowa, where he is still in practice.

69. Graber, Harold Elwood: (1927 to this date). Born in Stockport, Iowa, 1899. Father and one brother physicians. Graduated with the degree M. D., 1925. Resident physician in the Iowa University Hospital, 1925-26. Clinical assistant in the same institution, 1926-27. Began practice in Lockridge, 1927, and moved to Fairfield in 1930, where he has since had an active practice. Dr. Graber is a Phi Beta Pi, a Mason and a first lieutenant in the Medical Corps of the Iowa National Guard. With a fine education and excellent training, Dr. Graber has begun a promising career. He has a pleasing personality and his confreres predict for him a useful life.

70. Graham: (1862-68). No data. Thought to be the first doctor who resided in Salina.

71. Green, Wesley Johnson: (1840-1869). Born in Pennsylvania, 1818. Read medicine with uncle in Virginia. Came to Jefferson County from Pennsylvania and practice in the "Rich Woods." Was also a farmer. Died in Fairfield in 1906, many years retired from the practice of medicine.

72. Grove, Axel: No data. Practiced for a time in Lockridge.

73. Grove, Emil Gustaf: (1896-1924). Born in Jefferson County, 1872. Graduated in medicine from the Keokuk Medical College, 1896. Began practice in Fairfield in 1896, where he practiced until 1924, when he moved to Boone, Iowa, where he is now in active practice.

74. Hague, Albert Smiley: (1900-23). Born on a farm in Jefferson County, 1872. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1896 with a remarkable record. His grades were 100 per cent in every examination of his entire course. Practiced in Grand Ridge, Illinois, until 1900, when he came to Fairfield and practiced here until his death in 1923. Was fond of children and specialized in children's diseases to some extent though he maintained a general practice. Dr. Hague was a successful business man and purchased much Iowa land. In 1917 he established the "Revelenta Farms," near Fairfield, where he raised pure-bred livestock. His shorthorn herd was said to be the best in Iowa. Dr. Hague told the writer that his greatest pleasure in life was the acquiring of wealth. He sacrificed himself at all times in accomplishing this end. In the medical profession his type is rare, for most doctors are poor business men. Dr. Hague pursued his ideal at every opportunity. When confined to bed with illness he bemoaned his inability to do active work.

75. Hall: (1853-1856). No data. Practiced in Locust Grove Township. Mentioned as a consultant in Dr. Shaffer's diary in 1853 and 1856.

76. Hall, R. R.: (1880?). Practiced medicine in Fairfield, about 1880. No data. The writer remembers, as a boy, seeing his office walls covered with anatomic charts. His office was called, by his rivals, "The Health Factory." His excuse, to a patient, for the then unusual charge of $10.00 for opening an abscess, was tha the knife was of "pure imported English steel."

77. Hammond, Samuel F.: (1880-87). Born in Ohio in 1854. Came to Jefferson County with his parents in 1845 and lived on a farm north of Fairfield. Attended the country schools and private schools and taught country schools. Read medicine with Dr. P. N. Woods and graduated from Rush Medical College in 1880. After graduation he formed a partnership with Dr. Woods, which lasted until Dr. Hammond's death in 1887.


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 10 (October, 1935)
Pages 568 - 570

(Continued from last month)

78. Hayden, John W.: (1866-1909). Born in Ohio in 1839. In 1842 his father, a minister, brought him to Jefferson County, where he lived until his death in 1909. He was educated in the Iowa Wesleyan College in Mount Pleasant and graduated in medicine at Keokuk in 1866, then the Iowa State University School of Medicine. In the war of the rebellion John Hayden enlisted as a private in Company F, third Iowa Cavalry. He served three years as a hospital steward. In 1891 ill health compelled him to retire from active practice and he moved to Fairfield, only to be called again and again to his old patients. Dr. Hayden represented Jefferson County in the Eighteenth General Assembly. He was a brave soldier, a skilled physician and a successful business man, leaving a considerable estate (a rare thing among physicians). Dr. Hayden had a large practice and he was kind and generous to his patients and renters to a fault. As an illustration of the customs of his day and his own great hearted generosity, he advised the writer, just starting in practice: "Don't wrap up your tablets in paper and charge fifteen cents. Put them in a neat box and charge twenty-five cents. People will pay that just as readily." This trifling charge for medicine throws light on the customs of that day. The writer knew Dr. Hayden well and had for him the highest respect. He was an "old school family doctor." He hated abortionists and all dishonorable members of the profession. He was one of the noble citizens of Jefferson County.

79. Hayden, Thomas: (1874-76). A brother of Dr. John W. Hayden. Born in Iowa, 1854. Graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, in 1874. Practiced two years in Libertyville associated with his brother. He then went to the "New York Institute of Advanced Surgery," 1876-77; then to Nebraska; and then to Fresno, California, where he died in 1931.

80. Henderson, E.: No data. Practiced at Batavia.

81. Henry, Charles: (1931 to this date). Graduated in medicine at State University of Iowa, 1886. Practiced fifteen years in Nebraska. During World War, practiced in Hedrick, Iowa; then Alhambra, California. Came to Pleasant Plain in 1931, and is still practicing there.

82. Hite, A. K.: (1874?) No data. Lived on a farm and practiced at Baker Post Office about 1874.

83. Hobson, W. Zeno: (1870-85 ?). Practiced medicine while living on a farm and later in Pleasant Plain. Was also a minister of the Friends Church. As was the custom among the Friends, he was called "Zeno" by everyone. He rode horseback and carried saddlebags. Moved to the state of Washington and died there. Dr. Shaffer, in his diary, mentions a Dr. Hobson in 1855, possibly the same man.

