"THE WAR FOR THE UNION"
The institution of slavery was always a source of trouble between the free and slave-holding States. The latter were always troubled with the thought that the former would encroach upon their rights, and nothing could be done to shake this belief. Compromise measures from time to time were adopted to settle the vexed question of slavery, but the fears of the slaveholders were only allayed for a short time. Threats of secession were often made by the slave-holding Sates, but as soon as measures of a conciliatory character Were passed, no attempt was made, to carry their threats into execution. Finally came the repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the adoption of a measure known as the Kansas-Nebraska bill. This bill opened certain territory to slavery which, under the former act, was forever to be free. About the time of the passage of this act, the Whig party was in a state of dissolution, and the great body of that party, together with certain Democrats who were Opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska bill, united, thus forming a new party to which was given the name of Republican, having for its object the prevention of the further extension of slavery. The People of the South imagined they saw in this new party not onlY an organized effort to prevent the extension of slavery, but one that would eventually be used to destroy slavery in those States in which it already existed.
In 1860 four Presidential tickets were in the field. Abraham Lincoln was the candidate of the Republicans, Stephen A. Douglas of the National Democrat, John C. Breckenridge of the Pro-Slavery interests, and John Bell of the Union. The Union party was composed principally of those who had previously affiliated with the American or Know-Nothing party. Early in the campaign there were threats of secession and disunion in case of the election of Abraham Lincoldn, but the people were so accustomed to Southern bravado that little heed was given to the bluster.
On the 20th of December, 1860, South Carolina, by a convention of delegates, declared "That the Union now existing between South Carolina and the other States of North America is dissolved, and that the State of South Carolina has resumed her position among the Nations of the earth as a free sovereign and independent State, with full power to levy war and conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things which independent States may of right do."
On the 24th Gov. Pickens issued a proclamation declaring that "South Carolina is, and has a right to be, a free and independent State, and as such has a right to levy war, conclude peace, and do all acts whatever that rightfully appertain to a free and independent State."
On the 26th Major Anderson evacuted Port Moultrie and occupied
Fort Sumter. Two days previously he wrote President Buchanan's
Secretary of War, John B. Floyd, as follows:
"When I inform you that my garrison consists of only sixty effective men, and that we are in very infifferent works, the walls of which are only fourteen feet high; and that we have within one hundred and sixty yards of our walls, sand hills which command our works and which afford admirable sites for batteries and finest covers for sharp-shooters; and that besides this there are numerous houses, some of them wthin pistol shot, and you will at once see that if attacked in force, headed by any one but a simpleton, there is scarcely a possibility of our being able to hold out long enough for our friends to come to our succor."
His appeals for re-inforcements were seconded by General Scott, but unheeed by Predisent Buchanan, and entirely ignored by John B. Floyd, Secretary of War.
On the 28th South Carolina troops occupied Fort Moultrie and Castle Pinckney, and hoisted the palmetto flag on the ramparts. On the 29th John B. floyd resigned his place in Buchanan's cabinet, charging that the President in refusing to remove Major Anderson from Charleston Harbor, disigned to plunge the country into civil war, and added: "I cannot consent to be the agent of such a calamity." On the same day the South Carolina commissioners presented their oficial credentioals at Washington, which, on the next day, were declined.
On the second day of January, 1861, Georgia declared for secession, and Georgia troops took possession of the United States Arsenal in Augusta, and forts Pulaski and Jackson.
Gov. Ellis, of North Carolina, seized the forts at Beaufort and Wilmington and the arsenal at Fayettville. On the evening of te 4th, the Alabama and Mississippi delegations in Congress telegraphed the conventions of their respective States to secede, telling them there was no prospect of a satisfactory adjustment. On the 7th, the conventions of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee met in secession conclave. On the 9th, Secretary Thompson resigned his seat in the cabinet on the ground that, contrary to promises, troops had been sent to Major Anderson. On the 9th, the "Star of the West," carrying supplies and re-inforcements to Major Anderson, was fired into from Morris Island, and turned homeward, leaving Fort Sumter and its gallant little band to the mercy of the rebels. On the same day, the ordinance of secession passed the Mississippi Convention. Florida adopted an ordinance of secession on the 10th, and Alabama on the 11th. the same day (the 11th) Thompson, Secretary of the Treasury, resigned, and the rebels seized the arsenal at Baton Rouge, and Forts Jackson and St. Philip, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, and Fort Pike at the Lake Pontchartrain entrance. Pensacola navy yard and Fort Barrancas were surrendered to rebel troops by Colonel Armstrong on the 13th. Lieutenant Slemmer, who had drawn his command from Fort McRae to Fort Pickens, defied Armstrong's orders, and announced his intention to "hold the fort" at all hazards. The Georgia Convention adopted an ordinance of secession on the 19th. On the 20th, Lieutenant Slemmer was besieged by a thousand "allied troops" at Fort Pickens. Louisiana adopted an ordinance of secession on the 25th. On the 1st of February, the rebels seized the United States mint and custom house at New Orleans. The Peace Convention assembled at Washington on the 4th, but adjourned without doing anything to quiet the disturbed elements. On the 9th, a provisional constitution was adopted at Montgomery, Alabama, it being the Constitution of the United States "re-constructed" to suit their purpose. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was chosen President, and Alexander H. Stevens, of Georgia, Vice-President of the "Confederate States of North America." Jefferson Davis was inaugurated on the 18th, and on the 25th it was learned that General Twiggs, commanding the Department of Texas, had baseley betrayed his trust, and that he had surrendered all the military posts, munitions and arms to the authorities of Texas.
Mr. LIncoln was inauguarated March 4, 1861, in front of the capitol, the inauguration ceremonies being witnessed by a vast concourse of people. Before taking the oath, Mr. Lincoln pronounced in a clear, ringing voice, his inaugural address, to hear which there was an almost painful solicitude, to read which the whole American people and civilized world awaited with irrepressible anxiety. With that address, and the administration of the oath of office, the people were assured. all doubt, if any had previously existed, was removed. In the hands of Abraham Lincoln, the people's President, and himself of the people, the government was safe.
Traitors were still busy, plotting and planning. Troops were mustering in all the seceded States. On Friday, April 12, the surrender of Fort Sumter, with its garrison of sixty effective men, was demanded and bravely refused by the gallant Major Anderson. Fire was at once opened on the helpless garrison by the rebel forces, numbered by thousands. resistance was useless, and at last the National colors were hauled down, and by traitor hands were trailed in teh dust. On Sunday morning, the 14th, the news of the surrender was received in all the principal cities of the Union. That was all, but that was enough. A day later, when the news was confirmed and spread through the country, the patriotic people of the North were rousted form their dreams of the future - from undertakings half completed - and made to relize that behind that mob there was dark, deep, and well organized prupose to destroy the government, rend the Union in twain, and out of its ruins erect a slave oligarchy, wherein no one would dare question their rights to hold in bondage the sons and daughters of men whose skins were black. Their dreams of the future - their plans for the establishment of an independent confederacy - were doomed from their inception to sad and bitter disappointment. Every where north of Mason and Dixon's line, the voice of Providence was heard:
"Draw forth your million blades as one;
Complete the battle now begun;
God fights with ye, and overhead
Floats the dear banner of your dead.
They, and the glories of the past,
The future, dawning dim and vist,
and all the holiest hopes of man,
Are beaming triumphant in your van."
"Slow to resolve, be swift to do!
Teach ye the False, how fights the True!
How buckled Perfidy shall feel,
In her black heart the Patriot's steel:
How sure the bolt that Justice wings;
How weak the arm a traitor brings;
How mighty they who steadfast stand,
For Freedom's flag and Freedom land."
On Monday, April 15th, President Lincoln issued the following
"Whereas, the laws of the United States have for some time past, and are now, opposed, and the execution therof obstructed in the States of South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi Louisiana and Texas, by combinations too powerful to be suppressed by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings, or by the powers vested in the marshals; now therfore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution and the laws, have thought to call forth, and hereby do call forth, the militia of the several States of the Union, to the number of 75,000, in order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly executed.
The details for this subject will be immediately communicated to the State authorities through the War Department. I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and to aid this effort to maintain the honor, the integrity and existence of our National Union, and the perpetuity of popular government, and to redress wrongs already long endured. I deem it proper to say that the first services assigned to the forces here called forth will probably be to repossess the forts, places and property which have been seized from the Union; and in every event the utmost care will be observed, consistently with object aforesaid, to avoid any devastation, and destruction of, or interference with property, or any disturbance of peaceful citizens in any part of the county; and I hereby command the persons composing the combinations aforesaid, to disperse and retire peaceably to their respective abodes, within twenty days from this date.
Deeming that the present condition of public affairs presents an extraordinary occasion, I do hereby, in virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution, convene both Houses of Congress. The Senators and Representatives are, therefore summoned to assemble at their respective chambers at 12 o'clock, noon, on Thursday the fourth day of July next, then and there to consider and determine such measures as in their wisdom the public safety and interest may seem to demand.
In witness thereof, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed.
Done at the city of Washington, the fifteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the independence of the United States the eighty-fifth.
By the President, ABRAHAM LINCOLN
W. H. Seward, Secretary of State"
The last word of this proclamation had scarcely been taken from the electric wire before the call was filled. Men and money were counted out by hundreds and thousands. The people who loved their whole country could not give enough. Patriotism thrilled and vibrated and pulsated through every heart. The farm, the workshop, the office, the pulpit, the bar, the bench, the college, the school house - every calling offered its best men, their lives and fortunes, in defense of the Government's honor and unity. Party lines were for a time ignored. Bitter words, spoken in moments of political heat, were forgotten and forgiven and joining hands in a common cause, they repeated the oath of America's soldier statesman: "By the Great Eternal, the Union must and shall be preserved!"
Seventy-five thousand men were not enough to subdue the Rebellion. Nor were ten times that number. The war went on, and call followed call, until it seemed as if there were not men enough in all the free States to crush out the Rebellion. But to every call for either men or money there was a willing and ready response. The gauntlet thrown down by the traitors of the South was accepted; not, however, in the spirit which insolence meets insolence, but with a firm, determined spirit of patriotism and love of country. The duty of the President was plain under the Constitution and laws, and, above and beyond all, the people, from whom all political power is derived, demanded the suppression of the Rebellion, and stood ready to sustain the authority of their representative and executive officers to the utmost extremity.
Tama county was behind no county in the State in the exhibition of sublime patriotism. The news did not reach the people of the county in time to be numbered in the first call of the President for 75,000 men, but in the second, and every succeeding call, it responded with its noblest and best men, some of whom went forth never to return. The record of the county, at home or in the field, is a noble one. By referring to the chapter containing the action of the Board of Supervisors, it will be seen what was done in an official way. In an unofficial way the people took hold of the work, aided enlistments, and furnished a large among of sanitary supplies.
The first company raised in the county was Company C., Tenth Infantry. It was organized in Toledo, about the 12th of August, 1861, in answer to the President's call for 300,000 men. The officers elected were: A. Stoddard, Captain; T. B. Martin, First Lieutenant; T. W. Jackson, Second Lieutenant. As the company left Toledo, for the place of rendezvous, hundreds of people were present and many were the tears shed and the hearty "God bless you," over the departure of the loved ones.
