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History of Warren County, Iowa from Its Earliest Settlement to 1908

by Rev. W.C. Martin, S.J. Clarke Publishing Co., Chicago, Illinois, 1908

BIOGRAPHIES I - L

LEWIS IGO
Lewis Igo is now practically living retired in Indianola, although he still gives personal supervision to his property and business interests. He has been eminently successful in an active and honorable business career and is today one of the most extensive landowners in this part of the state, having ten hundred and forty acres in Warren County. He was born in Ross County. Ohio, December 14, 1832.
His father, Silas Igo, was also a native of that county and was descended from French and Dutch ancestry. He had a brother, Daniel Igo, who served as a soldier of the war of 1812. Their father, Lewis Igo, removed from Pennsylvania to Ohio at an early period in its development and his son, Paul, was the first white child born in Ross County. Silas Igo was reared amid the wild scenes and environments of pioneer life in a district where the work of civilization seemed scarcely begun. The forests stood in their primeval strength and the Indians still infested the neighborhood, while game of all kinds was to be had in abundance. In 1832 he settled in Hamilton County, Indiana, removing thence to Henry County, Indiana, in 1850.   
In 1854 he purchased land in Iowa, and in 1855 brought his family to Warren County. As the years passed Silas Igo aided more and more largely as his years and strength increased in the work of clearing and developing the home farm and throughout his entire life he carried on general agricultural pursuits. He was a hard working and industrious man and his life was always in harmony with his professions as a believer in the Christian religion. When a young man he was licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His political endorsement was given to the Whig party and upon its dissolution be joined the ranks of the new Republican Party. He wedded Miss Mary Meyer, who was born in Ross County, Ohio, in 1806 and was therefore about five years his junior, for his birth occurred in 1801. Mrs. Igo was of English and Irish lineage and had an uncle, Daniel Hare, who was a captain of the war of 1812. She, too, was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The death of Silas Igo occurred in February, 1878, at Palmyra, and his wife, surviving him for twenty years passed away November 14, 1898, at the remarkable old age of ninety-two years.
Lewis Igo was the eldest son and the only son now living in a family of seven children. He was reared upon the homestead farm in Indiana and attended the country schools. When a young man he worked by the year selling lightning rods but later began farming on his own account. On the 20th of May 1855, he arrived in Iowa, taking up his abode in the village of Palmyra, where he engaged in merchandising, conducting his store for about twelve years. He was afterward in a packing house in Des Moines for four years with General James Tuttle. All of this time his family were upon the farm, to which he returned about 1871, and then engaged heavily in buying and shipping stock, becoming one of the best live-stock dealers in this part of the state. He continued the business with constantly growing success until 1897, when he removed to Indianola, where he has practically lived retired, although still watching over his large landed interests. As the years have passed he has made judicious investments in property from time to time and his judgment has been most sound as displayed in the choice of the land which he purchased. He is today the owner of ten hundred and forty acres in Warren County and from the property derives a handsome annual income. He now lives in a pleasant home in Indianola and is enabled as the result of his seemingly inex­haustible energy in former years, his capable business management and his correct judgment to now enjoy all of the comforts and many of the luxuries of life.
On the 17th of March 1859, Mr. Igo was married to Miss Elizabeth M. Varner, who was born in Parke County, Indiana. October 27, 1843, and is a daughter of Isaac and Ruth (Whipple) Varner, who were natives of Ohio and of German descent. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Igo were born fourteen children namely: Ida, the wife of N. Bartholomew, a real-estate dealer of Des Moines, Iowa, by whom she has one child; Reese L.. who is deceased ; Grant S., who is engaged in the stock business near Indianola: William S., who has also departed this life; Silas, who is on the homestead farm, is married and has four children; John, deceased ; Estella, the wife of H. H. Bassler, judge of the county court and a resident of Tekamah, Nebraska, by whom she has four children; Ernest B., who resides in Jackson Township, Warren County, is married and has two children; Ulda W., who is the wife of William T. Sinnard, conducting the Elie farm near Palmyra, and who is the mother of two children; Ruby N., who graduated from the high school and Simpson College and is now engaged in teaching in the Indianola schools; Ruth M., the wife of Jerry Shuler, a farmer of Lincoln Township, Warren County; Roy L., who is engaged in farming in Greenfield Township, this county; Hall W., deceased; and Philip A., who is a graduate of the high school of the class of 1908 and is at home.
The following letter is self explanatory:
"White House, Washington,
November 14, 1904.
My Dear Mr. Igo:
Congressman Hall has given me the photograph you sent me of your family. I wish to thank you for it and to congratulate Mrs. Igo and you on having such a family. I send to you and her my photograph. With  best wishes,
Sincerely yours,
Theodore Roosevelt.

Mr. Lewis Igo,
Indianola, Iowa
Enclosure."
Mrs. Igo is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which she joined when fourteen years of age. In politics Mr. Igo has been a stalwart Republi­can from the organization of the party and has been prominent in its local ranks. He has been a delegate to the district and state conventions and was made an alternate delegate to the national convention. He has done every­thing in his power to promote its growth and insure its success, and his interest is that of a public-spirited citizen and not one who is seeking for office. His residence in the county covers fifty-three years and he has been active in its progress and development along many lines. He assisted in organizing the Old Settlers Association and is now its president. His life record clearly indicates what can be accomplished by firm determination and unfaltering perseverance for from early manhood he has been dependent on his own resources and unaided has worked his way upward until he stands today as one of the most prosperous residents of his adopted county.

SAMUEL JAMES
Samuel James, who owns and operates one hundred and fifty-six acres of valuable land on section 14, Palmyra Township, was born in Liberty Township, Warren County, Iowa, February 14, 1859, his parents being Samuel and Phebe (Hartley) James, the former a native of Berks County, Pennsylvania, and the latter of Ohio. The father was reared to agricultural pursuits in Guernsey County, Ohio, was married in that state and subsequently brought his bride to Burlington, Iowa, whence they came to Liberty Center, Warren County, Iowa. There Samuel James entered land and established his home but in 1863 sold out, purchasing one hundred and sixteen acres in Palmyra Township, where he resided until called to his final rest April 4, 1900, when eighty-two years of age. His wife survived him until April 9, 1904, being eighty-five years of age at the time of her demise. Their family numbered ten children, four sons and six daughters, of whom nine reached years of maturity.
Samuel James has made his home on his present farm since four years of age and since attaining his majority has placed many improvements thereon and brought the land under a high state of cultivation. He erected a commodious and substantial residence, good barns and outbuildings, fenced the fields, and the entire place, in its neat and thrifty appearance, indicates the supervision of a practical and progressive owner. He has also added forty acres to the original tract, so that his farm now comprises one hundred and fifty-six acres of productive and well improved land, which is equipped with all the accessories and conveniences of a model farming property, including a wind pump. In addition to the work of general farming he is also engaged in dairying and in the raising of good graded stock, feeding hogs on quite an extensive scale. He cared for his parents until they passed away, and is well known as an upright man and citizen as well as an enter­prising and successful agriculturist.
On the 29th of November 1883, Mr. James was united in marriage to Miss Sarah E. Miller, a native of Warren County and a daughter of Lafayette Miller. They are the parents of four children, as follows: Bertha E., the wife of Harvey Somers, of Lewiston, Idaho; and Charles Bliss, Homer H. and Lulu Grace.
Where national questions and issues are involved Mr. James gives his political allegiance to the Republican Party but at local elections casts an independent ballot. He has served as a member of the school board but has never sought nor desired office, preferring to give his time and attention to his private interests. He is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Carlisle and has passed through all the chairs of the lodge. His religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Friends Church, in which he has held office. Throughout his entire life or for almost a half century he has resided in this county, and has not only witnessed a most wonderful trans­formation but has largely aided in the labors which have transformed the wild tract into a splendid commonwealth.

STEPHEN JAMES
Stephen James, one of the veterans of the war of the rebellion and among the first settlers of this county, resides on a well improved and valuable farm of one hundred and sixty-six acres on section 30, Palmyra Township. He was born in Indiana, August 25, 1844, the son of Henry R. and Roxie (Myrick) James. His father was a native of Rhode Island. In early manhood he re­moved from his native state to Ohio, where he was married to Miss Roxie Myrick. There he was engaged as a teacher, which occupation he later followed in Indiana. He removed to Warren County, Iowa in 1845, where he entered one hundred and sixty acres of land. Here his family joined him in 1846, the same year that Iowa was admitted as a state into the Union. He spent the remainder of his days on this farm, passing away in 1901. His wife is still living at the age of eighty-three years and makes her home with her son, Stephen, of this review.
Stephen James was not yet two years of age when brought by his parents to Warren County and here he passed the days of his boyhood and youth, receiving his education in the district schools. He aided his father in the work of the farm until, at the opening of the Civil War, he responded to his country's call for volunteers to preserve the Union, enlisting in 1862, in Company B, Thirty-fourth Iowa Volunteer Infantry and was sent south. He participated in engagements at Chickasaw Bayou; Fort Blakeley, Alabama; and Arkansas Post. He contracted smallpox and was in the St. Louis hospital for about one year and a half, and was then assigned to hospital duty. He later returned to his regiment and served until the close of the war, being mustered out of service at Houston, Texas, and receiving his final discharge at Daven­port, August 15, 1865.
At the close of the war Mr. James returned to his father's home, where he remained for some years. On May 23, 1875, he was married to Miss Eleanor Redmond, a native of Ohio, and a daughter of Simon and Catherine (Owens) Redmond. Her father was born in Canada, and her mother in Ohio. Mr. Redmond joined Company G, Fifty-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the Civil War and was killed at the battle of Missionary Ridge. Mrs. James was brought by her parents to this county, where she was reared. Following their marriage Mr. and Mrs. James settled on his farm near Hartford, where they resided for eight years, at the expiration of which time he sold that place and bought the interests of the other heirs of the old home place. Since acquiring this property he has rebuilt the house and erected a residence in which his son lives, has divided the farm into convenient tracts for separate cultivation and has his farming operations reduced to a system. He keeps a good grade of horses and cattle and makes a specialty of raising hogs.
Mr. and Mrs. James are the parents of three sons and three daughters. The oldest son, Irving, is married and resides on his father's farm. Henry G., single, resides in Spokane, Washington, where he is engaged in the electric business. Arthur is located at Boise, Idaho, where he is connected with a lumber company. Mae, the oldest daughter, is the wife of Clarence Campbell, a harness manufacturer of Collins, Story County, this state. Katie and Ermile reside at home with their parents.
Politically Mr. James votes the Republican ticket at national elections, but at local elections he votes independent of party, endeavoring to support the best men for the offices. He has most creditably served as township trustee for two terms and has been appointed a delegate to the county conventions. He has also served as petit juror and has been a member of the school board for years. Fraternally he is a member of Hartford Post, G. A. R. His estimable wife is a member of the Christian Church, as are also his three daughters.

ALEXANDER JENNER
Alexander Jenner is a retired farmer now living in Indianola. For a long period he was closely associated with the work of the fields and found in that pursuit opportunity for the attainment of success. His business methods have ever been honorable and upright and the policy that he has pursued has won for him the respect of those who know him. While he now leaves the active work of the farm to others, he is still the owner of two hundred and twenty acres of productive land in Warren County.
Mr. Jenner claims Germany as the land of his birth, his natal year being 1842, while the place of his nativity is Wittenberg. It was there that his father, George Jacob Jenner, was born on the 30th of January 1798. He served as a soldier in the German army and made farming his life occupation. Having reached years of maturity he was wedded to Miss Eliza Baldrich, who was born in Germany in 1801. In the year 1852 Mr. Jenner brought his family to the United States, crossing the Atlantic in the month of June. They made their way from New York City to Cincinnati, Ohio, where Mrs. Jenner died just three weeks after their arrival in the new world. Nor was Mr. Jenner long permitted to enjoy his new home, for he passed away August 15, 1855. Both were members of the Lutheran Church. Their family numbered seven children, of whom the subject of this review is the youngest.
Alexander Jenner was a lad of ten years when the family came to the new world and was left an orphan at the ageof thirteen. He attended school in Germany until the emigration to the United States but his educational op­portunities were very meager. Thrown upon his own resources at an early age he took up farm work as a means of livelihood and was thus employed by the month until the time of the Civil War. During the first year he received only a dollar and a half per month, while during the second year he was paid thirty dollars for ten month's labor. His employers found him diligent, per­severing and faithful and though his lot was one of earnest and unremitting toil he soon learned the value of industry and perseverance and became self-reliant and energetic. On the 14th of July, 1863, with patriotic ardor he responded to the country's call and enlisted in Adams County, Ohio, as a member of Company G, One Hundred and Twenty-ninth' Ohio Volunteer In­fantry. He served until March 8, 1864, and was then mustered out at Cleve­land, Ohio. He was captured at Tasso, Tennessee, but was recaptured within twenty minutes as the battle surged back and forth. He took part in the engagements at Cumberland Gap, and at Finch River and was also in numer­ous skirmishes.
When his military service was ended Mr. Jenner became a resident of Dayton, Ohio, and in 1866 removed to Monmouth, Illinois, in the vicinity of which city he engaged in farming for two years. In 1868 he arrived in Indianola and through the succeeding twenty-eight years was closely, actively and honorably associated with the farming interests of White Oak Township. Year by year he carried on the work of the fields, cultivating large crops and keeping his land in good condition by the judicious use of fertilizers and the rotation of crops. He also placed substantial improvements upon his farm and transformed a tract of two hundred and twenty acres into a valuable property. He has also raised considerable stock, for which he finds a ready sale on the market, but during the past seven years he has lived retired, his former activity bringing him capital sufficient to enable him to put aside further business cares and yet enjoy the comforts and some of the luxuries of life.
In 1869 Mr. Jenner was united in marriage to Miss Margaret Schimel­pfenig, who was born in Germany in 1849. She came to the United States in 1863 when a maiden of fourteen years, with her mother. She is a sister of Adam and Jacob Schimelpfenig of Indianola. As the years passed children were added to the Jenner household to the number of eight, as follows: Edwin, a teacher in Simpson College; Frank M., a resident farmer of White Oak Township, Warren County; Lillie, who became the wife of James Nichols, a farmer and stockman, and died in August, 1904, leaving a daughter, Eloise, who is living with Mr. and Mrs. Jenner; Anna, the wife of E. T. White, a farmer of Colorado; Oscar, who has departed this life; Clarence, who is a student in Simpson College, at Indianola; Leslie, who is a high school student; and Laura, also in school.
Mr. Jenner maintains pleasant relations with his old army comrades through his membership in James Randolph Post, G. A. R., where around the campfires are recalled the scenes and events which occurred upon the southern battlefields. In politics he is a Republican, has served as school director, has also been justice of the peace and was supervisor of White Oak Township. His official duties have been promptly and capably performed and in fact in every relation of life his salient qualities have won him high regard and good will. Both he and his wife belong to the Methodist Episcopal Church and are much esteemed in the county, where for forty years they have made their home.