84. Hoopman, Aldus Arthur: (1893 ?). No data. Practiced medicine in Fairfield in 1893. Purchased the practice of Dr. Worthington. Was here but a short time and is now living in Seattle, Washington, but does not answer inquiries. Dr. Hoopman's "purchase" of Dr. Worthington's practice was a sad disappointment--an illustration of the fact that a doctor cannot "sell" his practice.

85. Hoskins, Mrs. Olivia Carrell: (1898 to this date). Born in New York in 1878. Graduated from the Cleveland College of Medicine and Surgery in 1895. Practiced in Pleasant Plain. Dr. Olivia Carrell married Mr. Hoskins and now lives on a farm near Pleasant Plain and continues the practice of medicine.

86. Huey, John T.: (1848?-1866). Practiced in Fairfield, in 1848, or earlier. Little can be learned of his life. Judge Leggett said: "He was the most cultured gentleman of my acquaintance." When Dr. J. M. Shaffer came to Fairfield in 1852, he formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, Dr. Huey. Dr. Huey built the most pretentious house in Fairfield, which has just been razed (in 1933). Had everything the best; fine horses and servants, etc. Had a Philadelphia education and wealth, and was the most patrician doctor who has lived in Jefferson County. He was very firm and called every woman "Madam." Dr. Huey did no manual labor, but one day he took the house scissors and cut all the blossoms from the potato plants grown by Mr. Christian Shafer, in his garden. Dr. Huey probably meant to test whether this would lessen or increase the number of potatoes. The writer is today unable to find anyone who knows the effect of cutting off potato blossoms. Dr. Huey is believed to have died of tuberculosis in Fairfield in 1866.

87. Huffman, George F.: (1910). Practiced in Round Prairie Township in 1910. Was born in 1875. Graduated from Drake University Medical College in 1900. Moved to Florence, Arizona, but does not answer inquiries.

88. Hufford, Rollin Hughes: (1864-1894). Born in Pennsylvania, 1823. "Graduate (?) of Jefferson College, Pennsylvania." Was in active practice in 1865. Later he became a druggist in Fairfield and was here about 1880, a partner of Dr. A. C. D. Bradshaw. "Attended Sterling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio," but did not graduate. Came to Fairfield in 1864. Died here September 16, 1894.

89. Hull, John C.: (1859-1863). Born in Ohio in 1827. Graduated from the Cincinnati Eclectic Institute in 1853. Practiced in Fairfield, associated with Dr. Charles S. Clarke (?). In 1875 he moved to Kearney, Nebraska, where he died in 1900.

90. Humphrey: (?). No data. Mentioned by Dr. Shaffer in his diary.

91. Hunter, Mary Gill: (1897). A homeopath, practiced in Pleasant Plain. Born in 1854, in Ohio. Graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Illinois, in 1899. Attended the Ohio University in 1881. Moved to Grand Junction, Colorado. Later graduated in osteopathy.

92. Hurst, L. F.: (1866-1871 ?). No data. Mentioned by Dr. Shaffer in his diary, 1866-71.

93. James, Lora Douglas: (1908 to this date). Born in Appanoose County, Iowa, in 1882. Graduated from Northwestern University Medical College in 1906. Was an interne in the Polyclinic Hospital in Chicago one and one-half years. Located in Fairfield in 1908. Served as captain and major in the Medical Corps throughout the World War in France. Was with Hospital Unit R and on detached service in the Rainbow Division, being surgeon of the 166th Infantry and 167th Infantry, and in Evacuation Hospital No. 7 from July to November, 1918. Since Dr. James' discharge he has been commanding officer of the Medical Detachment of the 133rd Regiment of the Iowa National Guard. Is a member of the national, state and district medical societies, the Iowa Clinical Surgical Society and of the Military Surgeons' Association. Is a surgeon of the C. B. & Q. and the C. R. I. & P. Railways. Was responsible for the founding of the county hospital at the date it was established. His encouragement kept the committee at work on the project. Always alive to the betterment of the local profession, Dr. James, more than any other doctor in the county, has kept the medical society alive and active. Dr. James' hobby is military medicine and he takes a prominent place in the Iowa National Guard. Makes friends easily, is true to his friends, and has a wide acquaintance in the profession of Iowa.

94. Jay, R. L.: (1872?). Born in Iowa, 1849. Read medicine with Dr. Payne, Richland, Iowa, 1868. Graduated Keokuk, 1869. Practiced at Merrimac. Drummer boy Company D, Fifteenth Iowa Infantry. Died in Wayland, Iowa, 1891.

95. Jones, T. F.: (1881-1910). Born in Iowa in 1853. Graduated at Keokuk Medical College in 1881. Practiced in Abingdon in 1881 and moved to Fairfield in 1888. In 1902 moved to Boulder, Colorado. One patient said of him in 1893: "He was a splendid doctor, always kind and courteous, liked by everyone." He drove a pair of gray ponies. He always answered calls promptly. Still living in Boulder, Colorado, in the drug business, and still practicing medicine (in 1934).

96. Jones, Hiram: No data. Practiced in Abingdon and moved to Kansas.

97. Jones, Wiley: (1865-66 and 1872-75). Born in Indiana in 1840. Came to Jefferson County with his parents in 1845. Read medicine with Dr. N. Steele, in Fairfield, 1864. Graduated in medicine in Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1867. Practiced in Glasgow, 1865 to 1866, and went to Winchester. He returned to Fairfield in 1872 and remained here until 1875, when he returned to Van Buren County, at Cantril, where he died in 1920.

