HISTORY OF TAMA COUNTY IOWA

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CHAPTER XXXIX

"TOLEDO TOWNSHIP"


Toledo township lies in the southern part of Tama county, in the second tier of townships.  It is bounded on the north by Howard township, east by Otter Creek, south by Tama and west by Indian Village.  In embraces the first twenty-four sections of land in township 83, range 15, and therefore contains an area of 15,360 acres.  The soil in this township is generally a dark loam, which is invariably underlaid with a subsoil of sandy clay.  The surface is rolling, and in some places is quite hilly, but is nearly all fit for cultivation.  The scenery in the northern part of the township, in places, is magnificent.  It is well watered by Deer creek and its tributaries.  This stream has been used as a force to propel machinery, but the water power is not sufficient to be valuable.  The Toledo & Northwestern railroad passes through the township.

The farmers in Toledo township are a well-to-do and thrifty class, as the many fine farms and buildings abundantly testify. A good many of the farmers are turning their attention to stock with good  success, for pasturage is abundant. the land is mostly under a high state of cultivation and is adapted to the raising of all cereals common to this latitude. Under the prairie  the subsoil is of a sandy mixture, clayey on the bluffs and a stiff clay in the timber lands.


EARLY SETTLEMENT.
 

The first permanent settlement made in the territory now comprising Toledo township, was effected by Peter Overmire, in March, 1852. Peter Overmire and family, in  company with Christian and David F. Bruner with their families, and Widow Hill and family, left Ohio in September, 1851, for the west. They arrived at Iowa City in November, and here they all remained during the winter, some of them purchasing lands in tama county. In March, 1852, a party set out to move the Overmire family from Iowa City to Tama county. In this party there were Peter Overmire and his family, consisting of wife and five children--David F. Bruner, Jacob Bruner, Samuel Bruner, Henry Lance and young Bruner, a lad fourteen or fifteen years old, who nearly froze to death on the way. They had to bridge Deer creek by laying poles across and then planking it with the lumber that they brought.  Overmire took a quarter of section 6, Toledo township. As soon as they arrived, all set to work to put up a little shanty for the Overmire family.  This was erected mostly during the night, as it was dusk when they arrived, and stood about on the line between Howard and Toledo townships. D.F. Bruner returned to Iowa City the following day, and the rest, except the Overmire family, followed afterward. Jacob, Samuel and Cristian Bruner, assisted by Henry Lance, then erected a barn and cabin for their father, Christian Bruner, but were unable to raise it until Christian Bruner came in the spring with a number of hands. This, however, was in Howard township, as Christian settled just over the line. Late in the summer he commenced building a saw-mill on Deer creek, which was completed the next spring. It was a building of heavy timber and was run by water power furnished by Deer creek, through the medium of an old fashioned Parker water wheel. It was equipped with an "up and down saw," having a capacity for sawing about 1,500 feet of lumber per day and night, when the water was right, but not more than half the time was the water sufficient to propel it. This mill was afterward changed to a flouring mill and provided with the best of machinery. J.S. Reedy, son of another pioneer, bought an interest in the mill about the time it was changed. The mill is a four story building, and has a good business.

Solomon Bruner, present proprietor of this mill, came to the State of Iowa when a boy. He was born in Sandusky county, Ohio, April 26, 1846, where he received his education and early training. When seventeen years of age he went to work in his father's mill, becoming a thorough and practical miller, which occupation he made a life business. In December, 1867, he was married to Nancy Reedy, of Fairfield county, Ohio, where she was born April 19, 1850. By this union there were three children--Gerard L., Jesse O. and Ray K.

On August 29, 1852, David F. Bruner with his family came from Johnson county, where they had spent the summer, coming with teams and bringing their household goods. Mrs. Bruner's brother, David Hill, came with them. Mr. Bruner settled on section 4, and while building a log cabin lived with his father in Howard township. The cabin he erected stood just across the road from where he yet lives. David F. Bruner and his wife are still living upon their original place.

Christian Bruner died in September, 1869. The only members of his family who are yet living in the township are David F. and Solomon Bruner, the oldest and the youngest.

Peter Overmire is still living in Tama county, a resident of Howard township.

Henry Lance remained about one year when he returned to Ohio. When the war broke out he enlisted and died of disease.

In the summer of 1852, Richard Podmore came to the township and in 1853 settled on section 21 with his wife. He erected a little shanty; spent most of his time while here in hunting, and remained until his death, which occurred in the fall of 1883.

John Golwitzer came from Iowa City, in June, 1852, and worked all summer breaking ground for Christian Bruner. In the fall he erected a cabin and settled on section 9, where he remained for about two years when he went to Iowa City, was married, and a number of years later returned to Tama county, and now lives in Garwin.

In June, 1852, Noah Myers settled on the northwest quarter of section 6 with his family, consisting of wife and several children.

In the fall of 1852, Zebedee Rush settled on section 23, in Toledo township. He had a large family of children, having been married three times. He remained here for a number of years, when he removed to Iowa county, where he still lives.

John S. Reedy, another of the pioneers of 1852, was born in Rockingham county, Virginia, on the Shenandoah river, August 17, 1821. He is a son of Philip and Susan (Showalter) Reedy, who were married in the same county, and had a family of eight children. John's father died in Hardin county, in 1828, and the following year Mrs. Reedy emigrated to Zanesville, Ohio. She subsequently married Peter Lefler. When five years old John S. was bound out to an uncle, with whom he remained until nearly 19 years of age. He was married in March, 1846, to Miss Susan Hufford, a daughter of Daniel and Nancy Hufford. By this union there were four sons and six daughters, six of whom are living: Daniel H., John W., Maggie A., Zelda J., Melissa O. and Susan L. In the spring of 1851, Mr. Reedy came to Iowa, stopping over one winter in Linn county. In 1852 he came to Tama county, locating in Toledo township, where he entered land and opened up a farm. Mrs. Reedy died July 1, 1880 and Mr. Reedy subsequently married Eliza E. Huff, widow of Uriah Huff. This is all that can be remembered as coming in 1852. The winter following was quite severe, and very hard upon the settlers, who were ill prepared for it. The fall had been very wet, and an early snow came and covered the ground to such a depth that it remained unfrozen until spring. In the spring the snow went off suddenly, and turning very cold, the ground was frozen to a depth of three feet. During the spring and summer of 1853, a number of pioneers came into the township, prominent among them being the following: Franklin Davis, John Ross, Adam Zehrung, George Zehrung, Samuel Mitchell, Tallman Chase, Spracklen, Richard Hillman and William Hillman.

Franklin Davis came to the county in May, 1853, with his wife and family, and halted on the first day of June, 1853, at the house of John Ross. Mr. Davis erected a cabin on section 15, but did not own the land on which the cabin was located. In 1852 he had purchased eighty acres of land on the northwestern part of section 15. He erected a cabin and located upon it in March, 1854. He still resides there, although the little old cabin has been replaced by a neat and comfortable residence. He was the first Coroner of Tama county.

John Ross and John Reedy came together with their families, in March, 1853. John Ross Settled on section 22, and the city of Toledo now occupies a portion of his claim. He was one of the first county officers. He died in Howard township many years ago.

John Reedy settled upon the present Reedy farm on section 9. He still lives in this township.

Adam Zehrung came in 1853, from Ohio, and settled on section 9, where he remained a number of years when he sold to a nephew and removed to near Toledo, where he died. His widow still lives in Toledo and is nearly ninety years old.

John Zehrung settled on the land where Toledo now stands, in March, 1854, and opened the first dry goods store in the place. He and T.J. Staley built a steam flouring mill in north Toledo, which in that early day was counted a good one. In 1883, he was in Nebraska, running a drug store.

Samuel Mitchell really settled with George Zehrung in Howard township, but entered a claim of forty acres on section 4, of Toledo township. He removed to Toledo, in 1854, and built what was called the Hackbury House, a double log cabin which was the only tavern for many years in the place.

Tallman Chase, very early in the spring of 1853, settled on section 8, where he put up a log shanty and remained for a few years. At the temporary organization of the county he was elected County Judge, but never qualified. He returned to Ohio.

Mr. Spracklin came from Linn county and settled near Chase. He was a roving character and spent most of his time in hunting and sporting. His settlement here could hardly be called permanent as he soon left and went to Belle Plaine, and has since been lost track of.

Richard Hillman was from Indiana and settled with his family on section 3, of Toledo township, early in the summer of 1853. He erected a log cabin which, although remodeled, is still standing. He remained upon the place for many years, going from here to Traer and then to Kansas, where he still lives. He is remembered as a good citizen and a man of intelligence.

William Hillman located land on section 23, in April 1853, his family coming the same fall, where he remained for many years. He still lives in Toledo township on section 5.

During the summer and fall of 1853, among the arrivals were the following: Peter McRoberts, George W. Free, Sr., H.C. Foster, R.L. Hillman, Mark Sadler, James Walkup, Solomon Hufford, Jacob and T.J. Staley, John Spohr, Angelo Myers, James Hunnicutt and Alexander La Dow.

Alexander La Dow, one of the pioneers of Tama county, was born in Onondaga county, New York, February 1, 1810. He is a son of Uriah LaDow, a native of New York and of French descent, and Lucy Bostwick, of the old Puritan stock. They were married in New York where they followed the occupation of farming for a number of years. In 1812, Alexander's father enlisted and served his time in the war with England. In 1836, he removed to Lorain county, Ohio, and was soon followed by his parents, who remained in that county until their death. Alexander was reared in the wilds of Ohio, receiving a limited education in the log school houses of that State, which presented but meager advantages for learning. He states that his first school house was made of round logs from the forest, with an old-fashioned fire-place and the chimney made of mud and sticks. For writing desks they bored holes in the logs, drove in pins and laid on a board. The light was received into the house by cutting out a log, setting up sticks and pasting a piece of greased paper over the opening. March 29, 1832, he was joined in wedlock, in Bradford county, Pennsylvania, to Harriet Babcock, a daughter of Benjamin Babcock and Anna Brownson. Her grandfather, Isaac Brownson, was a soldier of the Revolutionary war, and an officer on General Washington's staff. In 1834, Mr. LaDow emigrated to Lorain county, Ohio, where he took up land and opened up a farm in a region which at that time was a vast wilderness. Here he remained 11 years, when they removed to Branch county, Michigan. In the fall of 1853, he turned his steps westward, coming through to Iowa with ox teams, and settling on section 14, of Toledo township, where they remained a number of years. In 1871, he removed to his present place. When they first came to the county, their nearest trading point was a Iowa City. Their milling was done at Cedar Rapids, it taking three days to make a trip with his ox team. Mr. and Mrs. La Dow were life-long members of the free Will Baptist Church, and at the time of coming to the county took an active part in building up the same. Mr. La Dow supplied the pulpit for a number of years. They have just passed their fifty years of wedded life. Mr. and Mrs.. La Dow are the parents of nine children, one son and eight daughters. Mr. LaDow was a soldier in the war of the Rebellion, enlisting in the 10th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company K, and participating in the battles of New Madrid, Fort Pillow, Pittsburg Landing and the siege of Corinth, where he was taken sick and discharged August 27, 1862.

B.B. LaDow, son of Alexander LaDow, came to the county with his parents in 1853. He was born in Bradford county,

Pennsylvania, August 22, 1836.  In October, 1862, he enlisted in the Sixth Iowa Cavalry and participated in the Indian war.  In February, 1863, he was married to Miss Mary H. Spayth, of Toledo.  They have four children: Bertha, carrie, Roy and Benjamin R.  In politics, Mr LaDow is a Republican and has affiliated with that party since its organization.  Mr. and Mrs. LaDow are members of the Regular Baptist Church, of Toledo.  He follows the business of a carpenter and joiner and is an excellent workman.

George W. Free, Sr., was from Franklin county, Ohio, coming here in 1853 with a large family.  There were two grown boys, George W., Jr., and Henry; Thomas s. and A. J. were quite young.  They settled on section 9.

H. C. Foster took a claim on section 14 and built a log cabin.  He now lives in Toledo.

R. L. Hillman was from Indiana.  He settled on section 3.

Peter McRobert came in the fall of 1853 and located on section 16.  He afterwards removed to Carroll township where he died in 1879.  He laid out several additions to the city of Toledo.

Mark Saddler settled on the north half of the quarter upon which Richard Hillman located, where he built a house and lived there for several years, when he removed to section 5 in the same township, where he lived in 1883.

Dr. Myers came in the spring of 1856, and in the summer of 1857 he leased the flouring mill of Christian Bruner and put in steam power.

Samuel Walkup came from Indiana, and settled on section 10, Toledo township, where he erected a cabin.  He only remained a short time, selling out and returning to his old home in Indiana.

Solomon Hufford came in the fall of 1853 and located on section 15.  He now lives on section 16.

In 1853, John Biship came, and was one of the pioneers of Tama county.  He was born in Dutchess county, New York, February 11, 1808.  He was a son of Samuel Bishop and Amarilla Guthridge, of the same State.  Mr. Bishop, when a young man, twenty-eight years of age, emigrated to Ypsilanti, Washtenaw county, Michigan.  Previous to going to Michigan, June 23, 1833, he was married to Mrs. Harriet Palmer; by whom he had three children.  After coming to Michigan in 1836, he followed the trade of blacksmithing, which he had learned from his father in early life.  He also had a small farm which he run in connection with his shop.

In November, 1853, he pitched his tent in Tama county, in which they lived until they could construct a rude log cabin, where seventeen persons spent the winter.  Their first introduction was a very heavy thunder shower, always to be remembered by the party of pioneers.  Mr. Bishop located on the place where he now resides, never moving off the old homestead.  Mrs. Bishop died in Tama countym, August 26, 1874.  She was a life-long Christian, a kind mother and a dutiful wife.  No one knew her but to love her.  At the time of her death she was a member of the Baptist Church.  Mr. Bishop built the first frame house and barn in Tama county.  He is one of the old and respected citizens of the county and has lived to witness many changes.  In politics he is a strong Republican.  He has a beautiful farm under a hish state of cultivation, which is valued at $50 per acre.  His children were: Mary, deceased; Sarah, Ellen, now wife of William Rogers, who is living upon Mr. Bishop's farm.

John Corfman, who settled here in 1853, was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, January 21, 1814.  He parents were Jacob and Magdalena (Bibler) Corfman, of Rockingham county, Virginia.  They went to Ohio and were among the early settlers of that State.  Mr. and Mrs. Jacob corfman were the parents of eight children, four sons and four daughters.  The subject of this sketch grew to manhood in Ohio.  In 1834, he was first married to Miss Delilah Holmes by whom there are two children living:  Rebecca and James W.  Mrs. Corfman died in Perry county, Ohio, July 22, 1841.  Mr. Corfman was married, in 1843, to Miss Catherine Hufford; nine children blessed this union, six of whom are at present living: Susan F., Lydia M., Lewis M., Matilda, Elizabeth and Elmer E.

Mrs. Catherine Corfman died July 30, 1876.  She was a sincere Christian and highly respected.  His present wife, Edna, was the widow of Cyrus Wycle.  Mr. Wycle was killed in the battle of Winchester, Virginia, while defending his country's flag.  Mrs. Corfman, by her first husband had three children, two of whom are living:  Frank and Clara.  Mr. Corfman left Ohio in 1852, coming to Iowa with teams, and locating for a short time in Linn county.  In the fall of 1853, he removed to Tama county, locating on section 10, Toledo township, where he entered wilth land and opened a farm.  Mr. and Mrs. Corfman are members of the Regular Baptist Church of Toledo.

Among the arrivals of 1854 were Robert Foster, Henry Foster, Charles Stewart, Edward Grubb, John Bishop, R. K. Clark, Isaac Blosser and Alpheus Kinney.

George Smith came in the fall of 1854, and settled in Toledo, where he remained a year or two when he went to Kentucky.

Lindley Davis came here as early as 1854 and located on section 18.  He is remembered as being a rank abolitionist.  He moved from here into Howard, and subsequently to the southern part of the State, where he died.

Dr. John Stone came here from Linn county, in 1854, and bought land on section 15, but did not remain long after laying out an addition to Toledo.

William Watts, in 1854, settled in Toledo, or rather upon land that has since been included in the corporate limits.  He was from Michigan, and remained in the county until 1879, when he went to Nebraska.  He was in the army.

George W. Cowles and Daniel Carpenter also came from Michigan at about the same time.  Mr. Cowles now lives in Tama City.  Carpenter makes his home with his children.

Stephen S. Rugg came here as early as 1854.  He was from Michigan and settled with his family on section 13.  Here he remained for a few years and then purchased, and removed to a place in Tama township, where he died.  His second wife still lives on the place.

A. B. Spooner, was from Ohio, and settled in toledo, but had a piece of land near by.  One incident is remembered regarding him.  One day, in the fall of 1855, after Richard Hillman had been at work with Spooner, Hillman went home, stating that he had been at work - husking corn - for the honestest man that ever lived.  Upon being asked for an explanation he said "Why, I met a man who said he wouldn't cheat a man if he got the chance."