Shortly after this company had left, the companies under Judge Leander Clark and W. H. Stivers, as Captains, were organized. Judge Clark went through the war and was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. W. H. Stivers only remained in the service for a short time, when he resigned and was succeeded as Captain by George Pemberton, of Scott county. About the same time, Company F., Twenty-eighth Infantry, was organized, with John A. Staley as Captain.
In addition to these, there were a large number of enlistments of men in different companies raised in adjoining counties, and for old companies whose ranks had been thined by disease and war. Tama county was represented in nineteen regiments and fifty companies. There were forty-two killed in battle, ninety-one wounded and eight-three died from various natural causes.
In this connection has been compiled from the Adjutant General's report, the name of every soldier from Tama county. If any are omitted it is not intentional, for great care has been exercised in the compilation, and none have more veneration for the brave soldier than the author of this volume. So far as it could be done mistakes in spelling names have been corrected. The following is the record:
J. G. Bowen
A. D. Eaton
W.L. H. Jack
John O. Matthews
This regiment was organized with William H. Worthington, of Keokuk, as colonel, and was mustered into the service of the United States, at Burlington July 15, 1861. It was engaged at New Madrid, siege of Corinth, Iuka, Corinth, Champion's Hill, siege of Vicksburg and Chickamauga, doing brave service.
Henry D. Thompson
John S. Hopkins
S. A. Dobson
E. P. Allen
W. E. Applegate
J. D. Fuller
The Eighth was mustered into the United States service September 12, 1861, at Davenport, Iowa, with Frederick Steel, of the regular army, as colonel. It was engaged at Shiloh, Corinth, Vicksburg, Jackson and Spanish Fort.
James H. Sipe
G. B. Sharp
This regiment was organized with William Vandever, of Dubuque, as Colonel, and was engaged in the battles of Pea Ridge, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Ringgold, Dallas and Lookout Mountain, was also in Sherman's march to the sea.
W. H. Huff
J. W. Porter
| T. Griffin
A. B. Harman
J. P. Henry
C. J. Herrick
B. F. Howard
W. T. Hiatt
E. A. Jeffreys
James H. Lorimaer
E. A. Southard
E. M. Stevens
R. N. Stevens
William H. Stoddard
S. W. Tompkins
N. Van Horn
George Van Riper
W. W. Yarman
Charles D. Bailey
D. B. Mason
Van Buren Rugg
C. T. Davis
H. L. Bigg
C. L. Bailey
J. H. Fee
D. B. Ason
B. S. Myers
D. N. Reedy
C. T. Davis
P. D. Daily
J. L. Croskrey
G. N. Cooper
V. B Rugg
W. J. Newport
J. F. Bartlett
G. W. Buchanan
J. N. Paxton
J. N. Paxton
J. C. Kellogg
D. H. Anderson
H. P. Strain
b. T. Beller
T. Walter Jackson
Frank W. Crosky
J. W. Paxton
J. N. Paxton
The Tenth Iowa Infantry Volunteers, recruited under the President's proclamation of July 23, 1861, were enlisted from quite a large number of counties, but chiefly resided in Polk, Warren, Boone, Tama, Washington, Poweshick, Green, Jasper and Madison. The regiment was organized at "Camp Fremont," near Iowa City, whither the most of the companies proceeded in the latter part of August; and where eight of them were mustered into service by Captain Alexander Chambers, United States Army, on the 6th and 7th of September. One company was not mustered till the 28th, and the last till the 13th of October. When thus completely organized, the regiment had upon its rolls an aggregate of nine hundred and thirteen men.
Having remained only a short time in rendezvous after organization, the regiment moved by rail and steamer to St. Louis, there it was supplied with arms, clothing and equipage, upon the receipt of which it at once proceeded down the river to Cape Girardeau. In the early part of November, they had their first campaigning in the field. The notorious Jeff Thompson was about this time creating a considerable sensation, and with his hand of "butternuts," as they were called, was doing no little damage and causing much annoyance to Union citizens in southeastern Missouri. He had his headquarters at Bloomfield, distant nearly forty miles, in a southwestern direction, from Cape Girardeau. The Tenth Iowa was ordered to march on Bloomfiled, and disperse Thompson's band. The command marched rapidly thither, but the bird had flown. The regiment captured a large quantity of property which the marauder had acquired on his plundering expeditions, but found no armed opposition. It accordingly countermarched to Cape Girardeau.
On the 13th of December the regiment moved down to Bird's Point, and there went into winter quarters. On the 8th of January, Colonel Perczel received orders to march with his command, by night, to Charleston, twelve miles distant from Bird's Point, and surprise and capture a body of rebels understood to be posted there. Colonel Perczel immediately proceeded to the execution of these orders, and as soon as it was dark had his regiment on the march. The night was excessively stormy, and dark as Tartarus. The rain fell down in torrents, and the road passing through swamps, was at this time perfectly horrible. Nevertheless, the command groped its way along as best it could, the men being in that peculiar kind of spirits, which, we frequently observe, seems to be the effect of commotion among the elements. while they were thus feeling their way, and as they were pasing through a dense forest, they were suddenly fired upon by the enemy in ambush. In the darkness, the command was thrown into momentary confusion, or rather, it was momentarily paralyzed by the suddenness of the attack. Officers and men, however, immediately recovered their presence of mind, and fought as well as it was possible for them to do at that time and at that place. They could only know the enemy's position by the flashes of his guns, into which they fired, and no doubt inflicted loss upon the men behind the flashes, who, at any rate, were entirely dispersed. The regiment marched on to Charleston and beyond, and returned next day to Bird's Point, having lost eight killed and sixteen wounded in this its first rencontre with the enemy.
The next camaign in which the 10th participated was that against New Madrid. the regiment was the first to enter the place. They found that the rebels had left their suppers untouched, their candles burning in their tents. They could not have fled more precipitately had they been warned of a coming shower of ashes, such as overtook Sodom and Gomorrah. They left all their artillery, field batteries and siege guns amounting to thirty-three pieces, immense quantities of amunition, tents for an army of ten thousand men, horses, mules, wagons-all had been left to fall into our possession, and make the victory most complete and wonderful.
After this great victory of General Pope, the regiment, together with the whole army, immediately comenced the campaign of Island No. Ten, which in due time was taken.
After the battle of Corinth, the regiment had a period of rest in camp near that place, which continued about one month, at the end of which time it joined in the movement under General Grant into central Mississippi, whereby it was intended to attack Vicksburg in rear, but which design was thwarted and the campaign rendered futile by Van Dorn's success in cutting General Grant's communications and destroying his principal depot of supplies, at Holly Springs. Having on this expedition marched as far as Oxford, the regiment there turned about face, and marched to Memphis. At that city and near by the regiment remained in camp and winter quarters till the campaign of the following spring.
The regiment found at Champion Hills the bloodiest ordeal through witch it was ever called to pass, suffering a loss, in killed, wounded, and missing, of nearly fifty percent of those engaged. the regiment, with the brigade, rushed into the fight when the rebels had succeeded in forcing back Hovey and in throwing him into temporary confusion where a rout must have entailed a terrible disaster upon our arms, and succeeded by as desperate fighting as was ever witnessed in holding the enemy in check until Crocker threw in other troops, who animated by his intrepid spirit, and sustained by his splendid nerv, snatched glorious victory out of the defeat which seemed so imminent. Here the tide of the battle turned and swept the rebel army from the field. But Boomer's brigade was immolated. The losses in the Tenth regiment were fearful. Captain Poag, Lieutenenat Brown, and Lieutenant Terry were killed on the field, Captains Lusby, Hosbon, Kuhn, and Head and Lieutenants Meekins and Gregory were wounded, whilst the scene of their conflict was strewn with the dead and wounded.
The campaigns of 1863 for this regiment closed with the victory of Chattanooga. It joined in the pursuit of the rebels, but soon after the battle marched into Alabama, and went into winter quarters at Huntsville. During the months of January and February, 1864, the regiment re-enlisted and became a veteran organization, and entered the service as such on the first of February. Notwithstanding the regiment had been so greatly reduced by its active campaigns, nearly three hundred re-entered the service. When it had re-enlisted, the exigencies of the service forbade its taking, at the time, that furlough to which, by general rule, it would have been entitle, and it was sent home on veteran furlough in the midst of the summer. The regiment went to Iowa in June, and having enjoyed a month there in which they were msot handsomely treated by the people, officers and men returned to their field of duty in the latter part of July, Colonel Henderson bringing with him a splendid sword, the gift of his friends in Warren county.
In the campaign of the Carolinas, the regiment distinguished itself at the passage of the Salkahatchie river, crossing the stream, which was waist deep, in front of the enemy posted behind considerable earthworks, and with the Fifty-sixth Illinois charging and driving the rebels like scared sheep before them. It was with the column which brought Columbia into our possession, and warmly engaged, at Cox's Bridge, on the Neuse river, North Carolina, in one of the skirmishes preliminary to the Battle of Bentonville, and which was the last engagement with the enemy in which the Tenth took part. This affair of Cox's Bridge occurred on the 19th day of March, 1865, a few days more than three years from the triumphal march of the regiment, at the head of Pope's Army of the Mississippi into New Madrid, on the bank of the Father of Waters.
From Bentonville the regiment moved to Goldsboro, thence to Raleigh, where Johnston soon capitulated, and thence to Washington city, where it participated in the famous review. From Washington it moved ot Louisville, where the men supposed thay would be mustered out of service. In this they were mistaken. The fighting days of the regiment were over, but not its journeyings. Having remained at Louisville a few weeks, it was ordered to Little Rock, Arkansas, whither it proceeded without visible discontent, but certainly, one should suppose, not without mental execrations upon the heads of the authorities promulgating the order. Nor did events show that there was the least necessity for it. No speck of war appeared in that dark quarter of the national horizon, and the next order the regiment received was an order for muster out. In obedience to which, it was mustered out at Little Rock, on the 15th of August, then numbering but little more than three hundred men.
B. C. Stevens
S. J. Crowhurst
S. J. Crowhurst
C. B. Hayward
W. C. Shafer
H. H. Crowhurst
The Twelfth was recruited soon after the disaster at Bull Run, and was organized with J. J. Wood, of Maquoketa, as Colonel. It was mustered into service in October and November, 1861, and was engaged at Shiloh, Fort Donelson, siege of Vicksburg, Tupelo, Mississippi, White River, Nashville and Spanish Fort.
G. B. Sharp
Ward B. Sherman
W. G. Bates
J. R. Thomas
W. S. Townsend
This regiment was mustered into the service of the United States November 1, 1861, with N. M. Crocker, of Des Moines, as Colonel. The regiment was in the battles of Shiloh, Corinth, Kenesaw Mountain, siege of Vicksburg, campaign against Atlanta, Sherman's march to the sea, and through the Carolinas, home.
R. F. Clark
J. R. Edwards
William L. Gort
J. H. Luke
J. R. Fetter
J. E. McKune
J. B. Overturf
J. A. Pope
J. R. Myers
J. B. Wineman
H. H. Williams
D. S. Young
E. S. Young
The 14th Infantry, Colonel William T. Shaw, was organized in the fall of 1861, being enrolled under the President's proclamation of October 3d of that year. Before the regiment was organized, three companies recruited therefore, and which were designated as Companies A, B, and C therein, were sent to the western frontier on special service, and remained ever afterwards detached from the regiment. Though these companies continued, pro forma, to continue a part of the 14th regiment for a considerable period, they were never under the command of the commanding officer of the regiment, and never did, except by the merest technicality, make a part of it.