98. Keck, Mrs.: (1875?). Practiced medicine in Fairfield about 1875. Her husband, Mr. Keck, had a foundry. Few data obtainable. The writer remembers, as a boy, the sensation in Fairfield, when Dr. Keck appeared in bloomers--a fashion of that day. She and her husband finally collected herbs, made and bottled a "Catarrh Cure," which she sold widely. Finally she abandoned a general practice and devoted herself to the "Catarrh Cure." She went from house to house selling her remedy. She moved to a larger place and rumor says "became wealthy."

99. King, David Hendricks: (1898 to this date). Born in Walcott, Indiana, 1875, and came to Jefferson County when eleven years of age. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1898, and located in Abingdon. In 1907 he moved to Batavia and has since practiced there. Dr. King furnished a Memorial Reception Room in the Henry County Hospital at Mt. Pleasant. He has done other good deeds which modesty prevents him from telling to this historian.

100. King, Joel Elijah: (1865-90). Born in Massachusetts, 1813, one of a family of twelve children. His grandfather was a native of Ireland. His father and one brother were physicians. His father was of the regular school. Joel King was at first a minister, he became an "Exhorter," and finally a "Circuit Rider." He read his father's medical books from his "teens" on. His mother kept in the house a box of dried herbs. "In those days every housewife was supposed to know how to relieve pain and allay fever." He enlisted in Company F, Twentieth Illinois Infantry. Later served as a hospital steward. In 1862 he had charge of a smallpox hospital at Louisville, Kentucky. Was discharged for disability in 1862. Stidued homeopathy with Dr. Hemmel and then practiced homeopathy. After the war Dr. King started from Illinois for Winterset, Iowa. In February, 1865, he stopped for the night at the John DuBois home, near Fairfield. On Mr. DuBois' suggestion, he came to Fairfield, located, and practiced until his death, in 1890. Dr. King was probably the first homeopath in Jefferson County. He was one of the leading doctors of his time and it seems to the writer that he did much toward leading all doctors away from over medication. In his practice he did not charge "working girls" for his services. He is referred to in the foregoing county history.

101. Kirby, James Arthur: (1887-1890). Born in Illinois in 1858, moved to Jefferson County in 1869. Attended the country schools, where he was a leader in debate. Taught school in the county several years, spending his vacations studying medicine with Dr. Worthington, at Fairfield. He graduated from the College of Medicine, University of Iowa, in 1887, and began practice in Batavia. He was a student of great promise and quite successful. He died of pneumonia in January, 1890. His untimely death was a loss to the profession.

102. Kirkpatrick, J. W.: No data. He practiced at the Baker Post Office. He was not a graduate in medicine.

103. Labagh, N. W.: (1904). He practiced eighteen months at Pleasant Plain. He graduated from the Keokuk Collge in 1904, and after his residence in Pleasant Plain, moved to Mystic, Iowa, where he is now in practice. During the World War Dr. Labagh served as a medical officer in the Fort Riley training camp.

104. Lamb, L.: (1910). No data. Practiced medicine in Polk Township in 1910.

105. Lesher, H. B.: His medical education consisted of two months at a medical school at Keokuk, Iowa. Not a graduate. He served in the army in the Civil War, probably as a hospital steward. Dr. Lesher was one of the most picturesque doctors who had lived in Jefferson County. With a meager education, he had acquired a large medical vocabulary. His conversation was greatly enjoyed by his medical colleagues and many of the anecdotes related in the preceding history are authentic tales of his practice. He was a distinct type of the old school doctor, licensed to practice without a diploma before regulating laws were in force. A most likable man with many friends. He did not try "phlebotomy" in one case because he had used "the last he had a week before," and he had the only case known who died from "Peyer's patches on the diaphragm."

106. Leshure, H.: (1889). No data. Practiced medicine in Salina, 1889.

107. Lewis, C. G.: (1859-1866). Born in Ohio, 1832. Moved to Libertyville, 1846. Studied medicine with Dr. Walker, of Libertyville. Graduated at Keokuk Medical College, 1859. Assistant Surgeon Thirtieth Iowa Infantry in Civil War. Resigned because of disability. Practiced in Libertyville until 1866, when he moved to Ottumwa, where he died in 1900.

108. Lewis: (?). No data. Early. Lived two miles northeast of Abingdon.

109. Loehr, Thomas R.: (1896). Born in 1869. Graduated from College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, 1896. Began practice in Lockridge. Moved to Seattle, Washington, and was licensed to practice there in 1908. No other data.

110. Long, C. S.: (1906). Practiced medicine in Fairfield. Moved to Denver, Colorado. No data.

111. Lowell, James.: No data.

112. Machesney, W. T.: (1875 ?-83). Read medicine in Illinois. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College about 1875. Began practice in Salina, moved to Perlee and then to Bagley, Iowa, in 1883. Was highly respected in the county.

113. Martin, G. P.: (1888-94). Practiced in Fairfield, 1888 to 1894. Was also a Baptist minister. Told the writer he "healed both the body and the soul as did The Master."

114. Mathews: (1889). Dr. Mathews was in Fairfield in 1889 for a short time. No data.

115. McConnell, Townsend: (1855). Practiced hydrotherapy in a way not liked by the regular profession. Was mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary in 1855, but not with respect. Died in Fairfield.