Robert Melick settled here in 1855.  He was born in Knox county, Ohio, February 21, 1821.  His parents were George and Mary (Wilson) Melick.  They were married in Green county, Pennsylvania, and immediately emigrated to Knox county, Ohio, where they engaged in farming.  Here Robert was reared on a farm and grew to manhood, receiving his education in the log school houses of pioneer days.  In 1852, he was married to Miss Delilah Ross, by whom he had eight children, four sons and four daughters, six of whom are living: George R., Samuel M., Sally M., Mollie E., Robert E. and Ida J.  In 1855, Mr. Melick came to Tama county, and located on section 14, Toledo township.  At that time he traveled extensively over the State.  Eight years later he moved his family.  Mr. Melick has a fine farm of 240 acres of land adjoining Toledo, all under a high state of cultivation and valued at $75 per acre.  Mr. Melick cast his first vote for William H. Harrison for President, voting with that party until the organization of the Republican party when he joined that party and has since affiliated with it.  Mrs. Melick died April 23, 1880, leaving a large number of friends to mourn her loss.  She was a true Christian, a kind mother, a dutiful wife and was highly respected by all who knew her.

In 1855, a number of additional arrivals swelled the population of Toledo township, among whom were A. J. and Martin Wheaton, William Garner, the Edwards family, William E. Rogers, J. P. Henry, Jehiel Bailey and family and A. B. Spooner.  Andrew J. Wheaton settled on section 2 where he remained for twenty-one years, when he sold the place to the county to be used as a Poor Farm and removed to section 23, where he still lives.  Mr. Wheaton, for a number of years, acted in an official capacity for Tama county, and in the chapter upon "Representation," is noticed more at length.

Philander Edwards first settled on section 17, but soon moved to section 11; finally sold and removed to the city of Toledo, where he died.

Willam Rogers was a native of New York, but came here from Ohio and settled upon section 14, where he still lives.

Abraham Edwards settled on section 17, where he lived a number of years and then moved near Toledo, where he died.

George G. Edwards settled on section 11, lived there three or four years and mvoed to town, where he died a few years later.

Jehial Bailey and family came from Ohio, and settled on the northwest quarter of section 11, where he lived until he died.  He was a good, honest citizen.  Sylvester, the oldest son, was married, and now lives in Connecticut.  George L. Bailey, is the only son who is yet in the county.  Clark now lives in Carroll county, where he is in the lumber business.

George Maiden, one of the old and respected citizens of Tama county, came in 1856. He was born in Knox county, Tennessee, near Knoxville, February 17, 1811. His father, James Maiden, was a soldier of the war of 1812. His mother was Elizabeth Julian. In an early day they emigrated to Lawrence county, Indiana, and settled in the wilderness. Here George grew to manhood, receiving his education in the primitive log cabins. Mr. Maiden says the first school he attended had a dirt floor, a log cut out of the wall and greased paper pasted over it for light, logs split open and pegs put in for seats. The fire-place reached clear across the end of the building, with a mud and stick chimney. It was customary in those days for the larger boys and teacher to furnish the wood. It was also customary to make the teacher stand treats on Christmas, and if he would not furnish the "budge," he found himself fastened out of the school house by the larger boys. On the 14th day of February, 1836, he was married to Jaley Chitty, by whom he had four children: Andrew, James, Joseph and Emily. The latter died December 22, 1873. Mrs. Maiden died November 16, 1844, and Mr. Maiden married again October 16, 1846, Miss Sarah Templeman. Four children have blessed this union: Henry, Jaley, George A. and Charles. November 1, 1853, Mr. Maiden lost his second wife. He subsequently married Sarah A. McAnulty, by whom he has had three children: Benjamin F., Annie E. and Mary E. Benjamin F. died August 7, 1860. In 1846 Mr, Maiden emigrated to Whiteside county, Illinois, coming through with teams, in hoosier fashion, riding his wheel horse. In 1856 he sold out and came to Tama county, arriving in April, and locating land where he has since resided. Mr. Maiden cast his first vote for Jackson, and to-day is one of the strong supporters of the Democratic party. Mr. Maiden takes an active interest in schools as he knows the need of education. He has been School Director for the last ten years.

D. Spayth, one of the early settlers of Tama county, first settled in Columbia township in 1857. He was born in Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, March 8, 1822. His parents were David Spayth and Nancy (Trick) Spayth, who were married in Fayette county, and soon after moved to Westmoreland county Pennsylvania. Mr. and Mrs. Spayth were the parents of seven children, four sons and three daughters. In 1859 Mr. Spayth emigrated to Erie county, New York, where he embarked in the grocery business, in connection with farming. He died in Erie county, New York, in 1869, leaving a widow, who is still living in that county, at the advanced age of ninety-one years. The subject of this sketch grew to manhood in Erie county, and received a common school education. When seventeen years of age he learned the trade of carriage making. In 1843 he was married to Miss Eliza Coe, a daughter of Thomas D. and Charlotte (White) Coe. Mr. and Mrs. Spayth have two children living: Mary H., now the wife of B.B. LaDow and Warren D. In 1857 Mr. Spayth came to Tama county and located in Columbia township. In 1861 he removed to Toledo. Mr. and Mrs. Spayth are members of the Baptist Church of that place.

Daniel S. Hinegardner, who came to Tama county in 1857, was born in Monongalia county, West Virginia, November 17, 1837. He is a son of Samuel and Veronica (Showaltus) Hinegardner. Daniel S. was reared on a farm and received a liberal education. Soon after he came to Tama county. He became acquainted with and married Miss Mary J. Kenny, in May, 1862. She was a daughter of Alpheus and Elizabeth Kenny, natives of Vermont, who emigrated to Tama county in 1854. By this union there were three children: Willis S., Francis G. and Jesse D. Mr. Hinegardner came to the county with little means, but by industry and close attention to his occupation, has become well to do and has a comfortable home. He is a supporter of the Democracy, having voted with that party ever since reaching his majority.

Abraham Hufford, one of the leading farmers of Tama county, settled on section 3, in 1860. He was a native of Perry county, Ohio, where he was born September 29, 1839. He is the son of Daniel Hufford, of Virginia and Nancy Welty, of Pennsylvania, who were married in Perry county, Ohio, in an early day. Eleven children were born to them, four sons and seven daughters, all of whom lived to be adults. Mr. Hufford was, by occupation, a farmer, and was a member of the Dunkard Church in which he was an active worker. The subject of this sketch was reared as a farmer boy and received a liberal education in his native State. In April, 1859, he was married to Sarah Kishler, a daughter of George and Susan Kishler. She was born in Perry county, Ohio, January 7, 1841. By this union four children were born: Mary A., born January 2, 1861; Calista N., born October 18, 1862; Willis S., born February 26, 1868 and George Edson, born September 9, 1869. In September, 1860, Mr. Hufford left his home in Ohio for the broad prairies of Iowa, locating in Toledo township, on section 3, where he has opened up a fine farm and erected a good dwelling. He has 100 acres of prairie land under a high state of cultivation, valued at $50 per acre. In politics he is a Republican and has held several local offices of trust in the gift of the people. Mr. and Mrs. Hufford are members of the Regular Baptist Church of Toledo.

Peter Lichty, farmer and stock raiser, was born in the city of Paris, France, on the 28th of November, 1834. When about five years of age, his parents emigrated to the United States and located in Delaware county, Ohio, where they remained seven years and then removed to Crawford county, where Peter grew to manhood. When eighteen years of age, he started out for himself, going to Huron county, where he became acquainted with and married Miss Julia Bradbrook. In the fall of 1861, he left Huron county and came to Tama  county, Iowa, locating on the place where he now resides on section 11. Mr. Lichty has a fine farm of eighty acres under a high state of cultivation, about one mile north of Toledo, valued at $75 per acre. He also has twenty-two and a half acres of timber land valued at $25 per acre. He makes a specialty of raising hogs, and during the past season realized about $1,000 from sales he made in that line. Mr. and Mrs. Lichty are the parents of seven children, five sons and two daughters: Charles H., Gustavus A., Clara O., Lulu, Rufus B., John and Harry. In politics Mr. Lichty is a strong Democrat. He is a member of the I.O.O.F. and A.O.U.W. of Toledo.

John Hendricks, one of the enterprising farmers of Tama county, was born in Perry county, Ohio, on the 11th day of May, 1821. His parents were George Hendricks, of Pennsylvania and Elizabeth Fink, of Maryland. They were married in Pennsylvania, and in an early day emigrated to Perry county, Ohio, where he engaged in farming. Mr. Hendricks was reared on his father's farm, receiving his education in the pioneer log cabins of that State. Here he grew to manhood, and in 1849, was joined in wedlock with Miss Nancy Hufford, daughter of Daniel Hufford, of Perry county. Mr. and Mrs. Hendricks were the parents of six children, all of whom lived to be adults, three sons and three daughters: Daniel B., John P., George W., Elizabeth, Matilda and Lefiette. In January, 1863, Mr. Hendricks emigrated to Tama county, and located in Toledo township, on section 4. Mrs. Hendricks died in Tama county, in March, 1871. She was a sincere Christian and a member of the German Baptist Church. In politics, Mr. Hendricks was an old line Whig until the organization of the Republican party, when he joined that party and has since been one of its warm supporters. He has a farm of 135 acres under good cultivation, valued at $45. per acre.

W.F. Young, who settled in Tama county in 1864, was born in Morgan county, Virginia, November 19, 1839. When six years of age, his parents emigrated to Grant county, Indiana, where he spent his early life on a farm, receiving his education in a log cabin of the rudest kind. February 17, 1859, he was married to Miss Tamer Jackson, a daughter of Samuel Jackson, a native of North Carolina. She was born in Madison county, Indiana, May 18, 1841. Mr. and Mrs. Young are the parents of three children: Elmer E., Sarah N. and Edna M. In the fall of 1864, Mr. Young came to Tama county, and settled in Columbia township at a time when there were but five houses in Tama City. Here they remained three years, then removed to Toledo township where he at present resides. Mr. and Mrs. Young came to the county with little to start with, but by judicious management have accumulated a comfortable property, and to-day are among the well-to-do farmers of the county. They have 160 acres of land under cultivation, valued at $45. per acre. Mr. and Mrs. Young are members of the Regular Baptist Church, of Toledo. Mr. Young, in politics, is a Democrat, having voted with that party ever since reaching his majority.


HISTORICAL ITEMS.


The first death in the township was a brother of Noah Myers , in the spring of 1853. His remains lie buried in the Toledo cemetery.

The first marriage ceremony in the township was performed by Judge J.C. Vermilya, on the 25th of December, 1853. The parties were George Wier and Miss Mary Rush.

The first birth, in what now constitutes Toledo township, was rose, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. T.A. graham, in 1853. She is now the wife of Frank Ramsdell.

The first Justice of the Peace, for this part of the county, was James H. Hollen, now of Tama City.

The first boy born was C.B. Davis, a son of Franklin and Miranda Davis, February 19, 1854.

The first religious services were held in 1853, when the Rev. David Pettefish preached in the house of John Ross.

The first religious society organized, was Methodist.

William Watts made the first brick in the township.


ORGANIC.


When Tama county was divided into three townships in 1853, the territory now comprising Toledo, was merged into Howard township. In February, 1856, upon application of the County Judge, township 83, range 15, was set off and organized as Toledo township. Thus it remained until 1868, when upon application of the voters in the southern part of the township, two southern tiers of sections were set off and organized as Tama township.

The officers in 1883 were Nathan Fisher and John McCloskey, Justices; C. Cunningham, Clerk; D.F. Bruner, J.M. Winn and J.M. Camery, Trustees.


CITY OF TOLEDO.


Toledo, the capital of Tama county is beautifully situated upon rolling prairie, high and dry, near the largest body of timber in the county. It is surrounded by an excellent farming country, and the wealthiest portion of the county. It is about six miles south of the center of the county, and three miles north of the Iowa river. Toledo was platted and the county seat located here in the fall of 1853. The first sale of lots took place the same fall and was quite an event to the then small population. The county was permanently organized in August, 1853, and all has improved together surely and steadily. The organization of the county and location of the county seat is treated in the general chapters.

The first dwelling house on the town plat was erected by T.J. Staley. A store room was put up previous to this, however, by John Zehrung. But very few buildings were erected in 1853, on account of the difficulty in obtaining materials. Several good buildings were put up, however, among which were a court house, and a steam saw mill by Myers & Blodgett, which soon after burned down and caused great delay in building. The mill was rebuilt in the summer of 1855, and a new one erected by Zehrung & Brother, the same year. This gave new impetus to the town and a rapid growth set in. During the summer a large number of dwellings were erected, and Toledo assumed the proportions of a town as well as county seat.

In the spring of 1856, the Toledo Tribune was established by M.V.B. Kenton.  During the summer of 1857, Staley & Zehrung constructed, what in those days, was called a splendid steam flouring mill. About the same time James Burge put up a shingle machine. In the fall of the same year George M. Taylor & Brother erected a patent lath establishment capable of making 40,000 per day. A fine church was erected the same summer, besides several business houses. During all this time mercantile interests were keeping pace with other things. In 1857, Toledo had seven dry goods and general merchandise store; one clothing, hat, cap, boot and shoe store; one drug store; one hardware store; one furniture store; a warehouse, a bakery and a due representation of mechanics, preachers, lawyers and doctors.

The original town plat is treated at length in the chapter upon Organization. The county purchased a tract of land for an addition to that donated for county seat purposes. This was soon followed by the additions of Zehrung, Harrison, McRoberts, first and second, Stone's and Edmunds and Jerome.

In 1857 there were four church organizations: The Methodists, under charge of Rev. Pettefish; the Baptists, under Elder G.E. Edwards; the Congregationalists, under Rev. G.W. Woodward; and the Presbyterians under
Rev. L. Dodd.


EARLY SETTLERS.


The first settler upon the present site of Toledo was John Ross, who located in March, 1853, upon section 22 and erected a little log cabin, which would now be in the western part of town.

William Garner came soon after and put up a little log shanty where Johnson's store now is. It is still standing. Garner went from here to Henry county and is now in Kansas.

T.A. Graham came in 1858 and erected a building which is now owned by J.M. Camery. It is still standing. Judge Graham remained in Toledo until the time of his death.

Up to and during the year of 1854, the following settlers arrived in Toledo: Joseph and Mitchell Metcalf, Lafayette Cheney, John Zehrung, Merritt Turner, T.J. Staley, Clinton Olney, John Nixon, Jacob Yost, Dr. PL. Baldy, Noah Myers, John Hughes, William and George Wignell, J.H. Van Horn, D.D. Appelgate, George Wier, Alford Phillips, O.T. Clark, Nathan Fisher, Dr. H.T.
Baldy and others.


BUSINESS INTERESTS.


Toledo is a live, business town, and the various mercantile branches are well represented.

The first store was opened in 1844, by John Zehrung, who erected a building for that purpose and continued in the business for a few years. He then sold out and is now in Nebraska.

Shortly afterward John Nixon and Lewis Merchant erected a building and engaged in the general mercantile business.

The firms representing this line of business in 1883 were: W.S. Johnston & Co., Owen Brothers and Clarke Brothers.

W.S.Johnston & Co, are engaged in general merchandise, their business having been established by Galley & Johnston, in 1858. The business has been carried on under the firm name of W.S. Johnston & Co. since 1879. This is the oldest establishment in the city.

W.S. Johnston was born on the 26th of May, 1852, at Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania. He is a son of Uriah S. Johnston and Mary (Keister) Johnston. He received his education at the High School of Mount Pleasant, and remained in his native town until October, 1867, when he came to Toledo, Iowa. He was employed as a clerk in the establishment of W.F. Johnston & Co., where he remained until February, 1879. He then bought out the firm and formed a partnership with J.A. Owen, under the firm name of W.S. Johnston & Co., which firm continued the business until the spring of 1882. Mr. Johnston then purchased the interest of his partner and sold the same to Wesley Johnston, leaving the firm name unchanged. He was married in May, 1878, to Miss Mary Emma Frazee, a daughter of R.H. and Docia (Boggess) Frazee. He is a member of the M.E. Church of Toledo, Iowa, in which body he is Treasurer of the Sunday school, and a member of the official board. He has been a Director of the Toledo Saving's Bank since January, 1882, and has held five shares of the stock since its organization. He is a member of Toledo Lodge, No. 23, A.O.U.W. and Toledo Lodge, No. 26, Iowa Legion of Honor.

Wesley Johnston the partner of W.S. Johnston was born in Mount Pleasant, Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, on the 26th of October, 1834. When ten years of age, he entered the store of Cherry & Boubright, and remained for three years; then became errand boy in his uncle's store, and afterwards took his place behind the counter. Here he spent fourteen years, becoming thoroughly acquainted with mercantile trade, which he has made a life long business. In 1857 he was married to Miss Sophia Porter. By this union there were four children, three of whom are living: John C., Uriah S. and W.F., Jr. In February, 1863, Mrs. Johnston died. She was a sincere Christian and a member of the United Brethren Church. Mr. Johnston subsequently married Miss Emma F. Norton, a daughter of D.M. Norton, of Wisconsin. Four children blessed this union: Charles W., Frankie A., Robert E. and Harry F. Mr. Johnston came to Toledo in the spring of 1862, where he has since been engaged in the mercantile business. He is a member of the M.E. Church, where the family worship. Mr. Johnston is a member of Original Lodge, No. 23, A.O.U.W. and also of the Iowa Legion of Honor, Lodge No. 26.

The present firm of Owen Brothers succeeded Galley & Owen, early in 1883; the business was founded by H. Galley, in 1868.