ELMER E. JOHNSON
E. E. Johnson, who owns and operates a well improved farm of one hun­dred and fourteen acres, situated on section 18, White Breast Township is one of the prosperous and progressive farmers of this section of Warren County. He is a native son of the county, his birth having occurred on a farm in Liberty Township, October 13, 1861, a son of Jesse Johnson, whose sketch appears on another page of this volume.
E. E. Johnson was reared on the home farm, early becoming familiar with all the duties that fall to the lot of a farmer lad. He began his education in the district schools near his father's home and later attended school in Milo and Indianola, this being supplemented by a business course in Simpson College. He remained under the parental roof until he had attained mature years and then established a home of his own by his marriage in May 1885, to Miss May Hall, who was born in Tama County, Iowa, a daughter of Josiah Hall, one of the early settlers of Warren County who later removed to Tama County, where his daughter was born and reared. In 1877, however; he once more returned to this county.
Following his marriage Mr. Johnson located on a farm in Otter Township, where he made his home for two years, after which he went to Liberty Township and operated rented land for five years. During this time through his thrift, energy and economy he managed to save a sum that enabled him to eventually invest in property of his own and in 1893 he became the possessor of the tract of land which has since been his home. This place comprises one hundred and fourteen acres, situated on section 18, White Breast Township. After locating here he built a neat country residence, supplied with all modern conveniences and accessories, built a good barn, fenced the land, set out an orchard and now has one of the best improved farms in White Breast Township. In addition to carrying on general farming, he also raises stock, making a specialty of hogs. He is also engaged in the sheep industry, raising only pure-blooded Shropshire sheep. He makes a close study of this branch of business and is meeting with excellent success in his undertakings.
The home of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson has been blessed with one son, Clarence Carl, who is now a young man and assists in the operation of the home farm and in the raising of stock.
Mr. Johnson is a Republican in principle and practice and at the present writing is serving as the efficient assessor of White Breast Township but is in no sense an office seeker. He has been identified with the schools for several years and has also served as a delegated to county conventions. Mrs. Johnson is a member of the Friends Church. His success has been by no means the result of fortunate circumstances. It has come to him through energy, labor and perseverance, directed by an evenly balanced mind and by honorable business principles. In manner he is quiet and straightforward, saying exactly what he means and his word has become a synonym for business integrity.

GEORGE E. JOHNSON
G. E. Johnson, identified with mercantile interests throughout the period of his business activity and now conducting a large general store in Indianola, stands for all that is progressive in commercial circles. His establishment would do credit to a city of much larger size and the line of goods which he carries is always tasteful and attractive. Mr. Johnson comes to Iowa from Ohio, his birth having occurred in Morrow County, that state, on the 23d of April 1857. He is a son of Rev. Silas Johnson, also a native of Ohio and of Scotch-Irish descent.
The father was a minister of the Presbyterian Church and in 1861 removed from the Buckeye state to Oskaloosa., Iowa where for six years he filled a pas­torate. He then accepted a call from the church at Indianola and remained as the minister of the Presbyterian congregation at this place for thirteen years. After preaching for five years at Leon, Iowa he there passed away. During the period of the Civil War he served as a member of the Christian commission. He was popular both as a minister and teacher, was a clear, forceful and logical speaker and was regarded as one of the able representatives of the Presbyterian ministry in this part of the state. His political views were in harmony with the principles of the Republican Party. He died in 1887, at the age of sixty-four years, but his memory is yet enshrined in the hearts of many who knew him. He was long survived by his wife, who bore the maiden name of Harriet Doolittle. She was born in Ohio and died in Indianola in 1904 at the age of seventy-nine years. She belonged to a family of English lineage and by her marriage she became the mother of nine children: Sarah, deceased; Chloe, the widow of A. Swearington. of Texas; Mary. Eva Emma and Hattie all of whom have passed away; George E., of this review; Wil­liam S., who is editor of the Newton Record, at Newton, Iowa; Frank S., who lives in Indianola and has charge of the shoe department in G. E. John­son's store.
G. E. Johnson was a student in the schools of Indianola in early life and made his initial step in the business world as a clerk in the employ of M. R. Barker when a youth of fifteen years. That he was faithful, efficient and at all times trustworthy is indicated by the fact that he remained there for four­teen years as an employee and in 1884 was admitted to a partnership under the firm style of Barker & Johnson. This relation was harmoniously con­tinued until 1898, when Mr. Barker retired and Mr. Johnson has since continued the business alone under his own name. He occupies a building which was erected by the firm of Barker & Johnson on the east side of the square. It is a two-story brick structure, forty by one hundred and fifteen feet, with plate glass front and excellent equipments. He owns and occupies the whole building, carrying a full line of dry goods, carpets and shoes. In fact his is the largest concern of the kind in Warren County and the store is most modern in all of its appointments. It is steam heated, has a cash carrier system and its counters and showcases are attractive and up-to-date. His trade has con­stantly developed until it has now reached extensive proportions. The busi­ness methods of the house are at all times reliable and Mr. Johnson has justly won a place among the most prominent, prosperous and honored merchants of his adopted city.
In 1885 Mr. Johnson was married to Miss Mary Ingalls, who was born in Indianola in 1862 and is a daughter of Merrill and Catherine (Kennedy) Ingalls. Her father was a blacksmith and served as a soldier of the Union army in the Civil War. Prior to her marriage Mrs. Johnson was a teacher in the public schools. There are three children of this union: Murray E., who died in 1905 at the age of nineteen years; Carl W., and Mildred E. The parents are loyal to their professions as members of the Presbyterian Church and Mr. Johnson is serving as an officer of the church, being on the board of trustees. He belongs to the Ancient Order of United Workmen and in political views is a Republican. He has served as a member of the school board and everything relating to public welfare and improvement receives his endorse­ment and cooperation. He is of stern integrity and honesty of purpose, despising all unworthy or questionable means to secure success in any under­taking or for any purpose or to promote his advancement in any direction. He has worked his way upward through the legitimate channels of trade, win­ning for himself an enviable reputation as a careful man of business.

JESSE JOHNSON
Jesse Johnson, who is now living retired on his farm on section 21, Liberty Township, was born in Wayne County, Indiana, July 17, 1833, a son of Charles and Nancy (Beeson) Johnson. The father was a native of North Carolina, where his birth occurred July 8, 1797, and when twelve years of age he accom­panied his parents, James and Ruth (Mills) Johnson, on their removal to Wayne County, Indiana. The grandparents of our subject were farming people and settled in what is now Richmond, Indiana, where their son Charles assisted in clearing a part of the site of that city. James and Ruth (Dulls) Johnson were Quakers in religious faith and both passed away in Wayne County, Indiana. The grandfather of Mrs. Nancy (Beeson) Johnson was a Scotchman and served as a British soldier in the Revolutionary War.
Charles Johnson, the father of our subject, was one of nine children, all of whom were agriculturists by occupation and are now deceased. He attended school in North Carolina and in Indiana and after acquiring a good education he taught school in the Hoosier state for several terms, being also engaged in farming. He removed to Warren County, Iowa, in 1857, and lived retired until his death, which occurred at Earlham, Dallas County, Iowa, August 8, 1872. He had returned to Indiana in 1860 but once more came to Iowa and resided with a son near Earlham until called to his final rest. His political allegiance was given to the Whig party, while in religious faith he was a Quaker. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Nancy Beeson and whom he wedded in Indiana, was born in Ohio, December 14, 1804, a daughter of Amaziah and Isabella (Burcham) Beeson. She was reared in the Buckeye state, her parents being representatives of old families there, and of Quaker stock. Mr. and Mrs. Amaziah Beeson made their final home in Wayne County, Indiana, and their daughter, Mrs. Nancy Johnson, also passed away in that state, her demise occurring May 13, 1849. Like her husband, she was a member of the Friends Church. Unto Charles and Nancy (Beeson) Johnson were born nine children, namely: Charles Alexander, whose demise occurred at Earlham, Iowa, Febru­ary 6, 1907; Isaac K., residing in California; Sarah J.. who is the widow of C. P. Kennedy and makes her home at Liberty Center; Jesse, of this review; Abijah, living at Montrose, Colorado; Eliza, the wife of Nathan Hollingsworth, of Ohio; Eli, living in Madison County, Iowa; Henry, who died in infancy; and Rhoda M., who became the wife of Wesley Mendenhall and makes her home at West Newton, Indiana.
Jesse Johnson was reared in the state of his nativity and there also acquired his education. On putting aside his textbooks he served a three years apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade. In December 1853, he came to Warren County, Iowa, locating first in Otter Township, while subsequently he followed the carpenter's trade at Indianola. On taking up his abode in Liberty Township in 1855 he followed carpentering and in the past twenty years has erected many of the best houses and barns in this township, but in 1859 he located on his farm on section 21, erecting his present home in the following year. The property comprises one hundred and ninety--five acres of highly cultivated land and he has placed thereon all of the excellent im­provements with which it is now adorned, but for the past twelve or thirteen years has leased the farm, having had the same tenant throughout this entire period. He also owns some timber land and is well known as one of the prosperous and substantial citizens of the community, having met with a gratifying measure of success in the conduct of his general farming interests.
On the 25th of December, 1858, in Liberty Township, Warren County, Iowa, occurred the marriage of Jesse Johnson and Miss Sarah Angeline Mosher, who was born June 18, 1840, a daughter of Asa Mosher, who is mentioned elsewhere in this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson were the parents of five children: Elmer E., whose birth occurred October 13, 1861, and who resides in White Breast Township, married May Hall, by whom he has one son, Carl. Flora Eva, born February 4, 1864, is the wife of Z. T. Kemper, of Alma, Nebraska. She has three daughters, namely: Faith Lucile, Zana Leota and Zelma Theola. Mr. Kemper is railroad agent for the Burlington & Missouri Com­pany at Alma. Jessie Bethiah, whose natal day was October 2, 1870, became the wife of J. R. Bledsoe and resides in White Breast Township. By her marriage she has become the mother of three children: Audrey Estalene, Jesse Edwin and Inez Angeline. Nannie Pearl, born December 3, 1873, passed away January 1, 1877. Clara, whose birth occurred November 25, 1878, is at home.
Mr. Johnson has been a staunch Republican since the organization of the party. He voted once before, at a state election, but cast his first national vote for John C. Fremont. Recognizing his worth, his fellow townsmen have called him to various positions of public trust and he has held practically all of the township offices, while for one term he served as county supervisor. Fraternally he is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Liberty Center, and both he and his wife are devoted and faithful members of the Friends Church at that place. He has passed the seventy-fifth mile­stone on life's journey and by reason of his well directed labors and capable management in former years, is now enabled to spend his remaining days in well earned ease, surrounded by all of the comforts and many of the luxuries of life. During the long period of his residence in this county, covering fifty-five years, he has gained an extensive circle of warm friends, who esteem him for his genuine personal worth and upright, honorable career.