116. McGuire, Roy Alvin: (1908 to this date). Born in Jefferson County in 1880. Graduated from the College of Medicine, University of Iowa, 1908. Practiced in Brighton, Iowa (on the edge of Jefferson County) until 1925 when he moved to Fairfield. A well educated and most active man, he had in both towns an extensive practice. A continuous student, he held an advanced position. In Brighton he served as mayor and as president of the school board. Before going to the war front Dr. McGuire was commissioned captain and examined all the men for enlistment in Hospital Unit R. He went to France with Unit R (after preliminary training at Fort Riley, Kansas) and served in Base Hospital No. 32 in Contrexeville, France, and in Hospital No. 5 in Paris, altogether sixteen months. He was commissioned a major near the end of his service. He was devoted to his work in the army and gave himself without stint to his tasks. An active member of the Fairfield School Board and Commander of the local American Legion, Dr. McGuire is always active in public affairs. His fad is the local ownership of public utilities and the correction of the abuses of public utility companies.

117. McLain, N. E.: No data, practiced in Fairfield in 1906.

118. Meacham, Edwin: No data. Practiced in Abingdon very early.

(To be continued).


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 11 (November, 1935)
Pages 626 - 629

(Continued from last month)

119. Mealey, Thomas S.: (1857-1876). Born in Pennsylvania in 1818. Attended the University of Pennsylvania Medical College and Jefferson Medical College and graduated in 1839. Was the first resident doctor of Walnut Township, of Scotch (sic) ancestry; a deacon of the Presbyterian Church and a strong prohibitionist. Coming to Pleasant Plain in 1857 he practiced there until his death in 1898, though he nominally retired in 1876. He owned 800 acres of land and farmed. Dr. Mealey was kind and generous and to his poor patients he took provisions (food) as well as medicine. His father, Dr. Samuel Mealey, was a physician and practiced in Washington County. Dr. Thomas Mealey was a strong character and made an impression on the community. He is yet a "tradition" there. Dr. Mealey was the only subscriber to a daily paper at Pleasant Plain during the War of the Rebellion and each day the citizens of the community congregated about while he read the news.

120. Miller, Thomas: (1870). No data. A contemporary of Dr. J. W. Hayden. Practiced at Wooster. Was not a graduate.

121. Miller, W. K.: (1872-1882). Few data. Graduated at Rush Medical College in 1872 (?). Practiced in Libertyville ten or twelve years, and moved to Nebraska. Died in Texas in 1923.

122. Millikin, J. C.: Was not a graduate. Practiced in Fairfield before and after 1890. No data. Did not have the respect of his contemporary practitioners. We draw the mantle of charity over his memory.

123. Moechum. No data. Practiced in Abingdon. Mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary.

124. Mohr, Richard J.: (1861-1887). Born in Pennsylvania in 1841. Came to Fairfield with his parents in 1865 and was employed as a druggist's clerk. Here he began reading medicine and graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1861. Surgeon of the Tenth Iowa Infantry, 1862, when he was twenty-one years of age. Later he became brigade surgeon of the Fifteenth Corps, ranking as major. He went with Sherman to the sea and was in active service throughout the war. At the close of the war he returned to Fairfield where he practiced until he moved to Pasadena, California, in 1887, where he remained in practice until his death. February 23, 1900, fifty-nine years of age. In 1876 Dr. Mohr took a post-graduate course at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1881 to 1883 he lectured on anatomy in the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk, Iowa, then the Medical College of the State University of Iowa. Dr. Mohr was an advanced microscopist and organized a microscopic society in Fairfield which won distinction. He was the leading surgeon of his time in Fairfield. His extreme cleanliness and neatness made his operative work approach the asepsis of later years. He corresponded with Robert Koch and other leaders in science. His quiet dignity and generosity won for him the respect of all who knew him. He is referred to at length in the preceding history. His widow furnished the operating room of the Jefferson County Hospital as a monument to his memory.

125. Moberly, J. T.: (1840-1861). Practiced in Fairfield and was the first resident physician of this county seat. He lived at what is now 500 S. Main st. and here died in 1861. The place and date of his birth cannot be learned. He is remembered as a tradition by many and must have been an outstanding citizen, who took part in all public affairs. It is recorded that he was "the truest and best of men"; that he was "humane"; that he was "careless of fees". The Indians called him "Big Medicine" and they bothered him so much that he was compelled to keep a big stick in his office. This he would shake at them and say "Puck-a-chee" (get out of here). Dr. Moberly was a good speaker and prominent in public meetings. He left a good name. He seems to have been a worthy leader of the profession into Jefferson County.

126. Moorman, Charles T.: (1885- ?). Born in Ohio in 1836. Graduated from the Eclectic Medical College in Cincinnati in 1876. Practiced in Abingdon from 1885 until 1891 and then in Packwood until his death. Dr. Moorman was a Quaker. His parents came from Virginia. He was highly respected, used good judgment in his work and was quite succesful. He treated Mrs. Salts in 1909 and she says "We always liked him but he was a bit rough in his talking and quick tempered." The writer remembers him as a good doctor; a man of character; an honored member of the profession.

127. Morris, Shelton: No data. Practiced in Abingdon very early.

128. Morris, John: No data.

129. Morrow, Augustus M.: (1894-1902). Born in 1871. Graduated from Keokuk Medical College about 1875. Practiced in Lockridge from 1894 to 1902 and then moved to Liberal, Kansas, where he had a private hospital. He took postgraduate work in Chicago in 1916. Dr. Morrow died in 1928. He was a progressive, active student, worked hard and had a large practice.

130. Moss, Oscar Burnham: (1893-1895). No data. Dr. Moss came to Fairfield in 1893, purchasing the practice of Dr. Eugene Campbell. Was a homeopath. Practiced here about two years and moved to Chicago where he wrote a book, the value of which cannot be learned. Later lived for a time in Burlington, Iowa.

131. Musselmann, James T.: (1852-1853). Born in Ohio. Came to Fairfield in May 1852. In October, 1853, rode horseback to Keokuk, Iowa, to procure medicines. From the exposure he developed pneumonia and died October 13. Such a journey was, in that day, a great undertaking. The Masonic order, after his death, passed resolutions expressing real respect.