J.A. Owen, of the firm of Owen Brothers, was born on the 29th of November, 1854, in Newburg, Pennsylvania, and is a son of Rev. A. Owen and Rebecca (Howenstine) Owen, the former a minister of the U.B. Church. J.A. Received his education in the public schools of Ohio' came to Toledo, Iowa, in 1872, and received employment in the store of W.F. Johnston & Co., as a clerk. He followed clerking until 1879, when he entered into partnership with W.S. Johnston and bought the stock of goods of W.F. Johnston & Co., in which firm he was interested until in the spring of 1882. Mr. Owen then sold his interest in that firm and formed a partnership with H. Galley, under the firm name of Galley & Owen, carrying a stock of general merchandise. He was married in September, 1880, to Miss Della I. Beam, a daughter of Dr. W.O. and Hester (Stewart) Beam. This marriage has been blessed with one child. February 1, 1883, J.H. Owen purchased the interest of H. galley and formed partnership with his brother, J.A., under the firm name of Owen Bros., carrying a stock averaging about $8,000.

Clark bros. established their business in March, 1867, and have since continued under that firm name.

The dry goods business of W.A. Fee was established in 1872, by Werum & Fee, and in January, 1877, Mr. Fee became sole proprietor.

Mr. Fee was born in Marion county, Indiana, nine miles north of Indianapolis, on the 22d of February, 1841. His parents were Elias and Mary (Carter) Fee; the former is a native of Kentucky, the later was born in Clermont county, Ohio, near Felicita, where they were married and lived for a number of years. The father was a blacksmith by trade. From Clermont county the parents went to Augusta, Indiana, nine miles from the State capital. The father died September 11, 1879, in Carroll township, where his widow still lives with her son George. The family came to the county in 1854, and have since resided here. William lived with his parents, working on the farm, till twenty-two. When he was twenty-one years of age his father deeded to him 120 acres of land as he did to each of his sons and daughters on their reaching their majorities. In 1863, William A. purchased eighty acres of land which he added to his farm, making 200 acres in all. Mr. Fee then worked on his own farm and about the same time sold eighty acres which he had previously purchased on section 7, same township, to William Hill for $1,200. In March, 1869, Mr. Fee purchased the grocery store of Mrs. C.E. Miller, and continued this business till October, when he sold to S. Doolittle and returned to his farm, engaging in buying and selling horses and cattle until 1872. He then came to Toledo and purchased the interest of Elijah Gallion in the general store of Gallion & Werum, and under the firm name of Werum & Fee, the business was continued for five years. On January 1, 1877, this partnership was dissolved, and W.A. Fee remained as sole proprietor. Mr. Fee also purchased the store building and now deals in dry goods and notions. he carries a large stock of goods, averaging about $6,000. He is a very careful man in his business relations; has closely watched his bills payable never allowing them to run over ten days, and to this he attributes his success in business. Mr. fee was married on the 28th of September, 1874, to Miss Fannie A. Frazee, daughter of R.H. and Docia E. (Boggess) Frazee. Her mother died when she was quite young. Mrs. Fee followed the profession of teaching before her marriage, and for four terms taught in the public schools of Toledo, and for six years clerked in her husband's store. Mrs. Fee is a member of the Regular Baptist Church of Toledo. In politics Mr. fee is a Republican and held the office of Justice of the Peace in Carroll township for five years. He is a member of Toledo Lodge, No 179, I.O.O.F. In August, 1879, he purchased 320 acres in Sac county, this land being under good improvements, having a good house thereon and three and a half miles from Sac City. He owns 120 acres in Tama county, eighty in Pocahontas county, two miles from the county seat, and also owns a residence in the south part and one in the west part of Toledo.

The grocery business of William C. Walters was established by him in 1866. Mr. Walters was born in Story county, Ohio, July 13, 1843. His parents, William and Elizabeth (McKee) Walters, were also natives of Ohio, and are now residents of Brooklyn, Iowa. Mr. Walters came west with his parents in 1865, locating for a time in Brooklyn. In the fall of 1866 he came to Toledo, this county, and opened a grocery business in partnership with Mr. parker. Within six months Mr. Parker sold his interest and went to Colfax, Mr. Walters continuing the business as sole proprietor. He was married the 22d of November, 1866, to Miss Mary H. Reynolds, daughter of C.P. and Martha Reynolds, the former a native of Ohio; the latter of Kentucky. Her father has been a Methodist Episcopal minister for over thirty years, and is now living in Chester, Powesheik county, this State. Mr. and Mrs. Walters have two children: Charles Earnest, born September 20, 1867 and John Perry, born October 3, 1879. In politics, Mr. Walters is a Republican, and has held the office of Councilman for several years. Mr. Walters owns 650 acres of farming land in Tama county; his wife owns 150 acres. Besides this, he has a fine residence in the east part of the city, and also owns the building and lot where he is in business. Mrs. Walters is a member of the M.E. Church of Toledo.

J.H. Woodward succeeded Bartlett & Davis in 1882, and now carries on a grocery business. He was born at Stratford, Fairfield county, Connecticut, November 5, 1839. He received a liberal education, and came to Tama in company with his brother George at the age of seventeen. Here he engaged in farming until 1882, when he changed his occupation and engaged in mercantile business at Toledo. His parents, George H. and Annetta L. (Farrar) Woodward, were natives of New Hampshire. They moved to Toledo in February, 1855, where Mr. Woodward was pastor of the Congregational Church. He died in November, 1880. James H. married Miss Hannah M. Struble, the daughter of Isaac and Emma (Trusdale) Struble, natives of New Jersey. They have had one child--Raymond S., who died when seven months old.

the grocery store of Harry E. Churchill was opened by himself in 1881. Mr. Churchill was born in Linn county, Iowa, July 16, 1861. He is a son of Almond and Anna M.(Lovejoy) Churchill, natives of Stowe, Vermont. In 1849, his father went to California, where he remained three years engaged in mining. At the end of that time he returned to Vermont with about $15,000 which he had made in the gold country. In 1852 the family came to Iowa, locating in Benton county, where Mr. Churchill was engaged in farming and stock raising. In 1860, they removed to Linn county, where the father remained until his death, which occurred in the spring of 1869. In politics, Mr. Churchill was a Republican. His son, Harry E., was reared in Linn county, receiving his education in the common schools, and at Western College, where he spent three years. In 1880 he graduated at the Davenport Business College. Mr. Churchill came to Toledo from Western, where for two years he had been teaching in the commercial department of Western College, and at once engaged in his present business. June 6, 1882, he was married to Miss Belle Van Osdall, of Geneseo, Illinois. They are both members of the United Brethren Church, of Toledo.

Charles C. Quintard, a grocer of Toledo, established his business in March, 1880. He is a native of Knox county, Ohio, born June 18, 1848, his parents being Cyrus B. and Sarah A. (canfield) Quintare. Charles was reared on a farm, receiving his education in the common schools, until 1864, when he came to Iowa, and followed farming in Tama county for three years; then came to Toledo, where he followed carpentering three years. January 1, 1870, Mr. Quintard was married to Miss Anna A. Loop, a native of Crawford county, and who came to Iowa with her parents when quite young. Her parents were Charles and Delilah (Southwick) Loop. After his marriage, Mr. Quintard farmed for six years on a farm near the village or Traer, this county; then came to Toledo, where he clerked in a grocery store for himself in Toledo, and has since been in the business, having a large trade. Mr. and Mrs. Quintard have one child living: Alton C.V., born April 5, 1871. Mr. Quintard is a Republican in politics, and a warm supporter of prohibition. Mrs. Quintard is a member of the M.E. Church.

One of the leading grocery firms of Toledo is Stone & Ross, who succeeded B. stone, in December, 1881.

Benjamin Stone was born in Yorkshire, England, in August, 1832, his parents being Edward and Rachel (Croyesdal) Stone. His father was foreman in a cloth manufactory in Yorkshire. Here Benjamin was reared, attending the common schools and when of sufficient age, learned the boot and shoemaker's trade. At twenty-six, he came to the United States with his wife and one child, landing at New York city. From there he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where he engaged in the boot and shoe business, remaining seven years; then with his family he came to Toledo, and commenced business in a building which he purchased of Thomas A. Graham. He soon pulled that down and erected a brick block, now occupied by Churchill's grocery store. He occupied this building for some time, then sold to Wieting Bros, and built the brick store now owned by W.C. Walter. Hr next erected several residences, and in the spring of 1882, put up the store building now occupied by Harrison & Giger. Here he commenced in the boot and shoe business, which is still continued by the last named firm, to whom he sold in the spring of 1883. Mr. Stone is a member of the City Council, to which he had been elected several times. he was married in 1854, to Sarah Ann Wood, of Leeds, Yorkshire, England. They have nine children: Annie, Emma, Albert, Lizzie, Ida, Freddie Harry, Jessie and Kittie.

The first harness shop in Toledo was opened by Thomas Murray, in 1855.

H. Wagner engaged in the harness business at Toledo in 1872, and is the only man in the business at present. He was born in Hamburg, Germany, May 6, 1829. His parents, Levi C. and Catherine (Lauth) Wagner, died in their native land. Henry Wagner attended school till thirteen years of age, then learned the tanners trade. At sixteen he commenced carriage trimming and harness making, continuing for three years, then as journeyman until the fall of 1852, when he came to the United states, first locating at Newark, New Jersey. There he engaged in the harness business until the spring of 1865, then moved to Sterling, Illinois, and engaged there at his trade. In 1872, he came to Toledo, Tama county, Iowa, and opened the harness shop in which he was engaged in 1883. He was married in November, 1851, to Miss Catherine Hustman, a native of Germany. They have had five children, all living: Josie S., Emma D., Clint A., Laura and Charles H. Mr. Wagner has been a Republican since 1861. Mr. and Mrs. Wagner are members of the Lutheran Church. He has been a Township Trustee for three years, a member of the City Council for the past five years, and also for four years was a member of the School Board. He is doing a large business, having the sole trade of the place, and is carrying about as large a stock as there is in the county. He was for three years in the military service in the Old Country, and participated in the war between Germany and Denmark, which commenced in the spring of 1848, and ended in the spring of 1851. He went through the battles of Lapelle and Fredrickstedt, both very severe.

H. Wagner & Son opened a bakery and restaurant in 1881, and now have as fine an assortment of goods in their line as there is in the county.

The clothing business of Toledo is represented by Louis Sime, who first opened his store on the 10th of April, 1877.

The boot and shoe business is mainly represented by two firms: Harrison & Giger and J.W. Kremenak.

The business of Harrison & Giger was established by B. Stone in April, 1882, and in July, same year, came under the management of stone & Harrison, and early in 1873, Mr. Stone sold his interest to Mr. Giger, the firm now being Harrison & Giger.

J.W. Kremenak opened his business in 1878.

W.H. Harrison, Jr., established a wholesale and retail book store in December, 1881, and still continues the same. The first year's sales amounted to 35,000 volumes.

The first photograph gallery of Toledo, and in fact of Tama county, was opened by Rev. G.G. Edwards. The business finally passed into the hand of J.C. Miller, who in 1861, sold out to J.S. Moore. Mr. Moore is the present owner of this business, having remained sole proprietor since 1861. This is the oldest business o the kind in the county.

Mr. Moore was born in Centre county, Pennsylvania, July 1, 1832. he is a son of Daniel and Eva (Swarts) Moore. When J.S. Moore was nine months old his parents emigrated to Ashland county, Ohio, where he was educated in the common schools and grew to manhood. When seventeen years of age he learned the trade of house carpenter and cabinet maker which he followed for eleven years. In March, 1857, he was married to Miss Mary Miller, a daughter of John Miller, of Wayne county, Ohio. By this union there are six children: Alice C., Jennie L., Ward H., Walter, Nellie and Nettie. In 1856 Mr. Moore turned his face towards the setting sun, emigrating to Linn county, Iowa, and the following spring came to Tama county, locating in Toledo, where he followed his trade until 1861. He then engaged in his present business and by close attention to business and fair dealing has built up a custom that is second to none in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Moore are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Moore is recognized as one of the best photographers in the State.

The first jewelry business in Toledo was started by J.C. Miller in 1859, who sold out to R.R. Frazee in 1863, which business he continued to engage in until 1883, when he retired from the business.

R. H. Frazee, one of the pioneers of Tama county, was born in Mason county, Kentucky; on the 23d of January, 1823. His parents were Squire and Abigail (Master) Frazee. When R. H. Frazee was three years old his parents emigrated to Claremont, Ohio, then a wilderness, where they purchased land and opened up a farm, where his father died in 1876. His mother died in Iowa in 1867. They were members of the Regular Baptist Church. The subject of this sketch was reared on the farm; his education being received in the pioneer school houses of Ohio. In those days a teacher was considered no account unless he knew how to handle the rod. Here R.H. Frazee grew to manhood and for a number of years followed farming. In the meantime, being of a mechanical turn of mind, he turned his attention to the jewelry trade, which he has since followed. In 1846 he was married in Kentucky to Miss Docia Boggess, by whom there was a family of seven children, two sons and five daughters: Fannie, Elizabeth J., John S., now County Superintent of Mills county, Iowa; Ira B., jeweler of Ames, Iowa; Emma, Flora and Ella. Mrs. Frazee died in Ohio in 1862. In the spring of 1863 he came to Toledo, where he engaged in farming, and also the jewelry business. In 1868 he married Miss Emily Demming. In early life Mr. Frazee was a democrat, but at the time of the organization of the Republican party, he joined it and has since affiliated with that party. Mr. Frazee is a member of the Regular Baptist Church.

The jewelry trade was represented in 1883 by A.A. Hart, who established his business in March, 1882.

The flour, feed and general produce trade, in 1883, was represented by W.H. graham, who established his business in December, 1881.

William H. Graham was born in Delaware county, New York, on the 16th day of September, 1816, and is a son of John Graham who is a native of Scotland. When sixteen years of age he came to America, and located in Delaware county, New York, where he became acquainted with and married Jane rose. Nine children were born to them, eight of whom lived to be adults.
 

The subject of this sketch was reared on his father's farm, and received a common school education. In March, 1840, he was married to Miss Milicent J. Luddington, of Delaware county, by whom he had two children,--Gilbert H., and Ruth A., now the wife of J.D. Biggs of Colorado. Mrs. Graham died in the fall of 1854, and the following March Mr. Graham was married to Miss Harriet A. Rogers, of Cortland county, New York. By this union there were four children, three of whom are living: William R., Florence E. and Robert E. In 1857, he emigrated to Will county, Illinois, and in 1864, removed to Tama county, and located in Salt Creek township, where he erected the first house in Chelsea; also sold the first goods in the place. In politics, he was formerly an old Line Whig, casting his first vote for William H. Harrison for President, and his first vote for Governor for W. H. Seward. At the time of the organization of the Republican party he joined it, and has voted with that party ever since. He has held the office of Justice of the Peace, and also a commission under Abraham Lincoln as postmaster. Mr. and Mrs. Graham are members of the Presbyterian Church.


The first set of abstract books were commenced by T.S. Free and A.H. Lawence. These books are now in possession of J.M. Winn, who is prepared to do all kinds of abstract work.

Charles Cunningham also has a set of abstract books, which were commenced by William Rieckhoff.

The first drug business in Toledo was established in 1856, by Dr. Myers and Merritt Turner. Drs. Harkins and Bunce were soon after in the drug trade; but the first one on any importance was by John Shanklin in 1859, on the site and in the building afterward occupied by Mr. Winn, as an abstract office. In 1860, T.K. Armstrong became associated with Mr. Shanklin and the firm of Armstrong & Shanklin and the firm of Armstrong & Shanklin continued for about two years, when Mr. Armstrong became sole proprietor and run the business twelve years, and sold to Berger & Yeiser, who subsequently sold to Mr. Thompson.

A drug store was opened by John Zehrung, shortly after the war, which was sold to Rogers & Sauers, and in 1871 purchased by J.N. Springer, who still owned it in 1883.

S. Stiger, who opened his drug store in 1873, was born in Georgetown, Columbiana county, Ohio, August 29, 1832. His parents, John G. and Catherine Eve (Hohenstein) Stiger, were both natives of Germany. The father was a tailor by trade. Soon after his birth Stephen's parents went to Wayne county, Ohio, and when he was about five, they removed to Crawford county, where Stephen was reared, receiving his education in the district schools. In 1890, Mr. Stiger went to Missouri, locating in Benton county. The following summer he came to Iowa, locating in Madison county where he remained until 1863, then came to Tama county and engaged in farming. In 1866, he purchased a farm and in 1867, sold and went to Toledo, and opened a grocery store and continued in that business until 1873, at which time he opened a drug store, in which he has since continued, carrying about the largest stock in the county, and doing a large trade. Mr. Stiger was married in Morrow county,

Ohio, October 14, 1852, to Abigail Jackson, of Knox county, Ohio, and daughter of Joshua and Mary (Lewis) Jackson. Her father was a native of Maine; her mother of New Jersey. Mr. and Mrs. Stiger had one child born to them: Harry J., born June 6, 1857. Mrs. Stiger died June 7, 1864 and Mr.Stiger was again married April 30, 1865, to Miss Lucy L. Musser, a daughter of Martin and Augusta A.(Clarke) Musser, the former a native of Pennsylvania, the latter of Ohio. They have two children: Martin G., born March 10, 1867 and Edith M., born December 9, 1876. In politics, Mr. Stiger is a Democrat, and is at present one of the City Councilmen, being elected for a three year term. He also served in the same office in 1875 and 1876. He has been Chief of fire Department since 1878, being the present incumbent. He is a member of Toledo Lodge, A.F. & A.M., and became a member of that fraternity in 1857, at Bucyrus, Ohio.