As a matter of fact, therefore, as contradistinguished from a mere matter of record, or of law, the 14th Iowa during the first year of its service, consisted of but seven companies, from D to K inclusive. These companies were enlisted in different parts of the State, but Henry county contributed much more largely than any other to the number of the regiment. Des Moines, Lee, Van Buren, Jasper, Tama, Jones, Linn, Dubuque, Johnson, also contributed largely, and quite a number of other counties were not ungenerously represented in the command. The regimental rendezvous was at Camp McClellan, near Davenport, where the regiment was organized, November 6, 1861, with the following officers, field, staff and line: William T. Shaw, Colonel; Edward W. Lucas, Lieutenant-Colonel; Hiram Leonard, Major; Noah N. Tyner, Adjutant; C. C. Buell, Quartermaster; George M. Staples, Surgeon; S. N. Pierce, Assistant; Company D, Captain R. D. Emerson; Lieutenants R. J. Harrison, William M. Gordon; Company E, Captain Joseph O. Shannon; Lieutenants John W. Horine, Neal Murray; Company F, Captain Joseph H. Newbold; Lieutenants William H. Shuey, Cyrus Bitner; Company G, Captain William H. Stivers; Lieutenants George Pemberton, William Gallighar; Company H, Captain Edgar A. Warner; Lieutenants William H. Calkins, Leroy A. Crane; Company I, Captain Warren C. Jones; Lieutenants John M. Moorehead, George H. Logan; Company K, Captain William J. Campbell; Lieutenants William H. Kirkwood, Charles P. King. At this time, not counting those who formed the companies which never served with the main body, there were more than six hundred, officers and enlisted men, in the service.
The first active service was at Fort Donelson. On the first day of the battle it was in position in the left wing, General Percifer F. Smith, commanding. In the battle which followed, the regiment was conspicuous for its gallantry, fighting with that immortal brigade, under command of Colonel J. G. Lauman, which first forced its way into the rebel works, and won the brightest laurels among all the bright wreaths which were here won by the army under Grant. The regiment in this, its first battle, lost three killed and twenty-one wounded.
It remained at Fort Donelson about three weeks after the capitulation. It then embarked on steamers, and moving down the Cumberland and up the Tennessee, disembarked at Pittsburg Landing on the 18th of March. In the battle of Shiloh, the Fourteenth formed part of that self-constituted Forlorn Hope which, fighting the live-long day against fearful odds, and staying the rebel advance, by its own heroic immolation saved the army and made the victory of the 7th of April possible. Just as the sun was setting Colonel Shaw, seeing further fighting useless, surrendered his command prisoners of war. the losses up to this time in killed and wounded had been heavy, but the sacrifice of these and of the principal command in captivity, practically closed the career of the Fourteenth for many months.
The officers and men surrendered were held as prisoners of war at the South until late in the following fall, when, moving by Richmond, Virginia, and Annapolis, Maryland, they went to Benton Barracks, Missouri, being released on parole, and were declared exchanged on the 19th of November. Here, then, the command remained for re-organization during the following winter.
On the 10th of April the re=-organized command left St. Louis on steamer, and in due time making the port of Cairo, there disembarked and went into camp.
From Cairo the command moved to Columbus, Kentucky, in the latter part of June. And there it remained on garrison duty for seven long months.
On the 24th of January, 1864, the regiment embarked on steamers and proceeded to Vicksburg. Here it was assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Sixteenth Army Corps. Colonel Shaw was in command of the brigade, and from this time until he left the service, nine months afterwards, had command either of the brigade, or of a Division. His brigade, by its endurance of fatigue, and its firmness in battle, acquired the sobriquet of "The Iron Brigade, " and its commander that of "Grim Fighting Old Shaw." Lieutenant-Colonel Newbold in command, the regiment, very soon after its arrival at Vicksburg, took up line of march eastward with the arm under Major-General Sherman, which made the famous Meridian raid. this laborious, singular campaign of one month's duration hardly did more that give the Fourteenth a good appetite. It enjoyed the marching and the bivouacking, and laughed at blistered feet, thinking them decidedly preferable to unblistered feet in a garrison.
The regiment next formed a part of the Red River expedition, under Banks. Its record in that expedition is indeed commendable; its loss was very great. It was mustered out of Service November 16, 1864.
B. F. Smith
E. A. Burnham
|Leander Clark||G. Alexander||W. Gower||A. B. Knight||John Misner|
|First Lieutenant:||E. Bailey||George Hillmon||A. T. King||J. Pass|
|S. S. Dillman||W. W. Beatty||George Hemstead||W. S. King||Henry Phillips|
|Sergeants:||J. W. Conant||Wm. J. Knight||G. Lamm||S. R. Rushton|
|James Rokes||J. W. Coe||D. W. Laughlin||H. Merrill||J. M. Snow|
|M. Mefford||S. Dykeman||J. A. Lamm||M. Mink||E. O. Thomas|
|Corporals:||A. J. Drew||G. W. Louthan||John Mubeah||I. Voorhies|
|J. S. Edmonds||W. Dobson||N. B. Loomis||L. Mitchell||F. Vernier|
|E. S. Edwards||E. S. Edwards||D. O. Gardner||O. N. Mason||W. T. Wilber|
|T. N. Perkins||R. Filloon||M. Harris||S. W. McGee||E. Brewer|
|Geo. W. Stoddard||A. H. Feeler||B. C. Hayes||C. F. McGee||W. L. Conant|
|I. Donald||E. H. Finch||G. Parcher||A. J. Roberts|
|Phillips Rhoads||Allen Mason||A. A. Swarthout||E. S. Beckley|
|E. Granger||James Young|
Soon after the receipt of the President's Proclamation of July 2, 1862, calling for 300,000 volunteers, Governor Kirkwood issued a commission to Eber C. Byam, of Linn county, authorizing him to raise a regiment to be called "The Iowa Temperance Regiment," Circulars were accordingly distributed by Byam through Linn and the adjoining counties. In a very short time more than double the requisite number of companies were organized and ready to march to the appointed rendezvous. They were composed of men of temperance principles and temperance habits - that is to say, of men who touch not, taste not, handle not spirituous or malt lquor, wine or cider. This was the intention. Out of the companies reported as ready to join the regiment choice was made as follows: Company E, from Tama county, with Leander Clark as Captain; three from Linn county, F, G and H, under Captains Dimmitt, Vinson and Carbee; two from Cedar county, B and C under Captains Rathburn and Johnson; two from Jackson county, A and I, under Captains Henderson and Martin: one from Johnson county under Captain Casbeer; and Company K, from Jones, with Captain Williams. E. C. Byam was duly commissioned Colonel; John Q. Wilds, Lieutenant-Colonel; and Ed. Wright, Major.
The rendezvous of the companies was at Camp Strong, near the city of Muscatine, where the Thirty fifth was also rendezvousing at the same time. After medical inspection of the Twenty-fourth some of the companies were more than full. Those making the excess were transferred to the Thirty-fifth. On the 18th of September the regiment was mustered into the service of the United States and was hence-forward officially known as the Twenty-fourth Iowa Infantry though it was long called by the public and by newspaper correspondents the "Temperance Regiment." The command remained at Camp Strong more than a month after muster-in, having a great deal of fun, drill parade and bad water, and a good deal of measles in camp. Marching orders came on October 19, and on the next day the regiment embarked for St. Louis. On reaching that city, orders were received commanding the regiment to proceed forth-with to Helena. It reached that place on the 28th, disembarked and went into camp on the bank of the Mississippi river, near town. At this time the regiment numbered, in officers and men, nine hundred and fifty, all apparently in good health. In a short time, however, on account of exposure during the late voyage, the steamer having been much crowded, and of the unhealthy locatlity, more than a hundred were on the sick list.
During the winter the regiment remained at Helena, except during three or four short periods in which it marched with certain expeditions, one or two of which had a military purpose in view, the others having no purpose whatever that has yet been discovered. as has been said, "this was a time when so many officers had expedition on the brain." On the 17th of November, Brigadier General A. P. Hovey took some transports and made an expedition. He took his command to the mouth of the White River and thten back again without having disembarked or seen an enemy. The Twenty-fourth was with him. The regiment on the Twenty-eighth marched, under the same General, in the direction of Coldwater, Mississippi. the command now had its first experience in marching, and found no difficulty in keeping up with the veteran troops. Arrived at Coldwater, the brigade in which was our regiment halted, while another with a small force of cavalry advanced to Oakland, some twenty miles further. On the afternoon of December 1st, artillery firing was heard in the direction of Oakland, the first sound of actual battle that had yet reached the ears of the Twenty-fourth. The brigade at Coldwater was at once formed and soon moved to the front on the double quick. Having thus marched several miles they heard of the retreat of the enemy, and then about faced and returend to Coldwater. They reached Helena again on the 7th of December. On the moning of January 11, 1863, the regiment embarked with the troops who endured so much suffering during General Gorman's White River Expedition.
When the regiment reached Helena on its return, the old encampment had to be abandoned on account of the rising water. Helena was inundated and a new camp was made on the first range of hills in the rear of the town, and about one mile distant. During this rainy winter the troops stationed there were unspeakably miserable. It was the darkest period of the war for them all. The troops who were well enough to sit up, all sat in their cheerless quarters, ruminating on their own unhappiness, barely noting the drum beat for the dead, beating evermore. General Fisk, commanding brigade, accomplished what mortal could accomplish toward driving off the clouds of despondency settling over the army. The expedition under General Washburn, which left Helena February 15, to open the Yazoo Pass to navigation, aroused the army from its lethargy. Of this expedition, General Fisk's Brigaade formed a part. From its return till the commencement of the campaign against Vicksburg, the Twenty-fourth had daily drill and almost daily dress parade.
When the army was re-organized for the active operations of spring, the Twenty-fourth was attached to the Thirteenth corps. It was known to all that the taking of Vicksburg was to be the object of the campaign, and all looked forward to the hour of departure with joy. Nevertheless, when the troops moved, their hearts were filled with deep and solemn feelings. Not one but had a brother or favorite comrade sleeping the last sleep on the bluffs above, or in the vale by the river's bank below. The Twenty-fourth had, probably, suffered neither less nor more than the other regiments. During the first three months of the year fifty of its members were buried near Helena. More were sent to the hospitals of Memphis, Cairo and St. Louis. When the fleet was ready to sail on April 11, the regiment could muster but little more than six hundred, rank and file. The world knows how active was the grand campaign actually begun by the disembarking of the army at Milliken's Bend on the 14th of April, till after the assault on the 22d of May, and how hard were the duties of the investing army till the campaign was crowned with complete success on the 4th of July. The march, in Louisiana, from the point of debarking to a place named Perkins' Landing, was made difficult and laborious by reason of the high waters. Bridges had to be build, corduroy roads made for the pasage of trains. Here the army embarked on transports and barges, and proceeded on its way down the river to a point about four miles above Grand Gulf, and which is well named Hard Times, it having the appearance of being able to maintain a very poor family in a very poor way during a favorable season. Here the army, without disembarking, witnessed the cannonading between the gun-boats and the rebel batteries at Grand Gulf. The batteries could not all be silenced. The army then disembarked, marched across to the levee below Grand Gulf, where the transports reached them, having run the batteries successfully. The Battle of Port Gibson, or Thompson's Hill, as it is sometimes called, and with more geographical accuracy, was fought and won very soon after the Thirteenth Corps landed at Bruinsburg. in this engagement, the Twenty-fourth was almost all the time supporting artillery. Its loss was slight - six wounded, one mortally.