132. Myers, J. L.: (1846-1876). Born in Virginia in 1814. Was not a graduate in medicine. He is mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary in 1852-53 and '54. Dr. Shaffer says in one place "Doctors M. and P. put a spring truss on a varicocele." No other data of his work can be found. He was a "botanic doctor," collected local plants, and prepared his own medicines.

133. Myers: (1854?). No data. Mentioned by Dr. Shaffer in 1854. Was at one time employed by the county authorities to care for all smallpox cases. A son of Dr. J. L. Myers and an "eclectic" practitioner.

134. Myrick, Eliel Grant: (1907 to this date). Born in Iowa in 1869. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1904. Practiced in Des Moines one year and came to Fairfield in 1907. Dr. Myrick was never admitted to membership in the County Medical Society. He underbid other doctors in his professional fees, accepted a position with a notorious "cancer specialist" and has been in many ways out of harmony with the local medical profession. Dr. Myrick is a "jolly good fellow" liked by a considerable number of Jefferson County people and has a rather large practice. In the World War he was a First Lieutenant in a Base Hospital at Fort Riley, Kansas. His newspaper advertisements have been enjoyed by the doctors of Fairfield and he is the only doctor of the county who has "made" the Tonics and Sedatives column of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

135. Nelson, H. P.: (1884- ?). Practiced in Fairfield. No data. Was associated with Dr. Roop.

136. Norris, A. M.: Practiced medicine in Buchanan Townshp. No data.

137. North, F. R.: (1911-1919). Born in Iowa, 1876. Two years Howe's Academy, Mount Pleasant Normal Teaching Course. Taught several years, then studied medicine. Practiced in Packwood from 1911 to 1919, then moved to Winfield, Iowa, where he now lives and practices. Graduate Keokuk Medical College, 1904.

138. North, Norman Theodore: (1927). Born in 1895. Graduate from the Northwestern University, Chicago, in 1925. Moved to Florence, Kansas. Dr. North was well educated and had an attractive personality. He did not gain a large practice and decided to try another location.

139. Nugent, E. G.: No data. Practiced in Batavia. Graduated from the Cincinnati Botanical School in 1858.

140. Oliver, J. W.: (1867-1896). Born in Pennsylvania in 1837. Graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1866. Was a graduate of the Washington and Jefferson College in 1858. Studied medicine with Dr. Wm. K. Blatchley in Pennsylvania. Taught school for a time. In the Civil War he was with Company K, Eighth Pennsylvania Infantry one year, and was discharged because of a wound. He then reenlisted in Company C, Twenty-second Pennsylvania Cavalry. Practiced in Brookville from 1867 to 1869 and then moved to Fairfield where he lived until his death in 1912. Dr. Oliver was a member of the pension board for thirty years. Was well read and always remained a student, but his practice was never large. He failed to apply his knowledge to the practical question of the moment in a way to win patients. He was honored and respected as a man.

141. Oliver, James M.: (1884-1886). Born in Pennsylvania. Graduated from Rush Medical College, Chicago, 1886. Practiced in Libertyville from 1884 to 1886. Moved to Arkansas in 1886. Was a nephew of Dr. J. W. Oliver of Fairfield. There was a question of the legality of Dr. James Oliver's practice in 1884-86 and he was prohibited from practicing. He then went to Rush Medical School.

142. Orr, J. T.: (1847-1860). No data. Was associated for a time with Dr. John T. Huey in 1847. Practiced in Fairfield from 1847 to 1860.

143. Packwood, S. D.: (1890). Born in 1866. Graduated from an Eclectic College in Cincinnati in 1889. Practiced in Batavia about 1890 and after. No data.

144. Parks, W. S.: (1930). Born 1859. Graduated from Iowa State University of Medicine 1885. Practiced for years in Brighton, Iowa, and for a time in Packwood, Jefferson County, about 1930.

145. Parrott: (1853). No data. Mentioned by Dr. Shaffer in his diary.

146. Perry, Mary G.: (1890). No data. Dr. Perry was one of the few women doctors of Jefferson County. She had pneumonia in Fairfield. Moved to the east and died somewhere in the eastern states. She was not long in Jefferson County.

147. Plowman, E. T.: (1932 to this date). Born in Kansas in 1904. Studied in Kansas City College. Graduated from the College of Medicine, University of Iowa in 1930. Was an interne in the Mercy Hospital in Des Moines, Iowa, 1930 and 1931, and began practice in Mt. Pleasant, but soon moved to Lockridge in 1932. Having an excellent education and pleasing personality his success seems assured.

148. Porter, Henry C.: (1896-1912). Born in Kentucky in 1863. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1890. Studied at Rush in 1883 and 1884. Practiced until 1889 and then returned to medical school for his final year. Studied with his brother Dr. J. W. Porter of Hedrick, Iowa, and practiced under him for a year between courses. Dr. Porter practiced in Batavia from 1896 to 1912 when he moved to Ottumwa where he is now living.

149. Powers, M. L.: (1896). Came to Iowa from Vermont and practiced in Pleasant Plain until 1896. Was highly respected. Died in Pleasant Plain in 1896 and his place was taken by Dr. Albert Conrad.

150. Prentice, George Lee: (1932 to this date). Born in Murray, Iowa, in 1878. Graduated from Rush Medical College in Chicago in 1900. Served as captain in The Medical Corps, United States Army in the World War. Located in Packwood, Jefferson County, Aug. 15, 1932 and is now practicing there.