The drug business of Hinsdale & Son, was established by T.K. Armstrong, in the spring of j1879, and sold to the above named firm, in January, 1883. Thomas K. Armstrong was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, December 20, 1810. His parents, Andres and Rachel (King) Armstrong, were both natives of Pennsylvania, and settled five miles west of New Lisbon, Columbiana county, Ohio, in 1895. His parents were married in about 1806, in that county. Thomas K. was reared on a farm, receiving his education in the pioneer schools. At eighteen, he engaged with General John Armstrong, an uncle, to learn the carpenter's trade, serving an apprenticeship of three years. February 14,1832, Mr. Armstrong was married to Miss Amy Shirts, a daughter of George and Sarah (Lyons) Shirts, born near West Union, Ohio, in 1806. By this union, there were two children: Andrew and Sarah. Andrew died in 1833, and in 1834, the wife and mother passed away, followed in two weeks, by Sarah. In 1835, Mr. Armstrong sold his property in New Lisbon, and engaged in the mercantile business at Hanover, same county. In 1836, he was married to Malinda Craig, a native of Ohio, and daughter of Isaac and Elizabeth (Davis) Craig, who were natives of Virginia. In 1837, they moved to Rochester, Columbiana county, where Mr. Armstrong engaged in mercantile business until 1847, when he removed to Millbrook, Wayne county, Ohio, where he remained in business two years. In 1849, he removed to Berlin, Holmes county, same State, and engaged in merchandising until 1855; then came west to Iowa, locating in Lisbon, Linn county, where he opened a drug store. In 1860, he came to Tama county, locating at Toledo, where he engaged in the drug business until January, 1883, when he retired. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong have been blessed with three children: Melvina J., widow of John M. Shanklin; Carrie s., wife of Henry Soleman, druggist of Tama City, Iowa; Ann E., wife of J.Q. Clark a merchant of Toledo, Iowa. Mrs. Shanklin is now engaged in the millinery business at Tama City.

H.W. Rebok & Son, hardware dealers, succeeded the firm of Stoner & Jones, in January, 1883. This business was first opened by A. Bartlett, in 1855, and was the first business of the kind in Toledo. Mr. Bartlett sold to Stoner & Jones, who conducted the business for a number of years, and then sold to the present owners, H.W. Rebok & Son.

Philip K. Rebok, Jr., member of the above firm, was born on the 2d of March, 1855. He is a son of H.W. Rebok, a minister of the United Brethren Church, and Liddie E. (Cormany) Rebok, both of whom were natives of Franklin county, Pennsylvania. He received his education in the public schools of Franklin county, and worked on a farm until he was twenty-one years old, when he went to Richland county, Ohio, where for two years he followed farming. At the end of this time, he moved to Moultrie county, Illinois, worked on his father's farm for two years and then purchased a farm of 160 acres, upon which he remained three years. He then rented his farm and on the 1st of January, 1883, came to Toledo, where he formed a partnership with his father, engaging in the hardware business, under the firm name of H.W. Rebok & Son. Philip K., still owns his farm in Moultrie county, Illinois, and has also a fine residence in Toledo, this county. He is a member of the United Brethren Church. On the 24th of September, 1879, he was married to Miss Mattie B. Thuma, daughter of Peter and Mrs. (Kelso) Thuma, of Richland county, Ohio. They have one daughter: Lona B., born September 18, 1881.

J.M. Camery have carried a limited stock of hardware in connection with their machinery business since 1870. They are about to put in a full stock of this line of goods. The hardware store of C.W. Conant was first opened by A.J. Hasell, in 1876. He, however, only kept stoves and tinware. In April, 1889, Mr. Hassell associated himself with C.W. Conant, under the firm name of Hassell & Conant. This partnership continued until in November, 1882, when Mr. Conant became sole proprietor.

The first firm to engage in the machinery business in Toledo was Graham & Nelson. They continued in trade for two or three years. Since Toledo was started there have been several to engage in this business, but most all have been transients.

J.M. Camery & Son represent the agricultural implement business of Toledo. In 1870, this firm purchased the business owned and established by Edie, Guilford & Company, and have continued it with good success ever since. In 1880, they began handling coal in connection with their other business and have also kept on hand a full line of buggies, carriages, wagons, etc., since 1881. They do a business which amounts to about $30,000 annually.

James M., senior member of the firm, was born in Rockingham county, Virginia, on the 11th of May, 1825. His parents were Christian and Nancy (Messick) Camery, natives of the same county. When James was ten years old the family moved to Ohio and settled on a farm in Knox county. The subject of this sketch was married there in September, 1845, his wife being a daughter of John and Catherine (Hunt) Wilson, natives of Hagerstown, Maryland, and both of whom died in Knox county, Ohio, the father in 1861, the mother in 1881. Mr. Camery's father died in Marshall county, Illinois, on the 10th of March, 1874, lacking but twenty-four days of being eighty-five years of age. His mother died April 9, 1883, in the same county. After marriage Mr. Camery remained in Knox county, engaged principally in farming until the fall of 1861, when he came to Tama county and settled on section 31, Buckingham township, where he bought 120 acres of land. He improved his farm and, in 1865, added eighty acres to it. He continued improvements and in 1869, broke and fenced eighty acres, erected good buildings and remained until the spring of 1870, when he came to Toledo and engaged in business as above stated. At that time he sold his farm eighty acres, to J.M. Winn and 120 acres to Edie, Guilford & Company, whose stock he and his son purchased under the firm name of Camery & Son. In politics, Mr. Camery is a republican and has held the office of City Councilman for two years, in 1876 and 1877, and was re-elected in the spring of 1882, for a two years'term. Mr. and Mrs. Camery have had two children: Denton and Dorton, who died at the age of three years.

Denton Camery, junior member of the above firm, was born July 1, 1846, in Knox county, Ohio, and came with his parents to Iowa when he was fifteen years old. He lived with his parents until 1863, then came to Toledo and clerked in the store of Galley & Johnston for about eight months. He then enlisted in Company K, 47th Iowa Infantry, in the one hundred days service, joining his regiment at Davenport. From there the regiment went to Helena, Arkansas, and rendezvoused at that place under the command of General Buford. Mr. Camery received his discharge in October, 1864, and returned to Toledo, where he was again employed as clerk in the store of Galley & Johnston. He worked with this firm until the spring of 1866, then during the summer attended the Bryant & Stratton Business College at Davenport, Iowa. That fall he returned to Toledo and was employed as deputy in the County Recorder's and County Treasurer's office, mainly in the latter, until 1870. He then formed a partnership with his father to carry on their present business. Mr. Camery was married November 16, 1869, to Miss Violet Arb, daughter of David Arb, of Toledo. They have one child, Edith, born April 13, 1882. Mr. Camery is a Republican and is a member of the I.L.of H., Toledo Lodge, No. 26. the firm of Camery & Son carry a large stock, which will average in value about $5,000, and do a business amounting to $30.000 annually. Father and son each own a fine residence, besides the building and lot where they do business. They have for a number of years engaged quite largely in buying and selling farms and now own 480 acres of land: 320 in O'Brien county, eighty in Clay and eighty in Green county.

The first furniture store opened in Toledo was owned by O.T. Clark. One of the first pieces of work done by him was a coffin for a man who had been shot in Whiskey Bottom. Mr. Clark's shop was destroyed by fire in June, 1855.

The second cabinet shop was opened by Matt Churchill, in 1855, and was continued by him for several years. James Wallace, another transient, ran a shop for a few years, and then went to Kansas.

Arb & Wadley established business as dealers in, and manufacturers of, furniture in 1865, and here continued in the same until the present time. They now do the largest business of the kind in the county, and at present are the only furniture dealers in Toledo.

The first elevator was built by W.F. Johnston, Henry Galley, Leander Clark and W.H. Harrison, at a cost of 7,000. It was first run by Wm. Brown. In 1863 it was owned by B. L. Knapp and B.L. Johnson, and operated by B.L. Knapp. Another elevator was built in 1874-5, by a stock company, and known as the Farmer's Elevator. In 1883 it was owned by W.F.. Johnston.

B.L. Knapp, grain and stock dealer, of Toledo, was born in Wayne county, New York, on the 16th of August, 1836. Here he grew to manhood and received an academic education. His time was spent on the farm in summers, and teaching school during the winters. In 1868, he was married to Miss Lucy M. Wright. In 1866 he went to Michigan and purchased a flock of 1,500 sheep and drove them to Tama county, arriving here October e, 1866, where he followed sheep growing for five years. Then he disposed of his sheep and followed farming until the fall of 1878, when he embarked in his present business. Mr. and Mrs. Knapp are the parents of four children: Charles M., Lorenzo T., arland G. and Arthur. Mr.Knapp is a member of the A.O.U.W. In politics he is a Republican, and has affiliated with the party since its organization.

The first blacksmith in Toledo was George Weir. He was a poor man, and the citizens, by private subscription, assisted him in fitting up a shop. This was sometime in 1855. He paid those who had helped him to start in work, and soon after moved his shop into the town. A number of years ago he left and his whereabouts are not known.

Lewis Loupee, black smith of Toledo, is of French descent. He was born in Baden, German, on the 16th of August, 1827. When he was three years old his parents emigrated to Pennsylvania, where they remained six years and then removed to Wayne county, Ohio. In 1840 they removed to Cass county, Michigan. Here Lewis grew to manhood, and, when twenty-three years of age,  he commenced to learn his trade. He was married in Cass county to Miss Phoebe Brown, a native of Ohio, by whom he had six children, three of whom are living: Ellen M., wife of W. E Appelgate; William A., of Dickenson, Kansas and Ida May. In the fall of 1856, Mr. Loupee turned his face westward, came to Iowa and located in Cerro Gordo county. Here he remained but a short time and then removed to Kossuth county, settling near Algona. In June, 1859, he came to Tama county, living in Crystal township for a short time, when he purchased land in Howard township, and engaged in farming. In August, 1862, he joined the Union Army, enlisting in the 28th Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company F, and participated in the following engagements: Siege and capture of Vicksburg, from May 22, until its capture, July 4, 1863; Jackson, Mississippi, July 11, 1863, Sabine Cross Roads, Louisiana, April 8, 1864; Cain River, Louisiana, April 23, 1864; Medde Bayou, May 8, 1864; Mansura, May 19, 1864; Opeguon Creek, Virginia, September 19, 1864; Fisher's Hill, Virginia, September 22, 1864 and Cedar Creek, October 19, 1864. He was made 2d Sergeant, June 20, 2863. Mr. Loupee was always found at his post of duty. He was mustered out of the service at Savannah, Georgia, July 31, 1865. After the close of the war he returned to Tama county, located in Toledo, where he has since been engaged at his trade of blacksmithing. Mr. Loupee is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and A.O.U.W. In politics he is a Republican, and has affiliated with the party since its organization. Mr. and Mrs. Loupee are members of the Freewill Baptist Church, of Toledo.

The first shoe shop was opened by John Aldrich, in the fall of 1854. At present there are two shops in Toledo, Fred Junker's and Max Reusch

Frederick William Junker was born in Prussia, province of Westphalia. When fourteen years old he was apprenticed to learn the trade of boot and shoe making, and worked at that business for four years. In the fall of 1858, he left his native country and came to America, landing at New Orleans, from whence he came by river to St. Louis. In August, 1862, he enlisted in the Twenty-fourth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company E, in answer to the call for 600,000 men, participating in the following engagements: Port Gibson, Champion Hills, siege and capture of Vicksburg, Jackson, Red River Expedition, under General Banks, when his command was transferred to the Shenandoah Valley, where he participated in the battle of Winchester, Cedar Creek and Saw General Sheridan come in on his famous twenty-mile ride. they were afterwards sent to Savannah, Georgia, where they joined Sherman's army and were at the surrender of General Johnston, being mustered out of service at Savannah at the close of the war. Mr. Junker was always found at his post, leaving the Regiment but once in three years. In 1861, he was married to Miss Minnie Brighthaupt, who has born him five children: Minnie, Emma, Clara, Willie and Ida. Mr. Junker came to Toledo, in 1865, where he has since followed his trade. In politics, he is a Republican, and cast his first vote for President for Abraham Lincoln.

J.W. Kremenak, dealer in boots and shoes, at Toledo, was born in Bohemia, in 1856. In 1870, he emigrated with his parents to America. when seventeen years of age he learned the boot and shoe trade in Belle Plaine. Mr. Kremenak is at present engaged in the boot and shoe business in Toledo, where by fair dealing and close attention to business he has built up a lucrative trade of which he may well feel proud. February 9, 1880, he was married to Miss Mary Krier. They have been blessed with two children. His father is living in Otter Creek township, where he has a farm on ninety acres of land under a high state of cultivation. On the 22d of August, 1878, Mr. Kremenak came to Toledo, Iowa, and opened a shoe shop. In the fall of 1879, he added a stock of boots and shoes, and in October, 1880, became agent for the sale of the Domestic sewing machine in Tama county.

Union Stoner established business in Toledo in the year 1877, and is well known as a young man of high reputation and good business talent. He carries a stock
of goods consisting of every article in the confectionery line.

The Stickney Hotel has been under the management of E.E. Stickney for a number of years. He became sole proprietor in the year 1874. Since then he has remodeled and re-fitted it at a great expense and now his hotel ranks with any first-class hotel in the county.

The Toledo House, in 1883, was under the management of J.G. Brown, who took possession in 1882. The house is a substantial structure, is comfortably furnished and is run in excellent shape.

Edward Reichmann keeps a neat and cozy hotel and boarding house, a short distance from the depot.

Edward Reichmann was born on the 28th of September, 1827, at Schleswig, Holstein, Germany, and is a son of Christian and Anna Dorothea (Hansen) Reichmann. Mr. Reichmann remained in his native town until 1847, when he took up the trade of a glassblower, at which he worked in several cities in Europe until 1858. In the summer of that year he emigrated to the United States, landing at New York city, in September. Here he followed picture-frame making for a period of nearly twenty years. In 1877 he came to Toledo, Tama county, Iowa, and engaged in selling pictures, frames and like goods, which, however, did not prove profitable. He soon closed out his stock and started a boarding house near the depot, where he is still engaged, and in connection with which he is farming. In 1862 he was married to Miss Caroline Burgauer, a daughter of Gerson and Fanny (Kohn) Burgauer, a native of Wurtemberg, Germany. By this union there are three children: Henry J., Herman Eddie and Gustav.

William E. Appelgate, liveryman at Toledo, was born in Cedar county, Iowa, August 17, 1847. His parents were Jacob W. and Mary Ann Appelgate, natives of Indiana, where the father was reared on a farm. When William was five years of age his parents came to Tama county, where the father engaged in buying and selling land for a few years, then settled on a farm in Indian Village township, and followed farming until the breaking out of the Rebellion. The father enlisted in Company C, 10th Iowa Infantry and died of small-pox in the Washington hospital, at Memphis, Tennessee. The mother afterward married Samuel Jones and is now living in Fort Madison, Lee county, this State. William was reared in Tama county and at the age of ten years hired to A. Richardson and worked on a farm until 1863. That year he enlisted in Company I, 8th Iowa Cavalry, went south to Nashville, and was with General Sherman until the capture of Atlanta. His Company was then placed under General Thomas in the campaign against Nashville. Mr. Appelgate participated in the following battles: Dalton, Stony Face, Tilton, Resaca, Cassville, Burnt Hickory, Marietta, Newman, Georgia and Lovejoy Station. He was taken prisoner at Lovejoy Station, but escaped in about three hours, and rejoined the remnant of his Regiment at Kingston, Georgia. The Regiment was re-organized and placed again under the command of General Thomas, participating in the battles of Nashville, Franklin, Shoal Creek and West Point. He was mustered out of service at Macon and discharged at Clinton, Iowa. Mr. Appelgate then came to Toledo, Tama county, Iowa, and attended school for about one year; then worked at different occupations until 1876, when he went into partnership with C.F. McGee in the livery business. This partnership continued until August 15, 1878, when the firm was changed to McGee, Appelgate & Ross, which was continued until September, 1880, when McGee withdrew. In November, 1881, Mr. Appelgate bought the interest of Ross and has since been the sole proprietor. June 20, 1872, he was married to Miss E.M. Loupee, a native of Michigan, and a daughter of Louis and Phoebe (Brown) Loupee. They have two children living: Louis, born February 6, 1880 and Edna May, born January 4, 1883. Freddie died September 11, 1876, aged three and a half years; Allie died September 29, 1876, aged about two years and Jessie died December 15, 1880, aged three and a half years. They all died of diphtheria. In politics Mr. Appelgate is a Republican, and cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln.

John Wild, a brick maker, one mile west of Toledo, was born in Leeds, Yorkshire, England, August 23, 1833 and received a limited education. When a young man he learned the trade of a stone cutter and quarryman. In 1854, he came to the United States, landing at New Orleans, and from there worked his way to Connecticut, where he was employed at his trade. The following year he returned to his native country, but not being contented and after a stay of eighteen months, again came to America. He worked at various places until 1859, when he located in Cleveland, Ohio. Here he married Mary J. Purdy, by whom he had three children: William, Harry and Nettie, who died August 17, 1876. Mrs. Wild died in January, 1869, and he subsequently married Jane Shunn, a native of Toronto, Canada. By this union there was a family of eight children, six of whom are living: Mabel A., born September 17, 1870; John, Jr., born March 3, 1872; Francis, born February 13, 1874; Maud, born October 5, 1876, and died December 30, 1876 Merty, born February 14, 1878; Peter, born January 3, 1880; Lottie, born January 26, 1883 and one who died in infancy. Mr. Wild enlisted in August, 1862, in the 1st Ohio Light Artillery, Battery I, and participated in the engagements at Chancellorsville, Fredericksburn and Gettysburg, where he was wounded in his arm by a piece of shell. The battery was then transferred to Alabama and joined in the battle of Mission ridge under Thomas, and then to Knoxville and the siege of Atlanta, where he was again wounded by a minnie ball striking him under his right arm and coming out of his left cheek, cutting off an artery and tearing away a portion of his jaw. He came near losing his life from bleeding. He lay in the hospital for six months, then returned to his command at Chattanooga, where he was three times detailed to carry a flag of truce to General Buford's headquarters. He was discharged in June, 1865, at the close of the war. He then came to Tama county, where he has since followed brick making and turn off from 500,000 to 800,000 yearly. Mr. and Mrs. Wild are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He has always voted with the Republican party.

