Roster and Record of Iowa Soldiers in the War of the Rebellion,
Together with Historical Sketches of Volunteer Organizations, 1861-1866.
Vol. II
9th-16th Regiments -- Infantry
Published by authority of the General Assembly, under the direction of Brig.
Gen. Wm. H. Thrift, Adjutant General
Des Moines
Emory H. English, State Printer
E. D. Chassell, State Binder

[Transcribed by Elaine Rathmann]

Page 1059:


     The organization of the Sixteenth Regiment of Infantrybegan when the first company was ordered into quarters by Governor Kirkwood,September 17, 1861. The designated rendezvous was Camp McClellan, Davenport,Iowa, and there seven companies of the regiment were mustered into the serviceof the United States on dates ranging from December 10, 1861, to March 12, 1862,by Captains Alexander Chambers and S. A. Wainwright, of the United States Army.Of the remaining three companies, the records show that Company F was musteredin at Keokuk, Iowa, in February; Companies I and K, at Benton Barracks, near St.Louis, March 24, 1862, by Captain Chambers. It will thus be seen that it wasmore than six months from the date on which the first company was ordered intoquarters before the organization of the regiment was completed.

     The files of reports and returns in the office of theAdjutant General of Iowa contain several papers relating to an incipient militiaorganization called the "German Regiment," from which it appears thatJohn P. Koch had been commissioned as Colonel, and authorized to raise aregiment bearing that designation. It also appears that but two companies, withan aggregate strength of 151 men, were recruited for that regiment when itsorganization was abandoned and the two companies were merged into the SixteenthRegiment. On Page 22 of the report of the Adjutant General of Iowa—1861-2—appears the roster of the Field and Staff of the German Regiment then forming,but including only the names of John P. Koch, Colonel, and Charles Altman,Adjutant. The next and last reference to this organization is found on Page 13,Vol. I, of the Adjutant General's report for 1863, in which he says: "Sincemy last report the Sixteenth Iowa Infantry and the German (Iowa) Regiment havebeen consolidated, and the regiment is known as the Sixteenth IowaInfantry." There were a large number of volunteer organizations from thedifferent states which were given distinctive names, some prior to and othersafter being mustered into the service of the United States. On Page 30 of avolume compiled under the direction of the Adjutant General at Washington,published in 1885, entitled, "Synonyms of Organizations in the VolunteerService of the United States," the following statement appears under thecaption "Iowa": "German Regiment Sixteenth Infantry (part)."The name is thus officially and historically identified with the regiment,although the designation could have no significance as applied to its completedorganization.

     It should be kept in mind that Iowa was then a youngState, that the greater part of its territory was but sparsely populated, andthat it had already sent into the field fourteen regiments of Infantry, fiveregiments of Cavalry and three batteries of Artillery. It was not, therefore, anindication of lack

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of patriotism that the call for two more regiments of Infantry—coming at thesame time—was not as promptly responded to as the first and second calls hadbeen. It will be seen, by comparing the subjoined roster with those of theearlier regiments, that the average age of the officers and men was muchgreater. This plainly indicates a larger proportion of married men, whose dutyto their families had restrained them from enlisting until the necessity fortheir making the sacrifice became imperative. Moreover, when these menvolunteered their services, many battles had been fought, the great magnitude ofthe rebellion was realized and the dangers and hardships of a long and terriblewar confronted them. They had given due consideration to the question of duty totheir country; were not carried away by enthusiasm, but their action wasdeliberate, and their subsequent conduct demonstrated that they were equal toall emergencies.

     The regiment left Davenport March 20, 1862, wasconveyed by steamer to St. Louis and marched thence to Benton Barracks, where itwent into quarters, was furnished with arms, ammunition and field equipage, and,without having the opportunity for drill and instruction except to the mostlimited extent, was hurried to the front. It had the good fortune, however, ofhaving a commander who was a graduate of the United States Military Academy atWest Point and a thoroughly trained soldier. He was a Captain in the EighteenthRegiment of Infantry in the Regular Army at the time he was appointed Colonel ofthe Sixteenth Iowa by Governor Kirkwood, and had been acting as MusteringOfficer for Iowa troops since the commencement of the war. The regiment was thusbetter fitted for immediate active service in the field than it would have beenunder a commander without military training or experience. On the 1st of AprilColonel Chambers was ordered to embark his regiment and proceed to PittsburgLanding, Tenn., and, upon arriving there, to report to General Grant.