151. Raiff: (1853). No data. Called in consultation by Dr. Shaffer.

152. Ratcliff, Bruce Samuel: (1884). Born in Fairfield in 1859. Graduated from College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk in 1884. Began practice at Perlee in 1884, but after six months moved to Eldon, Iowa. Did not practice medicine long but became a traveling salesman and so continued for years. He is now living in Fairfield engaged in the restaurant business, a respected citizen, known to only a few as a graduate physician.

154. Ream, Henry: (1845-1872 ?) Born in Pennsylvania of Dutch ancestry. Lived for a time in Hagerstown, Maryland, and came to Abingdon in 1845 practicing there until his death. Dr. Ream was the fisrt doctor to live in the western part of Jefferson County. He was a "bontanic doctor" and a "Campbellite minister." He kept a tavern of excellence called the "Maryland House" which was a large colonial house with a fireplace in every room. He had a drug store and managed a farm of 300 acres. A unique thing for Jefferson county, he drove a team of reindeer or elk. Dr. Ream was a remarkable character and a worthy man. He built the first Campbellite Church in the county. He died at the age of seventy-two years. The doctor had a habit of carrying red pepper in his pocket and putting some in his coffee when he had meals away from home. He was one of the outstanding characters of early Jefferson county life. His son became a doctor.

155. Ream, Daniel: (1848-1852). Born in Maryland in 1830, son of Dr. Henry Ream. Came to Abingdon with his parents when sixteen years of age. Studied with his father and began practice when eighteen years of age. Attended the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1852 and after one course of lectures went to California where he died at the age of seventy-seven years, a highly respected citizen and doctor (referred to at length in the preceding history).

156. Ricksher, Charles: (1919-29). Born in Fairfield in 1879. Graduated from Parsons College in 1901. Graduated in medicine from Johns Hopkins University in 1905. Assistant physician Sheppard and Enoch Pratt Hospital 1905 and 1906. Studied in Munich and Zurich during 1906 and 1907. Assistant physician Danvers, Massachusetts, State Hospital 1907 to 1910. Chief of Clinic New York Neurological Institute 1910 and 1911. Practiced in Fairfield 1919-29. Clinical director, Connecticut State Hospital, 1929 to this date.

157. Riggs, Jesse T.: (1881-84). Born about 1850 in Illinois. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1881. Practiced in Abingdon three years. He had a large practice but was not a good business man. He moved in 1884 to Lynnville, Illinois, and died in 1895.

158. Robbins: (1856). Practiced in Batavia. No data.

159. Robinson, C. W.: (1853). No data. Mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary in 1853. Practiced in Buchanan township.

160. Roop, Jonas: (1881-84.) born in Maryland in 1828. Graduated from Cincinnati Medical College. Was a partner of Dr. Nelson while in Fairfield where he practiced from 1881 to 1884 or later. Went from Fairfield to Chicago. Dr. Roop died at Rochester, Minnesota.

161. Sage: (?) No data. Practiced in Perlee.

162. Shaffer, Henry M.: (1889 ?) No data. Practiced in Batavia. Moved to Ohio where he was killed in an accident.

163. Schneider, F. W.: (1856.) No data. Graduated in Gottingen, Germany.

164. Shafer, H. M.: (1867 ?) Born in Ohio in 1837. Graduated from Chanty Hospital College of Cleveland in 1867. Had previously graduated from the University College of Wooster, Ohio. Practiced at Batavia for a time about 1867.

165. Shaffer, Joshua Monroe: (1852-74.) Born in Washington, Pennsylvania, 1830. Studied medicine with his brother in Elizabeth, Pennsylvania, in 1849, and graduated from the College of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania in 1851. Came to Fairfield in 1852 as a partner of Dr. Huey. In 1862 he was given the honorary degree M.D. from the University of Iowa. Moved to Keokuk, Iowa, in 1874 where he died March 26, 1913. Dr. Shaffer was one of the rarest men of Iowa and had a distinguished career. He kept a daily record of his work and this diary, now preserved in the Keokuk Library, forms the basis of the early part of the preceding history. For his non-professional activities Dr. Shaffer was probably the most widely known doctor who has ever lived in Jefferson county. He was the most versatile in his avocations.

166. Sheely: (1860?) No data. He practiced at Wooster before 1861.

167. Shelley: No data. Practiced at Abingdon at a very early date.

168. Sherlock, Peter J.: (1910-24.) Born in Knoxville, Iowa, 1885. Graduated from the College of Medicine, Iowa State University in 1910, and began his practice at Lockridge, Iowa. Dr. Sherlock was a well educated, congenial gentleman liked by all doctors who came in contact with him. He had good professional judgment, was a good student, and was successful in his practice. He died at Hot Springs, Arkansas, in 1926.

169. Sloan, N. A.: (1902-28.) Born in New York in 1863, the son of a doctor. Graduated from the Syracuse Medical College in 1888. After practicing in New York state he came to Fairfield in 1902. In 1928 he moved to Brighton, Iowa. In the latter part of his stay in Fairfield Dr. Sloan worked for the Louden Machinery Company as time keeper and did not practice.

170. Smith, John Jackman: (1837-73.) Born in Virginia in 1780. His father was a slave holder and John inherited 200 slaves to whom he gave their freedom because he did not believe in slavery. In 1803 he was engaged to go with Lewis and Clark on their exploring expedition. Severe illness compelled him to give up this journey--a life long regret. He came to Liberty township, Jefferson county, in 1837. He was not a graduate in medicine. He had a lancet (now owned by his great-great-grandson) and a "mad stone," and his services were in demand for miles in all directions from his home. He was the first settler in Liberty township. "Dr. Smith" was a wealthy man for his day and it is thought he made no charge for his services. He made his money in Ohio and brought it to this county--all in gold--in an old cowhide trunk. He purchased 5,000 acres of land in Jefferson county for $1.25 an acre. Dr. Smith was a large portly man weighing three hundred pounds. He was a justice of the peace for twenty years. He was a friend of Chiefs Blackhawk and Wapello. A crossing of Cedar Creek (now bridged) is still called "Smith's Ford." Dr. Smith was elected a county commissioner and helped lay out Fairfield in 1839. He died in 1873 at the age of ninety-three years and is buried at Libertyville.