DANIEL K. JONES
For thirty-seven years Daniel K. Jones has been a resident of Warren County and is a veteran coal dealer of Indianola. He has lived in Iowa since 1852. The state had only a few years before been admitted to the Union and there were still vast tracts of territory unclaimed and uncultivated. Mr. Jones has lived to witness a remarkable transformation here as through
successive stages of growth and progress Iowa has reached a place among the leading states of the Union.
A native of Wales, Mr. Jones was born August 4, 1840. His father, Henry, who was likewise born in that country was a coal miner by trade and was also a preacher in the church of the Latter Day Saints. His wife, Mrs. Anna Jones, died in Wales in 1850, leaving D. K. Jones the only child. In the year 1852 the father and son came to America, the latter being then a youth of twelve years. They crossed from Liverpool to New Orleans on a sailing vessel, requiring them eight weeks to make the trip, for the winds died down and for some time they were becalmed and could make no progress. Even­tually, however, they reached their destination in safety and proceeded north­ward to Keokuk, Iowa, and thence to Van Buren County, where they lived for one year, the father engaging in preaching there. It was the intention of the father to go to Salt Lake City and join the colony of Latter Day Saints at that point.
D. K. Jones then left his father and went to the lead mines in Franklin County, Missouri, where he worked for two years and in 1856 be­came a resident of Atchison, Kansas. He hired out as a cattle and freight driver across the plains and made one trip, after which he took the long journey across the plains to California. The wagon train with which he traveled was attacked by hundreds of Indians on the Humboldt River in Nevada and two of the party were killed. Mr. Jones was then but sixteen years of age. However, he managed to make his escape from the Indians and proceeding on his way he walked one hundred and seventy miles in seven days with nothing to eat. With some of his comrades of the party he also walked across the desert of forty miles, to Carson River, and then too late to cross the mountains as they could not make their way through the passes in the winter, they remained there and Mr. Jones worked for his board. There were only five families in that valley at the time. In the following spring he continued his trip to California and went to work in the gold mines as an experienced miner. He owned and operated mines there for ten years, meeting with considerable success in his undertaking. He was only seventeen years of age at the time he arrived in that state. He had had practically no chance in his youth and could neither read nor write. Feeling the necessity for education, he at­tended school for one year and acquired a knowledge of some of the elemen­tary branches of learning, but later in the school of experience he has learned many valuable lessons that have made him a practical business man and have brought him considerable information of a general character.
In Sacramento, in 1864, Mr. Jones enlisted as a soldier of the Union army, became a member of Company A of the Second California Volunteer Cavalry. He was bugler of his regiment, with which he went to southern California to quell the riots in that part of the country. He was in the service for nearly two years and was mustered out at San Francisco, where he was also honorably discharged. Mr. Jones then returned to Sacramento for three months after which he went to Panama, in 1866. He paid twenty-five dollars to ride forty-seven miles across the isthmus, then to Havana where he spent a few days, after which he took passage for New York, whence he returned to Chicago by way of Canada, and then to Newton, Iowa, November 1866. There he engaged in digging coal for three years, after which he returned to Des Moines and operated a coal bank there. He was also prominent in com­munity affairs and served for two years as supervisor. On his removal to Warren County he settled near Summerset, where he operated a mine for thirty-two years, opening it up and carrying on the work of taking the mineral from the soil and placing it on the market. When almost one-third of a century had thus passed he came to Indianola and established a coal business in 1897.
He is one of the oldest representatives of the coal trade in this part of the state and has led a very active and busy life. He has also owned two or three farms and throughout his business career he has manifested that unfalter­ing diligence which is the basis of all success.
On the 10th of April 1870, in Des Moines, Iowa, Mr. Jones was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Milligan, a native of Ohio, who was reared, however, in Jasper County, Iowa, where her father, Robert M., located in 1850. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Jones have been born five sons and four daughters: Alvin K., who married Hattie Frisk, by whom he has four children, is now living on his father's farm near Lacona; George, a carriage-maker, of Tama, Iowa, married Bell Miller and they have one child; Anna is the wife of John Reddish, a farmer of Lincoln Township and they have two children; Harry, who married Miss Goodrich, is a farmer of Polk county, Iowa; Stella May, is the wife of John Prather, of Indianola and they have one child; Charles and Luella are at home ; Evelyn is the wife of Moody Krell, a resident of Pueblo, Colorado ; and Frank Worth is now attending school.
Mr. Jones has been a lifelong Republican, yet does not feel himself bound to party ties in local elections. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Repub­lic of Indianola and was for years a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The family attends the Friends Church, to which Mrs. Jones belongs. Mr. Jones is one of the old settlers of Iowa and an honored veteran of the Civil War. Coming to America a mere boy, untutored and uneducated, having worked in the mines of Wales from his early youth, he made his way across the country, labored in the gold fields of California and made and lost a fortune in gold mining. He has opened up and developed coal mines in Iowa and for ten years has been a coal merchant of Indianola. He has not only won progress in a material way, but has made substantial advancement in educa­tional lines and in character building and justly merits the respect, esteem and confidence which are uniformly accorded him wherever he is known.

OLIVER P. JUDKINS, M. D.
There is no representative of professional life in Indianola who more justly deserves to be ranked with the self-made men of the county than does Dr. Oliver P. Judkins, who through his own labors acquired the funds neces­sary to meet his expenses while he was qualifying for the practice of medicine and surgery. He was born in Indianola, August 31, 1870, his parents being William M. and Ella (Thompson) Judkins. His father, a native of Indiana, is now living at the age of sixty-two years. Both he and his wife are of English lineage. He has for many years engaged in business as a plasterer and, while living a quiet, uneventful life, he has always enjoyed the full respect of his fellow townsmen. Both he and his wife are members of the Presby­terian Church and in social relations he is identified with the Odd Fellows, while his political views are indicated by the endorsement which he gives to the Republican Party at the polls. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Judkins were born four children, the second in order of birth being Fannie, now the wife of John Graham, a merchant of Galesburg, Illinois; C. H. and Edna, both at home.
Dr. Judkins began his education as a pupil in the Indianola schools and passed through successive grades until he was graduated from the high school with the class of 1890. He read medicine with Dr. J. D. McCleary, entering the office in December 1890, and continuing his studies there for four years. In the fall of 1891 he matriculated in the medical department of the State University of Iowa, where he spent two sessions and in 1894 he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Keokuk, being graduated there from in 1895. On the 1st of May of that year he located for practice at Summerset, Iowa, where he continued until 1897. He then resumed his studies in the Rush Medical College, where he was graduated in the spring of 1898, this being the first class to leave the institution after it became the medical de­partment of the Chicago University. Dr. Judkins then returned to Summerset and remained there until 1902, when he came to Indianola, where he is still in active practice, meeting with marked success. Through his whole course of professional training he made his own way and thus displayed the elemental strength of his character, whereby he has overcome difficulties and obstacles and gained an enviable position as an able representative of his chosen profession. In addition to a large private practice he is now examiner for several insurance companies and for the past five years has been coroner of the county. He now belongs to the County, the District, the State and the American Medical Associations.
In 1894 Dr. Judkins was joined in wedlock to Miss Laura B. Hall, who was born in this county in 1871, a daughter of Loveridge and Lucy (Frame) Hall. They now have two interesting children, Katherine Bernice and Oliver Duane. Dr. and Mrs. Judkins are members of the Presbyterian Church and he belongs to the Knights of Pythias, the Ancient Order of United Workmen and the Modern Woodmen of America. Politically he is a Republican but has had little time for active participation in political or public affairs other than to lend his influence on the side of progress. His attention is given to his professional duties and in his practice he manifests the strictest regard for a high standard of professional ethics.

ALVIN I. KAUFMAN
A. I. Kaufman resides on a desirable and well improved farm of eighty acres located on section 28, Lincoln Township, which he has acquired wholly through his own efforts and which, taken in connection with his stock-raising and feeding, yields him a substantial income and an independent livelihood. He was born near Princeton, in Bureau County, Illinois, November 12, 1847, the son of D. M. and Louisa (Van Ormer) Kaufman. His father was a native of Juniata County, Pennsylvania, where he was born on May 4, 1829, and where he remained until after his marriage, his wife being also a native of the same county and state. He first engaged in farming in Pennsylvania, but in 1860 removed to Illinois, where he bought land near Princeton and opened up a new farm. He also ran an omnibus line and transfer wagon between Wyanet and Pond Creek. In 1870 he disposed of his Illinois interests and removed to Iowa, where he first bought land in Marion County but afterward, in 1873, he removed to Warren County and invested in a piece of land in Greenfield Township. Later he sold that place and bought a farm in Lincoln Township, where he remained for a number of years and here his family was reared.  Eventually he sold this farm and removed to Wharton County, Texas, where he remained until the time of his death.
A. I. Kaufman was actively identified with his father's interests until he was twenty-eight years of age. His boyhood and youth were spent on the farm in Warren County, to whose school system he is indebted for a sound, practical education. On starting out for himself he not only assumed the responsibility and management of a part of his father's place, but he also took a ten years lease on a four hundred acre unimproved tract of land, which he cleared and broke, paying his rent with a certain percentage of the crops raised. After his marriage he bought a portion of this place and built a good substantial residence thereon, together with a barn, fences, outbuildings and stock scales. He also made other necessary improvements, converting it into an ideal stock and grain farm. He set out an orchard and planned it all with the determination of making out of it an ideal home for the future.
On January 14, 1891, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Kaufman and Miss Lou Graham, daughter of J. M. Graham, one of the early, settlers of Warren County, who came here from Indiana in 1849. Mrs. Kaufman was born, reared and educated in this county. Unto this union have been born two sons, D. M. and Frank E., both of whom reside at home with their parents.
In national politics Mr. Kaufman is a Democrat, but in local affairs he votes for the man whom he believes best qualified to fill the office, regardless of party ties. He has never aspired to public office for himself, though his interest in educational matters has prompted him to serve on the school board as one of its directors. His estimable wife attends the United Presbyterian Church in Indianola, in which faith she was reared. Mr. Kaufman has now lived in this county some thirty-five years, and in reflecting on its wild and un­cultivated state at the time he chose it as the place of his adoption, it must afford him no small amount of satisfaction to feel and know that he has played no unimportant part in its growth and development.

BOLOVIA KELLER
Bolovia Keller, a successful agriculturist residing on section 29, Squaw Township, Warren County, was born in this township on the 27th of October 1858, and was a son of Franklin Keller. He acquired his education in the dis­trict schools and when he had attained his majority was given eighty acres of land by his father, which he broke up and improved, erecting buildings and adding the many accessories which make a model farm property. He is still engaged in its operation and the fields annually yield golden harvests in return for the care and labor which he bestows upon them.
On the 7th of July, 1881, Mr. Keller was united in marriage to Miss Mary Wollery, a native of Polk County, Iowa, and a daughter of J. M. and Elizabeth Wollery, both of whom are deceased. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Keller have been born eleven children, namely: E. L., who married Lilly Barber and is em­ployed by the street car company in Des Moines; Ada E., the wife of Tiry Gray, of Cass county, North Dakota; and John F., 0. R., Ruby P., Lora E., Flossie E., Maud, Edna, Otis and Perry, all of whom are at home.
Mr. Keller gives stalwart allegiance to the democracy and is now serving as road supervisor for Squaw Township--a very responsible position, the duties of which he is discharging in a creditable and commendable manner. He is a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and is widely recognized throughout the community as one of the progressive and enterprising citizens of his native county.