Frank E. Smith, formerly book-keeper of the Toledo City Bank, is a native of Ohio, born in Seneca county, on the 17th of May, 1848. His father, Gaylord G. Smith, though never a resident of Tama county, deserves more than a passing notice. He was born in Utica, New York, December 20, 1803, and in early life removed to Scipio, New York, where he was married on the 10th of January, 1820, to Miss Ada C. Covry. In 1833, the young couple moved to Ohio, where they remained some time and then removed to Garden Grove, Iowa. Mr. Smith was a great lover of freedom and while Garrett Smith was advocating publicly the doctrine of universal freedom, Gaylord was feeding and sheltering the pursued slave. When the war broke out Mr. Smith was too old to shoulder his musket, but he did all in his power to encourage enlistments. In all great moral and political questions of the day he was always to be found on the side of right, the temperance cause being as dear to his heart as was freedom. He was a good man and when death called for him on the morning of January 1, 1883, it found him ready. Frank E. remained at home with his parents, attending school until 1864, when he went to Sandusky, Ohio, enlisted as a private in the 191st Ohio, and though but sixteen years old, served until the close of the war. In the fall of 1865, he accompanied his parents to Garden Grove, Decatur county, Iowa where for the next two years he occupied his time in attending and teaching school. During the next four years he clerked for D. and A.B. Stearns. In 1871, he attended the Commercial College at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and there graduated at the close of the term. Returning to garden grove, he remained until 1874, then removed to Toledo and entered the land office of Nelson & Baker as a book-keeper. He remained with this firm until 1878, when he relinquished his position and accepted the place of assistant cashier of the Toledo City Bank. He has shown himself to be a man of first class business qualifications and as a book-keeper, his books being models of neatness and accuracy. Mr. Smith was married, in 1872, to Miss Hattie Chamberlin, a daughter of Thomas Chamberlin, of Mount Vernon, Knox county, Ohio. Four children have been born to them: Charles B., Fred A., Flora D. and Ada M. Mr. and Mrs. Smith are members of the Congregational Church of Toledo.

In 1883, there were two meat markets in Toledo--Jons & Tode and Henry Potseoska, proprietors. The latter started in business in 1882, purchasing the market opened by W.S. Turbett, in 1854.

Claus Tode, of the firm of Johns and Tode, proprietors of one of the meat markets of Toledo, is a native of Schleswig, Holstein, Germany, born on the 4th of September, 1855, a son of Claus and Sophie (Vog) Tode, received his education at the public schools of Hamburg, Germany, whence his father had moved to follow the profession of a brick mason. Claus Jr., worked on the farm from his fifteenth year until 1871, when he came to the United States, followed farming at different points, came to Tama county, Iowa, in 1875 and here followed farming until 1879 when he formed a partnership with Claus Jons, and bought out a meat market at Toledo, Iowa, which is now carried on under the firm name of Jons & Tode. On the 1st of January, 1880, he was united in marriage with Miss Mary Geibert, daughter of Henry and Bertha Geibert, which union has been blesses with one child--Claus Henry William.

His partner in business, Claus Jons, was born on the 18th of June, 1850, in Schleswig, Holstein, Germany, and is a son of Claus Jons and Dorotha (Dohr) Jons. He came to the United States in 1869, followed farming until 1874, then came to Toledo, Iowa, and opened a meat market, when in 1879, he formed the partnership aforementioned. He was married in 1876, to Mary Potseoska, which union was blessed by four children: frank, William, John and Anna.

The lumber trade of Toledo is now represented by the firm of Thompson & Smith, who purchased the yard of Mr. Terry in May, 1881. They carry a large stock, consisting of lumber, fuel, sash, doors, blinds, paints, oils, etc., and do a business amounting to $30,000 annually.

In 1882, John Bohacek erected the Toledo steam flouring mill at a cost of $4.800. It is a wooden building 22x36 feet. two stories high, and an engine room 18x20 feet. The engine is of thirty-five horse power, and with three run of stone, Mr. Bohacek is fully prepared to do custom work.

Among the carpenters, builders and contractors of Toledo, in 1883, were: David stoner and Henry B. Belden. David Stoner, one of the pioneers of Tama county, was born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, on the 2d day of December, 1824. He is a son of Joseph and Mary stoner, who were the parents of nine children, four sons and five daughters. In 1847, Joseph stoner emigrated with his family to Seneca county, Ohio, where he embarked in farming and remained until his death. David Stoner, when sixteen years old, learned the trade of carpenter and joiner. His education was received in the pioneer school houses. Mr. Stoner was married in Seneca county, Ohio, May 1, 1851, to Miss Mary Emerson of Maryland. In the spring of 1856, he turned his face westward, coming to Iowa and locating in Toledo, where he has since followed his trade, building many of the public and private buildings in the county. Mr. and Mrs. Stoner are the parents of six children: Charles H., Mary C., Viola R., Virginia C., David E. and Victor. Mr. Stoner, in politics, is a Republican and cast his first Presidential vote for General Scott. Mr. and Mrs. Stoner are members of the Congregational Church of Toledo, where the family worship.

Henry B. Belden was born in Ashtabula county, Ohio, July 15, 1825. His parents were Henry and Frances (Bennett) Belden, the former born October 10, 1790; the latter born May 15, 1811, in Massachusetts, where two children were born. In about 1816, they emigrated to Ashtabula county, Ohio, being among the early settlers of northwestern Ohio, where ten children were born. In 1834, he removed to LaPorte county, Indiana, where Mrs. Belden died, April 21, 1851. His father is still living in Ashtabula county, Ohio, at the advanced age of ninety-two years. Henry B. commenced to learn the trade of carpenter and joiner when sixteen years of age with his father, and that has been his occupation for the last forty-two years. He was married in La Porte county, Indiana, to Adelia Nevins, in 1851. In 1856 he came to Tama county, locating in Toledo, where he has since resided. Mr. and Mrs. Belden were the parents of seven children, six of whom are living: Sylvia, Lillie, Frances, Walter A., Arthur and Helen. Mr. Belden has been identified with the interests of Toledo for over a quarter of a century, and has been active in all things pertaining to the welfare of the town. Mrs. Belden and a portion of the family are members of the Freewill Baptist Church.
 


TOLEDO CITY BANK.



This institution was organized in April, 1878, with N.H. wilder as President, and P.G. Wieting as cashier. It continued under their sole management until January, 1883, when L.B. Blinn became associated with them as partner and he now acts as Vice-President. Their corresponding banks are the First National Bank of Chicago and U.S. National of New York city.



TOLEDO SAVINGS BANK.



This institution was organized April 15, 1873, and commenced business in May of the same year. The original Directors were: W.F. Johnston, L. Clark, L.B. Nelson, G.R. Struble, Theodore Shaffer, P.G. Wioeting, S. Stiger, John Connell, J. W. Youngman, T.J. Sweatt, Jacob Yeiser, Jr., C.J. Stevens, L. Carmichael; D.D. Appelgate and C.B. Bradshaw.

The officers were: L. Clark, President; W.F. Johnston, Vice-President; L.B. Nelson, Cashier. The latter resigned June 13, 1881, and Hiram Baldwin was duly elected as Cashier. It had a capital of $100,000 with 10 per cent paid in.

The Bank was re-organized in January, 1875, with a paid up capital of $50,000; surplus fund, $12,500. The bank has paid a dividend of 5 percent semi-annually.

The bank building was erected in 1878 at a cost of $4,620. Fixtures $2,181.

The officers and Directors in 1883 were: L.Clark, President; W.F. Johnston, Vice-President; Hiram Baldwin, Cashier; John Conell, G.R. Struble, W.C. Walters, W.S. Johnston, Daniel Connell and T. J. Sweatt.

Hiram Baldwin was elected Cashier of the Toledo Savings Bank, in 1881. He is a native of Ohio, born in Columbus, July 25, 1853. His parents, Hiram and Lucy (Clarke) Baldwin, were also natives of Ohio; the former died in 1865, the latter died July 30, 1880. Hiram lived with his parents in Columbus, attending the public schools, until 1861, then the family went to Washington, D.C. In 1863, Mr. Baldwin went to Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and was there during Lee's raid, in 1864. In 1865, he returned to Washington and entered the House of Representatives as page, remaining there until appointed private clerk of the Commissioner of Pensions, in 1870. In 1872, Mr. Baldwin went to Texas, and was part of the time on the engineering corps and then in the general office of the Texas & Pacific Railway. In 1873, he returned to Ohio, and traveled for a wholesale iron house in Youngstown. In 1874, he came to Toledo, Tama county, and was employed in Clarke Bros. store for one year; then went to Cedar Rapids, where he was corresponding clerk of the Iowa Railroad Land Company until 1876. That year Mr. Baldwin returned to Toledo, being employed as assistant Cashier of the Toledo Savings Bank until 1881, when he was elected Cashier. January 17, 1880, he was married to Miss Agnes Struble, daughter of Judge G. R. and Sophia N. (Nelson) Struble, residents of Toledo, this county. In politics, Mr. Baldwin affiliates with the Republican party. While in Washington, Mr. Baldwin was acquainted with all the prominent Statesmen and Senators, and James A. Garfield was an intimate friend of his father and himself.

In addition to the other early settlers who have been mentioned at length were: Ira Taylor, J. J. Dowd, M. B. Sapp, Orrin Burright, E. R. Bowe, J. W. Youngman and Edward Reichmann, who, in 1883, were residents of Toledo.

IRA TAYLOR was born in Luzerne county, Pennsylvania, on the 17th of June, 1799. When eleven years old, his parents emigrated to Delaware county, Ohio, where he grew to manhood. In 1824, he was married to Miss Dorinda Wheeler. Mr. and Mrs. Taylor were the parents of nine children. In the fall of 1852, Mr. Taylor, in company with his brother Giles, came to Iowa, spending their first winter in Cedar county. In January, 1853, they came to Tama county, and purchased a claim of N. L. Osborne, and entered the land where a portion of Traer now stands. In the following March they moved their families to Perry township.

In the summer of 1855, Mr. Taylor removed to Toledo, and in 1856, engaged in the mercantile business under the firm name of Harrison & Taylor, and soon took in S. W. Ingham as a partner, continuing in business until about the breaking out of the war, when he sold to Ingham & Raines. Two years later he purchased the stock and about the close of the war retired. In 1862, Mrs. Taylor died, and two years later Mr. Taylor was again married to Fannie Johnston, who died in 1880. His daughter, Mrs. Cynthia Ingham, wife of S. W. Ingham, is now living with him. In politics, Mr. Taylor was an old line Whig; but has affiliated with the Republican party since its organization. His first vote was cast for J. Q. Adams. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for over sixty years, and was one of the Trustees of Buckingham township, which at that time included six townships as they are at present.

J. J. DOWD was born in Athens county, Ohio, January 5. 1835. His parents were Jesse and Delilah (Dawson) Dowd. When J. J. was about five years old his father died and four years later his mother died also, and from that time he was principally thrown on his own resources. At the age of thirteen he entered a cabinet shop to learn the trade, where he remained three years; but not liking that business he served an apprenticeship at the carpenter’s trade. In 1857 he came to Tama county. In 1864, he enlisted in the Forty-seventh Regiment Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company K, and was discharged in the fall of that year. In 1865, he was married to Esther Adcock, of Perry county, Ohio.  Mr. and Mrs. Dowd have been blessed with five children, three of whom are living: Owen H., Cora Belle and Edward Newton.  Kate May died in June, 1881; and Jesse Afton in July of the same year.  Mr. Dowd has been a citizen of Tama county for a quarter of a century.  He came here in limited circumstances, but by hard work has made himself and family a fine home.  He now owns 100 acres of land near Toledo valued at $55 per acre.  In politics, he is a strong Republican and cast his first vote for John C. Fremont.


M. B. SAPP, one of the enterprising business ment of Tama county, was born in Kent county, near Willmington, Delaware, on the 4th of August, 1838.  His parents were Hezekiah Sapp and Mary Ann (Bosket) Sapp.  When M. B. was six years old, his parents emigrated to Bureau county, Illinois, where he grew to manhood.  When nine years of age his mother died and he worked out during the summers, receiving a limited education.  His father was married, in 1857, to Mary J. Vickery, by whom he had four children, tow of whom are now living.  Mr. Sapp was married in October, 1859, to Miss Salina M. Holroyd, a daughter of Mark Holroyd, a native of England and who came to the United States when eighteen years of age.  Her mother was Cornelia Knickerbocker, a native of Pennsylvania, and raised in Madison county, New York.  By this union were nine children, two sons and seven daughters, eight of whom are living.  Her grandfather, Mark Holroyd, was a Baptist minister, and three of his sons became eminent ministers of the same denomination.  Mr. and Mrs. Sapp have three children, one son and two daughters: Ida A., wife of J. G. Worrall and Nettie L., wife of Alonzo Gaskell, both of Oneida township, Tama county and Erwin E., now attending school at Toledo.  In the spring of 1865, Mr. Sapp came to Tama county, and purchased land in Oneida township, being one of the first permanent settlers of that township.  In the year 1872, he went to Mt. Vernon and spent three years in Mt. Vernon, Iowa, for the purpose of education his children.  During this time he attended the college himself, adding much to his limited education.  He again returned to his farm in Oneida township, where he engaged in farming until the fall of 1882, when he came to Toledo, where he is living a retired life.  Mr. Sapp has 640 acres of land in Oneida township, under a high state of cultivation and valued at $35 per acre.  In politics he is a strong Republican, taking an active interests in all the issues of the day.  He has held the office of County Supervisor, Justice of the Peace and all the offices of the township with the exception of Constable.  The family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Toledo.

Orrin BURRIGHT, a native of New York, was born May 14, 1809.  When a small boy his parents moved to Lake county, Ohio, where he grew to manhood.  In 1830 he was married in Johnstown, Licking county, to Miss Eliza Cavit, a native of Pennsylvania. They have had a family of twelve children, nine of whom are living: Joseph, Olive, Steward, Mary E., Margaret, Cornelius, Lydia M., Jane and David.  In 1847 he emigrated to Ogle county, Illinois, and in 1856, came to Crystal township, Tama county, Iowa, where he purchased a large tract of land.  In 1872 he purchased land in Toledo township, and remained until the fall of 1881, then moved to Toledo where he is living a retired life.  In early life Mr. Burright was a Whig, but since the organization of the Republican party he has voted that ticket.  Mr. and Mrs. Burright had three sons who served in the Union army during the rebellion.  Mr. and Mrs. Burright are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Toledo.  At the time of settling in Crystal township, there were but four houses between their place and Toledo, and for his groceries he went to Cedar Rapids with an ox team.  The following winter after his coming was very severe and is remembered by him as one of the hardest he ever experienced.

E. R. BOWE was born in Seneca county, Ohio, August 24, 1825.  He is a son of Erastus Bowe, who was the first man to break ground for Fort Ball, and made the first improvement where Tiffin, the county seat of Seneca county, now stands.  He was a soldier in the War of 1812, and was under Hull at the time of the surrender of Detroit.  His mother was Eleanor (Swinerton) Bowe.  Mr. and Mrs. Bowe were the parents of four sons and three daughters, all but one of whom lived to be adults.  Mrs. Bowe died in 1838.  Mr. Bowe subsequently married Margaret Alger, by whom he has had one son and three daughters.  The subject of this sketch, when two years of age, left home and was reared and educated in Marion county, Ohio, until he was fifteen years of age.  July 3, 1851, he was married to Miss A. J. Wells, a daughter of Luke Wells, of Wayne county, New York, where she was born October 6, 1832.  Two children blessed this union: Hortense R., wife of Henry Reynolds, of DesMoines and Eleanor S., wife of W. S. Porter, of Hardin county, Iowa.  In the fall of 1855, Mr. Bowe left his native State and emigrated to Tama county, coming through with teams and locating on section 21, Toledo township, where he has spent more than a quarter of a century.  Mr. and Mrs. Bowe came to the county poor, but by judicious management have accumulated a confortable property.  They own 200 acres of land valued at $40 per acre.  Mr. Bowe was at first an old line Whig, then atthe organization of the Republican party joined its ranks.  He is now a supporter of the National party.