171. Smith, Frank R.: (1876-91.) Born in Van Buren county, Iowa, in 1851. Studied with Dr. R. J. Mohr. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1876. Began practice in 1876 in Pleasant Plain and then moved to Fairfield. In 1891 because of failing health Dr. Smith moved to Denver and later to Grand Junction, Colorado, where he practiced seventeen years. He died in California in 1912. Dr. Frank Smith was a rare doctor in that he liked to treat fractures. His greatest delight was in the care of fracture cases and he was very skillful in this treatment. He was so interested in such cases that he once got permission to disinter a body, buried several months, to study a fracture.

172. Snook, Calvin (1872-1906.) Born on a farm near Fairfield in 1848 he was educated in the schools of Fairfield. He read medicine with Dr. N. Steele in Fairfield and took a course of lectures in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, in 1869. Later he attended the Iowa State Medical College at Iowa City. He began practice at Moulton, Iowa and came to Perlee in 1872. He moved to Fairfield in 1879 and practiced here until his death in 1906. He was for eight years the health officer of Fairfield. Dr. Snook was local surgeon for the C. B. & Q. and the C. R. I. & P. Railway Companies for many years, showing that he was held in high regard by these corporations. A quiet, reserved man of good education he was respected by all. He had a large practice, probably as large as any doctor in Jefferson county. Dr. Snook had good judgment in public affairs and was generous of his time when he could help the community. He was too kind hearted and generous in his own private business and like so many good doctors left a small estate. Too often the quality of kind hearted sympathy in a doctor allowed a community to take advantage of him and to leave his bills unpaid. Dr. Snook never took a vacation in his life. He did not know how to play. His recreation from his medical and surgical work was his labors for the community. Such men as Dr. Calvin Snook make a profession of which one is proud to be a member. Dr. Snook died in 1906 at fifty-eight years of age.

173. Stark, Duane: (1839?) No data. He was the first doctor to practice in Locust Grove township. He was associated with Dr. Cole. Dr. Shaffer mentions him in 1852 in a case related in the preceding history.

174. Steele, N.: (1848-1866?) No data. His name is on a list of voters in Fairfield in 1848. He was one of the leading doctors in Fairfield in 1852 and is often spoken of in Dr. Shaffer's diary. He is said to have graduated in Keokuk in 1866.

175. Stephenson, Robert Bruce: (1886-1934.) Born on a farm in Jefferson county in 1857. Graduated in medicine from the Sterling Medical College of Columbus, Ohio, in 1885. Dr. Stephenson was the first doctor resident in Lockridge from 1886 to 1893. He then went to Mystic, Iowa, as a surgeon for the mines, but returned to Jefferson county and located at Libertyville in 1895 where he practiced until his death in 1934. Dr. Stephenson was a genial gentleman respected in his community. His greatest fault, shared by many of the older doctors, was in making his charges for his services too small.

176. Stepp, James K.: (1915-28.) Born in South Carolina in 1890. Graduated in medicine from the University of Georgia in 1911. Practiced in Georgia and in the United States Army Medical Corps in 1915. He located in Linby, Jefferson county, in 1915 and moved to Packwood in 1926, after which he left the county moving to Jesup, Iowa, where he is still practicing.

177. Stevenson, William: (1836?) Though living in Mount Pleasant, Henry county, Dr. Stevenson is supposed to have been the first doctor to attend the sick in what is now Jefferson county in 1836. His patient was in Round Prairie township. He probably also had patients in Buchanan, Lockridge and Cedar townships.

178. Stever, David: (1876-93.) Born on a farm near Fairfield in 1848 of German ancestry. Studied medicine with Dr. P. N. Woods and graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk in 1876. Dr. Stever began his practice of medicine in Perlee in 1876 but soon moved to Fairfield where he practiced until his death in 1893. Several successful doctors began their medical studies in Dr. Stever's office. His graphic, minute descriptions of pathologic conditions long before the days of Roentgen were of great interest to his colleagues. Some of these diagnoses are noted in the preceding history.

179. Stewart, Edgar Allen: (1912-1914.) Born in Illinois in 1881. Graduated from the University of Iowa, College of Medicine in 1912. Practiced in East Pleasant Plain from 1912 to 1914. During the World War he served as captain in the United States Army Medical Corps. Dr. Stewart is now in the United States Veterans Bureau service in Indiana.

180. Stoner, C. E.: (?) Practiced in Perlee. Came from Illinois and moved from Jefferson county to Des Moines, Iowa.

181. Strickling, Frank E.: (1908.) born in 1886. Graduated from the Keokuk Medical College in 1907. Practiced in Batavia one year and moved to Birmingham, Van Buren county.

182. Sutton, S. C.: (1878.) Born in Jacksonville, Illinois. Graduated from the University of the City of New York in 1878.

183. Stuplo: (1854.) No data. Mentioned in Dr. Shaffer's diary.

184. Tallman, Cameron C.: (1903 to this date.) Born in Keota, Iowa, in 1875. Graduated from Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 1900 and located in Fairfield in 1903 where he has been in active practice to this date. A genial, companionable man of good education Dr. Tallman is liked by everyone.