FRANKLIN KELLER
Franklin Keller is not only the oldest settler now living in Squaw Township but he is also one of its most highly esteemed citizens and a man honored and respected wherever known. He was born on the 21st of March 1831, in what is now Barbour County, West Virginia, but at that time formed a part of Harrison County, Virginia, for the two states had not yet been divided. His parents, John and Lucinda (Mitchell) Keller, were also natives of the Old Dominion. The mother was born in 1810 and died in 1852, being long survived by her husband, who was born on the 3d of January 1808, and passed away in West Virginia at the age of seventy-nine years. He was twice married, having nine children by the first union, including our subject, and five by the second.
On reaching manhood Franklin Keller was married January 16, 1851, to Miss Ellen Jane McIntosh, who was also born in Virginia, December 15, 1828, and departed this life February 20, 1907, in Squaw Township, this county. She was a sister of A. B. McIntosh, of New Virginia, who is represented on another page of this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Keller became the parents of twelve children, namely: Lucinda and A. I., who died in Van Buren County, Iowa, while the family were en route for Warren County; John, who married Sarah Phillips and lived on a farm in Squaw Township but was killed in Missouri, December 17, 1887, by a tree falling on him while working in the timber. His wife being now deceased; Rebecca, who married E. P. Steckle, a farmer of Squaw Township and died January 6, 1888; Belovia, whose sketch is given elsewhere in this work; Harriet and McClellan, both of whom died in childhood; Rosa Jane, wife of Alexander Sanders, also represented in this volume; Charles B., who married Margaret Lantz and lives Monona County, Iowa; Lee, who married Celesta Lower and is a farmer of Squaw Township; Cyrena, wife of Neil Morrison, who is living on the old homestead with our subject; and Ida, wife of Ira A. Taylor, of Squaw Township.
Mr. Keller has himself written an interesting account of many of the experiences of his life and we give it in his own words :
"When I wrote the following sketch of my life I intended it only for mychildren and not for publication or it would have been written differently.
May, 26, 1908, State of Iowa.
I, Franklin Keller. was born on the 21st day of March, 1831, in Harrison County, Virginia, on the middle fork of Mitchell's Run, at the head spring of the same, and in the spring of 1833 my parents moved and settled at the head waters of the north fork of Mitchell's Run in the woods and there made for themselves a home. My mother was a good Christian woman and tried to raise me right. My father was a very wicked man but would often go with my mother and myself to church. From my earliest recollection to the present I have been a faithful Sabbath school scholar, but was trained by my father to be a very wicked boy, doing everything bad but lying and stealing. Some time in my twelfth year the Lord powerfully convicted and converted my father, knocking all the fighting, horse-racing and drunkenness out of him. Oh! What a happy home we then had. It appears to me now that I can hear father's prayers for his family to this day.
In my eleventh year I was taken down with what was called white swelling. It was driven back twice but the third winter, after I was drawn all out of shape and everybody gave me up to die, for some purpose to me unknown, the Lord mercifully restored me to health, but notwithstanding all the prayers of father, mother and other Christian people, I could not, until my sixteenth year, get the consent of my mind to give God my heart. At last all my sins loomed up before me and I saw my undone condition and prayed and agonized with God for the pardon of my sins. Oh! Glory to God! Light, peace and joy came to my soul in the old log church at Pleasant creek. My soul was full of joy and peace but on my way home that old sneak and adversary of the soul presented himself and convinced me that I had made a fool of myself and was nothing but a hyprocrit. Oh! The agony of soul that I had! Whilst father was going into the house to tell my sick mother what the Lord had done for me I slipped off in the darkness by myself and commenced in prayer to tell Almighty God my awful condition, telling Him if He would restore me to my former joy I would never, never doubt him again. Then peace and joy came to my soul and I went to the house and told my mother what a precious Savior I had found. Although I have lived sixty-one years and ever since that time, the adversary of my soul has never tried to tempt me, that my sins were not all washed away by the precious blood of Jesus, but has always admitted that the Christian religion was a reality any time. I lived a happy and peaceful life for about six months but when the frivolities of youth and later the cares and training of a large family and the poverty of early life, I often became care­less and overburdened, I did not lean on the strong arm of Jesus as I should have done, then Satan would say to me "I know that you are no Christian, you have backslid,' which always drove me to Christ. I always would acknowl­edge my faults and Jesus would own me and give me the witness within my soul that he loved and owned me as his child. Up to the present day I have never been in any crowd at any time or place if I was asked the question : 'Are you a Christian' my answer has always been I am trying.' Though I have often made mistakes Jesus by His Almighty power has always sustained and has and does this day own me for his child. The Lord has laid his afflicting hand upon me. I know my days are short and my daily prayer is to bear with patience my afflictions. I would rather go to Heaven today to be with loved ones than any other day. I know that the majority of my friends are over there. Oh ! How I long to be with them in glory but my prayer is Lord Jesus, Thy will not mine be done, give me patience to abide Thy time.
About my tenth year a new county was struck off of Harrison and Randolph counties, West Virginia, called Barbour County. Therefore most of what I have written occurred in Barbour County, which is my native home. I grew to manhood as all boys do. The discipline of the church at that time required its members to marry wives of the own church, which was the Methodist Episcopal church, and it so pleased the Lord that He directed me to marry Ellen Jane McIntosh, of Taylor County, West Virginia, we being raised together as children and classmates of the same society. We were married on the 16th of January 1851, and a few days after our marriage we settled on Rock Camp run in Barbour County and united with the Methodist Episcopal Church at Ebenezer, which at that time was a very weak society. While living there we had two dear babies born to us. In the spring of 1854 we concluded to move to the state of Iowa and get rid of slavery. On the 21st day of March, 1854, we landed in Keokuk, Iowa. We hired a man with teams to haul the household goods and three families to Eddyville, Iowa. The first night spent in Iowa was at the little town of Farmington on the Des Moines River in Van Buren County. Some dissatisfaction as to where we wanted to go arising among the crowd as some wanted to go to Missouri, the driver complained of his hard job and we paid him off and sent him home. In a few moments the crowd decided to start and went down on the porch of the hotel to get in the wagon to go on to Eddyville. Here the crowd divided. I and my brother-in-law, Abraham Felton, purchased an ox-team and started for Warren County, Iowa, driving the first day a distance of twelve miles. Where we called to stay all night an old gray headed man came out and carried the children into his house. Bedtime coming on the old gentleman asked us if we were Christians, three of us replying that we were. There I offered up my first vocal prayer in the state of Iowa. Next morning he asked us many questions concerning our future plans, and seeing we were very ignorant concerning the country, he advised us to leave our families there in a house until we found a suitable location. So we rented a house in Van Buren County for six months, this being about the first of April. By the first of May we had buried our two little babies in the town of Bonaparte. In this time I had taken the measles. When the funeral expenses and doctor's bills were paid my last penny was spent. Though thrown among entire strangers I never found better friends in time of trouble, willing to do anything for us. Then indeed did we realize our condition—among entire strangers, without children or money, but thank the Lord not without the Lord and his comforting presence and his blessed promises to sustain us.
About the 12th of June, Mr. Felton, taking his family by ox-team. proceeded on his way to Warren County, but my wife and I remained in Van Buren County, while I commenced work in a brickyard in the little ville of Vernon. By working at any and everything I saved some money and on the 24th day of September I started on foot for Warren County, leaving my wife in Vernon. I arrived at White Oak Point, September 28, where I found some of my old acquaintances, Ab Sayre and Hugh Sidwell. On the 29th I went to my brother-in-law, Mr. Felton, and on the 30th I was in what is now called New Virginia, where the grass was four feet high. On the 31st I took a compass and with the assistance of William Foreman, Sr., and others com­menced surveying to find a location. After surveying for about a week I decided to locate on my present farm. About the 7th of October I took my ox-team and started back to Van Buren County. At Chariton I stopped and entered forty acres of timber land and made the preemption claim on the one hundred and sixty acres where I now live. I then proceeded to Van Buren County and after settling up my affairs, my wife and I started for Warren County, arriving on the 20th at the farm now known as the Carrier farm. In my wagon I had two chairs, one bedstead, one set of plates, cups and saucers, a skillet, pots, an oven for cooking in the fireplace, one gallon of black Orleans molasses, one dollar's worth of sugar, one hundred pounds of flour, and twenty-five cents in silver to build my house and buy my winter's food and clothing.
Now was the time it tried our nerve and souls, but by the 20th of November we got our little cabin under a clapboard roof and moved into the same without door or window, chinking or daubing. We hung a quilt in the place that had been made for the door. I commenced chinking the cracks and cutting and laying sod for a chimney, my wife carrying the water from down below, where Lee Keller now lives. When she would get a batch of mud mixed then I would daub the cracks. By Saturday night we had the west side and north end daubed and the sod chimney complete to the mantle piece. We rested and observed the Sabbath day, the chimney drawing well, but lo! the wrong way, for the smoke came into the cabin. For our window we had paper but we eventually got the cabin completed with exception of the door and floor. We could hear the wolves howling all around us at night. Food giving out, I had to leave my wife in this condition and go to work for a man living where Andy McKnight now lives.
Late one evening while I was working there a stranger called to stay all night. He said he was a preacher and was sick. I gave out an appointment for him to preach the next night where Hugh Rhoades now lives. I bought a half bushel of corn, put it in a sack and handed it to the preacher, telling him I lived across the creek and if he would follow me he could stay all night as Mr. Campbell had refused to keep him. Matilda Felton was at my house with my wife when the preacher and I arrived there. The next morning I returned to my work, leaving the preacher to be entertained and doctored in my home with herbs and teas given him by my wife and guest, who so far restored him to health that I met them at the service that night. On arriving at the place of service we found an old home-made loom standing in the middle of the cabin with a flock of geese under it. The preacher commenced the service with prayer and song. I never could sing myself but the crowd sang fairly well, the geese joining in the chorus. At the close of the service the preacher called on me to pray and there among that small crowd, among the geese in that little cabin. I prayed my first vocal prayer in Warren County, and Oh ! with what fear and trembling I prayed, but having promised Almighty God if he would take away all doubt from my mind and give me the witness that my sins were forgiven I would own him on all occasions. I never went back there to service again. By poverty and want I was driven to work all over the country, wherever I could get work, my wife holding the fort for some four or five years, but by hard work and economy the Lord so prospered me that I finally did not have to leave home to find work. I have always worked hard up to the present time.
A few settlers having come in during the winter and early spring, we got at the Indianola circuit rider to come out to William Forman, Sr., and organize a Methodist Episcopal society, which was organized about the 18th day of March, 1855, with twenty-eight charter members, whose names are given else­where in this volume. We held services from house to house until the spring of 1857, when a new school house having been built we held our services in the same and worshiped there until 1874, when the church was built. The class had been named from its organization the Mt. Tabor class. All of the charter members have passed on to their reward except Frank Keller, Lucy Forman, N. E. Stickle and Charlie Proudfoot. My home has always been a home for Methodist preachers until the present day, and from the organization I have never failed to pay my full amount of quarterage and church expenses.
While I have not lived as faithful a member as I might have done, I have been honored with all the offices of the church. My wife was a faithful help­mate and co-laborer in both the home and church, both being members of the Mount Tabor class from its organization. At that place her funeral services were conducted and her body was tenderly laid to rest in the Mount Tabor cemetery on a part of the old homestead, and there my body will also rest when God calls me home.
I have been the father of twelve children, six sons and six daughters, four dying in infancy and the other eight having married. One son and one daughter died leaving families, and three sons and three daughters are still living. My children were all trained from early youth and they never got so old that they did not attend Sabbath school as long as they stayed with me. While they are not and have not always been saints, I want to now say that I do not believe that any parents ever raised a family of children that have so cared for them more than my children have always done. I honestly believe they would divide their last penny.
Although I came to the state of Iowa in extreme poverty, being willing to work, God has so prospered me that at one time in life I owned five hundred and three acres of good land, and having settled my children in homes of their own, I still have a good home with my children around me. I thank God that every dollar has been honestly earned. I have never taken a dishonest penny to my knowledge from any man. Some four years ago knowing that life was uncertain, I made a will, which will be found at the office of Judge Henderson after my death, dividing what I then and now retain in my posses­sion. This will will show that each child will receive the same amount in value according to my best judgment.
In the year 1870 I made application for admittance into the Masonic order and was accepted and initiated, being now a Master Mason in good standing, my dues fully paid up. This society I now hold near and dear, but subordinate to the Methodist Episcopal Church. I now say that no man if he be a good Master Mason and lives up to his obligations, but what is or will be a genuine Christian. I believe from my present information that there is no organization that has poured out their life's blood and done more to uphold the cross of Christ and to search out the scriptures and spread them to the ends of the earth than the society known as A. F. & A. M. [Antients Free & Accepted Masons] because it is the oldest organization and has had more time to work.
I am so glad that in my early manhood I came to the state of Iowa and settled in old Warren County, and I helped to organize Squaw Township, acting as clerk at the first election, and I also put the first ballot in the ballot box. I have attended every general election from that time up to the present and have lived in the old homestead for fifty-four years, it being known as Sunny Side farm because it is the sunny spot of old Iowa to me."
Mr. Keller has always been a Democrat but at local elections votes independently. He served two years on the board of county supervisors, was justice of the peace several years and township clerk many years, and has discharged every duty that has devolved upon him in a most creditable and acceptable manner.

JOHN F. KELLER
John F. Keller is one of the active and successful farmers and stock-raisers of Lincoln Township, living on section 15. He was born in Peoria County, Illinois, September 21, 1854. His father, Jacob G. Keller, was a native of Juniata County, Pennsylvania, born in 1830, and there he was reared to manhood. When a young man he went west to Peoria County, Illinois, where he cast his lot with the early settlers and while living there he mar­ried Miss Matilda Frank, also a native of Juniata County, Pennsylvania. For many years Mr. Keller followed farming near the city of Peoria and there reared his family numbering fourteen children, eleven of whom, two sons and nine daughters, have reached adult age and are now married and heads of families. The father has reached the very venerable age of seventy-eight years.
John F. Keller spent his boyhood and youth on the home farm and attended the district schools of the neighborhood. Having arrived at mature years, he farmed with his father for one year and in 1876 came to Iowa, estab­lishing his home in Warren County. Not having capital sufficient to enable him to purchase land, he cultivated a rented farm for several years, or until his diligence and economy enabled him to become owner of a farm. He made further arrangements for having a home of his own by his marriage in this county on the 3d of September 1883, to Miss Jennie Burnett, who was born in Ohio and became a teacher of Illinois and later of Iowa. She followed that profession for several years and is a well educated lady, possessing also much natural refinement and culture. The young couple began their domestic life in Warren County where they lived until 1895 when Mr. Keller removed to Minnesota, settling in Mattawan County, where he followed farming for five years, returning to Warren County in 1900. In 1903 he purchased the prop­erty upon which he now resides. He has eighty acres in the home place on section 15, Lincoln Township and he is also cultivating a tract of seventy-five acres elsewhere. He has made substantial improvements on his farm, has repaired and altered the house, has built a good barn, fenced the fields and altogether has made of the property a fine place. In connection with the tilling of the soil he raises and fattens hogs for the market and derives a good income from this branch of his business. He has led a life of industry, intelligently applied and well directed, and his untiring diligence is bringing to him a gratifying measure of success.
The home of Mr. and Mrs. Keller has been blessed with six children: Wilson F., Robert L., Maggie E., Bertha M., L. R., and Elmer H. The parents are members of the Christian Church and are widely and favorably known in this community. In politics Mr. Keller was formerly a Democrat, but now votes independently, supporting men and measures regardless of party. He has been officially connected with the schools as director for a num­ber of years and is interested in all that pertains to the welfare and improve­ment of the county, while his own worth as a man and citizen contributes to its agricultural standing.

BENJAMIN K. KENNEY [KEENEY]
B. K. Kenney was born on the 28th of November, 1848, on the farm where he now resides on section 6, Allen Township, his parents being S. T. and Eliz­abeth (Kessler) Kenney, the former a native of Hendricks county, Indiana, and the latter of Virginia. The father was reared and married in his native state, and in 1848 brought his bride to Warren County, Iowa, entered land from the government and made his home here until the time of his demise, which occurred near Carlisle in 1900, when he had attained the age of ninety‑two years. In addition to his farming interests he preached the gospel as a minister of the Baptist Church for almost a half century, his earnest labors proving an important factor in the moral development of this county. His widow, who is now eighty years of age, resides at Liberty Center.
B. K. Kenney, the eldest of nine sons, was reared on the old homestead farm and acquired a common-school education. Subsequent to his marriage he operated a rented farm for fourteen years and for three years rented another tract of land. He then purchased sixty acres on the Middle River, later bought twenty acres more,, erected a house and farm buildings and de­veloped a good farm. In 1891 he purchased one  hundred and sixty acres of the farm where he now resides on section 5, Allen Township, and subsequently bought forty acres more, so that his home place now comprises two hundred acres of well improved and valuable land. He has here erected a commodius and substantial residence, as well as outbuildings for the shelter of grain and stock, has fenced the fields and altogether has a model farming property. For the paste sixteen years he has also operated an additional tract of two hundred acres of rented land. In addition to the work of general farming he also raises good graded horses and feeds about two carloads of hogs annu­ally. He likewise raises the Percheron horses and has a male called Black Joe at the head of his herd. Starting in life on his own account without financial assistance, the success which has crowned his efforts is entirely the result of his unfaltering energy and unwearied industry, guided by good bus­iness judgment.
In September, 1873, Mr. Kenney was united in marriage to Miss Martha Randelman, a native of Indiana, by whom he has eight children, five sons and three daughters. The record of the family is as follows: Alfred B., who oper­ates a hundred-acre farm in Allen Township and who wedded Miss McDaniel, by whom he has two children; Carrie Dell, who has four children and is the wife of J. F. Kline, an agriculturist of Polk and Warren counties; Ernest F., who follows farming in Warren County and who wedded Miss Lyons and has two children; George H., who is a graduate of Drake University and is a physician, now being engaged in hospital practice at Des Moines; Ira J., who is on the home farm; Levi M., who married Miss Fisher and also resides on the home farm; Nina O., who is a graduate of the Carlisle high school and Drake University and who has been a school teacher for several years; and Pearl Q., who is still under the parental roof.
Mr. Kenney gives his political allegiance to the Republican Party where questions of national importance are involved but at local elections casts an independent ballot. For two years he served as justice of the peace and has been a member of the school board for fifteen years, the cause of education ever finding in him a stalwart champion. Fraternally he is connected with the Yeomen and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at. Carlisle, having passed through all the chairs in the latter order. He is an official member of the Christian Church at Carlisle, with which his wife is also identified. Throughout his entire life or for a period of sixty years he has resided in this county, being a worthy representative of one of its oldest and best known families. He still has in his possession the deed which was issued to his father by the government in 1848, and from that early day to the present time has been an interested witness and active participant in the work of development and progress here.