J. W. YOUNGMAN was born in Alsace, France, April 25, 1812, his parents being George W. and Elizabeth (Mecka) Youngman; the former was born in Lorraine, France, in 1735, the latter in Bavaria, in 1794.  His father was a military man of distinction, being a General under Napoleon Bonapart, Emperor of France, and also under Louis Phillipe.  He drew his pension from the government until his death, which occurred in 1862, he being 127 years old.  Mrs. Youngman died in 1842.  General Youngman was a giant in stature, being six feet eleven inches tall and powerfully built.  J. W Youngman was reared near Metz, receiving his early education in the common schools.  He attended the cadet and military schools, and in 1832, entered the active service, remaining till 1846.  During this time he was promoted by degrees until he became First Lieutenant, in March, 1846. He enlisted under Lafayette, came to America and was sworn into the United States service at New York city; then served in the Mexican War until its close.  After the war he visited twenty-two States, all that were then in the Union. He was taken sick in Greenville, Ohio, and on his recovery was married to Elizabeth Schunberger, a native of Ohio, and daughter of George S. and Eva (Hop) Schunberger, natives of Bavaria.  The first four years after his marriage he lived in Greenville engaged in teaching a German school, and then moved to Pittsburg, where he followed the same profession for three years.  He then started for the west, coming to Iowa in 1852 and entering land in Otter Creek township, Tama county, on section 3.  He did not remain, however, but in a short time went to Rock Island, Illinois, where he lived for two years engaged as clerk in a jewelry store.  In 1854, he returned to Tama county with his family and settled on his farm where he remained engaged in farming and stock-raising for twenty-two years.  In 1875, he removed to Toledo and erected the third brick building in the city, and engaged in the mercantile business until 1882, when he closed out his stock and is now living a retired life.  He is one of the principal stockholders of the Toledo Savings Bank, and was one of the first Directors.  In 1882, he built a large dwelling house in the northeast part of the city, and is just about completing another residence in the same part of town.  Mr. Youngman is now quite largely interested, financially, in the development of Toledo. He owns several residences and the brick store building now occupied by Ingham & Williamson, grocers. Mr. and Mrs. Youngman have had nine children, seven of whom are living: James L., Mary E., George W., Maggie M., Willie M., Reama L. and Leo M.  Jonn E. died at thirteen years of age, and another son also named Leo M. died at the age of one year and two months.

 

ORGANIC.

 

In 1866, the town of Toledo was incorporated as a city of the third class, and at the first election, the following officers were chosen: Mayor, W. F. Johnston; Recorder, S. C. Rogers; Marshal, S. O. Bishop; Attorney, A. Stoddard; Assessor, A. H. Lawrence; Trustees, D. D. Appelgate, N. Bates, W. H. Harrison, G. W. Free, Sr., and L. Wells.

 

The following is a list of those filling the various offices from organization up to 1883, as shown by the records:

 

1866. - W. F. Johnston, Mayor; S. C. Rogers, Recorder; S. O. Bishop, Marshal; A. Stoddard, Attorney; D. D. Appelgate, N. Bates, G. W. Free, Sr., L. Wells and William H. Harrison, Trustees.

 

1867. - P. B. McCullough, Mayor; T. S. Free, Recorder; S. O. Bishop, Marshal; J. H. Struble, Treasurer; T. J. Rice, Attorney; T. H. Graham, Assessor; J. N. Springer, E. Gallion, George W. Free, C. G. Buttkereit and J. S. Moore, Trustees.

 

1868. - J. N. Springer, Mayor; J. R. McClaskey, Recorder; R. C. Wilson and John Thede, Marshals; Silas McClain, Assessor; George W. Free, Jr., H. Galley, P. G. Wieting, J. Q. Clark and D. Stoner, Trustees.

1869. - H. Galley, Mayor; J.D. Newcomer, Recorder; John Thede, Marshal; William H. Allen, Treasurer; Silas McClain, Assessor; C. C. Guilford, C. G. Buttkereit, Smith Newcomer, L. Clark and L. B. Nelson, Trustees.

1870. - Alford Phillips, Mayor; J. D. Newcomer, Recorder; C. S. Bailey, Marshal; A. J. Free, Treasurer; C. H. Crawford, Attorney; William Reickhoff, Assessor; W. N. Brown, W. H. Harrison, J. N. Springer, N. C. Wieting and C. W. Hyatt, Trustees.

1871. - Alford Phillips, Mayor; J. D. Newcomer, Recorder; C. S. Bailey, Marshal; L. Wells, Street Commissioner; A. J. Free, Treasurer; L. G. Kinne, Attorney; J. H. Struble, Assessor; C. W. Conant, R. H. Frazee, H. Galley, L. B. Nelson and N. C. Wieting, Trustees.

1872. - L. B. Nelson, Mayor; J. D. Newcomer, Recorder; W. E. Appelgate, Marshal; Luke Wells, Street Commissioner; H. Galley, Treasurer; G. H. Goodrich, Attorney; C. W. Conant, Assessor; J. Q. Clark, L. G. Kinne, A. J. Free, Benjamin Stone and P. G. Wieting, Trustees.

1873. - L. B. Nelson and L. G. Kinne, Mayors; G. L. Bailey, Recorder; W. E. Appelgate, Marshal; N. C. Wieting, Street Commissioner; Smith Newcomer, Treasurer; J. W. Willett, Attorney; W. H. Alden, Assessor; J. Q. Clark, P. G. Wieting, B. Stone, J. G. Safely and C. W. Conant, Trustees.

1874. - Thomas S. Free, Mayor; George L. Bailey, Recorder; B. B. Houghkirk and C. S. Gerome, Marshals; J. H. Bates, Street Commissioner; G. M. Berger, Treasurer; J. W. Willett, Attorney; E. M. Bielby, Assessor; J. G. Safely, R. H. Frazee, C. W. Conant, W. C. Walters and N. Fisher, Trustees.

1875. - D. D. Appelgate, Mayor; H. S. Bradshaw, Recorder; J. H. Bates, Marshal and Street Commissioner; C. E. Olney, Treasurer; J. W. Willett, Attorney; E. M. Bielby, Assessor; David Arb, G. H. Goodrich, W. N. Brown, S. Stiger and P. G. Wieting, Trustees.

1876. - E. C. Ebersole, Mayor; Homer S. Bradshaw, Recorder; O. F. Elmer, Assessor; M. Austin, Attorney; Clinton E. Olney, Treasurer; J. H. Bates, Street commissioner; S. Stiger, J. S. Moore, J. M. Camery, George M. Berger and H. Galley, Trustees.

1877. - E. C. Ebersole, Mayor; J. S. Moore, D. Spayth, James B. Hedge, L. Loupee and J. M. Camery, Councilmen; J. Willett, Recorder; J. S. Bradshaw, City Attorney; J. H. Bates, Street commissioner; A. H. Sterritt, Treasurer.

1878. - L. G. Kinne, Mayor; J. Q. Clark, G. M. Berger, H. Wagner. J. S. Moore and Benjamin Stone, Councilmen; F. E. Smith, Recorder.

1879. - L. G. Kinne, Mayor; H. J. Stiger, Recorder; W. C. Walters, R. S. Clarke, Benjamin Stone, Henry Wagner, L. Loupee and F. Junker, Councilmen.

1880. - M. Austin, Mayor; H. J. Stiger, Recorder; W. H. Stivers, David Stone, Henry Wagner, L. Loupee, Benjamin Stone and W. C. Walters, Councilmen; S. C. Leland, Attorney; F. E. Smith, Treasurer; J. H. Bates, Street Commissioner.

1881. - E. C. Ebersole, Mayor; C. R. Appelgate, Recorder; F. E. Smith, Treasurer; E. M. Bielby, Assessor; J. H. Bates, Street commissioner; L. Loupee, W. C.Walters, B. Stone, W. H. Stivers and Henry Wagner, Councilmen.

1882. - S. C. Leland, Mayor; E. S. Wieting, Treasurer; Newton Dodd, Recorder; J. M. Camery, Stephen Stiger, W. C. Walters, David Stoner and W. H. Stivers, Councilmen; E. M. Buly, Assessor; E. A. Coates, Street commissioner.

1883. - S. C. Leland, Mayor; E. C. Ebersole, Benjamin Stone, S. Stiger, W. C. Walters, H. Wagner and J. M. Camery, Councilmen; A. J. Dingee, Recorder; P. G. Wieting Treasurer; J. H. Bates, Street Commissioner; E. J. Cannon, Marshal.

E. J. Cannon, City Marshal of Toledo, in 1883, and one of the early settlers of the county, was born in Belmont, county, Ohio, on the 30th of November, 1829.  Here he grew to manhood, receiving his education in the subscription schools of that State.  He was married November 2, 1852, to Miss Harriet Collins, of Ohio.  By this union there are seven children living: Allie, born July 30, 1853; Adda, born August 24, 1857; Laura, born June 28, 1859; James T., born January 17, 1863; Jessie M., born December 9, 1870; Ralph L. D., born February 17, 1877 and Florence W., born March 26, 1880.  In the fall of 1856, Mr. Cannon emigrated with his family to Tama county, coming by way of Iowa City, where he and his brother-in-law hired a man to bring them to Toledo, paying him $60 in gold before starting.  The team was poor and it took three days to make the trip.  They spent their first winter in company with Mr. Chin's family, in a house 14x20 feet.  Their goods not arriving, they were left destitute of beds and bedding, so they purchased muslin and the women made ticks and the men filled them with straw, on which they slept.  Their table consisted of a dry goods box and their other furniture corresponded.  The winter was cold, and occasionally they would wake up in the morning to find their bed clothes frozen to the walls of the house.  The following year Mr. Cannon and Mr. Chin engaged in the furniture business, which they followed for five years, their's being the first establishment of the kind in Toledo.  Mr. and Mrs. Cannon have been identified with the village of Toledo for more than a quarter of a century, and have seen many changes since they first located.  Mr. Cannon is a member of the I. O. O. F., the A. O. U. W. and the Iowa Legion of Honor.

POST OFFICE.

The first postmaster at Toledo was John L. Zehrung, a native of Ohio, who came to the county in 1854, engaging in the mercantile business, with the post office in his store.  The office was first established with J. H. Hollen as postmaster, outside the present city limits.  In those early days, when the mail came, which was received once a week, a crowd would gather about the office, to wait its distribution.  When a letter was picked up and the name called out, if the person was present he would yell, "here!" at the same instant pressing his way through the crowd with eagerness to receive it.  As a rule the mail looked as though it had been handled with tongs.

In the winter of 1855-6, H. C. foster was appointed postmaster.  He resignedhis office in about six months, when Thomas Murray was appointed.  He was afterward postmaster at Tama city.  He was succeeded by Wm. Harkins, who was followed by E. B. Bolens.  The next was Mrs. Dillman, who held the office in 1883.  Mrs. Dillman's husband, Sylvester S. dillman, deceased, was born in Summit county, Ohio, December 31, 1827.  His family removed while he was yet young, to Williams county, Ohio.  Mr. Dillman prepared for college and took that course in Oberlin, completing his studies with the class of 1854.  From that time until 1856, he occupied the position of professor of mathematics in the U. B. college, at Mt. Pleasant, Pennsylvania.  August 20, 1856, he was married to Miss Emily Loughridge, at Mansfield, Ohio.  After their marriage, they came to Iowa, and were the first teachers at Western colege, Linn county, the school opening January 1, 1857.  In November, 1860, they removed to Toledo, Tama county, where Mr. Dillman was Principal of the public schools until the summer of 1862, then enlisted as private in company E, 24th Iowa volunteer Infantry.  September 19, 1864, he was wounded by a shell at the battle of Winchester, virginia, and died from the effects of the wound, September 23, four days after the battle.  His body lies in the city cemetery at Winchester, Virginia, in a privat lot belonging to the Wrenn family, at whose house he died.  During his service he was 2d and 1st Lieutenant, and acting Captain.  Mr. and Mrs. dillman were the parents of two sons: James W. L. and George L.

EDUCATIONAL.

The greater part of the following article on the educational history of Toledo, is from the pen of Mrs. S. S. Dillman, and was first published in the Toledo papers.  The building now known as the old school house was erected in 1861, under the supervision of W. F. Johnston, who was then Treasurer of the School Board, and S. S. dillman, who was Principal, and drew the plans.  They were instructed to provide the most room possible for the sum of $2,800.

They requested and urged the School Board to allow them enough more to carry up the sencond stroy to a full height and put on a plain and neat though inexpensive cornice.  But this was of no avail, and the consequence was that the building was of necessity very plain.  It was worth all it cost, however.  It wasn't long, however, until the building proved to be too small and arrangements were commenced to provide more room.

The district voted several times on the subject of issuing bonds, but every time it was defeated, until finally a square structure was erected and planned so as to become a wing of another and larger building.  At last, however, in the winter of 1877-8, the people came to the conclusion that the schools were suffering for the want of room, and accordingly an election was held to again get the decision of the people as to whether or not the necessary bonds should be voted to erect the new building.  Plans were prepared, extimates made and the election held.  At this time the people decided by a vot of nearly six for to one against the issuing of the bonds.  The building was to cost $13,000 and bonds were accordingly issued for the amount, but as is usual in all such cases, some changes and additions of the original plans were made which made the cost somewhat in excess of the amount,

Mr. Billings, of Chicago, took the contract for furnishing every thing and putting up the building for $11,000, and work was commenced on Monday morning, April 8, 1878.  A large number of men were employed and the work pushed under the management of Mr. T. T. Moore, the foreman.  But the Bankrupt Law was repealed by congress and a date set for the expiration.  There was a rush of people who were heavily loaded with debt to take advantage of it before it was too late.  Among these was the contractor, Mr. Billings.  After some trouble, the Board took the matter into their own hands and appointed Mr. Foster, of Des Moines, architect, retaining Mr. Moore as foreman.  The Board did the best that was possible under the circumstances.  Every thing was done in the most thorough and workman-like manner, and the building will doubtless stand the storm for centuries to come.  It is 71x72 feet on the ground exclusive of the old part or wing.  It is three stories high besides the basement, and is built of brick with a solid stone foundation.  On the first floor are three school rooms 25x30 feet, respectively; on second floor are three rooms, high school room, 30 feet 4 inches by 41 feet 11 inches a recitiation room 18 feet 8 inches by 30 feet 4 inches and a school room 26 feet 11 inches by 30 feet 8 inches.  There is also a room in the tower for the Principal in which is kept the apparatus.  The third floor contains a large hall with a good stage and seated with chairs.  There are also on the first and second floors good roomy closets or wardrobes provided withhooks for hanging clothes and packages.

The basement is fitted up for a play room with the exception of a room large enough for the fuel.  Entrance is made at the tower which is provided with two large double doors, one on the north and one on the west side, hung on first-class reversable hinges.  There is also a large door at the end of the hall extending through the building from north to south, at the south side of the building.  The stairs leading to the second story are double, one flight being on the north and one on the south side of the hall.  The doors are all hung so that they open into the hall to give better egress in case of fire or other accidents.  The walls are heavy with cut stone trimmings about the doors and windows. A massive, substantial look is given to the whole.  The roof is covered with slate and tin, and the cresting which is at once neat and tasty was put up by Messrs. Spayth & Fisher, the casting being done by the Union Plow Company, of Tama City.  In the interior finish the same desire to have something which would be lasting as well as attractive has been made apparent.  The rooms and halls are well wainscotted with Georgia pine, a species of pine which is almost as hard as oak.  The floors are also made of the same wood, and both floor and wainscotting are finished in oil.  The ceilings are high and neatly tinted and the whole job of finish in the interior is in oil tinting, the walls, etc., were done by P. G. Smith, of Fairfield.  The exterior of the building is handsomely painted and tuck pointed, and in fact, the entire structure is built and finished in a thorough and workman-like manner.  Due credit should be given to the School board, composed ofMessrs. L. Clark, J. S. Moore, H. Galley, E. C. Eborsole, A. H. Sterritt and A. J. Wheaton.

Though the town was laid out early in 1853, the first school house was not built until 1855.  It was a small frame structure and stood where the old school house now stands.  It appears from the books of the first Treasurer, Franklin Davis, that order No. 1 on school house fund was drawn in favor of C. D. Fanton, who plastered the house, and No. 2 was paid to T. N. Skinner, who did the carpenter work.  The house was used for a long time for church services as there was no church building in the place.  Here the first Sabbath school was organized - a union Sabbath school.  The first school, numbering about thirty-five or forty pupils, was taught in the summer of 1855 by John E. Walker, assisted by Alza Wood, afterward Mrs. J. L.Graham.  The next term, winter of 1855-6, was taught by Jeremiah Hardin, assisted by Margaret McLaury.

In those days there were no County Superintendents.  Each Board of Directors satisfied themselves either personally or by proxy of the competence of the teacher.  In this case, the Directors, T. A. Graham, Peter McRoberts and Franklin Davis, appointed Lewis Merchant and C. D. Fanton examining committee.  Miss McLaury taught alone in the spring of 1856, and then resigned for the sake of the first county Clerk, D. D. Appelgate, whom she married the same year.

The summer terms of 1856-7-8, were presided over by John Shanklin; the last term assisted by Mrs. M. Shanklin, his wife.  By this time the school had out grown the house, which was afterward the residence of G. R. Struble.  It is though that the summer term of 1858 was taught by Miss Sarah Bunce, as it is known that she was a teacher about that time.

Mrs. E. N. Barker and her daughter, Miss Maria, now Mrs. L. Clark, had been teaching a select school, but in September, 1858, they went into the public school.  At the same time John McClain had charge of part of the school in the building, now occupied by C. W. Concint as a store room.  Mrs. Barker and daughter taught for some time, using a small frame house that stood west of the school house for one department.

In the fall of 1860, S. S. dillman was appointed Principal of the school, the former teachers continuing to use the basement of the Congregational church.  The school was now graded.  Mr. Dillman teaching the more advanced pupils in the school house.

In the spring of 1861, Mrs. Dillman taught in the basement of the church, as preparations were in progress for building a new school house.  The old house was moved a little to the south and a new brick house erected on the old site.  The old frame house was used for some time for a wood-house, but was burned down several years ago.