From this time until the battle of Champion Hills, our regiment did much marching, skirmishing, and foraging, but was not engaged at Raymond or at Jackson. On the 2d of May, the column marched into the beautiful town of Port Gibson, and bivouacked in the streets. The beauty and fashion of this place had made great preparations for a grand ball in honor of the victory over our fleet at Grand Gulf. The Battle of Port Gibson had altogether changed the programme. Many of our troops partook of the viands which had been prepared for guests of another sort. Here the column halted three days. The country roundabout Port Gibson is one of the richest cotton-growing regions of Mississippi. The white inhabitants were wealthy, cultivated after the Southern fashion, and aristocratic according to Southern notions. The war had not hitherto been carried into their door yards. Their dwellings were magnificent mansions. They had fine carriages and blooded horses. Many of them had blooded negroes, too, for coachmen. They fared sumptuously every day. Thus were they living till our troops landed, when the most of the wealthy planters suddenly decamped. Our foraging parties met with all the embarrassment of riches. They would return, loaded down with supplies - beef, bacon, pork, poultry, vegetables. One might see gorgeous family carriages coming into Port Gibson from all directions, filled with geese, ducks, and chickens, or coming from the mills, laden with great bags of meal. Yet no man's property was destroyed, or even taken for the use of the army, without there being first obtained evidence of his disloyalty to the Union, which evidence very often consisted of the fact that he had run away from the Union army. No houses were burned, no cotton was destroyed. The union troops simply did what the planters had done before them. They fared sumptuously every day. Having remained here long enough to get together a large quantity of supplies, the column moved on the 6th to Rocky Springs. On the next day, it moved to Big Sandy Creek, and was there reviewed by General Grant. On the 10th it moved still father northward, halting near Cayuga. Here the grand army first came together, and marched forward in an unbroken line of several miles extent, making a grand sight. McClernand's Corps was on the left. On the morning of the 12th, his advance Division being that of General Hovey, to which the Twenty-fourth belonged, moved to Fourteen Mile Creek, in the direction of Edwards' Depot. Here he had a sharp skirmish with the enemy, and deployed his men in line of battle. The main rebel army from Vicksburg, twenty-five thousand strong, as reported, was drawn up two or three miles in advance. Meantime, while Hovey was here amusing the enemy, McPherson whipped the rebel force at Raymond. Hovey then withdrew, and taking a new road just made by the pioneers, passed through Raymond on the day after the battle, and reached Clinton on the 14th. On the next morning the Thirteenth Corps turned about, and marching westward, reached Bolton Depot in the evening.
In the battle of Champion Hills, fought on the 16th, and which was the most severe engagement of the campaign except the assault of Vicksburg itself, Hovey's Division bore the brunt of the contest for hours, fighting with a valor and ostinacy which conferred eternal honor upon the troops. The Twenty-fourth Iowa was second to no regiment in splendid fighting on this bloody field. Not an officer or a man engaged but did his duty meritoriously, yea, with special gallantry. At one time in the fight the regiment advanced, unsupported, to charge a battery of five guns - whose grape and canister were rapidly thinning the Union ranks. The Twenty-fourth rushed to the charge with the greatest enthusiasm, trampled down the gunners, and by their own momentum the men pressed far beyond the battery, driving the infantry supports away in wild confusion. But they were in turn attacked by overwhelming numbers, and compelled to give way. It was in this daring charge that Major Wright was severely wounded. Here were slain Captain Silas D. Johnson and William Carbee, and Lieutenant Chauncey Lawrence - gallant officers as ever lived or died in the cause of American nationality and of man. The loss of the regiment was severe. Forty-three officers and men were slain, forty more were borne with mortal wounds from the field to the grave, nearly thiry were maimed for life, and whole loss, killed, wounded and captured, out of the four hundred and seventeen who entered the fight, was one hundred and ninety-five. Such was the great sacrifice of the Temperance Regiment on the glorious field of Champion Hills.
The regiment, with the Division to which it belonged, did not join in the raid pursuit of the enemy which followed this great victory, and did not take part, consequently, in the battle of Black River Bridge, the next day, where the Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa regiments won the first honors and suffered the saddest losses. It joined the beleaguering army soon, however, and bore its full share in the siege of the rebel stronghold. When Vicksburg surrendered, there were few regiments in all the army which had accomplished more, or suffered more, in bringing about the great victory than the Twenty-fourth.
But it was not yet to have rest, for at once joining General Sherman's expeditionary army, it took part in the campaign of Jackson - a campaign of great labors and of great results, but without a general battle. Johnston having been driven far to the eastward, and central Mississippi laid waste, the army under Sherman returned to the vicinity of Vicksburg, and most of the Troops which had been instrumental in the reduction of that place were granted rest. But the Thirteenth Corps, now commanded by General Ord, was transferred to the Department of the Gulf, having had only about a fortnight's repose after the Jackson campaign.
The history of the Twenty-fourth in this department until it joined the army on the Red River Expedition is devoid of memorable events. It took part, in the fall and early winter of 1863, in one or two expeditions, but though the troops marched much, labored much, and sometimes met the enemy in small force, their marches, labors, and skirmishes, were barren of results.
The first of the year 1864 found the regiment encamped at Algiers, weather very wet, the mud and water rendering the camp almost impassible to man or beast. Recollections of Helena came back forcibly to the men's minds, but the 14th of January, quarters were obtained in warehouses. The 21st, the command moved, and the next day encamped near the northern shore of Lake Pontchartrain, by Madisonville. This was the most pleasant camp the regiment ever had, after leaving Camp Strong, near Muscatien. It was evacuated on the evening of February 26th. The regiment was reviewed by General McClernand at Algiers on the 3d of March, and received the special commendations of that officer.
From Algiers the Twenty-fourth moved by rail to Berwick Bay, and thence on the 13th joined the Red River Expedition under General Banks. The 1st of April, the command reached Matchitoches, after a march of nearly three hundred miles from Berwick Bay. Here it remained in camp till the morning of the 5th, when the army resumed the march for Shreveport. Encamped near Pleasant Hill on the 7th. On the next day was fought the battle of Sabine Cross Roads. It was the intention of General Banks, when his forces moved from Grand Ecore on the morning of the 6th, that the advance should reach Sringfield landing on the 10th, and there effect a junction with Admiral Porter preparatory to the final combined movement against Shreveport. His army moved in unique fashion. The cavalry had the advance. it was followed by prodigious trains, enough, one might suppose, to have formed the implements of the army of Xerxes. The Thirteenth Corps came next after this prodigious train, but marching in disjointed manner, one division far in advance of the other. The Nineteenth Corps was several miles in the rear. Now when it is considered that the roads in this part of Louisiana are narrow and bad, that the country is covered with a dense pine timber, rendering military operations on a large scale impracticable, except in a few localities, and cavalry absolutely useless, it might seem that common prudence should have dictated the most careful compression of the line of march, the utmost caution against surprise, the greatest care in the selection of a position on which to deliver battle, and constant vigilance in keeping the troops in hand. On the contrary, the enemy having hitherto offered the merest show of resistance to our advance, it is not too much to say that General Banks had his army all the while in air. Thus his troops were moving recklessly, blindfold, as it were, when on the afternoon of the 8th, at Sabine Cross Roads, near Mansfield, the mounted advance came upon the enemy in force, and, fighting on foot, was soon defeated. The line over lapped ours on both flanks. Embarrassed by their horses, astonished at the unexpected fury of an enemy whose heels only they expected to see, the cavalry melted away, and speedily became a rout of shrieking men on frightened horses. The Thirteenth Corps was hurried into action, Division at a time, but though each fought gallantly to stem the tide of defeat, each was compelled to give way. The troops fell back in confusion. the enemy pursued, and, flushed with victory, fell upon the Nineteenth Corps, in the very act of deploying into line of battle, but met with the first check of the day. But he was not repulsed, and the whole army was soon in retreat, having lost two thousand, killed, wounded, and prisoners, several batteries of artillery, and large quantities of property.
Only half the Twenty-fourth regiment took part in this engagement, five of the companies being on guard duty with the train in the rear. To get into the fight, the command was marched several miles on the double-quick and then pushed into battle with the Division, after the other Division of the corps had been thoroughly defeated. The regiment fought for more than an hour, and then gave way with the Division. Major Wright commanding, says his officers and men behaved handsomely, standing firmly at their posts until ordered to retreat. the regiment lost thirty-four, wounded and captured. Captain Wilbur C. Dimmitt, a brave officer and an accomplished gentleman, was severely wounded. He fell into the hands of the enemy, and not long afterwards died.
General Ranson, an intrepid commander, beloved by his troops as General McPherson was by his, was wounded at Sabine Cross Roads. The detachment of the Thirteenth Corps - Third and Fourth Divisions - which he commanded on this expedition took charge of the train after the battle, moving in guard thereof to Grand Ecore. In the retreat from Grand Ecore, the Twenty-fourth frequently met the enemy in skirmish, and lost several men wounded. After the army reached Morganza, on the the 22d of May, the regiment joined in a reconnoissance to the Atchafalaya, during which Capt. B. G. Paul was slain and a number of men wounded. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilds had joined the regiment at Alexandria, after a considerable absence in Iowa on recruiting service.
About the middle of June, the command left Morganza, and having encamped at Greenville, near New Orleans, a few days, and at Kennerville a few days more, hastened to Thibodeaux in the latter part of the month to repel an enemy who turned out to be imaginary. Having stayed here a few days, the regiment returned to Algiers, whence on the 22d of July, it commened the voyage by river, gulf and ocean, to Alexandria, in Virginia, arriving on the evening of the 30th. Passed through Washington the next day, and moved right on by cars to Monocacy, Maryland. Soon afterwards, it moved to Haper's Ferry, and joined the forces under General Sheridan, to take part in that officer's campaign of the Shenandoah Valley.
The first great engagement of the campaign was the battle of Winchester. In this long and severe contest, the Twenty-fourth fought with prominent gallantry, and lost many of its officers and men. Captain Joseph R. Gould and Lieutenant Sylvester S. Dillman were slain while leading their men in the hottest of the fight; Adjutant Daniel W. Camp. Lieutenants W. W. Edgington and Royal S. Williams were wounded. The entire loss of the regiment was seventy-four killed, wounded and captured, there being only three captured. Leaving the killed to be buried and the wounded cared for by the proper details of men, the regiment pushed on up the valley with the army.
Immediately after the battle of Winchester, Early withdrew to Fisher's Hill, a strong position just beyond Strasburg, and commanding the town. Here he made a stand, his right resting on the base of Massanutten Mountain, his left on the Little North Mountain, his line thus extending across the Strasburg Valley. Notwithstanding the strenght of the rebel position, General Sheridan determined to deliver battle. His army was in position early on Thursday morning, the 22d, Crook's Eighth Corps, the Army of Western Virginia on the right, the Sixth Corps in the centre, the Nineteenth Corps on the left. There was considerable maneuvering until afternoon. Emory demonstrated on the left, Ricketts' Division of the Sixth Corps advanced directly in front, and Averill's Cavalry drove in the enemy's pickets. Under cover of these demonstrations, Crook moved out to the extreme right, and by an arduous march gained the enemy's left and rear, and, charging with splendid impetuosity, drove him from his intrenchments in utter confusion. Wright and Emory at the same time moved against the enemy, who fled in disorder and rout before the dashing attacks of the whole Union army. It was a short fight and a magnificent victory. Nearly 1200 prisoners of war, sixteen cannon, and immense spoils besides fell into our hands. The loss of the rebels was also great in killed and wounded, whilst that of the Unionists did not probably exceed 500, all told. The enemy's fire was wild. He was thrown into panic by the suddenness with which Sheridan dashed against him with his whole force. And hence the troops, looking at their small losses, not thinking that they won the battle by their legs and their enthusiasm, did not regard it as so great a victory as that of Winchester, which preceded it, or that of Cedar Creek, which followed it. In sober truth, there were but few so great victories during the war, gained with such little cost of life and blood.