     On the morning of April 6, 1862, the regiment arrivedat Pittsburg Landing. The great battle of Shiloh had begun, and the roar of theconflict at the front was heard as the regiment was leaving the boat. Here themen loaded their guns for the first time. Wounded men and some panic-strickenstragglers began to arrive from the firing line, with tales of disaster to theUnion troops, indicating that the rebel forces were superior in numbers and werevictorious on every part of the field. This was a hard experience for these menwho had, but a few days before, left their homes in Iowa, and was a severe testto their courage and discipline, even before they were ordered forward to meetthe enemy. The order soon came, and the regiment marched promptly to the frontunder the leadership of their gallant Colonel, to the aid of the troops who werebeing hard pressed by the enemy. The official report of Colonel Chambers showsthe heroic conduct of his regiment in that great conflict, and the compiler ofthis historical sketch regrets that the limitation of space which he iscompelled to observe will not permit the reproduction of the report in full. Thefollowing extracts, however, give the main features of the report, omittingdetails:

       *** From 9:30 to 10:30 A. M., the timeoccupied in reaching the battlefield, we met more men returning, of all arms,than belonged to the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Regiments, but I must say, for thecredit of the State of Iowa, not one of her quota did I meet. On crossing anopen field, beyond which was the position of the rebels, two of my command werewounded. My regiment was formed on the right of this field in rear of a fence.***I ordered the men to lie down, when the greater part of the enemy's firepassed harmlessly over us. I had, however, several wounded here. From thisposition the regiment was ordered forward to the edge of timber, within closerange of the enemy, as many of my men were wounded at the same time by both ball

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and buckshot. *** For nearly or quite an hour the regiment held its groundagainst a much larger force of the enemy, supported by artillery, when it wascompelled to give way before the destructive fire, or be captured. Word camedown the line that a retreat had been ordered. ***At this our whole line gaveway and became mixed up with other regiments. My regiment was raised by Lieut.Col. A. H. Sanders to the number of about 300 and was posted in rear of abattery during the remainder of that day and night, during which time those whohad become mixed with other regiments returned and reformed with those under theLieutenant Colonel, I having been wounded in the hip joint, which was verypainful and rendered me quite lame. The next day the regiment held the sameposition in rear of the battery during the fight.+ ***

     With a few exceptions the officers and men behaved withjudgment and gallantry. The field officers were particularly cool under adestructive fire and rendered great assistance. The horses of all the field andstaff officers were killed or wounded, evidently showing an intention on thepart of the enemy to pick off the most  prominent officers. Captains Ruehland Zettler, both gallant men, were killed or mortally wounded, and First Lieut.F. M. Doyle, a brave and efficient officer, was also killed. The loss duringSunday's fight was two officers and sixteen non-commissioned officers andprivates killed, and nine officers and ninety-four non-commissioned officers andprivates wounded, and fifteen non-commissioned officers and privates, missing.+***

     The experience gained by the regiment in this greatbattle was invaluable. In the numerous battles in which it was subsequentlyengaged it had the advantage of the training and drill which it had not receivedbefore the battle of Shiloh, but it was never afterwards placed in a position inwhich the bravery and fortitude of the officers and men received a more thoroughtest. It was the common experience of all soldiers that their first battle, nomatter how favorable the conditions under which it was fought, was the severesttest to their courage. At Shiloh the conditions under which the Sixteenth Iowawent into action were most unfavorable. The impression its men received, themoment they left the boat and formed in line of battle, was that the enemy wassuccessful on every part of the battlefield; and this impression was sustainedas they marched to the front and met large numbers of wounded being taken to therear, also many demoralized and panic-stricken soldiers who had not been woundedbut had deserted their regiments in the face of the enemy and sought safety inflight. The fact that the men of this new and untried regiment did not becomeinfected with the feeling of panic, but marched steadily forward and went intothat hell of battle with the coolness of veterans, fought until the onlyalternative was retreat or surrender, and afterwards rallied to their colors andrendered important service until the close of the battle, entitles them to aplace in the front rank as heroic soldiers. In its subsequent history the recordmade at Shiloh was fully maintained but, in the judgment of the compiler, neversurpassed.

     After the battle, the regiment was ordered to movetoward Corinth, the strongly fortified position to which the rebel army hadretreated. General Grant's army cautiously advanced, constructing earth-works atregular intervals along its front, thus guarding against another possible attackby the enemy and preparing for the siege of the rebel stronghold. On the 27th ofApril the organization of a brigade, consisting of the Eleventh, Thirteenth,Fifteenth and Sixteenth Regiments of Iowa Infantry, was effected, and Col. M. M.Crocker, of the Thirteenth Iowa, became its commander. This organization wasmaintained until the close of the war and was known throughout the army as"Crocker's Iowa Brigade"; although, after Colonel Crocker was pro-
     +War of the Rebellion Official Records, Series 1, Vol.10, Pages 286 and 287.  Same Volume, Page 104, tabulated casualties, showstotal loss 131.  Bronze tablet on regimental monument to Sixteenth RegimentIowa Infantry at Shiloh shows losses as follows:  Killed, officers, 2, men,15; wounded, officers 11, men 91 (8 mortally); captured or missing, men 13.

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moted to Brigadier General, it had many different commanders, most if not all ofwhom were, or had been, officers of some one of its regiments.* The history ofthe Sixteenth Iowa is, therefore, closely interwoven with that of the brigade towhich frequent reference will be made in giving the outlines of the furtherservice of the regiment.