The new house was arranged for three departments, and the school was more thoroughly graded than was possible before, crowded as it was.  Work commenced in the fall of 1861, with Mr. Dillman as Principal, Miss Jennie Logan teacher in the Intermediate and Mrs. Dillman in the Primary.

In the summer of 1862, Mr. dillman went into the army and now fills a soldiers grave in Virginia.  Mr. C. W. Burton was then employed as Principal.

In September, 1864, the term commenced with a Mr. Shumaker as Principal.  He became discouraged and left after teaching three days and the school was left withour a Principal, Mrs. Dillman teaching in the High School.  In 1865 M. T. Bales was elected to superintend the schools.  In 1866 J. R. Stewart became Principal and remained in that position two years, when he stepped into the County Superintendency and was succeeded in 1868 by A. H. Sterrett.  After five years service he followed in the foot-steps of Mr. Stewart and became County Superintendent.  About that time a plan was adopted for a lerger school house, and a building put up to accommodate two departments which was inteded for a wing to a large house at some future time.  This now is the east wing of our present fine building.  In 1877 the school again outgrew its bonds and an overflow department was housed in what is known as the Bradbrook building.

The schools are made up of six departments.  First, second and third Primary, Intermediate, Grammar and High School, with an assistant in the latter. 

Below is geven what is intended to be a complete list of names of teachers engaged in the school from the beginning to the present time.  If any names are ommitted, it is not intentional.

Teachers in district schools before grading: John E. Walker, Jeremiah Hardin, Miss Irena Bailey, Miss Lucy Bailey, Mrs. E. N. Barker, Miss Sarah L.Bunce, Miss Alza Wood, Miss M. McLaury, Miss Abby Hillman, John Shanklin, Mrs. M. Shanklin, Miss M. A. Barker and John McClain.

Principal of Graded schools: S. S. Dillman, W. C. Burton, Mr. Shoemaker, M. T. Bales, J. R. Stewart, A. H. Sterritt, J. J. Andrews and W. H. Brinkerhoff.

Assistants in High School and Teachers Department: Miss Jennie Logan, Mrs. E. L. Dillman, Miss M. A. Barker, Miss M. Omwake, Miss C. Armstrong, Miss D. Gearhart, Miss Serena Ingham, Miss Burton, Miss Carrie Fisher, Miss P. Morton, Miss J. McKnight, Miss Carrie Dodd, Miss M. Crawford, S. J. M. Bear, John B. Frazee, Miss Flora Wells, Miss A. Reynolds, Miss Lide Harlan, Miss Arrie Rogers, Miss C. Stoddard, Miss A. McClelland, Miss G. Roberts, Miss J. Brackney, Mrs. P. C. Galley, Miss Anna Bruner, Miss Lizzie Conant, Miss Etta Newton, Miss A. H. Sterrett, J. H. Rose, Miss Crittenden, L. H. Shepard, Miss H. Struble, Mrs. A. N. See, J. T. Archerd, Miss H. Guilford, Msss J. McCollister, Miss Emma Stewart, Miss Fannie Frazee, Miss LaDow, Miss Etta fletcher, Miss Ida Loughridge, Miss Emma Lane, Mrs. M. A. coats, Miss E. Hazlett, Miss A. E. Loughridge, Miss H. Hollingshead, Mrs. J. R. Stewart, Mrs. H. S. Bradshaw, Miss Ellen Graham, Miss Anna Clark, Miss Nancy Hendry, Miss Etta Musser, Miss Mary Kern, Mrs. R. E. Gallion, Miss Hattie Alden, J. J. Andrews, Principal; Hattie Alden, W. H. Withington, M. E. Potter and A. J. Wheaton.

FIRE DEPARTMENT.

The Hope Fire Company of Toledo was organized October 12, 1876, at which time officers were elected to serve until the following December.  G. M. Berger was the first Foreman; W. E. Appelgate, first Assistant; Wm. Clark, Secretary and G. Richman, Treasurer.  At the first meeting the name of Hawkeye Fire Company was given to the department, but at the next meeting it was changed to Hope Fire Company, the charter members of which numbered forty.  Afterward they were increased to sixty-five, but finally cut down by order of the City Council to forty, which was to be the limit.  Soon after the organization was perfected they were provided with a Button Hand Engine, hose-cart, 600 feet of hose and four ladders, also a few hooks.  Their first outfit cost $1,800.  Sometime prior to 1883, six cisterns were built, the largest one being located at the southeast corner of the Public square, in the street, and was kept supplied with water from the town well, in the Court House square; the water being elevated by a wind-mill pump.  Two cisters were located near the school house and supplied from its eave troughs; the other cisterns were supplied from the fireman's well, which was located one block east of the Court House squre.  This well was dug in 1877, and was twenty feet deep by eighteen feet in diameter.  The same year an engine house was built on Broadway street.  The company's apparatus, in 1883, consisted of the hand engine, two hose-carts with 1,100 feet of rubber hose, forty pails, four ladders besides other appliances, all of which were valued at $5,000.  The company were uniformed at their own expense, except their coaps, which belonged to the city.  The first time they were called upon to do duty at a fire was at the dwelling house of M. Gannon.  They have responded to calls from Tama city at various times where they did valuable service.  In 1883, they proved themselves heroic at the fire of the Toledo House.  The first chief was G. M. Berger, who was succeeded by S. Stiger, who held the position in 1883, with H. L. Fisher as Foreman.

RELIGIOUS.

The Free Will Baptist Church was organized in September, 1854, at the house of John Bishop.  The first members were: Mr. LaDow, wife and son, J. J. Wilkins and wife, and A. donaldson and wife.  J. J. Wilkins was the first pastor.  a church was built in 1867, at a cost of $1,500.  Rev. Brown was the last pastor.

The Christian Church of Toledo was organized at Monticello, in 1866, and continued but a short time when it was removed to Toledo, where a church building was erected.  Rev. Adam Cordner was the pastor of this church at Toledo after its re-organization.

Rev. Adam Cordner was born in Jefferson county, Ohio, January 26, 1883, and is a son of John and Elizabeth (Shaddock) Cordner.  In 1839, his parents removed to Belmont county, and there he grew to manhood.  As soon as old enough to be of service, the subject of this sketch began working in his father's wollen factory, where he remained until eighteen years of age, at which time he began studying for the ministry.  In 1856, he began active labor as a minister of the gospel, by taking charge of the Christian Church, at Nottingham, Harrison county, Ohio.  Mr. Cordner remained in the ministry until July of 1862, at which date he enlisted in Company E, 98th Ohio Infantry, as 2d Lieutenant.  He was subsequently promoted to the Captaincy of said Company.  Many times, while in service, he filled the place of the Chaplain of his Regiment.  He participated in several skirmishes and was in one regular engagement - that of Perrysville.  After eight months of service, he was compelled to leave the army because of disability, and was therefore honorably discharged.  He returned to Ohio, and there again followed his chosen calling until the spring of 1864, when he came to Tama county, Iowa, and in June, of that year, located at Toledo, where soon after, he organized the Christian Church of that place and also the one at Marshalltown.  In Toledo, he labored five years and then removed to Tama City, and afterward was pastor of several surrounding churches.  In 1883, he was pastor of Bethel Church in Marshall county, and also of the Church at Garwin, Tama county.  In politics, he was a staunch Republican, and was an active worker in the cause of Temperance.  Mr. Cordner was married in 1852 to Miss M. E. collins, a native of Ohio.  They have one adopted daughter - Etta.

The Congregational Church was organized in December, 1854, by Rev. A. Manson.  Nine persons constituted the Church on its organization, one of whom, a deacon, died during the first month of its existence.  The Church was without a stated ministry until in 1855, when Thomas N. Skinner received a license to preach the gospel, and was ordained at Marion, July 25, of that year.  After preaching for the congregation here some six months he removed to another field of labor.  On the 1st of February, 1856, Rev. G. H. Woodward commenced his ministrations at this point, his time being given alternately with a congregation at Indiantown.  Mr. Woodward came under the auspices of the American Home Missionary Society.

The church at this time numbered but three members.  The first meetings of the Church were held in a small building, afterward used as a wood-house for the town school, and occasionally in the old court room.  In May, 1857, steps were taken to erect a house of worship.  Pledges were secured for an amount sufficient to warrant the commencement of the building, and on the 9th of March, 1858, the congregation voted to begin the work.  After gathering some of the materials subscribed, building the foundation and erecting a part of the frame, the work came to a stand.  The hard times, which began in the east the previous year, began to be felt, money there was not and the subsriptions could not be collected.  Various expedients were suggested for continuing the work, but without avail, and the unfinished building remained in the state in which it was left in the fall of 1858, till the spring of 1860.  At this time, the pastor started east to visit the wealthy congregations of that locality and solicit aid.  Success crowned his efforts and means were secured to complete the building.  Its dimensions were 30x45 feet.  It was duly dedicated to the service of Almighty God, December 13, 1860.  Rev. J. A. Reed preached on the occasion, while the dedication prayer was offered by Rev. J. W. Woodward.  For several years, the Church enjoyed great prosperity, increasing its membership from time to time, and observing all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord's house.  During the rebellion, eleven of its membership, and six others connected with its congregation, served in the Union Army.  Rev. Woodward's pastorate continued till February, 1867.  On November 24, 1856, he preached the first Thanksgiving Sermon in the county.  The first musical instrument used in a church in the county, was on purchased by the pastor of this Church, in 1862.  Rev. Woodward died November 19, 1877, at the age of 70 years.

The following pastors succeeded him: Revs. Wilkinson, three years; Gilbert, two years; Childs, one year; rindell, two years; Buck, two years; Parker, two years; and Rev. Douglass, who was pastor in 1883.

The Presbyterian Church of Toledo was organized about the year 1859, with fifteen members, by Rev. L. Dodd.  In the year 1862, a house of worship was erected at a cost of $1,600.  The original members were as follws: James Shanklin, Eliza Shanklin, John foster, Elizabeth Foster, Malissa Foster, John Fife, David Arb, Mary Arb, Jacob Staley, Margaret Staley, Louisa Dodd, Caroline Dodd, Gilbert M. Fox, Hannah Fox and JohnShanklin.

James Shanklin, Jacob Staley and John Fife were unanimously elected Ruling Elders.  Messrs. Shanklin and Staley having previously served in that office, Mr. Fife was ordained and installed.

The various pastors have been Rev. Luther Dodd, from 1859 until March 31, 1866; Rev. J. L. Martin, form 1866 to 1871; during his time, in 1869, one of the largest revivals was held, and a goodly number taken into the church; Rev. W. S. Messmer, who supplied the pulpit for a few years; Rev. D. B. Gordon, two years; Rev. James Stickel, who served for five years, leaving in 1882.

The officers of the church, in 1883, were; Ruling Elders: Isaac Struble, S. McClain and J. Q. Clarke; Trustees: J. M. Winn, Isaac Stoner and J. N. Springer.

The membership in 1883 was about fifty.

The Sabbath school was organized in 1863.  John Shanklin was the first Superintendent.  The enrollment in 1883 was seventy with a general attendance of sixty.  The present Superintendent is J. M. Winn and Isaac Stoner, Assistant; IdaSpringer, Secretary; Winnie Winn, Librarian.

The teachers in 1883 were J. Q. Clarke, Bible Class; Isaac Stoner, Charles Cunningham, Mrs. U. Kidner, Mertu Jarvis, T. K. Armstrong and S. McClain.

The first Regular Baptist church of Toledo, was organized at the houase of Franklin Davis, May 26, 1855, with the following named constituent members: Rev. George G. Edwards, Lucy A. Edwards, Franklin Davis, Miranda Davis, John Higgins, Mary Higgins, John corfman, Catherine Corfman, Benjamin Hammitt, Mrs. Hammitt, A. O. Morse and Bethany Morse.  The first officers of the church were John corfman, Deacon and Treasurer; Franklin Davis, Secretary; J. corfman, B. Hammitt and F. Davis, Trustees.  On the 16th of June, 1855, Rev. G. G. Edwards was called to the pastorate, and on the following day the Church was recognized before a large and attentive audience.  Several were added to the Church by letter during the year, and in the winter of 1856, an interesting series of meetings were conducted by the pastor in the little old log school house, three miles east of Toledo, which resulted in a number of conversions and additions to the Church.

Soon after the organization of the Church, John C. Vermilya, County Judge of Tama county, gave and deeded to the Church, on behalf of the county, a lot upon which to build a house of worship.  In 1860 an effort was made to erect a church edifice, but for lack of funds it was not competed until 1863.  It cost about $2,000.  Previous to the erection of the house services were held in the first school house erected in the town, then in the old Court House, and occasionally in the Methodist Episcopal church edifice.

Since its organization the Church has enrolled 266 member, with a membership in January, 1883, of 73.

Rev. George G. Edwards the first pastor was born in Washington, Massachusetts, January 3, 1827.  He removed to northern Ohio, with his parents in 1831.  In early life he was a subject of religious impressions, and at the age of eleven was converted, and following in his Master footsteps in the ordinances of his house he joined the Baptist Church and feeling the vows of God were upon him, he left all and went about his Master's business, a boy preacher of only nineteen summers.  At twenty-one he was ordained at New Loudon, Ohio, where he was pastor for several years, but came to Central Iowa early in 1855.  He settled at Toledo, when soon he gathered a small band of brethren together, and in May of that year, was organized the First Baptist church of Toledo.  He was the pioneer Baptist minister in all the regions of Iowa, occupied by the Iowa Valley Association, and was for years the only Baptist minister within the radius of forty miles; and was obliged to travel far and wide across bridgeless streams and pathless prairies, to meet his appointments and attend funerals, sometimes compelled to swim the Iowa River bearing his clothes above his head.  In September 1860, he was called to bury his wife, but felt that though great was his loss, yet it was her eternal gain.

In 1862, he entered the army as a private in the 28th Iowa volunteer Infantry, Company F, but was at a length promoted to a Chaplaincy and transferred to the 49th United States colored Regiment, stationed in and around Vicksburg, Mississippi.  He was in the first field fight of Colored troops at Milliken bend, June 7, 1863.  He was the first chaplain of a colored Regiment.  Resigning his Chaplaincy he received an appointment under the American Free Mission Society, and was stationed at vicksburg.  He was an earnest worker in the cause of Free Mission and the anti-Slavery movements.  But with the close of the war he felt that these questions of difference were finally settled, and that there were no longer any need of a division of Christian labor and sympathy, and accordingly, he entered most heatrily into the support of the Missionary Union.  From exposures in the south were planted the seeds of the disease, which resulted in an early death.  His last sermon was preached at Belle Plaine, Iowa, on Sabbath, July 4, 1869.  As long as he could sit or walk he felt that he must tell the story of the cross, and for some months he filled his appointments at Irving when he could not stand to declare his message.  He sat and preached, but often would become so engaged that he would forget himself and spring to his feet, and with all the enthusiasm of his youth, would he enforce the claims of the Gospel upon both saint and sinner.

At length he was compelled to give up his labors; he then returned to his home in Toledo.  Though gradually failing he felt that he must be present at the Ordination of Brother H. A. Brown, pastor at Toledo, September 15, 1872, and though very feeble he took part in the exercises of the occasion.  He gave the charge to the candidate, and as if standing at the prtals of the world to come, he spoke as one who had experienced the verities of eternity and therefore was most earnest and positive in all he said.  Being able to sit up he felt that he must go to the Association once more, and that if it must be so he would as soon die on duty at Marshalltown as any where else.  On Sabbath, September 16, he spoke a few words to the children of the Sunday school; this was the last time he was permitted to speak in public for the master, though many were the appeals he made afterward, to those who had no hope in Jesus.

He returned to Toledo, to die of slow flattering consumption.  He was a great sufferer, but in all the pain of the dissolution he had the consolation of the Gospel to sustain him, and often enjoyed much of the Masters presence.  In Christ his rock he had the utmost confidence.  He had only one desire, to live to preach Christ and see sinners turn to God.  In his sufferings often would he cry, "How long, O Lord."  But on the evening of November 8, 1869, the message came, "child, come home," and he passed to his reward.  He was married in Clarksfield, Huron county, Ohio, January 3, 1848, to Miss Lucy A. Dowd, who died in Toledo, of consumption, in 1860, by whom there was one child.  He was again married, in 1861, to Miss Drantha Bunce, a daughter of Charles Bunce, of Connecticut.  By this union there were two children: Lucy M., now the wife of Ross E. Everett, of Tama county and George G.  Mrs. Edwards is a sincere Christian and takes an active part in the cause of temperance and religion.

Rev. Addison A. Sawin was the successor of Mr. Edwards.  He labored here from 1862, till May 18, 1864, when he was removed by death.  He was born in Westminister, Massachusetts.  After serving very acceptably several churches in the east, he came to Iowa in 1856 and settled at Lyons.  He afterwards preached at Marion, Iowa, where at the suggestion of influential friends, he led the enterprise of establishing a school at Irving, on the line between Benton and Tama counties.  While in the midst ofhis usefulness he was stricken down with small pox.  When made aware of his danger, he calmly said: "If I die, I know I shall be at rest."  He died, as already stated, and in the still hours of the night, was quietly interred inthe cemetery at Toledo.

Rev. A. D. Low was the next pastor, and served from 1864 til 1866, being succeeded by Rev. G. G. Edwards for the second time.  Mr. Edwards served one year.