CHARLES B. KERN
One of the most prominent young farmers of Linn Township is C. B. Kern, who is successfully engaged in general agriculture and stock-feeding on section 24, where he has an excellent farm of three hundred and twenty acres. He was born in the house where he now lives, it being built by his father, John Kern, who was familiarly known by the title of Major, having served with distinction as an officer in the Civil War.
Major Kern was born in Fairfield County, Ohio, October 11, 1833, and was a son of Joseph and Elizabeth Kern. He spent his boyhood and youth in his native state, and his early education, acquired in the district schools, was sup­plemented by a course at Wesleyan College, Delaware, Ohio. At the age of twenty years he came to Warren County, Iowa, where he taught school and also engaged in farming, locating on an undeveloped tract of land west of Norwalk. To the improvement and cultivation of that farm he devoted his energies till after the war and the remainder of his life was spent on the farm where his son now lives, erecting thereon good and substantial buildings. In connection with general farming he engaged in stock-raising and in his undertakings met with marked success.
In 1855 Major Kern was united in marriage to Miss Miriam Black, who was also a native of Fairfield County, Ohio, born November 24, 1837, and was a daughter of Benoni and Mary Black, early settlers of Linn Township, this county. Nine children blessed this union, namely: George A., who died at the age of twenty-five years; Clara Ellen, who died in infancy; Mary, who died in childhood; Joseph Edward, now a resident of Los Angeles, California; Har­riet A., deceased wife of C. W. Fisk, of Kingfisher, Oklahoma; C. B., of this review; Lillian Louise, deceased; Herman B., a resident of St. Paul; and Blanche, who lives with our subject.
When the country became involved in civil war, Major Kern resolved to aid in the defense of the Union and in 1862 assisted in organizing Company H, Thirty-fourth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, of which he was made captain.  For meritorious conduct he was promoted to the rank of major and as such was mustered out of service. He was a good officer, loved by those under him and respected by his fellow officers. He was a charter member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Norwalk and one of its early class leaders. Fraternally he was connected with the Masonic order and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. The Democratic party found in him a strong advocate of its principles and he took quite an active and influential part in political affairs, serving as treasurer of the county for two terms and completed a term by ap­pointment as representative at Des Moines. After a useful and well spent life, he passed away June 17, 1889, and his estimable wife died on the 6th of Jan­uary, 1908.
C. B. Kern acquired his early education in the district schools near his boyhood home and the public schools of Indianola, in which city the family lived while the father was serving as county treasurer. Since starting out in life for himself he has always followed farming and he purchased one hun­dred and sixty acres of land, on which were all the farm buildings from the heirs of his father's estate. To this he has since added another quarter section and also owns a forty-acre tract of timber land. His fields are under a high state of cultivation and in his pastures are found good stock, for he makes a specialty of feeding cattle for market and usually ships from six to ten carloads per year. He is one of the leading farmers of his community and a worthy representative of an honored pioneer family.  On the 15th of August 1892, Mr. Kern wedded Miss Mary Spring, a native of Warren County and a daughter of Samuel and Amanda Spring, now living retired in Norwalk. Three children have been born to them, namely: Herman John, Mary Louise and Margaret Ellen.

JOHN W. KERN
In the spring of 1854, while pioneer customs were still lingering, and the large majority of the prairie lands lay undisturbed by the white man’s plow, Dr. Jacob H. Kern, of Alto, Indiana, cast his lot with the early settlers of White Oak Township, many of whom had known the doctor in Alto, where he had been their family physician.  For ten years he farmed and practiced medicine.  The people were glad to have their old doctor among them.  His distinguished son, who is now (July, 1908) the candidate for vice president on the democratic ticket – the running mate of W. J. Bryan, was then five years old.  He attended the public schools during the winter seasons, such as other boys did.  Several of his schoolmates still reside in the county, and well remember their school association with young Kern.  He was a slender figure with a large head.  A glance at him was sufficient to impress one with the positiveness of his character.  He was noted for his excellent memory.  At fourteen he had a reputation for spelling and declaiming.  The readiness with which he committed poems caused his school fellows to stand in awe before him.  However, there was nothing in his boy-life that brought out any special prophecies of his future greatness.  Mr. Kern is now regarded as a very learned man in the law, but whatever his scholarship, the foundations of his education were laid among the “Hoosiers” in White Oak Township.  Dr. Kern was the best educated man in the community; he took newspapers and magazines, and had the largest library among the settlers, and both he and his wife up to the time of her death, gave John the best instruction they were capable of, and omitted no opportunity to push him forward and show him off to the best advantage.  They believed in John, and did not underestimate his possibilities.  They expected him to become all that his is.  John W. Kern’s contact with the sturdy pioneers, and with nature himself, and with the processes of planting civilization, were superb environments for the development of the choicest qualities of an American citizen.  During the doctor’s residence in Iowa, the mother of the now noted John W. Kern, died and was buried in what people call “Hewitt’s graveyard.”  Since John W. reached his majority, he has twice visited his mother’s grave.  Those who accompanied him the last time to the tomb say his remarks were touching and beautiful.  The man who stands at this mother’s tomb twenty-five years after her demise and weeps, is human, and in that act gives the best possible proof of the presence of divinity in humanity.

ROBERT W. KIMZEY
Robert W. Kimzey, who is living practically retired on his farm on sec­tion 12, Liberty Township, was born in Hamilton County, Illinois, October 12, 1832, a son of John and Susanna (McNamer) Kimzey, who were natives of Georgia and Kentucky respectively. Their marriage occurred in Hamilton County, Illinois, and in 1834 or 1835 they removed to Peoria County, Illinois, there remaining until the spring of 1855, when they came to Warren County, Iowa. The father was successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits in White Breast Township, and his demise occurred in 1891, when he had attained the age of eighty-five years. His wife had passed away in 1874, when about sev­enty years of age. Unto this worthy couple were born six children, as follows: James, whose death occurred in Warren County some years ago; Jeremiah M., residing on his farm on section 1, Liberty Township; Robert W., of this review; John F., of Clarinda, Iowa; Louisa, who passed away about 1865, when twenty-six years of age, leaving her husband, H. H Goode, and two children to mourn her loss; and Thomas, who died at Denver a number of years ago.
Robert W. Kimzey was reared in Peoria County, Illinois, and acquired a common-school education. Throughout his entire business career he has been successfully engaged in farming and now resides on his farm of one hun­dred and sixty acres on section 12, Liberty Township. He still handles some stock but is now practically living retired, his farm being largely operated by his sons. He also owns ninety-five acres on section 17, White Breast Township, and, in association with his sons and son-in-law owns and has improved over seventeen hundred acres of land in Warren County. He has made all of the improvements on his home farm, which is equipped with the accessories and conveniences of a model property of the twentieth century. His prosperity has come to him as the result of his untiring perseverance and excellent business ability and he is widely recognized as one of the most substantial and enterprising citizens of the county.
On the 29th of April, 1858, in White Breast Township, Warren County, occurred the marriage of Mr. Kimzey and Miss Lockie V. Goode, a daughter of Joseph Goode and a native of Prince Edward County, Virginia, where her birth occurred May 18, 1836. When she was but three months old her parents removed from the Old Dominion to Highland County, Ohio, where they re­mained until the fall of 1854, when they came to Warren County, Iowa.
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Kimzey have been born ten children: Alice. the wife of J. A. Greenfield, of Liberty Township; Walter and Philip C., both of whom reside in Liberty Township; John M., of Milo, who is engaged in the stock business and also owns a farm of two hundred and twenty acres in White Breast Township; Joseph and Harley, both living in White Breast Township; Sue, the wife of John Bissett, a stockman of Lacona; Nellie, the wife of Fran­cis Wolcott, who is engaged in farming in Liberty Township; Fred, an agri­culturist of Liberty Township; and Sollie E., who passed away when about a year old.
In his political views Mr. Kimzey is a Democrat with strong prohibition tendencies. He has served as township trustee and school director and the public duties entrusted to his care have ever been discharged capably and faithfully. Fraternally he is connected with the Masonic lodge at Milo. He has reached the seventy-sixth milestone on life's journey and receives the veneration and respect which should ever be accorded one who has traveled thus far on this earthly pilgrimage and whose career has ever been such as to win and retain the confidence and trust of his associates.

LOUIS J. KLEMM
One of the most prosperous farmers and successful business men of Linn Township is Louis J. Klemm, who has spent his entire life in Warren County, his birth occurring in Jefferson Township, September 13, 1863. His paternal grandfather, John Klemm, is still living in Des Moines, Iowa, at the advanced age of ninety-five years. He was born in Baden Baden, Germany, February 19, 1813, and came to the United States in 1843, locating first in Pike County, Ohio. In 1857 he came to Iowa, his destination being Churchville, Warren County. He made the trip by boat and after deciding on a location returned to Ohio for his family, which he brought by wagon to his new home. He purchased two hundred and forty acres of land in Jefferson Township, to the cultivation and improvement of which he devoted his time and attention until 1869, when he sold that place and bought the farm now owned and occupied by our subject in Linn Township. Here he lived for twenty-five years and then removed to Des Moines, where he is now living retired. In his farming operations he met with most excellent success, becoming a well-to-do and prosperous citizen of this county.
During his boyhood Louis J. Klemm attended the public schools of the county and for three months pursued his studies in a private school at Ot­tumwa, Iowa. For the same length of time he was also a student at Bowen's Business College in Des Moines, and later conducted a store in Norwalk for three months, but has made farming his principal occupation. For thirty-nine years he has resided upon his present farm, where he owns two hun­dred and forty acres of land under a high state of cultivation and improved with good and substantial buildings, and besides this he has one hundred and sixty acres in Adair County. In connection with general farming he is quite extensively engaged in stock-raising, and is also interested in the banking business, being a director of the German Savings Bank at Des Moines; a director of the Farmers Saving Bank at Carlisle; and vice president of the Bevington Bank in Madison County, Iowa. He has one of the nicest homes in this part of the county and everything about the place shows the owner to be a man of progressive ideas and thoroughly familiar with his chosen occupation.
On February 27, 1887, Mr. Klemm was united in marriage to Miss Cath­erine A. Cain, who was born in Linn Township, June 6, 1860. Her father, James Cain, was a native of Pennsylvania and one of the successful agricul­turists of this county, owning two hundred and fifty-nine acres of land. He died at the age of sixty-one years, and his wife, who bore the maiden name of Sarah A. McNeil, died at the age of sixty-nine years. In their family were nine children who are still living. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Klemm have also been born nine children but Sarah is now deceased. The others are John A., Mary Catherine, Rose B., Ignatius F., Barbara T., Louis J., Margaret E. and Joseph A.
In religious faith Mr. Klemm is a Catholic and he is a member of the Knights of Columbus. He uses his right of franchise in support of the men and measures of the Democratic party but takes no active part in political affairs, preferring to give his undivided attention to his business interests. He is a financier of more than ordinary ability and in all his business affairs has been found upright, reliable and energetic.

DANIEL JACKSON KNOUF
Daniel Jackson Knouf, more familiarly known as Jackson Knouf, is one of the representative farmers of Linn Township. He is one of Iowa's native sons, his birth occurring in Benton County, May 28, 1857. His father was Henry Knouf, who was born in Pennsylvania, on the 17th of March 1822, and on first coming to this state located in Iowa City but subsequently re­moved to Benton County. In 1866 he became a resident of Warren County, locating on the farm in Linn Township where our subject now lives, and here he continued to make his home until called to his final rest in October, 1896. Throughout his active business life he always followed farming and he gave his political support to the Democratic Party. In early manhood he married Maria Cook, who was also a native of the Keystone state, and she died in Sep­tember 1896, at the age of seventy-two years. Their children, who are still living are John, Samuel, Matilda C., Majors, George, D. Jackson, Au­gustus Bell, and Martin.
D. Jackson Knouf was only nine years of age when the family came to Warren County and took up their residence upon his present farm. As soon as old enough to be of any service he began to aid in the cultivation of the land, and during the winter season he attended the country schools of the neighborhood. From 1888 until 1900 he was engaged in farming in Madison County, Iowa, and the following year was spent in Polk County, after which he returned to the old homestead in Warren County. Here he has fifty-nine acres of well improved land in Linn Township, devoted to general farming.
In 1884 Mr. Knouf was united in marriage to Miss Dora McLain, a native of Warren County, and to them have been born two children who are still living, namely: Earl and Pearl. In politics Mr. Knouf is a Democrat and he is regarded as one of the leading citizens of his community.