In this engagement, the Twenty-fourth took active part, but as it lost only five wounded, it was a matter of doubt for some time whether its operations should be reported! So apt are even the most skillful and gallant officers to associate great victories with great losses, instead of results. The regiment moved from its position in the line to the extreme left, passing with almost miraculous safety, through a shower of shells. It went into position, in support of a Maine battery, and there remained under fire, but covered much by the nature of the ground, till Sheridan's signal ordered the charge along the whole line, when it dashed forward with yells that made the welking ring.
The quick, decisive battle over, the regiment at once took up the pursuit and marching the livelong night close to the enemy's rear, reached Woodstock early on the morning of the 23d. During this march Captain McKinley was severely, and several men were slightly, wounded by the enemy's fire. Pursuing as far as Harrisonburg the regiment went into camp.
Countermarching with the army it took position on the line of the Cedar Creek, which was soon wel fortified on the left and centre. Early, having been heavily re-enforced, turned this position on the morning of the 19th of October, and came near ruining our army by a similar plan to that of Sheridan against him on the field of Winchester. Sheridan was at the time at Winchester, on his return from Washington. His wild ride to the field of battle, and his saving the day, can never be forgotten, for they have been made immortal by the genius of T. Buchanan Read, whose thrilling poem on this subject is the most soul-stirring lyric of the war. In this the last and crowning victory of the campaign, the Twenty-fourth bore a brilliant part, losing here its commanding officer, mortally wounded, and many others in death and wounds. Nearly a hundred of its officers and men were placed hors-de-combat on this bloody field, on which no regiment in all the Union army fought more heroically, or more steadfastly that the Iowa Twenty-fourth. The same may be safely said, too, of its conduct at Winchester and Fisher's Hill. During the campaign its losses were nearly two hundred, officers and men.
With the battle of Cedar Creek, the campaign of the Shenandoah Valley was brought to an end. Our regiment did not afterwards meet the enemy. It performed heavy escort duty for a time, marching and countermarching between Cedar Creek and Martinsburg, and in the latter part of November went into cold, airy encampment on the Opequan. The men constructed huts, however, and got to be quite cozy, but near the close of the month the command was ordered to Whichester, where it remained on post duty till ordered south in the early part of January, 1865. At this time the officers of the regiment were: Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding, Ed. Wright; Major, Leander Clark; Adjutant, William H. Smouse; Surgeon, Doctor Henry M. Lyons, with S. S. Cook, J. M. Lanning, assistants; Quartermaster, A. B. Eshelman.
The 6th January, 1865, the Twenty-fourth bade farewell to the Shenandoah Valley. Moving by cars to Baltimore, the regiment was there quartered in stables! - an insult which could have been nowhere else offered to troops who had proudly borne the colors of the Union at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Vicksburg, Jackson, Sabine Cross Roads, Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. Thence the regiment moved by steamship to Savannah, Georgia, where it had quiet for some two months. It then moved to Morehead City, North Carolina, in which State it performed heavy duties for some time, helping on the transportation between Goldsboro and Raleigh. After the capitulation of Johnston it returned to Savannah, and thence made the same movement to Augusta and back. It was mustered out of service at Savannah, and from there moved to Iowa, and was finally disbanded in the early part of August.
The Twenty-fourth Iowa Infantry, sometimes called our "Temperance," sometimes our "Methodist" regiment, was among the most distinguished of our commands. Colonel Byam, a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was compelled to leave the service by reason of ill health in the summer of 1863. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilds, who succeeded in the command, took faithful, conscientious charge of his troops, till he gave up his life in the cause of his country. Wright, the last commanding officer, was one of our most successful soldiers as he had been one of our most noted men in the walks of civil life. All the officers, and the men generally, were remarkable for their bravery, their powers of endurance, their moral rectitude. Not the stern soldiery which, under the inspiration of Hampden and the leadership of Cromwell, overturned the monarchy of England, ever fought more bravely, or suffered more patiently, than the Twenty-fourth Iowa Volunteers. It is impossible that men should have ever gone into war out of a higher sense of duty than did those of this command; and it is to the praise of morality, of temperance, of Christianity, that throughout a long career of as gallant service as was ever performed, they were as brave as they were virtuous. No troops left the service with a cleaner record than did these Methodist volunteers when, the war ended they laid aside the sword of the lord and of Gideon.
N. Huff, J. B. Vanauken,
B. W. Wilson.
G. M. Brothers, B. Wilkins.
|N. Devore,||E. D. Howard,|
|A. Felter,||G. T. James,|
|H. M. Howard,||G. R. Walton.|
John A. Staley.
|G. G. Edmond,||J. Casey,|
|J. S. Ferguson,||H. A. Weaver,|
|J. W. Hiatt||P. H. Mason,|
|J. W. Fielding,||John Myers,|
|W. Nixon,||B. F. Hubbart,|
J. H. Davis,
D. W. Emerson,
J. S. Bishop.
S. J. B. Bear, J. Spindler.
J. B. Daily.
|S. W. Arbuthnot,||J. Chess,||E. W. Bunce,||John Chess,||A. L. Babb,|
|J. Crawford,||W. Beal,||C. C. Collins,||B. F. Brannan,||P. Cass,|
|John Blair,||S. G. Clark,||N. Bywaters,||O G. Clark,||J. S. Brants,|
|L. D. Campbell,||J. Behouneck,||F. M. Connor,||B. F. Davis,||W. Hanna,|
|D. W. Emerson,||J. Hart,||E. J. Eldridge,||John Hate,||J. Fouts,|
|H. Hate,||D. Frun,||A. Jack,||J. L. Fitzgerald,||L. A. Kirk,|
|J. Freeman,||A. Kosta,||G. C. Freeman,||S. W. Myers,||J. W. Flathers,|
|R. Metz,||J. Freedle,||H. M. Miller,||T. S. Finch,||G. A. Moss,|
|D. E. Finch,||C. L. McNair,||A. S. Godfrey,||D. Nance,||William Grubb,|
|J. B. Nicodemus,||J. C. Hopkins,||P. P. Nungesser,||J. Hillman,||J. B. Reed,|
|S. Holacker,||C. M. Reed,||J. D. Hutchinson,||W. T. Richardson,||S. W. Hammitt,|
|B. W. Russell,||J. E. Brockenfield,||John Wilson,||C. W. Sipes,||J. Wood,|
|I. Spindler,||J. Bain,||F. Schaeffer,||E. M. Beilby,||D. Shelton,|
|E. S. Beckley,||F. Sheldon,||G. W. Black,||J. H. Scott,||J. B. M. Bishop,|
|T. Southern,||S. Bruner,||J. A. Snap,||W. C. Crawford,||Wm. Taylor,|
|J. A. Davis,||W. W. Vandorn,||H. D. Fuller,||D. Way,||E. Granger,|
|G. Williams,||A. H. Hisey,||H. J. Williams,||J. M. Hammitt,||W. Heyer,|
|A. J. Plumer,||N. Miller,||H. A. Read,||C. J. Moyer,||J. Reedy,|
|H. T. Miller,||J. Young,||S. B. Overmire,||G. F. Crawford,||A. D. Olney.|
C. P. N. Barker.
The Twenty-eighth Iowa Infantry, composed of Company A, Captain W. G. Gaston, Benton county; Company B, of Iowa and Tama counties, Captain B. W. Wilson; Company C, Captain J. W. Carr, Poweshiek county; Company D Captain S. P. Vannatta, Benton; Company E, Captain David Stewart, Johnson county; Company F, Captain John A. Staley, Tama; Company G, Captain Thomas Dillin, Iowa county; Company H, Captain Aaron Wilson, Poweshiek; Company I, Captain John B. Kerr, Iowa county; Company K, Captain John Meyer, Jasper, was organized during the autumn of 1862. William E. Miller, of Iowa City, was Colonel, but he did not remain long enough to see actual army life, resigning to be succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel John Connell, who was in command of the regiment from the time it went to the field of action. H. B. Lynch, of Millersburg, was Major. James E. Pritchard, of Iowa City, was chosen Adjutant, Thomas Hughes, Quartermaster, and the irrepressible Doctor John W. H. Vest, of Montezuma, Surgeon. The Reverend J. T. Simmons, of Marengo, a good man and an abolitionist, was appointed Chaplain. The rendezvous of the regiment was at Iowa City, where it had some weeks of drill and discipline. On the 10th of October, then numbering, rank and file, nine hundred and fifty-six men, it passed from the control of the State to the control of the general government, being mustered into the service by Captain H. B. Hendershott, of the regular army.
The command remained at Iowa City till November 2, when it received orders to move to the theatre of war. Reaching Davenport, it there remained a week, awaiting transportation. The stay was neither long nor agreeable. Mumps and measles had their usual effect upon the faces and temper of the men. However, transportation soon came, and on the 20th, the regiment found itself at Helena, Arkansas, and immediately went into its first encampment of tents. In just a week, a detachment numbering three hundred men, under Major Lynch, joined the command of General Hovey, and marched toward Oakland, Mississippi, to aid General Grant, then attempting to take Vicksburg in rear by Holly Springs, Grenada and Jackson. The detachment was out some twelve days, marching rapidly all the time, through tempestuous weather, and being heavily laden with ammunition, rations, etc. William M. Hall a private of Company C, was killed by guerrillas - the only casualty which occurred during this toilsome, most disagreeable march. The weather at Helena, meantime, was no better. The camp was little better than a swamp, more suited to alligators than to men. A less watery locality was chosen about the middle of December, but not until disease in complicated forms had taken hold of the men, making the encampment a hospital. It was intended that the regiment should take part in the movement against Vicksburg under General Sherman, ordered with the practical wisdom which has always characterized that theoretical warrior, by Major-General Halleck, but in addition to the ailments by which the command had hitherto been afflicted, smallpox now broke out in camp, and kept it in the mud of Helena. Shortly after the commencement of the year 1863, however, this fearful disease abated, and the physical condition of the command rapidly improved. On the 11th of January, it embarked on steamer, and formed a part of General Gorman's expedition, which proceeded up White River as far as Duvall's Bluff. Whilst the fleet was going from the mouth of this river to Clarenden, the weather was excessively and painfully stormy. First, it rained for many hours in succession; then there came a blinding, driving storm of snow, which covered the ground to the depth of a foot; then the wind chopped round to the northwest, and blew great guns. The cold was piercing. The decks of the boats were covered with ice, and crowded with troops. The cold came so suddenly after the rain and snow that the clothing of the men was covered with ice, the nor'wester, with an edge as sharp as a razor, cutting away bodily heat as fast as it was generated. The army was benumbed, nearly frozen. It suffered like the French army in Russia. General Gorman appeared to know very little of what he was about. Part of the troops were ordered to disembark at St. Charles. The boats had hardly been unloaded when they were ordered to re-embark. In this labor they spent many weary hours, over shoe-top in water, and in a storm from which wild beasts would have sought shelter. The fruits of this horrible expedition were two abandoned siege guns, the capture of a squad of prisoners, and the burning of an unfinished depot. Even the cotton got away. Many men died of sheer exposure during the expedition, many more afterwards died from the effects of it. Our regiment returned to Helena on the 22d, reaching the former camp long after dark, and instead of tents, finding nothing but black night, cold, and mud. The canvass had somehow been spirited away, but the men sank into bivouse with more sang froid than they could have mustered before their experience on White River - an experience to which they cannot recur, to this day, without shivering.