Rev. H. A. Brown was called to the pastorate in 1869, and served ten years.  He was a native of Ohio, born in Concord, Lake county.  He graduated in the classical course, Dennison University, Ohio, in the class of 1864.  He was three years Superintendent of Public Schools of Tama county, after which he was Principal of the graded schools at Belle Plaine, Benton county.  At present he is filling the chair of Ancient Language in the University of Des Moines.

Rev. J. C. Johnson acted as pastor nine months, in 1881.  He was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. J. L. Coppoc, who began his labors here January 8,1882.  He resides at Van Horne, where he preaches half his time.  He was born near Salem, Columbiana county, Ohio.

Soon after the organization of the church, a Sunday school was organized, with Franklin Davis as Superintendent.  W. H. Holstead is the present Superintendent.  William Rogers held the office for several years.

In the fall of 1853, Rev. David H. Petefish was sent by the Iowa Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church to form a new circuit, comprising Tama county.  One of his appointments was in the immediate vicinity of the present town of Toledo.  The first quarterly meeting was held at the house of Zebedee Rush, one mile southeast of the present town, in the fall of 1853.  The quarterly conference consisted of Andrew Coleman, Presiding Elder; David H. Petefish, preacher in charge; Ira Taylor, class leader.  John Ross was chosen as steward of this meeting.  There were seven comunicants present.  The village of Toledo springing up in the spring of 1855, Rev. D. H. Petefish formed a class in the village compsed of the following: Ira and Dorinda Taylor, Mary Taylor, John and Elizabeth Ross, William Henry and Sally Harrison, John Zehrung, Jacob and Sally Staley, Mr. and Mrs. John Gettis, Leander and Nancy Randall.  Rev. Mr. Petefish continued in the work two years and left greatly beloved by the Church.  During his second year a church building was commenced, but was not completed until 1856.  Mr. Petefish was succeeded by Rev. William N. Brown, who remained one year and was followed by Rev. Solomon Dunton, a local preacher of Marshalltown.  In the fall of 1857, Rev. Charles Babcock was assigned to the charge.  He was succeeded by Rev. John L. Kelly, in the fall of 1858.  He continued two years, having as colleague the second year, Rev. S. N. Ingham, Jr.  The success of the Church at this time was hindered much by the indebtedness hanging over its house of worship.  In the fall of 1860, Rev. Richard Swearingen was appointed to the charge.  The Church Historian says of him: "He had a heavy voice, boisterous manner and fair talent.  He remained two years with middling success.  He was a warm politician and worked lustily at the business."

Rev. D. C. Worts was the next appointtee.  He was a hard and systematic worker and remained two years, being succeeded by Rev. D. H. Mallory, with Rev. Mr. Hyde as colleague.  During his first year the county appointments were withdrawn.  Toledo, Tama City and Rines school house were made a separate charge, known as the Toledo charge.  The indebtedness of the Church was removed this year.  This gave new life to the members, and an era of prosperity dawned upon the Church.  In 1865 a small parsonage was purchased.  At the close of Mr. Mallory's second year, Rev. S. A. Lee became pastor.  He remained but one year but was quite successful in his work.  He was a good man and a good pastor.  During his year a small brick building near the church was pruchased as the beginning of a permanent parsonage.

In the fall of 1867, Rev. J. S. Eberhart became pastor.  He remained three years.  He was a good man, a fair preacher and faithful in his work, but his physical strength was not equal to his task or will.  He was succeeded by Rev. R. N. Earheart, who also remained three years.  He was a man of fine education good address and social qualities.

In October, 1873, Rev. F. M. Robertson was assigned to the charge.  During his first year the church edifice was re-modeled at a cost of some $1,200.  Mr. Robertson was a man of fine address, a good preacher and an uncompromising temperance advocate.  He remained two years, being succeeded by Rev. W. B. Frazelle, who continued one and a half years.  The last half of his second year was supplied by Rev. H. H. Green, who was quite popular with all classes in and out of the Church.  During his stay he assisted the young men in establishing a lyceum, and exerted a great influence over them.  He was followed by Rev. J. B. Taylor, who remained one year.  Mr. Taylor was well advanced in years, but quite vigorous and a good revivalist.

Rev. H. O. Pratt, well known throughout the State as having formerly been an eminent politician and member of Congress, but who had renounced the world and given his all to Christ, was the successor of Mr. Green.  The Church Historian says of him: "He was a man of large and strong physique, fine address in pulpit, and a good, sound doctrinal and practical preacher, with a good degree of eloquence, a good pastor and with a wife well worthy of such a man and such a minister."

In the fall of 1882, Rev. R. W. Keeler, D. D., was assigned to the charge.

The Church in this city is in good condition, with an active membership of 135.  Since its organization 334 have been enrolled.  The church edifice is now valued at $5,000 and parsonage at $2,000.  During the conference year, ending October, 1882, the congregation contributed $1,200 to the pastor's, and $70 to the bishop's and presiding elder's, support.  It contributed $222 towards other expenses.  The Sunday school, which was organized about the same time as the church, is in a flourishing condition, with A. A. Hart, Superintendent.

Rev. R. W. Keeler, D. D., the present pastor of the church, was born in Columbia county, New York, February 14, 1824.  His grandparents were Methodists of the olden type.  His father was, at the time of the Doctor's birth, a local preacher; but in 1832 he joined the New York Conference, and is still a member.  In 1837, while attending school at the Amenia Seminary, then under the Principalship of D. W. (since Bishop) Clark, Doctor Keeler was converted and joined the church.  He remained in that school three years, and thoroughly prepared himself to enter Sophomore year in College.  It was his purporse to graduate from a first-class institution of learning; consequently, in 1840, he sent his name to enter the Wesleyan University at Middletown, Connecticut.  But a lack of means prevented him from carrying out his cherished plan, and he, therefore, taught school and studied until the spring of 1845, when he united with the New York Conference.  Late in the winter of 1844-45, he married Miss Frances E., daughter of J. L. Dickerson, a member also of the New York Conference.  He was ordained Deacon by Bishop Hedding in 1847, and Elder by Bishop Hamlin in 1849.  His appointments in the New York Conference for the eleven years of his connection with it, were as follows: Newington, West Suffield, South Canaan, Tyringham, South Lee and Stockbridge, Courtland and Lakeville.  In 1856, Bishop Simpson transferred him to the Upper Iowa conference.  This was the year that the conference was organized, and Mr. Keeler was stationed at Fifth street, Davenport.  He entered upon a most successful year of pastoral service, but before its close he was elected President of Cornell, to fill a vacancy.  After one year of his administration of the affairs of that Institution, he was unanimously elected to the Presidency, and formally inaugurated.  He organized its classes, arranged its departments and graduated its first class.  In 1859, he took charge of Epworth Seminary, at that time also a conference school, which had been opened two years before but was now suspended.  It had been sold under a mechanic's lien, subject to the right of redemption.  The trustees agreed, upon condition that Dr. Keeler would take charge of it, to redeem it if possible, but the terrible financial embarrassments of the country at that time, 1859, together with the breaking out of the war, rendered that absolutely impossible.  He remained in charge of the Seminary five years, and through the country was in a state of great financial prostration, and the war made large drafts upon the students from time to time, yet the school was well filled through the entire time, and during the last term there were a greater number of students in attendance that the institution ever had before or since.  The Seminary now passed into private hands, and at the conference held at Waterloo, in September, 1864, he was appointed Presiding Elder of the Davenport distric, succeeding Dr. Kynett.  His four years in the district were marked with great prosperity in every respect.  The finances of the district improved about fifty per cent.  In 1868, he closed his labors in the district and was sent to Cedar Falls, where he remained three years.  His labors in that city were highly appreciated, and will long be remembered by the Church and congregation.  On the expiration of his three years at Cedar Falls, he took a supernumerary relation, but has since been the greater part of the time pastor of the Fourteenth Street church, Davenport.  Dr. Keeler was elected a delegate to the General Conference in 1860, 1864 and 1872.  In 1858, the Ohio Wesleyan University conferred on him the degree of A. M., causa honoris, and in 1870, the Upper Iowa University, the degree of D. D.  He has been elected Secretary of the Conference at eight out of the sixteen sessions it has held, and has published the minutes each of these years and assisted in their publication two more years, making in all ten editions of the sixteen already published.  In 1873, he was appointed Presiding Elder of Charles city district.  Having successfully filled the constitution term, he was appointed, in 1876, Presiding Elder of the dubuque district.  His term expiring here in 1880, and it being contrary to the usage of the Church to continue the same person in the eldership more than two terms in succession, Dr. Keeler was remanded to the pastorate and appointed to Fayette, the seat of the Upper Iowa University, he being at the time President of its Board of Trustees.  After two years in this charge, he was stationed in September, 1882, in Toledo.  Dr. Keeler has held the responsible office of Presiding Elder three terms, which is more than any other member of his Conference has held it.  He has been elected delegate to the General Conference three times, viz: 1860, 1861 and 1872.  No other member of the Upper Iowa conference, with a single exception and that a General Conference officer, has been elected as often.  In 1864, he received a larger majority of votes for General conference delegate than any man ever received in the history of the Conference.  In 1868, he was elected reserve delegate, but afterward resigned.  In 1876, he withdrew from the canvass before the final vote.  In 1870 he was appointed historiographer of the Upper Iowa Conference, and since that time he has been collecting material for a complete history of Upper Iowa Methodism.  Dr. Keeler is forty-eight years of age, and is the father of eight children, five of who still live to gladden his heart and home.  He attributes much of his success since he entered the ministry to the steady Christian example, patient, earnest spirit and pure and noble Christian character of his wife.  As an educator, Dr. Keeler has been very successful.  During the fearful financial crisis of 1857-8, the number of students at Cornell College, then under his management, was greater than any preceding year.  But it is in preaching that his massive intellect finds fullest scope.  He stands almost unrivalled and alone, having but few equals.  His sermons are productions marked with great originality of thought, eminently clear and logical, apt and forcible in illustration, practical in application and conclusive in argument.  Therefore not only the "common people hear him gladly," but the educated and refined flock to his ministrations.  Dr. Keeler is possessed of good business ualifications, is social and a most excellent pastor and administrator, which traits of character make him a favorite with the laity and add to his popularity as a minister.  May he long live to bless the Church and the world.

The Catholic was one of the first Churches organized in Toledo.  Among the original members were the following: M. Reusch and Anna, his wife; John Youngman and wife; William Roderick and Kate, his wife; John, Joseph and Anthony Menton; Adam Brecht and wife; John Boyer and wife; Madison Schrader and wife; John Haggerty and wife; Dennis O'Connor and wife; Dennis Haggerty and wife; Enright and wife; Mr. Metz and wife; Jaquog and wife; Sharey and wife; John Feeley and wife; T. McDermott and wife; Donald McDonald and wife; John Meyer and Anton Reusch and wife.

In 1862, Father Emmons, of Iowa City, held services here.  Meetings were held in private houses for a number of years.  Through the influence of Father Emmons, a subscription was started and the present church edifice was erected at a cost of about $1,000.  The size of the building is 20x30 feet; a story and a half high, with a seating capacity of 125.  In 1883, the pastor was Father Patrick Mahen, the membership, 102.

SOCIETIES.

The A.O.U.W. Lodge, No. 23, was organized at the rooms of the I.O.O.F., in April, 1875, with the following named charter members: A. H. Sterrett, Past Master Workman; H. S. Bradshaw, Master Workman; W. H. Stivers, Overseer; W. M. Brown, Financier; D. D. Appelgate, Recorder; W. E. Appelgate, Watchman; N. A. Stewart, Guide; G. M. Berger, G. F.; L. G. Kinne, H. C. Hemperley, W. Bradbrook, H. J. Patterson, Gus Reichman, H. B. Belden, J. H. Bates, W. W. Souster, J. W. Willett and G. W. Sweatt.  The Order continued until 1882, their Lodge numbering fifty-three, at which date a trouble arose between the Grand and Supreme Lodges, causing a division.  Forty members withdrew, adhering to the Grand Lodge, while the other thirteen stood by the Supreme Lodge.

One death had occurred up to 1883, W. H. Blake, who died in 1880.  $2,000, was paid to the widow promptly after his death.  The Lodge also paid $115 sick benefits.

The officers for 1883 were: Peter Lichty, M. W.; H. B. Belden, Overseer; J. M. Winn, Financier; H. C. Hemperley, Recorder; W. H. Stivers, G. F.

A.O.U.W., of Iowa, No. 23, withdrew from the Supreme Lodge in July, 1880, with forty members.  The first officers after the division were: A. J. Dingee, P. M. W.; James H. Ross, M. W.; J. C. Fitzgerald, Foreman; W. E. Appelgate, Recorder; F. E. Smith, Receiver; C. E. Olney, Financier; L. Loupee, Overseer; C. H. Tode, Guide; J. H. Bates, Inside Watchman.

Officers of 1883 were: J. H. Ross, P. M. W.; J. C. Fitzgerald, M. W.; B. Stone, Foreman; L. Loupee, Overseer; A. J. Dingee, Recorder; C. E. Olney, Financier.

Toledo Lodge, No. 118, A.F.A.M., was organized under dispensation in 1857, and received its charter from the Grand Lodge under date June 2, 1858.  Its first officers were: Lafayette Cheney, W. M.; S. M. Wadley, S. W. and G. M. Fox, J. W.  The charter members, in addition to the officers mentioned, were Jonas P. Wood, H. A. Williamson, John Allen, J. B. Louthan and Joseph Powell.  The Lodge has had a steady growth since its organization, and has accomplished much good in the community, having numbered among its members some of the best citizens of the place.  The following named have occupied the position of Worshipful Master since its organization: Lafayette Cheney, John Allen, David D. Appelgate, A. J. Wheaton, David Arb, George R. Struble, A. J. Wheaton, A. H. Sterrett, A. J. Free and Isaac Stoner.  The Lodge has at present a membership of forty-two, and is in a most prosperous condition, with the following named officers in the spring of 1883: George R. Struble, W. M.; George L. Bailey, S. W.; J. N. Springer, J. W.;Isaac Stoner, Treasurer; A. J. Wheaton, Secretary; David Arb, S. D.; T. J. Sweatt, J. D.; D. Huston, Tyler.

Toledo Lodge, No. 79, I.O.O.F. was organized September 18, 1869, by Deputy Grand Master, R. How Taylor, of Marshalltown Lodge, with Robert Blake, George P. Werum, S. C. Rogers, Jacob Reedy, C. N. Knapp and W. H. Stivers as charter members.  The following named were chosen officers for the first term: S. C. Rogers, N. G.; Jacob Reedy, V. G.; W. H. Stivers, Secretary.  The Lodge has had a prosperous existence, and now owns its Lodge room on High street, and has it well furnished with all the paraphernalia of the order.  It has ample funds in its treasury and money at interest.  It pays weekly benefits of $4.50 to each member when sick and one dollar per capita funeral benefits.  Since its organization three of its membership have been removed by death - C. N. Knapp, Jacob Reedy and Henry Geibert.  W. H. Stivers has been Secretary of the Lodge the greater part of its existence, and is the present Secretary, with E. J. Cannon, N. G.; W. A. McAnulty, V. G.

Toledo Lodge No. 26, Legion of Honor, was organized in July, 1879, by L. F. Bassett, Deputy Grand President of the State.  The charter members were as follows: C. J. Stevens, A. J. Dingee, L. B. Blinn, J. M. Winn, T. S. Free, D. Camery, C. C. Quintard, F. B. Gault, A. J. Hassell, W. H. Stivers, P. C. Jones, Isaac Stoner, F. E. Smith, Union Stoner, E. B. Coats, E. E. Stickney, E. M. Bielby, George Lichty, E. J. Connor, S. C. Leland, T. J. Sweatt, E. C. Ebersole, John Mather, S. M. Loomer, J. A. Fuhlendorf, S. Moore, A. J. Bartlett, C. D. Coats, H. E. Wills, J. T. Wilson, G. W. Ingersoll, R. G. McIntyre, J. B. M. Bishop, G. W. Free, Jr., F. S. Harlan, Benjamin Stone, Hiram Baldwin.  C. S. Jerome, E. A. Coats, C. E. S. Conger and F. R. Struble.

The first officers were: C. J. Stevens, President; J. M. Winn, Vice President; F. E. Smith, Recording Secretary; A. J. Dingee, Secretary; Isaac Stoner, Treasurer: A. J. Hassell, Chaplain; T. S. Free, Usher; John Mather, Doorkeeper; E. B. Coats, Sentinel; J. S. Moore, L. B. Blinn and T. S. Free, Trustees.

The presiding officers from the organization to the present time, where as follows: C. J. Stephens, J. M. Winn, J. B. M. Bishop, F. E. Smith, W. Stivers and A. J. Hassell.

The officers in 1883, were: J. M. Winn, President; C. E. Olney, Vice-President; Newton Dodd, Recording Secretary; Union Stoner, Financial Secretary; Isaac Olney, Treasurer; J. W. Mather, Chaplain; S. M. Loomer, Usher; E. A. Coats, Doorkeeper; John Fuhlendorf, Sentinel; W. H. Stivers, Trustee; Dr. L. H. Carey and Dr. J. W. Springer, Medial Examiners; J. M. Winn, Representative to Grand Lodge.  E. H. Smith died August 2, 1882, being the only death in the Lodge since the organization.  The Toledo membership, since its organization, has been fifty-three.  Membership in 1883, fifty.  Five of the fifty held an additional beneficiary, making fifty-five certificates in force.  The Lodge was made up of the representative men of the county, and is in a flourishing condition.  The society, up to 1883 have had only twenty-three assessments, making a very cheap insurance.

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