JAMES LAVERTY
James Laverty is now numbered among Warren County's honored dead but no history of this district would be complete without mention of his life, for he was one of the honored pioneer settlers of Iowa and was closely associated with the work of development in material and political lines. He served for many years as county surveyor here and in his trade relations was known for his unfaltering integrity. He lived to the ripe old age of eighty-four years, passing away on the 26th of December, 1906 . He was born in Parke county, Indiana, on the 17th of March, 1822 , and was a son of John M. and Nancy (McNutt) Laverty. His paternal grandparents were Isaac and Jane (Martin) Laverty and the latter was a native of Ireland . The maternal grandparents were both born on the Emerald Isle, whence they crossed the Atlantic to the new world, settling in Virginia . The grandfather, James McNutt, received a tract of land in Ohio from the state of Virginia in reward for his services as a soldier of the Revolutionary war.
The father's birth occurred in Pennsylvania in 1792, while the mother first opened her eyes to the light of day in Ohio in February, 1803. In 1848, they became residents of Warren county, Iowa, where they lived until called to the home beyond, Mrs. Laverty passing away in 1859, while the father's death occurred February 1, 1872. They were the parents of several children but all died in infancy with the exception of James Laverty of this review. The father, John M. Laverty, did military service in defense of his country in the second war with England and made a creditable and brilliant military record. He, too, was granted a land warrant, which he located in the west. A man of liberal education and broad general culture, he became a leading and influential resident of Iowa and left the impress of his individuality upon the history of its upbuilding and progress. He took an active part in transforming it from a pioneer district into a region of advanced civilization and served as the first surveyor of Warren county, in which capacity he laid out the town of Indianola . In many other ways he contributed to the general improvement here, being untiring and unfaltering in his efforts to promote the public welfare. His life was actuated by Christian principles and he was at all times loyal to the faith which he professed. His sterling traits of character were so excellent that he gained the unqualified regard of all with whom he came in contact and won many warm friendships. In the year 1860 he lost his first wife and the following year was married again, his second union being with Miss Electa Miller, of Palmyra , Iowa.
James Laverty, a son of the father's first marriage, was reared to manhood in his native county and through the medium of its public schools acquired his preliminary education but later was afforded the advantage of collegiate training in Asbury (now De Pauw) University of Greencastle , Indiana . He entered that institution at the age of seventeen years and at his graduation in 1844 won the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Three years later the degree of Master of Arts was conferred upon him by the same institution. He was ever a man of strong intellect, whose extensive reading and study continually broadened his mind and qualified him for the duties that devolved upon him in the varied relations of life. In early manhood he gave his attention to teaching, following that pursuit in his native state.
Mr. Laverty was married in 1845, when a young man of twenty-three years the lady of his choice being Miss Mary A. Peck, a native of Putnam county, Indiana, born in 1823. At the time of their marriage Mr. Laverty was a teacher in the schools of Terre Haute , Indiana , and in that city they began their domestic life. Two years later, however, they became residents of Iowa and Mr. Laverty turned his attention to general farming in Polk county. A peculiar feature of the settlement of Iowa is the fact that the boundaries of the county and township have been so changed that he lived in two counties and five townships, yet never changed his place of residence until he became a citizen of Indianola in 1893. There were few residents in this section of the state when James Laverty cast in his lot with its pioneers. With the work of improvement he was closely associated for many years and was instrumental in the upbuilding of the county by bringing many of his former neighbors to this locality after laying their land warrants for them. He secured his own farm as a claim from the government and at once began converting the raw prairie into productive fields, his labors being carried steadily forward until in the course of time the wild prairie grasses were replaced by crops of corn, wheat and other grain which found a ready sale on the market. Year by year he successfully cultivated his place and made his property a very valuable one.
While living upon the farm Mr. and Mrs. Laverty reared their two children. Este Fidelia, who was born in Terre Haute , Indiana , is now the wife of I. L. Harvey, who resides upon land in this county, which her father entered in 1848. The son, John W., who is also engaged in the operation of the old homestead farm, was born in Polk, now Warren county, in 1848 and is probably one of the oldest native residents of the county. The wife and mother died in March,, 1879, and on the 26th of December following Mr. Laverty wedded Mrs. Lydia Clough nee Rice, who is a native of Meigs county, Ohio.
In his political views Mr. Laverty was a whig in early life and in 1856 voted the American ticket. At the succeeding election he supported Abraham Lincoln and from that time forward gave stalwart support to the men and measures of the republican party until called to his final rest. In public office he made a most creditable record. He served for two terms as a member of the board of supervisors of Warren county, was county surveyor of Polk county in 1849 and 1850 and later served as county surveyor of Warren county for several years. He was a member of the building committee which erected the county courthouse in Indianola and his endorsement could always be counted upon to further any movement or plan that had for its object the welfare and substantial upbuilding of this part of the state. In 1860 he became a member of the Masonic fraternity and was a faithful follower of the craft until his demise. He lived in the county for fifty-eight years, honored and respected by all who knew him by reason of an upright life and fidelity to every manly principle. He felt great pleasure in what was accomplished and took great pride in what was done in Warren county as it emerged from pioneer conditions and took on all of the evidences of an advanced and progressive civilization. His public-spirited citizenship was manifest in many tangible ways, his principles of integrity and honor were evidenced in his relations with his neighbors, his friends and his business associates, and his high ideals of domestic life were seen in his devotion to the welfare of his family. On the 26th of December, 1906, he passed away at the age of eighty-four years. His was indeed a long, useful, busy and honorable life and no history would be complete without extended mention of him. His memory is yet enshrined in the hearts of those who knew him and will be sacredly cherished for years to come. Mrs. Laverty still resides in Indianola and is a lady greatly admired for her many estimable qualities of heart and mind.

THOMAS LEDLIE
It may be truly said of Thomas Ledlie that he is more of an Iowan at heart than are those who were born here, for he chose this among all others as the state of his adoption while those who were born here had no choice in the mat­ter, but can only ascribe it to their good fortune. Thomas Ledlie was born in County Armagh, Ireland, on September 28, 1844, and there he resided until he was twenty-five years of age, at which age he adventurously set forth to seek his fortune in the new world, and a home for a loyal heart which he left behind. He secured passage on a combination steamship and sailing vessel from Queens­town, the journey thence to New York City occupying eighteen days. On landing in New York he came direct to Des Moines, Iowa, where he worked by the month for three years, with the exception of six months spent in Canada, which experience only served to convince him that Iowa was the place above all others in which to make his home. On September 10, 1868, was consum­mated the marriage of Mr. Ledlie and Miss Mary F. Lindsey, also born in County Armagh, Ireland, and who left her native home to join Mr. Ledlie in New York, where he had gone to meet her. There they were married and she came to her new home in Des Moines a bride.
With a mind keenly alert to the opportunities that presented themselves for acquiring a competence, Mr. Ledlie made his initial step in the purchase of an eighty acre tract of land, which is a part of his present holdings. On this he built a house, put up the necessary fencing, and made a home. He later bought sixty-one acres more, and continued to add to his property in small tracts from time to time until he now owns four hundred acres of valuable land on section 17, Allen Township. Here he has resided since 1873. He has greatly enhanced the value of his place through a system of underground drainage, in the construction of which he used three carloads of tile. Another valuable feature of the place is its excellent water system, for on it he has six wells and two springs running into tanks, from which the water is piped to the stock troughs, and he has also set up wind pumps. He has built a good barn and outbuildings, having everything most conveniently arranged for the handling of live stock, which he raises quite extensively. He has registered shorthorn cattle and Poland China hogs, his sales of the former running one to two car­loads a year. He also owns a good grade of Norman horses.
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Ledlie have been born eight children, five of whom are living, as follows: Agnes D., is the wife of Alvin Mitchell, a farmer of Dallas County, this state. They have one child, Elizabeth. James D., a farmer of Polk County, married Miss Lydia Sheriff. They have three children, Frances, Edna and Alexander. Flora B., is the wife of John C. Sawhill, a farmer of Madison County. They have one child, Harold. Thomas L. and Frances G., who is a graduate of the Indianola high school, are at home with their parents. They have been called upon to mourn the loss of three of their children. Robert L. died at the ageof one year; William died at the ageof seven, and Ethel at the age of ten months.
In national politics Mr. Ledlie is a Republican. Locally he supports the principles represented by the various candidates regardless of the party nomi­nating them. He has served as township trustee for twelve years, a position which he holds at present. The cause of education has ever found in him a warm champion, and he has been treasurer of his school district for the past twenty years. Mr. and Mrs. Ledlie were reared in the United Presbyterian faith, her father, Robert Lindsey, having been a preacher in this faith for fifty years in one community. They are members of the Summerset United Presbyterian church on Scotch Ridge, of which Mr. Ledlie is an officer. It will be seen from the foregoing that Mr. and Mrs. Ledlie have been continuous residence of Scotch Ridge for nearly forty years, and, working hand in hand, have accumulated a large estate. They practically began life empty-handed, and by their thrift, industry and well directed efforts have placed themselves in a position of independence, and have given all of their children a good education. They are well known among the old settlers and have hosts of friends all over the county.

FREEMAN LISBY
Freeman Lisby, residing on sections 20 and 29, Union Township, where he owns and operates one hundred and thirty acres of Warren County's choicest land, is a native of Logan County, Ohio, where he was born January 16, 1859, the son of Jacob and Margaret (Mandt) Lisby. His father is a native of Delaware and at an early age was taken by his parents to Logan County, Ohio, where he was reared to man's estate. During the dark days of the Civil War he gave his services in defense of the Union, enlisting in the One Hundred and Twenty-eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, where he served three and one-half years, or until the close of the war. He married Margaret Mandt, a native of Norway, and three children were born to their union, one son and two daughters, namely: Freeman, of this review; Ellen, who married James Hoblet, now a farmer of Dakota, and died in 1891, leav­ing two children, and Amanda, the wife of Isaac Keeser, who is engaged in the hotel and livery business in Sandyville. In 1867 the father removed with his family to Warren County and bought the place where our subject now resides, he having bought his father's interest in it some years since, besides eighty acres of land adjoining. Since 1888 the father has made his residence in Sandyville.
Freeman Lisby received his early education in the country schools, sup­plementing it with a course in the Ackworth Academy. He engaged in teaching for ten years, or up to the time of his marriage, at which time he bought the home place and began farming operations. He continued this work successfully for three years, leaving it to engage in the grocery busi­ness. He mastered the details and principles of this business thoroughly and, ever ambitious to progress onward and upward, after about three years of experience in this work he disposed of his business and went to Des Moines, where he again engaged in business, remaining there for about three and one-half years. His experience in mercantile work, however, but served to convince him that no vocation in life is so certain in its results, nor war­rants such freedom and independence of action as does farm life, and after disposing of his business in Des Moines he returned to his farm in Warren County with a greater feeling of satisfaction than he had ever known in the work hitherto. He has learned through actual experience that scientific farming and stock-raising is worthy of a man's best intellectual efforts, in recognition of which fact the United States government is today establishing experiment stations in every state of the Union, while the universities have added to their curriculum a special course of study along this line.
In 1888 Mr. Lisby was united in marriage to Miss Alice Gose, a sister of S. A. Gose, a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere in this issue. Mrs. Lisby was reared in Marion County and after finishing the course of instruction in Ackworth Academy engaged in teaching, an occupation which she followed for about ten years prior to her marriage. They have become the parents of two children, of whom Jennie, the first-born, died at the age of nine months; Clara attends school at Sandyville.
Politically, Mr. Lisby is identified with the Republican Party and has been honored with various township offices of trust and responsibility, the duties of which he has most capably discharged. He served two terms as township assessor, and for four years was township clerk. He has also served as delegate to the county conventions of his party and at different times to the state conventions. He has ever taken an active interest in educational matters and for a number of years has been secretary of the school board. Fraternally he is a Master Mason, belonging to the Sandyville lodge, of which he is at present the worthy master. He is also a member of the Yeomen, a fraternal insurance organization. His estimable wife is a faithful and consistent mem­ber of the United Brethren Church of Des Moines.

DAVID LOCKRIDGE
David Lockridge, a well known citizen of Jefferson Township, owning and operating a good farm of one hundred and thirty acres on section 11, has been a witness of the wonderful development of this region for over half a century, for he located here in 1853 and since attaining man's estate has been ac­tively identified with the improvement and upbuilding of Warren County.
Mr. Lockridge was born in Brown County, Indiana, October 24, 1840, and is a son of Samuel and Mary P. (Meek) Lockridge, who were natives of Virginia, where they continued to make their home until after their marriage. From that state they removed to Brown Cunty, Indiana, where in the midst of the forest the father cleared and improved a farm. Disposing of his property there, he came to Iowa in 1853 and made a permanent location in Warren County, where he purchased a tract of raw land and at once turned his attention to its improvement and cultivation, making his home thereon until called to his final rest. His death resulted from an accident in a saw­mill in 1866. His wife survived him for a number of years and died on the old homestead  in 1896. In their family are four sons and five daughters, all of whom are still living, and one son who died in childhood.
David Lockridge was only thirteen years of age when he accompanied his parents on their removal to this county and here he grew to manhood. He was one of the gallant defenders of the Union during the dark days of the Civil War, enlisting in August, 1862, in Company H, Thirty-fourth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and with his command proceeded down the Missis­sippi river to Vicksburg, participating in the first fight at that place. He was also in the engagement at Arkansas Post but was finally discharged for disa­bility at St. Louis in 1863.
Mr. Lockridge returned home to recuperate and as soon as able began work with his father in the sawmill, where he was employed for about two years. After his marriage in 1864, he engaged in farming on the old home place in Jefferson Township for a few years. He then purchased forty acres of his present farm on section 14, which he broke, fenced and improved by the erection of buildings, and has since added to his property until he now has one hundred and thirty acres, his present home being on section 11, where he has a good neat residence and substantial outbuildings, which stand as monuments to his thrift and industry.
On the 23d of October, 1864, in Jefferson Township, Mr. Lockridge was united in marriage to Miss Missouri A. Hart, who was born in Mercer County, Missouri, and was a young lady when she came to Iowa. Her father was William Hart. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Lockridge have been born five children who are still living, namely: B. L., who is married and now living in Idaho; Minnie J., the wife of Marion Harlan, living on the farm with Mr. Lockridge; Josephine, the wife of B. L. Leggett, of South Dakota; Villie, the wife of Emery Wheeler, railroad agent and telegraph operator at Prole; and Jennie, who is a teacher in the Warren County schools and resides at home.
In politics Mr. Lockridge is a staunch Democrat and cast his first presi­dential vote for General George B. McClellan, in 1864. He is a Master Mason, belonging to Spring Hill Lodge, and is also connected with the Grand Army Post at Indianola. He is a member of the Prole Christian church and is a man highly respected and esteemed by all who know him.