Rude winter quarters were now built by the men, in which they endured a gloomy, sickly existence, rather than lived. All imaginable forms of fever prevailed, the ravages of which the medical staff, though doing all that was within the power of man, were unable to stay. Daily, from the quarters of every regiment at Helena, muffled drums were beating funeral marches to the grave. The winds seem to moan solemn requiems through the huts, in almost all which lay the sick, attended by comrades sick at heart. There were many scenes which, if drawn by the pencil of Mayer, would call forth the grief of man and the tears of woman. Misfortune attended our arms; the troops were unpaid; their bodies were covered with rags, and their feet not covered at all; they wrote complaining letters home, and received indignant responses. What with poor tents at first, what with the White River expedition, what with disease and death afterwards, what with the general want of comforts, it is not surprising that the troops who passed this winter at Helena never yet speak of that town without angry curses.
On the 14th of February General Washburne left Helena with a considerable army for the purpose of removing obstructions from the Yazoo Pass, prepartory to the movement soon afterwards made by this meandering route upon Fort Pemberton. Great trees had been felled into and across the Pass. These were removed by the troops dragging them from the Pass with cables. By incredible labor a navigable channel was secured. In this hard work the Twenty-eight participated, the men making of themselves amphibious animals for a week. Soon after their return to camp, Colonel Miller resigned, and was succeeded by Lieutenant-Colonel Connell. Captain B. W. Wilson was soon commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel.
11th of April, the Twenty-eighth, forming, with the
Twenty-fourth Iowa, Forty-seventh Indiana, fifty-sixth Ohio, and
two batteries of artillery, the Second Brigade, Colonel Slack,
Forty-seventh Indiana, commanding, of the
Twelfth Division, Thirteenth Army Corps, started on the campaign which in a little less than three months resulted in the capitulation of Vicksburg. In this laborious and glorious campaign our regiment participated, cheerfully performing its share of the labors, and acquiring its share of the honors, in a brigade, and division, and corps, which lagged behind none either in hard work or hard fighting. The command was first under fire at the battle of Port Gibson, May 1. Colonel Connell, in his official report, says, "With regard to the conduct of the officers and men during the action, I can truly speak in terms of highest commendation. Although they had marched all the day and night previous to the engagement, carrying three days' rations and one hundred rounds of cartridge to the man, and never been under fire before, they fought with that fearless spirit and determination which has always characterized the American soldier." the loss of the regiment was one killed and sixteen wounded. From this time till the battle of Champion Hills, on the 16th, the Thirteenth Corps was constantly marching, maneuvering, or skirmishing with the enemy, deceiving him, holding him in check, and in every possible way rendering aid to Sherman and McPherson moving on Jackson, in all which movements the Twenty-eighth, of course, joined. In the battle which took place on the 16th, for some hours with varying success, but at last resulting in a signal victory, the officers and men of the regiment fought like veterans. Hovey says, "Of the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-eighth Iowa, in what language shall I speak! Scarcely more than six months in the service, and yet no troops ever showed more bravery, or fought with more valor. Of them and their commanders, the State of Iowa may well be proud." The truth may pardon the tautology. It is certain that in this fierce contest, all the Union troops fought with courage and tenacity, and that the troops of Iowa were among those most highly distinguished. The Twenty-eighth here lost one hundred, in killed, wounded, and missing - twenty-two killed, sixty-five wounded, and thirteen missing. four companies came out of the fight without a commissioned officer. The regiment remained at Edwards' Station till the 20th, when it moved to the Big black river, remaining there in guard of the bridge until the 24th, when it marched for Vicksburg. On the 25th it took position near the centre of the left wing of the investing army, where it remained, in the performance of the heavy duties of the siege till the capitulation. Here several were killed, and many wounded. Much sickness prevailed, and a number died.
On the very day of the capitulation the regiment received orders to march with three days' rations. On the morning of July 5th, it moved toward Jackson, marching that day to the Big Black river. Death, wounds and sickness had so reduced the command that only two hundred and fifty men were able to join in the march. Major Lynch had resigned on account of ill health, and had been succeeded by Captain John Meyer, a gallant and intelligent officer. Reduced in numbers, but not damaged in spirit, the command marched on Jackson, skirmishing once or twice with the enemy, till it reached its position in front of the works defending the capital. The army remained here laying irregular siege to Jackson, till the rebels evacuated the city, and our troops took possession of their works. On the morning of the 25th, our regiment took up its line of march for Vicksburg, and by a rapid, severe movement in broiling hot weather reached that place on the evening of the 27th.
The regiment was soon afterward transferred to the Department of the Gulf. It remained in Vicksburg two or three days, and then moved by steamer to Natchez. Here and near by it remained a few days, and again embarking, passed down to Carrollton, a place a short distance from New Orleans. Here it went into camp in a pleasant location, and remained nearly a month, the men gained health and strength, and much needed clothing.
The 13th of September, the Twenty-eighth joined a considerable force under General Franklin, and moved into Western Louisiana, on an expedition which lasted until near the close of the year. After sundry halts the army encamped near Opelousas, and without having accomplished any beneficial results visible to the naked eye, began a retrogade movement about the 1st of November. The countermarch had scarcely begun, when the enemy commenced to harass our lines, so that there was considerable skirmishing. The Unionists turned on their pursuers once or twice, making considerable marches westward, but the whole expedition may be dismissed with the remark that it was of no value to our arms. colonel Connell's regiment, returning to New Orleans under orders to embark for Texas, arrived at Algiers on the evening of Christmas day.
Awaiting transportation, the troops of the Twenty-eighth had a fine opportunity to make themselves miserable in the mud. Transportation not being forthcoming, the order for their movement to Texas was countermanded about the middle of January, 1864. They moved across Lake Pontchartrain, and went into encampment not far from its northern shore at Madisonville. Here several weeks of pleasant weather, in bright contrast to that which they had encountered in the Bayou Teche country, were heartily enjoyed, whilst the labors on fortifications rather gave wholesome exercise that disliked drudgery to the troops. The command remained at Madisonville till the latter part of February, during which period it was considerably strengthened by recruits and a number of men returning to duty from the hospital. "We began to feel," says Chaplain Simmons, "that we were a regiment again."
Colonel Connell arrived in New Orleans with his command on the 1st of March, and, crossing the Mississippi, went into encampment at Algiers. A few days thereafter he moved by train to Brashier, and crossing the bay of that name, encamped on its western shore, to await the arrival of the other troops who were to march by the same route on the Red River expedition. The regiment now numbered five hundred and fifty men on duty, was in the finest spirits, and under the best discipline. Anticipating a successful campaign, the troops cheerfully left their encampments on the 12th, and marched up Bayou Teche. Passing through a beautiful country, by Franklin, Opelousas and Washington, the column reached Alexandria on the Red River, where it was joined by General A. J. Smith, with detachments of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Corps, and Admirable David D. Porter, with a considerable fleet.
The difficulties of navigation delayed the fleet, caused a halt of the forces under General Banks at Alexandria. Nor is it any more than simple justice to General Banks to state that much of the disaster of the campaign was attributable to Admiral Porter, who, nevertheless, was constantly fulminating reports - the most magnificent lies of which history hath any record - but had to depend, after all, for the safety of his fleet, upon the energy and genius of a backwoodsman. Certain drunken generals did the rest of the business of bringing the expedition to its sad results. But this is to anticipate. The latter part of March the army left Alexandria. The Division to which the Twenty-eighth was attached marched to Natchitoches, a distance of eighty-five miles, in less than four days. Here Quartermaster Thomas Hughes, an old printer, began the publication of a "live" daily journal from an office confiscated by our troops. It was continued several days with great success.
When General Banks' advance was attacked by the enemy in the vicinity of Mansfield, our regiment was many miles in the rear. It pressed on with other troops of the Thirteenth corps to the front, and took part in the battle of Sabine Cross Roads, losing in that engagement about eighty officers and men, killed, wounded and missing. Colonel Connell was himself severely wounded, and captured by the enemy, and, Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson and Major Meyer being absent on recruiting service, the command of the regiment devolved upon Captain Thomas Dillin. It was in this action also that Quartermaster Hughes was captured.
Adjutant J. G. Strong, Lieutenants H. Weaver and O. F. Dorrence were among the wounded. The battle was a repulse, turned into defeat by poor generalship on the Union side. The troops fell back toward Pleasant Hill, leaving their dead and many of their wounded in the hands of the enemy. A retreat of a few miles brought them to the Nineteenth Corps, which checked the rebels, and, with the help of the troops retreating, ought to have gained a decisive victory.
General A. J. Smith re-enforcing Banks with a part of his command, the Battle of Pleasant Hill was fought the next day, wherein the brigade of Colonel Shaw, Fourteenth Iowa, and that of colonel Hill of the Thirty-fifth were conspicuous, the non-veterans of the Twelfth, the fourteenth, the Twenty-seventh, the Thirty-second, and the Thirty-fifth regiments from our State suffering much more heavily than any other equal number of troops engaged. But in this bloody battle, made a victory by the valor of the troops, in spite of inebriated and incompetent generals, neighter the Twenty-fourth nor the Twenty-eighth Iowa took part. They were marching toward Grand Ecore in guard of trains, General Banks having really put his army in retreat, as though he had accepted Sabine Cross Roads as an irretreivable disaster. Our dead and wounded were, therefore, left upon a field which they and their comrades had fairly won, and from which the enemy retreated in disorder to and beyond the field of Mansfield. The victorious Unionists, in sullen obedience to orders, retreated to Grand Ecore.
Here the army halted and fortified, awaiting the fleet which was in trouble above. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson now rejoined his regiment, bringing a number of recruits. We need not dwell upon the details of the regiment's further connection with this expedition. Marching by Alexandria, where the army again halted to get Porter out of difficulties by himself insurmountable - he, of course, being engaged in the long-hand reporting business - and by Marksville, it reached Morganza on the 22d of May, after a retreat of many hardships and exposures, in the face of a harasing enemy. Through all the campaign the regiment maintained its discipline and its unconquerable spirit. It passed from the command of Banks to that of Canby, reduced indeed in strength by the losses it had sustained by the recent expedition, but animated by the same manly courage which had carried it proudly through the victories of Thompson's and of Champion's Hills. The greatest praise of the western troops who made the Red River campaign is, that under other generals, on no more equal fields, they always fought well, and were always victorious.
The Twenty-eighth made a march to the Atchtafalaya, in search of the enemy, and after four days returned to Morganza, whence it embarked for Carrollton, arriving about the middle of June. Colonel Connell soon rejoined the regiment, and was greeted by his command with the most enthusiastic welcome. There were many wet eyes among his hardy troops, as he stepped from the cars, an armless sleeve hanging by his side. The command moved to Kennerville, but was soon ordered westward with forces moving thither against Dick Taylor, as was stated. The regiment went by cars to Thibodeaux, and encamped. Here the troops had an old-fashioned celebration of the 4th of July. Without having seen the enemy they returned to Algiers two days afterwards.