185. Taylor, Samuel W.: (1853-1876.) Born in Connecticut in 1817. Took a course of lectures at the Keokuk Medical College in 1854 and 1855. Dr. Taylor's fees were fifty cents for an office call and medicine; for an obstetric case three to five dollars. Money was scarce and he accepted many things in payment for his services. He was associated with Dr. Cottle. Dr. Taylor died in 1899.

186. Thayer: (?) No data. One of the first doctors to practice in Perlee.

187. Thomas: (?) No data. Practiced at Glasgow.

188. Todd, Victor C.: (1898-1903.) Born in Brighton, Iowa, in 1874. Graduated from the College of Medicine University of Iowa in 1898 completing a four years course in liberal arts and medicine in three years. Practiced in Pleasant Plain from 1898 to 1903 when he was admitted to the Insane Hospital at Mt. Pleasant as a patient and died there in 1910.

189. Tracy, F. A.: (1869?) Born in New York state in 1824. Graduated in medicine at Geneva Medical College. Came to Brookville in 1869, and practiced medicine there. No further data obtainable. He had a son who became a doctor.

190. Tuttle, Molly: (?) Was secretary to Dr. P. N. Woods for a time. Later she graduated in medicine and practiced in Fairfield. No data obtainable.

191. Vaughn, J. M.: (1849-?) No data. He made himself known as a "physician, surgeon, and ocultist." Practiced in Fairfield. This is the only instance at that date of a doctor who claimed to be a specialist, and he evidently was not one.

192. Walker, Peter: (1854-1863.) Born in 1814 in Ohio. A long line of ancestors were doctors. Came to Libertyville in 1854. Dr. Walker represented Jefferson county in the state legislature in 1861. Was assistant surgeon of the Thirtieth Iowa Volunteers in 1863. Died in 1863.

193. Wall, Ora F.: (1893-1898.) Graduated in medicine from the Hahnemann College in Chicago in 1893. Practiced in Fairfield from 1893 to 1898 and moved to Colorado. She married a Mr. Roberts in 1900 and is now Dr. Roberts. Now lives in New York state.

194. Wall, Jeremiah: No data. Practiced in Jefferson county.

195. Ward, A. G.: (1870-1889.) Born in London, England, in 1829. Came to Canada when nineteen years of age. Studied medicine with his father-in-law and graduated from the University of Michigan School of Medicine in 1860. Dr. Ward practiced for a time in Michigan and moved to Libertyville, Iowa, in 1870 where he practiced until he moved to Fairfield in 1882. Dr. Ward practiced in Fairfield until his death in 1889.

196. Ware, J. C.: (1848-75.) Was the first physician to reside in Penn township. A list of voters shows him to have been in the county in 1848. Dr. Shaffer's diary shows him to have been in Fairfield from 1852 to 1854, and other data show that he was in Fairfield in 1875.

(To be continued next month)


Journal of Iowa State Medical Society
Vol. XXV, No. 12 (December, 1935)
Page 697

(Concluded from last month)

197. Waugh: No data.

198. Webb, Wateman Thomas: (1923 to this date.) Born in West Virginia. Graduated in 1911 from the Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Chicago. Practiced in Audubon, Iowa, from 1919 to 1923, when he moved to Fairfield, Jefferson county.

199. White: (?) Practiced in Pleasant Plain. No data.

200. Wiggins: (1908?) Dr. Wiggins bought out Dr. Clement when he left Glasgow. No data.

201. Winsell, F. F.: (1925-1933.) Born in Jefferson county in 1868. Studied medicine with Dr. S. K. Davis at Libertyville and then took a three year course in the Keokuk Medical College, graduating in 1895. Practiced in Iowa from 1895 until he moved to Pasadena, California, in 1924 and is now practicing there.

202. Woods, P. N.: (1854-86.) Born in Ohio in 1829. Graduated in medicine from the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati in 1854. He began practice at Beckwith, Jefferson county, Iowa, in 1854, but moved to Fairfield in 1856 where he practiced until his death in 1886. He was perhaps the most distinguished surgeon from Jefferson county in the Civil War. In 1862 he was examining surgeon for recruits in Jefferson county. He usually drove a two wheeled sulky but had a buggy and fine team when he "drove out." Dr. Wood's saddle bags contained twenty bottles all holding liquid medicines. There were no tablets or pills. Dr. Woods was one of the leading doctors of his day in Fairfield and a number of the younger doctors read medicine in his office.

203. Woods, Harry Eugene: (1883-1909.) Born in Jefferson county in 1857. Studied with his father, Dr. P. N. Woods. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1883. Practiced in Fairfield from 1883 to 1887 and also from 1889 to 1894; at Libertyville from 1887 to 1889; at Batavia from 1894 to 1909 and since 1909 has been in Birmingham, just south of the Jefferson county line. A congenial, honorable well educated gentleman Dr. Harry Woods has gone the even tenor of his way commanding respect, as a citizen, wherever he lived.

204. Woodard: (1874?) No data. Dr. Woodard was a homeopath and was associated at one time with Dr. King.

205. Worthington, David H.: (1872-1892.) Born in Iowa City, Iowa. Graduated from Rush Medical College in 1878 and began practice in Fairfield the same year. In 1892 Dr. Worthington sold his property to Dr. H. H. Hoopman and moved to Hampton, Virginia. He retired because of ill health in 1933 and died in Aurora, Illinois, in May, 1934.

206. Wright, William S.: No data.

207. Wright, Edwin: (?) Practiced in Abingdon. Came from Kentucky. Died in Abingdon. After his death his wife practiced midwifery near Abingdon.


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