JAMES A. LOCKRIDGE
James A. Lockridge, residing on section 30, Greenfield Township, is numbered among the honored pioneers of Warren County, having made his home here continuously since 1853. His birth occurred in Hillsboro, Indiana, February 3, 1836, his parents being Samuel and Mary Philipp (Meeks) Lockridge. The father, who was a native of Augusta County, Virginia, followed farming as a life work and, after being married in West Virginia, brought his wife to Henry County, Indiana, and subsequently to Brown County, that state. At the latter place Samuel Lockridge entered six hundred and forty acres of land, being successfully engaged in its operation for sixteen years. On the expiration of that period he disposed of the land and came to Warren County, Iowa, in 1853, purchasing a farm of one hundred and sixty acres in Jefferson Township. There he made his home until he passed away at the age of fifty-five years, being accidentally killed in a sawmill. The death of his wife occurred in 1896 when she had attained the age of eighty-four years. Their family numbered nine children, four sons and five daughters, all of whom are still living.
James A. Lockridge, the second in order of birth in his father's family, was reared to agricultural pursuits and accompanied his parents on their removal to this county. In August, 1853, he began the operation of a rented farm south of Spring Hill, continuing to cultivate rented land until eight years after his marriage. In 1867 his father gave him the forty acres on which he now resides in Greenfield Township, to which he added from time to time until he now has a valuable and well improved property of three hundred and fifty-eight acres. It was originally timber land but through his earnest and well directed labors has been transformed into a productive and highly cultivated farm. He erected a substantial and commodious dwelling and barns, set out an orchard of one thousand trees and likewise assisted in laying out the roads here. In addition to the work of general farming he has also engaged in raising and feeding cattle and hogs, both branches of his business bringing to him a gratifying annual return.
In December, 1858, in Warren County, occurred the marriage of Mr. Lockridge and Miss Amanda J. Bedell, a native of Missouri and a daughter of Lefting Bedell, who came to this county in 1845. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Lockridge are as follows: Morganey, at home; Roach, a farmer of Linn Township, who wedded Miss Lawrence, by whom he has two children, Pearl and Harry Lawrence; Chrystie, also at home; Wytha, the wife of Whitley Allen, an agriculturist of Greenfield Township, by whom she has one child, Agnes; and Hephizibah, the wife of C. J. Pierce, of Des Moines.
Mr. Lockridge gives his political allegiance to the democracy where national questions and issues are involved but casts an independent local ballot. His fellow townsmen, recognizing his worth and ability, have called him to public office and he has served as road supervisor and school director. His religious faith is indicated by his membership in the Christian Church of Norwalk, in which he has held office. Fifty-five years have passed since he came to Warren County. This state was then a wild district, its lands un­claimed, its resources undeveloped. A few courageous frontiersmen had dared to locate within its borders but the work of progress and improvement remained to the future and there was little promise of early development. In the years which have since passed, Mr. Lockridge has not only witnessed a most wonderful transformation but has largely aided in the labors which have transformed the wild tract into a splendid commonwealth. He is a worthy representative of a well known old family here and is one of the best informed men of his age in the county. He is well acquainted with all the old settlers and, though he has passed the seventy-second milestone on life's journey, is still an active and public-spirited citizen, giving his cooperation to every movement and measure which tends to promote the general welfare or further the agricultural interests of Warren County.

JOSEPH LOCKRIDGE
Joseph Lockridge is now living in Spring Hill, but for many years was one of the prosperous and energetic farmers of Warren County, who owned and cultivated land in Jefferson Township, having about one hundred acres in the home place, while in Greenfield Township he also owned forty acres. He is numbered among the old settlers of the county, dating his residence here from August 1858. He was born in Miami County, Indiana, November 9, 1841. His father, James A. Lockridge, was born in Virginia, and went to Indiana at an early date and settled in Miami County, where he there married Mary Hall, who was a native of that city and there died in 1845. Her husband survived until 1856.
Joseph Lockridge was reared to the age of seventeen years in Miami County, Indiana, when he came west to Warren County, Iowa, joining an uncle, Samuel Lockridge. For about two years he worked in a sawmill cutting lumber. He was also employed at farm labor for several years, receiving eight dollars per month for his services in Indiana, and eleven dollars per month in Iowa. While he started out in life empty-handed, he possessed a good foundation for success in his unfaltering energy and firm purpose, and gradually he has worked his way upward until as the owner of a valuable farm property, he derives there from a gratifying annual income.
Mr. Lockridge was married in Jefferson Township, June 23, 1861, to Miss Mary E. Perkins, who was born in Illinois and came to Iowa when a little maiden of eleven years. After their marriage the young couple settled on a farm, but the following year Mr. Lockridge bade adieu to his young wife and went to the front in defense of the Union, having enlisted on the 19th of August, 1862, as a member of Company H, Thirty-fourth Iowa Volunteer Infan­try. He served as a private, went south to Mississippi and Arkansas, and was first under fire at the battle of Vicksburg, while later he participated in the en­gagement at Arkansas Post and subsequently in the siege of Vicksburg. He was also in the battles of Chickasaw Bluff, Fort Morgan and Fort Blakeley and served until the close of the war, being mustered out in August, 1865, at Hous­ton, Texas, and honorably discharged at Davenport. He had been a brave and faithful soldier, never faltering in the performance of his duty.
He ar­rived home September 7, 1865, and the following year he purchased a farm comprising ninety acres. This he began to cultivate and improve. Later he erected a good residence, barns and outbuildings, also set out an orchard and fenced his fields. He likewise bought more land from time to time, secured the latest improved machinery to carry on the work of the fields and continued to engage in farming there until the fall of 1907, when he rented his property to his son. He then purchased a lot and built a residence at Spring Hill where he now resides.
In 1906 Mr. Lockridge was called upon to mourn the loss of his wife who died on the 12th of February. They were the parents of five children: W. O., who is married and resides at Spring Hill; D. R., who is living on the home farm; Delana, the wife of Elmer Crowe, a farmer of Jefferson Township; Ursula E., the wife of William Kepley, a farmer of Greenfield Township, and Nannie, the wife of L. Alexander, a resident farmer of Jefferson Township. Mr. Lock-ridge was again married at Winterset, Iowa, January 9, 1908, his second union being with Mrs. M. E. Wallace, who was born in Dewitt, Illinois, and came to Iowa in 1853, being reared in Lucas County in the home of her father, A. B. Danner. She was first married in that county to George Ham, and after his death became the wife of T. D. Wallace. She resided in Lucas County for three years and in 1893 removed to Carlisle, Iowa, where Mr. Wallace died. She had four children: Otis Ham, who is married and resides at Independence, Iowa, is a pharmacist conducting a drug store at the insane hospital; Ora, is the wife of Edward Holton, a liveryman of Humeston, Iowa; Raymond, who is living at Coon Rapids, Iowa, and Allen, a business man of Kansas City. By her second marriage Mrs. Lockridge had no children.
Politically Mr. Lockridge is a staunch Democrat. While living on the farm he was elected to serve as township trustee for six years. He was also identified with the schools and was secretary for eleven years. In Spring Hill he has served as a member of the village council and also as a member of the school board. The cause of education finds in him a warm friend. He belongs to the Christian Church, while his wife is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and they are both active and earnest in church work, Mrs. Lockridge belonging to the Missionary society and the Ladies' Aid society. She is also a member of the Auxiliary Circle of the Grand Army of the Re­public. Mr. Lockridge belongs to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, becoming a charter member of the Spring Hill lodge in which he has filled all of the offices and is a past grand. He is one of the few remaining veterans of the Civil War and also one of the pioneer settlers of Warren County. In days of peace he has been as loyal to his country as when he followed the stars and stripes on southern battlefields. He has worked diligently and persist­ently year after year in the conduct of his business affairs and has never been known to take advantage of the necessities of another in a business transac­tion. He has not gained success by leaps and bounds, but by the faithful per­formance of each day's duties and by the use of the opportunities which have come to him. Now in possession of a comfortable competence, he is living retired, being pleasantly situated in Spring Hill.

HENRY LONG
Henry Long, who operates his farm of two hundred acres on section 27, Otter Township, has resided in Warren County for over half a century and in his present home for over thirty-five years. He was born in Peoria County, Illinois, in 1844, the son of John and Jane(McNamer) Long. His father was born in Tennessee in 1816. He removed to Kentucky, and from there to Ham­ilton County, Illinois, where he was married. Later, in 1843, he went to Peoria County, Illinois where he owned and operated a one hundred acre farm, residing there some ten or eleven years. In 1854 he removed to Warren County, Iowa, where he entered eighty acres of land on what was at that time section 36, Otter Township. He also entered one hundred and sixty acres in Belmont Township, one hundred and sixty acres in Liberty Township, one hundred and sixty acres in White Breast Township, and elsewhere. He sold those farms to various parties and dealt in real estate, and also engaged in stock trading, and taken altogether was a very successful man. He served several terms as township clerk, as well as in other local offices. During the last fourteen years of his life he suffered from paralysis and was consequent­ly incapacitated for any active career. He died on a farm north of Milo in 1881. Both himself and wife were members of the Methodist Church. Mrs. Long was born and reared in North Carolina, her birth occurring in the year 1818. She removed with her parents to Kentucky and later to Hamilton County, Illinois, where she met and married Mr. Long. Her aged mother made her home with her in Peoria County, Illinois, until the time of her death. Mrs. Long passed away in 1880.
Unto Mr. and Mrs. John Long were born ten children, of whom three: Jeannette, James and an infant, are deceased. Those living are: Alexander, a farmer of Peoria County, Illinois; Lydia, the wife of William Michaels, a farm­er residing in Clarke County, near Ashland; Henry, of this review; Jeremiah, who resides in Dakota and has been engaged in various pursuits; Manece Ellen, the wife of Lewis Schee, of Indianola; John, residing in Belmont Township, north of Milo; and Theodore, engaged in farming at Sheridan, Wyoming.
Henry Long spent the days of his boyhood and youth under the parental roof and early received the training in agricultural pursuits which has en­abled him to succeed so admirably in his work in later years. He has made most of the improvements on his present home place and his success in life has been largely due to his own efforts and the sound judgment he has shown in matters pertaining to his business.
In his success he has been ably assisted and seconded by his wife, who was Miss Celia Benge, to whom he was married in 1865. Mrs. Long is the daughter of Thomas and Dorcas (Bales) Benge. Her father was born in Clay County, Kentucky, in 1801 and died in 1879, aged seventy-eight years. He was a soldier of the Black Hawk war and with the land warrant he received for his services he entered forty acres of land. When a youth of eighteen or nineteen years of age Mr. Benge went to Warren County, Indiana, where he engaged in farming. He was married in Putnam County, Indiana, to Miss Bales. They came to Warren County, Iowa, in 1849, locating on the farm now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Long. Mr. Benge entered and owned over one thousand acres of land, mainly in Otter Township, although he had some land in White Breast Township. He improved a small tract, but his health failing he retired and removed to Hammondsburg, where he died. His wife, Dorcas Bales, was born in Kentucky in 1799 and died at the home of a daughter in Squaw Township in October, 1886. She and her husband are buried at Hammondsburg. She embraced the faith of the Baptist church and was immersed in Otter Creek, after she was eighty years of age. Her parents removed from Kentucky to Putnam County, Indiana, when she was but a child and it was there that she met and married Mr. Benge.
Mrs. Long was but eight years of age when the family came to Warren County, Iowa. At that time game of all kinds was plentiful, deer being seen in droves of sometimes fifty, besides an abundance of feathered game. Wolves and other wild animals roamed the prairies. Mrs. Long pursued her educa­tion in a little log schoolhouse, attending later Mrs. Nutting's school.
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Long have been born four sons. namely: John J., a farm­er residing northeast of Indianola was born in 1866. He married Flora Derrough and unto this union have been born four children, Albert, Grace, Don and Frank. Thomas L., a farmer of Otter Township, was born in 1867 and married Miss Carrie Reed. James, residing on a farm in White Oak Township, was born in 1869. He married Miss Nannie Howe, by whom he has one daughter, Leila. Henry, Jr., born in 1883, conducts farming operations in Otter Township. He married Miss Ida Friedley, and they have one son, Verle.
Politically, Mr. Long is a Democrat, but he has never sought nor desired office. He and his wife are members of the Church of Christ in Christian Union, of Hammondsburg.

OSBORN LOPER
Osborn Loper, a successful and enterprising agriculturist residing on section 28, Squaw Township, Warren County, was born in Jones County, Iowa, March 4, 1853. His father, Daniel Loper, was born in Pennsylvania, Sep­tember 29, 1825, and at the age of fifteen left home to come to the west. He intended to buy land in Chicago, which was then only a small village, but did not like the location and subsequently stopped at Burlington, Iowa, from which point he enlisted for service in the Mexican war. In 1847 or 1848 he took up his abode in Jones County, Iowa, purchased government land and there resided until eighteen years ago, when he removed to southwestern Kansas, where he still lives. His wife, who bore the maiden name of Mary Jane Burnett, was born in Ohio on the 6th of August, 1831, and also still survives, living with her husband in Kansas.
Osborn Loper, who was one of a family of thirteen children, acquired his education in the district school and remained under the parental roof until he had attained the age of twenty-three years. For the next four years he was engaged in farming rented land, and in 1881 came to Warren County, pur­chasing his present farm of two hundred acres, which was then a wild and unimproved tract. Subsequently he bought forty acres more of the wild, unbroken prairie but has brought all of his land under a high state of cultiva­tion and has placed many improvements thereon, including a modern residence, barns and other buildings. Through his well directed energy and capable business management he has become prosperous but in former years met with misfortune by going security for others, whose bills were left for him to pay. Possessing a broad humanitarian spirit, he paid them without ill feeling and resolutely set to work to retrieve his lost possessions. Success to him does not mean the accumulation of worldly goods alone but the build­ing up of a character which will withstand the temptations of life and which will remain as a blessed benediction after he has passed to his reward.
On the 21st of January, 1876, Mr. Loper was united in marriage to Miss Mary Porter, who was born in Poweshiek County, Iowa, August 5, 1856, a daughter of Ross and Sarah Jane Porter, who were natives of Ohio but now are deceased. The wedding took place in Jones County, Iowa, and this union was blessed with four children, three of whom are living: Myrtle E.., wife of W. S. Anderson, of Ontario, California; and Ora and Howard, at home, who are attending Simpson College at Indianola.
For many years Mr. Loper has voted the prohibition ticket, believing that the temperance question is a paramount issue before the country today and that the final eradication of the liquor traffic is the wisest course to pursue. He has served as township assessor for three years and for a similar period has been township trustee, discharging his duties in prompt and capable man­ner. Both he and his wife are faithful and devoted members of the Metho­dist Episcopal Church at Medora, Iowa, being converted, he at eighteen and she at fifteen. He is now serving as class leader in the church and is an ex­emplary Christian, doing unto others as he would that they should do unto him. He is public spirited, giving his cooperation to every movement which tends to promote the moral, intellectual and material welfare of the community.