The 22d of July, the Twenty-eighth embarked on the good ship "Arago," and after a discouraging delay caused by the vessel running aground, bade farewell to Louisiana on the 23d, and on the 2d of August, landed at Alexandria, Virginia, after a voyage of great hardship on account of the extremely hot weather and the crowded condition of the ship. Moving by ferry to Washington, the regiment halted one night not far from the National Capitol, and next day, marching by Georgetown, went into beautiful encampment near the village of Tennallytown. The Twenty-eighth had been preceded in its arrival at Washington by the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-second, these three regiments being all the Iowa troops which ever passed through the national metropolis till General Sherman's troops passed through in review after the military power of the rebellion had been crushed. It is but to quote from the journals of the city, to say that the Iowa regiments which marched down Pennsylvania Avenue in the summer of 1864, attracted marked attention and received the unmixed admiration of the immense crowds of citizens who saw their manly appearance and soldierly bearing.
The regiment remained near Tenallytown about a fortnight, when it joined in the march of those troops who went thence to join the army under General Sheridan, about to commence the brilliant offensive campaign of the Shenandoah Valley. Not dwelling upon the movements which preceded the battle of Winchester, or Opequan as it is officially known, it will suffice here to state that in this engagement the Twenty-eighth fought in the thickest of the conflict, and lost nearly ninety of its officers and men, killed and wounded. Captain John D. Palmer was slain on the field, Captain Scott Houseworth mortally wounded. Adjutant J. G. Strong was twice wounded, but did not leave the field. Captains J. B. Wilson and J. W. Carr, and Lieutenants Charles E. Haverly, D. S. Dean, J. C. Summers and M. O'Hair were more or less severely wounded. "Too much cannot be said," says Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson, "in praise of officers and men. Not an officer flinched, not a man gave way."
The victory gained, the regiment joined in the pursuit immediately after the battle, and slept that night in bivouac beyond Winchester. It was a cold night, but thinking of their comrades lying stark and stiff on the field of battle, the men thought not of their own discomforts. General Sheridan pressed on after the retreating foe, and on the 22d gained the victory of Fisher's Hill. In this battle the Twenty-eighth was again prominently engaged, and captured six of the enemy's guns in battery, a large quantity of ammunition and many prisoners, but lost only four men wounded.
After this battle there was comparative quiet in the Shenandoah Valley till just a month had elapsed after the battle of Winchester. There were, indeed, reconnoissances, and on the 9th of October General Custer, with his cavalry division, gained a fine victory by one of his dashing exploits, in which he drove a superiour force of troopers many miles up the valley and captured all his artillery and many prisoners; but both armies rested, and the rebels brought up re-inforcements, for the period mentioned. The Union army was posted in a strong position, strengthened by works along the hills of Cedar Creek, which empties into the north branch of the Shenandoah, about two miles below Strasburg. Cavalry guarded the north branch down to its mouth, opposite Front Royal. The line extended in a northerly course from left to right, Crook's Eighth Corps on the left, Emory's Nineteenth in the centre, and Wright's Sixth on the right, the whole being some five miles in length. Custer and Merritt, commanding cavalry divisions, were in reserve at the time of the battle we are about to describe, nearly in the rear of the right. Powell's cavalry was extended in picket from Crook's left down to Front Royal. Our line, then across the entire valley, ran thus: - Custer, Merritt, Wright, Emory, Crook, Powell, General Sheridan being absent on important business at Washington. Wright was in command of the army, Ricketts, of the Sixth corps. The 17th of October, Custer, on the right, had a severe skirmish, and repulsed the enemy. The next day a reconnoissance was made from the left toward Strasburg and Fisher's Hill, but no signs of the enemy's approach were discovered. Dispatches were cpatured, however, which made it certain that Early had been re-inforced for the express purpose of "smashing up Sheridan."
Early, with a force of about twenty-five thousand men, consisting chiefly of the divisions of Kershaw, Ramseur, Gordon, Pegram and Wharton, which had been arranged unperceived behind Fisher's Hill, moved forward to attack, about midnight of Tuesday the 18th. In the foggy, chilly morning, Kershaw marched past Crook's left, and took position directly in his rear. Meanwhile the rest of Early's command had marched to Cedar Creek with equal silence and celerity, and like the flanking column, without alarming our pickets or officers of the day. His positions being gained close upon our picket lines, the enemy rushed to the attack just before day-break. Advancing in columns of regiments, he fairly trampled down Crook's pickets and dashed into his intrenchments, capturing many prisoners and a number of guns before the Unionists had returned a shot. Crook's whole corps was soon routed, the left flank of the army turned, and Powell's cavalry cut off. The Nineteenth Corps was not so completely surprised, but its left gave way before the impetuous attack, and it was scarcely broad daylight before the enemy occupied the intrenchments, both of the Eighth and Nineteenth corps, and had compelled our whole army to retreat; for the Sixth corps, fighting at right angles with its original line, was essentially covering the retreat of the other forces. The rebels, with their own artillery, with twenty-four of our own guns turned on us, and with terrible musketry fire, continued to inflict fearful casualty upon our forces. The Sixth corps checked the impetuous rush of the enemy, but did not stop his advance. Ricketts' services were most gallant and valuable, and by covering the retreat as he did he enabled the officers to rally the troops, who had become disordered early in the day. Nevertheless, the exultant enemy continues to press on, with the seeming inflexible determination of carrying out his original object to the letter by actually smashing up Sheridan. It was not long after nine o'clock when the enemy gained Middletown, having driven our army five miles from its intrenchments on Cedar Creek.
Shortly afterwards the tide of battle turned. Wright had not despaired of the day, but the arrival of Sheridan, who had come from Winchester as fast as horse could carry him, dispelled the gloom which was settling upon the army. He rode on his foaming charger along the ranks, and was received everywhere with cheers. He said his troops must sleep that night in their tents on Cedar Creek. The army became hopeful, then enthusiastic. The very vigor of the enemy's attack and pursuit had fatigued him, and there was a lull in the battle. The Union army, meantime, was disposed near Newtown, the Sixth corps in the centre, Emory on the right, Crook on the left.
About one o'clock the enemy again attacked with renewed vigor. But, after a long and desperate struggle, he was repulsed. Sheridan then charged in turn. A tremendous fire of artillery and musketry greeted our troops. Their lines were broken, and they fell back in momentary disorder. They were quickly re-formed, and the whole army again pressed forward in a splendid charge, resistless as the rising tide. Despite stout resistance, Middletown was carried and the enemy driven in retreat before our victorious legions. He left guns, clothing, haversacks, and other debris of a routed army, behind him. He did not stop till he had gained the line of the Cedar Creek, and from this he was quickly driven through Strasburg to fisher's Hill. Our twenty-four captured guns were retaken, and as many more of the enemy's fell into our hands. The cavalry vigorously pursued the enemy, and some of the infantry went to Strasburg, but the main army went into camp at nightfall on Cedar Creek, the defeat of the morning having been turned into a victory, decisive of the campaign. The rebels kept up their retreat through Woodstock to Mount Jackson, where they halted and intrenched themselves.
By this great victory immense materiel of war fell into our hands, but it is probable the losses in slain and wounded were greater on the side of the Unionists than on that of the rebels. We lost about 1,300 prisoners, whilst the rebels lost about 1,500. Our killed and wounded numbered more than 5,000. But it was one of the most inspiriting victories of the war, and most justly placed General Philip Sheridan among the great captains of the age. It was the magnetic power of his personal influence which turned a great defeat into a great victory, and made Cedar Creek forever memorable as the Marengo of the Rebellion.
In this engagement there were two regiments besides the Twenty-eighth from Iowa, the Twenty-second, Colonel Harvey Graham, and the Twenty-fourth, Lieutenant-Colonel J. Q. Wilds. These were prominent in the action and lost many officers and men hors-de-combat. Lieutenant-Colonel Wilds on this field received the wound from which he soon afterwards died. It is a melancholy fact, that not long after his death, his wife and children died of disease, so that his name can only live in the grateful recollection of his countrymen, who can never forget his long career of usefulness and gallantry. Major Ed. Wright was also wounded on this field, as were Captains A. R. Knott, E. H. Pound, A. M. Loomis, and Lieutenant C. H. Kurtz. The total loss of the Twenty-fourth was mre than ninety, officers and enlisted men. The Twenty-second fought in the same Division with the Twenty-eighth, and with its accustomed gallantry. It lost during the battle between seventy and eight officers and men, killed, wounded and missing. There were no officers slain, but Captain Alfred B. Cree, Captain George W. Clark, and Lieutenant Nicholas c. Messenger were severely wounded. Captain Lafayette F. Mullins, Captain Charles Hartley, and Lieutenant Edward J. Dudley were wounded, and Lieutenant Robert W. Davis was captured by the enemy.
The Twenty-eighth, fighting in the Fourth Brigade of Grover's division, was engaged early and late in this severe contest. When the Eighth Corps gave way at the very commencement of the battle, Grover's Division, on the left of the left Nineteenth Corps, changed front to the left, and the regiment went into action at once. By the failure of a Maine regiment to connect on its right it was left in an exposed position, but it held it manfully till driven back by overwhelming numbers. Right here the command lost nearly fifty men killed and wounded. Falling back about half a mile, the regiment was rallied, and again offered a stout resistance to the enemy. Here Lieutenant-Colonel Wilson was severely wounded and borne from the field, and Captain Reimenschneider slain. The command devolved upon Major John Meyer, who led the regiment through the rest of the battle with great skill and courage, and who declares in his official report that no officers or soldiers ever fought better or more bravely than those of his command on the field of Cedar Creek. As they had been among the last to retire, so they were among the first to press forward in the charge, and in the pursuit, when the tide of battle had been turned in favor of the Unionists. The loss of the regiment during the day's contest was nearly one hundred, killed, wounded and prisoners.
The regiment joined in the pursuit of the enemy, returning to camp two days after the battle, to find its former snug quarters in a somewhat ruinous condition. The 27th it marched to Martinsburg in guard of a train; returned to Cedar Creek; and again to Martinsburg early in November. It moved still again to the front on the 10th, skirmishing with the enemy for several days. About the middle of the month, quiet being restored, the regiment went into winter quarters of its own construction, but remained in them only till the latter part of December, when it moved to Stephen's Depot, above Harper's Ferry, and in a terrible storm again built quarters on the supposition that the command was permanently located for the rest of the winter. The regiment was about this time transferred to the brigade of Brevet Brigadier-General Mollineaux, to which the Twenty-second had for many months been attached. The history of the two regiments was thereafter essentially the same, and both closed their fighting career in the valley of the Shenandoah. The conclusion of the history of the Twenty-eighth may therefore be briefly set forth.
In January, 1865, it moved by sea to Savannah, Georgia, and for several weeks formed part of the garrison of that repossessed city. The middle of March, the command moved to Newbern, North Carolina, to re-enforce General Schofield. Here the regiment was assigned to the Tenth corps. It remained under General Schofield's command until the surrender of General Joe Johnston, when Lieutenant colonel Wilson was ordered back to Savannah. Thence he moved with his command to Augusta, but returning again to Savannah, in the latter part of June; the Twenty-eighth was there mustered out of the service on the last day of July, then numbering about five hundred.