SAMUEL L. LOPER
Samuel L. Loper, a farmer residing on section 9, Otter Township, is a native of this county, having been born here on January 15, 1859, the son of William and Eliza (Graham.) Loper. His parents we're originally from Indiana. His father settled in Warren County in the early '50s [1850s] and the Gra­ham family were among the first settlers of the county. They now live re­tired in Indianola, aged about seventy-five and seventy years respectively. They are the parents of eight children, namely Sarah, Samuel, Frank, Louisa, Mary, Helen, Ray and Mabel. Sarah died in childhood. Samuel is the subject of this review. Frank passed away at the age of four years. Louisa is the wife of W. A. Hastie, a farmer living northwest of Summerset, and they have three children. Mary is the wife of Fred Eno, who conducts a printing es­tablishment in Des Moines, Iowa, and they are the parents of five daughters. Helen is the wife of Sylvester Scott, a farmer residing northeast of Ack­worth, and they have two daughters. Ray, a fruit-grower living near Fresno, California, married Miss Mabel Matthews. Mabel is a stenographer, residing in Des Moines.
Samuel L. Loper received his education in the district schools of his home community, and to the knowledge gained therein he has added the practical experience gained through his contact with various enterprises. He early devoted his energies to agricultural pursuits, and the success he has attained in this direction has encouraged him to follow up the occupation continuously. He began with very little capital, but with the help of his wife and with a wealth of industry and ambition, which fortunately has been well directed, they have gradually increased their holdings in real estate until they are now the owner of over three hundred acres of Warren County land, much of which he has brought to a high state of cultivation. On this he has erected the necessary buildings and added such further improvements as were essen­tial for the profitable conduct of his farm. When he first located here there was no road nor schoolhouse at all convenient to his home, and one of his first efforts was to secure these needed improvements. The general appearance of the surrounding country is an eloquent testimonial to the success with which he and his neighbors have met in this regard.
In 1878 was celebrated the marriage of Samuel L. Loper and Miss Clara Lincoln, a native of Hocking County, Ohio, and daughter of B. A. and Harriet. (Wright) Lincoln. Her parents located in Warren County, Iowa, in 1864 or 1865. Her mother died in Otter Township in 1876. The father later removed to Nebraska, where he died in 1900. They were the parents of six children, Mrs. Loper being the only one who resides in Iowa, she having been reared in this county.
Unto Mr. and Mrs. Loper have been born eight children, five of whom, Alice, Edith, Lincoln, Juanita and Ardis reside at home. W. Cary is in the west. Mary Ethel is the wife of C. R. Clark, residing in Colorado. They have two children, Leverett and Royal M..  R. D. has leased a part of his father's farm and is conducting it in his own interests. In national affairs Mr. Loper gives his political support to the democracy, but in affairs of local government he votes for men and measures rather than for party, giving his support to those whom he deems most worthy of it.

JACOB F. LOUGH
Jacob F. Lough at one time served as supervisor of Warren County and was formerly identified with its general agricultural pursuits, but while not active in the work of the farm now he still gives to his farming and stock-raising interests his general supervision and has gained success through capa­ble management and diligence. He makes his home in Indianola, from which point he supervises his business affairs. His present place of abode is widely separated from the place of his birth, for he entered upon the journey of life in Rockingham, Virginia, December 10, 1842. His father, John Lough, was a native of Pendleton County, Virginia, but the mother, who bore the maiden name of Mary Zirkle, was born in Rockingham County. The Lough family is of German extraction, while the Zirkle family is of Irish stock. Both parents were consistent Christian people, who held membership in the Metho­dist Episcopal Church and John Lough voted with the democracy, until the outbreak of the war, after which he became a Republican. In his business life he was a blacksmith and farmer and found that industry is the key which unlocks the portals of success. He died in Barbour County, West Virginia, in 1889, having long survived his wife, who passed away in 1854.
Jacob F. Lough was the third in a family of six children and the youngest son. He was reared on the farm and attended the subscription schools, while later he spent one term as a student in Simpson College at Indianola, taking up his studies there after the war. During the period of hostilities between the north and the south he enlisted at Webster, West Virginia, on the 4th of July, 1863, as a member of Company C, Fourth West Virginia Cavalry, and thus loyally defended the interests of the Union. He served for eight months and then reenlisted, this time
becoming a member of Company D, of the Sixth Virginia Cavalry, with which he remained until the end of the war as a non-commissioned officer.
When the war was over Mr. Lough returned to the Old Dominion, but soon afterward came to Iowa, arriving in August 1865. He then located on a farm which he purchased in Jefferson Township and with characteristic energy began to cultivate and improve the fields. As the years passed his careful supervision was indicated by the neat and thrifty appearance of the place.          He raised the cereals best adapted to soil and climate and also handled good grades of stock. Both branches of his business proved profitable and were carried on by him until 1892, when his fellow townsmen recognized his fitness for office and his loyalty in citizenship by electing him to the posi­tion of supervisor in 1892. He then removed to Indianola, where he has lived to the present time but still manages his farming and live-stock interests.
On the 29th of September, 1866, Mr. Lough was married to Mrs. Sarah E. Sarchett, the widow of John M. Sarchett, who was killed in ambush at Springfield, Missouri. By her former marriage Mrs. Sarchett had two chil­dren: Theodore H., a resident farmer of Jefferson Township, and Mary E., who is the widow of Lewis Marlatt and the owner of a millinery establish­ment in Indianola.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Lough belonged to the Methodist Episcopal Church and his name is on the membership rolls of the Odd Fellows lodge and of the James Randolph Post, of which he is a past commander. An earnest Repub­lican in his political views it was upon the party ticket that he was elected county supervisor in 1892, serving in the office for six years. During one year of that time lie filled the position of chairman. He has also held other offices and has represented the third ward in the city council of Indianola, exercising his official perogatives in support of all that is progressive in municipal affairs. He is a representative of our best type of American man­hood and chivalry. By perseverance, determination and honorable effort he has overthrown the obstacles which barred his path to success, while his genuine worth, broad mind and public spirit have made him a director of public thought and action.

FRANK A. LUKENBILL
Frank A. Lukenbill, residing on section 15, Union Township, where he owns and operates a farm of one hundred and forty acres, is a native son of this county, having been born on the old home farm on February 4, 1865, the son of Henry Lukenbill and brother of S. G. Lukenbill, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this issue. Mr. Lukenbill is actively engaged in the work of farming and raising stock, which he also buys and feeds for the market. On September 29, 1889, he was united in marriage to Miss Lizzie Pearson, a daughter of Daniel C. Pearson. Following their marriage the young couple settled on a farm which Mr. Lukenbill rented and operated for three years. At the expiration of that time he bought the place where he now resides, which fact indicates his success as a manager and is a high tribute to his thrift and industry. He is well known in Sandyville, Pleasantville and Indianola as being a man of good business ability and excellent judgment. Unto Mr. and Mrs. Lukenbill has been born one daughter, Inez, who is now a student in Sandyville.

SAMUEL G. LUKENBILL
S. G. Lukenbill, who succeeded to that portion of his father's estate on which the old homestead is located, was born on the farm where he now re­sides, October 15, 1866, the son of Henry and Elizabeth (Davis) Lukenbill. His father was a native of Owen County, Indiana, where he was born in 1816, and where he resided throughout his early manhood He left there in 1853 and located in this county, settling on the land where our subject now re­sides. He cleared the land and opened up a farm. He was encouraged in his work by the generous return which the soil yielded him in response for the cultivation given it and with remarkable foresight he reached out and acquired more land from time to time as rapidly as his resources would per­mit, until he became possessor of nearly one thousand acres of Warren County's richest farming land. Besides this he owned land in Nebraska. Mr. Lukenbill would be one of the first to give credit to his faithful wife and daughters and his sturdy sons for the aid they rendered him in acquiring this property, and it is but meet, and entirely in accord with his wishes that his loved ones by reason of his foresight and industry, should now be independently sit­uated and comparatively free from care as to competence for the future. He died on the home farm place in November, 1888. His wife survived him for about three and one-half years, and passed away in April 1892. They were the parents of eleven children, seven sons and four daughters, all of whom grew to maturity, but one son has since died. For his second wife the father married Emily Spurgin, a daughter of Levi Spurgin of this county, and to them was born a daughter, Amanda, now the wife of C. N. Black, of Union township.
S. G. Lukenbill received his education in the district school in the imme­diate vicinity of his home, which he attended regularly throughout the school year while in the primary grades, but when he reached an age to be of assist­ance to his father on the farm his attendance was necessarily somewhat irregu­lar, being confined to those months of the year when farming operations were suspended. He persisted in his attendance, however, until he received a good practical education, which now stands him in good stead. He remained with his father on the home place as long as the latter lived, and during the last year of his life assumed the entire responsibility of the place, farming it for himself. In the division of his father's estate he was allotted the old home­stead and one hundred and fifty acres of land surrounding it, located on section 11, Union Township.
In January 1891, Mr. Lukenbill was married to Hattie Thornburg, who was born and reared in Marion County. She died in 1896, leaving two chil­dren: Floyd, a student in the Pleasantville high school, and Hazel, a student in the home school.  In his political views Mr. Lukenbill is a stalwart Republican, but he has never been an office seeker, preferring to give his undivided attention to the work of the farm. Because of his interest in the public schools he is a member of the school board. He has been an interested observer of the growth and development of this section of the country, and must experience a feeling of satisfaction in the knowledge that he, himself, has been no unimportant factor in its industrial life.

JOHN R. LUNDY
In the history of Warren County and the men who have been its promoters and upbuilders it is imperative that mention should he made of J. R. Lundy who is one of the prominent business men of the county, a member of the firm of McGrannahan & Lundy, dealers in groceries and general merchandise at Indianola. He is, moreover, a native son of the county for his birth occurred at Palmyra, March 16. 1861.  His father. Augustus Lundy was a native of West Virginia, born July 7, 1814, and his father was Samuel Lundy.  The family is of English descent
and of Quaker faith. The original American ancestors came to the new world with William Penn and since that time the members of the family through succeeding generations have always borne an excellent reputation for faithfulness in citizenship and straightforward conduct in all life's relations. Augustus Lundy was reared in West Virginia and in 1851 arrived in Iowa, settling in Palmyra.  He was married there to Jane Warnock, a native of Ross County, Ohio, born in 1829. Mr. Lundy was a carpenter and joiner and eventually engaged in contracting. He assisted largely in the building of Palmyra and later took up his abode on a farm in Greenfield Township, where he spent his last years. His death there occurred in March, 1878. His wife survived him and died in 1904. Their family numbered two sons and two daughters: James W., a business man of Indianola; J. R., of this review; Anna, who resides on the old home farm; and Minnie, the wife of Samuel Tomlinson of Maxwell, Iowa.
J. R. Lundy was reared in this county and was educated in the common schools. He is almost wholly a self-educated man, for his opportunities in youth were limited, but in the school of experience he has learned many valuable lessons and has also broadened his knowledge by reading and obser­vation. After arriving at mature years he engaged in cultivating the home farm and proved capable in his agricultural pursuits. He was married at Avon, Iowa, October 6, 1879, to Miss Hallie Walter of Altoona, Iowa. At the time of his marriage he was engaged in merchandising at Avon and carried on the business there for two years, when he sold out and removed to Spring Hill. Here he purchased a store which he conducted for seven years, on the expiration of which period he disposed of his stock and went to Bondurant,  Polk County. There he purchased a business and also started a new store at Altoona. He conducted both stores for a time, but later disposed of those interests and went to Milo where he became a stockholder in the Citizens Bank and was made its cashier. He filled that position for one year when he dis­posed of his interests in the institution and removed to Indianola. While living in that city Mrs. Lundy died, August 20, 1902. There were four children by that marriage of whom three are living. Later Mr. Lundy returned to his old home on the farm and operated the fields for nearly three years. During that time, in 1904, he established his bank at Spring Hill and also opened a general mercantile store and until April 1, 1908, carried on business in these lines. He also erected a good residence in the town and a substantial brick business block and his labors have always been of a nature that promoted public progress as well as individual success. He also owns and operates a farm nearby.
On the 8th of March, 1905, Mr. Lundy was again married, his second union being with Miss Nellie Brand, who was born and reared in Warren County and is a daughter of Dewitt Clinton Brand, a native of Cattaraugus County, New York. He was one of the pioneers and farmers of Lincoln Township, living for fifty-two years oil one farm which lie had entered from the government. It comprises three hundred and forty acres and he transformed the wild prairie into a richly productive field. He was married in New York, return­ing there for his bride, after which he lived in the Empire State for two years. He then took up his abode upon his Iowa farm and for a   long period was one of the best known and most respected agriculturists of the community. Mrs. Lundy completed her education in Simpson College at Indianola, and for over thirteen years or for thirty-three terms, was successfully engaged in teaching, being one of the best known instructors connected with the public schools of this part of the state.  The children of Mr. Lundy's first marriage are Beatrice, Phillis and Dale, and he also lost a daughter, Gladys, when about a year old. There is one child of the second marriage, Marion.
Politically Mr. Lundy is a Democrat and has held some school and town­ship offices. He and his wife and two daughters are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he has served as a trustee, while Mrs. Lundy is a member of the Ladies' Aid Society. Mr. Lundy belongs to the Champion Lodge, No. 233, A. F. & A. M., and his wife was connected with the Eastern Star, while in the Odd Fellows lodge he has filled all of the chairs and is past grand. He is a well known business man of Warren County, whose com­mercial integrity is above question, while his enterprise has gained for him the position which he now occupies as a successful merchant of this part of the state. He has used the chances which have come to him, has neglected no opportunity for advancement, and at all times has placed his dependence upon perseverance, close application and unwearied industry.