From Savannah the regiment proceeded to Davenport, Iowa, where it was received by a large concourse of citizens, and where it was finally disbanded in the month of August. It had bee engage in a dozen battles, and many skirmishes during its term of service; had traveled well nigh the entire circuit of the confederacy; had always done its duty faithfully, bravely, conscientiously. Its officers and men were remarkable for their independent spirit and their modesty. They did not blow the trumpet of their own fame; but on every campaign, they quitted themselves like men, so it can truthfully be said that, among all the volunteer regiments which composed the grand army that vanquished the rebellion and restored the Union, not one did its duty better than the Twenty-eighth Iowa Infantry.
FORTY SEVENTH INFANTRY.
John Linsday J. Williams.
W. D. Williams.
C. L. Bailey.
J. D. Jackson.
Denton Camery, O. H. Cobb.
J. B. M. Bear,
F. M. Bricker,
H. A. Bunce,
J. F. Cobb,
R. M. Coffin,
J. C. Flathers,
W. F. Hillmon,
G. M. Hall,
G. R. Hershey
S. E. Hall,
H. W. Nungesser,
O. H. Stewart,
C. E. Sullivan,
L. L. Stoddard,
J. S. Vancuren,
F. A. Vancuren,
This regiment was mustered into the service of the United States at Davenport, June 1, 1864, with James P. Sanford of Oskaloosa, as colonel. The regiment was staioned at that sickly place of Helena, Arkansas, where many succumbed to disease. Of 884 officers and men, one was killed, forty-six died, and one was transferred.
J. P. Ross,
This regiment was mustered into United States service in the spring of 1861, veteranized in 1864, and did noble service.
W. F. Eakbaugh.
T. J. Cady.
Wm. F. Burley, Wm. Daxton.
W. H. Anderson,
J. A. Anderson,
This regiment was organized with W. L. Elliott, of the regular army as colonel, and was mustered in at Davenport, September 1, 1861. It participated in the siege of Corinth, Boonville, Rienzi, Iuka, Corinth, Coffeeville, Palo Alto, Birmingham, Jackson, Grenada, Collierville, Moscow, Pontotoc, Tupelo, Old Town, Oxford and Nashville. It was mustered out at Selma, Alabama, September 19, 1865.
A. Spade, J. J. Folland.
John Mathews, B. H. Martin,
J. G. Martin.
T. C. Williamson.
A. A. Myers, B. B. LaDow,
D. Rosenberger, J. O. Beadle.
W. G. Armstrong,
W. H. Alden,
M. D. Betts,
E. A. richards,
B. F. Sanborn,
L. D. Knight.
C. S. Sanborn.
A. N. dodd,
S. A. Lewis,
W. A. Morgan,
J. A. Twogood,
O. A. Terpenning,
E. F. Morse,
J. H. Brush.
This regiment was the last three years regiment recruited in Iowa. It was organized and mustered into the service of the United States at Davenport, November 30, 1863, with M. M. Trumbull, of Clarksville, as Colonel. The regiment performed heavy scouting, guard and garrison duties in Arkansas, and was mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, February 28, 1866.
S. J. Chapman, G. A. Worley
The following comprises a list of the brave men from Tama
county, who laid down their lives in defense of the Union. Words
are feeble in the expression of the gratitude due to these
gallant unfortunate comrades; weak in the expression of the
honor with which their names are held in remembrance by those
whom they died to benefit. May their names be handed down from
generation to generation; may their children, and children’s
children, speak of them and recount their deeds with reverence,
inspired by the remembrance and admiration of their noble
sacrifice. May their suffering, their death and their rude
burial upon the hot and dusty battle-fields of the South, all
tend to strengthen the land they died for, and make patriotism’s
watchword, “Tis sweet and honorable to die for one’s country.”
Lieutenant S.S. Dillman, was killed September 19, 1864.
Lieutenant G.H. Conant, killed at Mission Ridge.
Lieutenant Simon F. Eccles, prisoner at Shiloh, died at Madrid, Ga., August 26, 1862.
Lieutenant Myers, died August 14, 1863, At Helena, Ark.
Appelgate, J.W., died April 21, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn., of smallpox.
Alexander, C.F., died July 10, 1864, at Shiloh, Tenn., of wounds.
Armstrong, W.G., killed September 3, 1863, in battle at White Stone Hills, D. T.
Bixby, Truman, died at Mound City, Ill. November 27, 1861.
Budka, Joseph, killed in battle at Champion Hills, Miss. , May 1, 1863.
Bryon, William H., died at Clark Creek, Miss. , July 26, 1862.
Bowen, L., died of measles at Benton Barracks, December 22, 1861.
Beatty, William W., died at Keokuk, Iowa, of disease, November 13, 1862.
Beck1ey, E.S., missed at Winchester, September 19, 1864.
Bigg, H.L., died May 16, 1863, at Champion Hills, Miss.
Brick, J., died July 21st 1864.
Bunce, H.A., died at Helena, Ark. , August 7,1864.
Betts, M.D., died in Dakota, Sept. 8, 1862, of wounds.
Bricker, G.W., died Aug. 1 1864 at St. Louis.
Bartlett, J.F., died July 6, 1862.
Clark, Eli died at Farmington, Miss., May 30, 1862, of disease.
Camp, Luke, died Aug. 27, 1863, at Vicksburg', Miss.
Clark, R.F., died May 15th, 1862 at Mobile, Alabama.
Crowhurst, H.H., died at Memphis, Tenn., August 3, 1864.
Davis, Chas. T., died at Toledo, Iowa, on May 12, 1862.
Dykeman, E., died July 19, 1861, at Columbus, Ky.
Dykeman, S., died July 8, 1863, at St: Louis, Missouri.
Dew, A.J., died May 12, 1862, at St. Louis, Missouri.
Devore, N., died August 27, 1863, at Corinth, Iowa.
Edmonds, J.S., died Sept. 22, 1863.
Emerson, D.W., died March 19, 1863, at Helena, Ark.
Filloon, A.J., was wounded in May 1864, at Vicksburg, and died July 25, 1863, at Milliken's, Bend, La., of typhoid fever.
Fielding, J.W., died Oct. 24, 1863, at New Orleans, La.
Freeman J., died May 11, 1863, on James plantation.
Finch, T.S., died February 6, 1863, at St. Louis.
Fee, Francis, killed May 16, 1863, at Champion Hills, Miss., in battle.
Gray, Geo. M., died at Cape Giardean, Nov. 2, 1861.
Galll1gher, William, missed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862.
Godfrey, A.S., died August 18, 1863.
Grubb, Wm., missed at Winchester, Va., Sept. 19, 1864. .
Herrick, C.J., killed May 16, 1863, at Champion Hil1s, in battle.
Hillmon, George, wounded May 16, 1863, at battle of Champion Hills, and died May 21, 1803.
Harris, M., died June 30, 1864, on Hospital boat on the Mississippi river .
Hiatt, J.W., wounded May 16,1863, at Champion Hills, and died there on June 7, 1863.
Hopkins, J.C., died Jan. 29, 1863, on steamer Emma, near Cairo.
Hammitt, S.W., killed at the battle of Champion Hi1ls, May 16, 1863 :
Hate, John, died April 18, 1865, Savannah, Ga.
Hall, S.E., died at Helena, Ark. , July 1, 1864.
Howard, H.M., died April 3, 1863, at Helena, Ark.
Howard, E.D. , died Jan. 15, 1863, at Vicksburg, Miss.
Hancock, J.B. , killed in battle of Champion Hills, May 10, 1863.
James, G.T., wounded May 16, 11863, at Champion Hills, and died Aug. 18, 1863, at Corinth, Iowa.
Knight, William J., died June 18, 1863, near Vicksburg Miss.
Laughlin, Thomas, captured Dec 12, 1862, on the Cairo & Fulton R. R., and died Jan. 22, 1863, a prisoner of war.
Lux, Jacob, died March 27, 1862, near Madrid, Mo., of typhoid fever.
Lamm, J., died in hospital at New Orleans, May, 11, 1864.
Myers, M. M., died May 18, 1864, at Madison, Ind., of disease.
Miles, David, died May 27, 1862, at Montgomery, Ala., while a prisoner of war.
McKune, J.E. , died August 9, 1862, at Macon, Ga., while a prisoner of war.
Mink, M., wounded October 19, 1864, at Cedar ,Creek, Va., severely in the left thigh, died December 7, 1864, at Winchester, Va. of wounds.
McGee, C.F., died at Muscatine, October 28, 1862.
Myers, John, died August 14, 1863,at Helena, Ark., of disease.
Miller, H.M. , wounded May 16, 1863, at Champion Hills, and died June 7, 1863, of wounds.
Millage, James, died at Corinth, July 26, 1862.
Mitchell, L., died September 1, 1863, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo.
Newport, Geo., died December 3, 1863, at Mound City Hospital, Ill.
Newport, James, died at Mound City, Ill,
McNair, C.L. , died in January 22, 1863, at Helena, Ark.
Nance, D., died. June 30, 1863, at St. Louis,
Nicodemus, died August 30, 1864, at Washington, D. C.
Peck. C.W. , killed in battle at Champion Hills, Miss, May 16, 1863.
Pugh, II. R. , died of disease at Bird’s Point, January 15, 1862
Pope, J. A. died at Mound City, July 11, 1862, of fever.
Perkins, T. N. died April 21, 1863, at Helena, Ark., of disease.
Parcher, G., died September 28, 1864, at Centralia Ill..
Paxton, William killed in skirmish at Monterey, April 29, 1862.
Ramsey, Philip, killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Randall, Wesley, wounded October 4, 1863, at Corinth Miss. , and died November 8, 1863.
Rouse, J. C. , killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Ronbad, C. , died November 16, 1862, at David Mills, Miss., of accidental shot.
Rug, Van Buren, died at Clear Creek, Miss., July 14, 1862.
Reed, J. B., died April 10, 1863, at Helena, Ark.
Russell, B. W., killed in battle at Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, 1863..
Reedy, D. N., died at Bird's Point, December 24, 1862.
Stebbing, John M., killed October 4, 1862, at Corinth, Miss.
Smith, James, died at St. Louis, Mo., September 6, 1861.
Shanklin, J. A., missed at Shiloh.
Stoddard, George w. killed in battle at Champion Hills, Miss., May 16, 1863
Swarthout, A. A., died before reaching his company.
Sipes, C. W., missed September 19,1864, at Winchester.
Shelton, D. , killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Sheldon, F., died at Philadelphia, November 14; 1864.
Southern, T. , killed in battle at Champion , Hills, May 16, 1863.
Snap, J. A. , killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Sullivan, J. A. killed in battle at Iuka, September 19, 1862.
Strain, H. P. , died at Birds' Point, February 7,1862.
Stevens, B. C., musician, died, June 30,1862.
Strong, S. , died, June 8, 1865, at Crow Creek, D. T.
Tompkins, S. W. , died at St. Louis, May 24, 1862.
Townsend, William S. , killed in action, April 9.1864.
Tolland, J. J ., died at West Plains, Missouri, in 1862.
Van Horn, .N. killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Vincent, Joseph, killed in battle at Pea Ridge, March 7,1862.
Vancuren J. S., died at Helena, Ark, August 23, 1864.
Vancuren, F. A., died at same place, August 12, 1864 .
Wi1liams, G., killed in battle at Champion Hills, May 16, 1863.
Wade, William, died, April 1, 1864.
Young, J., died, October 20, 1864, at Martinsburg, Va.
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