     During the siege of Corinth the regiment, with itsbrigade, performed arduous and important service and contributed its full shareto bring about the evacuation of that stronghold, just as General Grant haddetermined to order an assault upon the fortifications. The evacuation tookplace during the night of May 30, 1862. The regiment now went into camp nearCorinth, where it remained until July 28th, at which time it marched, with itsbrigade, to Bolivar, Tenn., where it was engaged in watching the movements ofthe enemy, erecting fortifications and guarding against threatened attack by theenemy. A considerable rebel force remained in the vicinity of Bolivar forseveral weeks but, as was later shown, not with the intention of attacking theUnion troops stationed there, but to draw away from Corinth enough Union troopsto make it possible for the rebels to recapture that important post. When thereal purpose of the enemy was discovered, the regiment with its brigade wasordered to return to Corinth. Upon its arrival there it was ordered to marchtoward Iuka and watch the movements of the enemy.

     On the 19th of September, 1862, the brigade was inclose proximity to the enemy. The Sixteenth Regiment was ordered forward late inthe evening of that day, while the other regiments of Crocker's brigade wereheld in reserve. The part taken by the regiment in the battle which ensued isshown in the official report of Lieut. Col. A. H. Sanders, who, after ColonelChambers had been severely wounded, assumed command of the regiment.

                                          Sept. 21, 1862.
     SIR,—I have the honor to report the part taken by theSixteenth Iowa Infantry, in your brigade,+  in the battle on the evening ofthe 19th instant, one and one-half miles south of Iuka, Mississippi.

     The regiment, under command of Col. A. Chambers, wasplaced in position about 5:30 P. M. in rear of the Eleventh Ohio Battery, theleft of the regiment extending across the road from which it had filed intoposition. Immediately after the regiment was formed in line a charge of grapeand shell from a battery of the enemy cut down six or seven men, including anofficer, when the men were ordered to lie down. In this position but few or nonewere injured by the repeated discharges of canister and ball from the rebelbattery. In probably half an hour from forming in line, the enemy made a chargeof infantry on the battery. Our fire was reserved till the last moment in thecenter of the regiment, for fear of killing those manning the battery or thehorses of the same, and in the two right companies, till a regiment which waslapping them was withdrawn; but when the enemy's lines were plainly or partiallyin sight (which, owing to the trees and thick underbrush, was not till they werevery close) Colonel Chambers ordered the men to rise and fire, which order wasinstantly obeyed, for a time stopping the enemy's advance, but they againcharged. The attack was evidently by a very heavy force and with the object ofcapturing the battery. Our men stood their ground manfully, and I am not awarethat a single officer or man failed in any part of his duty. They were finallybeaten back by the overwhelming force of the enemy, the center, in the rear ofthe left section of the battery, retiring first but warmly contending with theenemy till they were almost in our ranks. The
     * At the close of the war the survivors of these fourIowa regiments formed an organization by which they have preserved the name"Crocker's Iowa Brigade". They meet biennially in reunion.  Gen.W. W. Belknap was its first commander, and, at his death, was succeeded by Col.H. H. Rood, its present commander. (1908.)
     + As will be observed at the close of this report, theSixteenth Iowa fought under another brigade commander at the battle of Iuka,being entirely detached, for the time being, from its own brigade.

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left, holding a comparatively safe position, did not retire till they were firedinto by one of our own regiments in the rear. The entire right companies,although under a remarkably heavy fire, held their position longest andexperienced the heaviest loss. Company A, Captain Smith, was the last to leavethe field, and for a time held its ground alone, the regiment on its righthaving at an early hour been compelled to retire, and the remaining companies ofits own regiment retiring at a later hour.

     Where all the officers did so well it seems scarcelyfair to particularize the conduct or bearing of one from the other, yet I deemit my official duty to notice the fact that Captain Smith exhibited in thisaction bravery and gallant conduct for which he cannot receive too muchpraise.  He brought out of the battle scarcely half the men he took intoit, and the same may be said of company F, Captain Fraser. The remaining portionof the regiment was immediately after reformed by myself and took a positionnear the battlefield, it then being nearly dark, and soon after, while changingto another position, was directed to rest on the right of an Ohio regiment,
formed along the Iuka road, where it remained during the night. I regret toreport the severe wounding of Colonel Chambers by gunshot wounds in the shoulderand neck, toward the close of the action. He was taken prisoner at the time ofreceiving the wounds, but was left by the enemy in the hospital at Iuka.

     I have the honor to enclose herewith a list of thekilled, wounded and missing of the Sixteenth Iowa Infantry at the late actionnear Iuka, as complete as it can be made at this time, summing up, killed 14,wounded 48, missing 14.+  The regiment went into the battle with about 350men, exclusive of details made to take care of the wounded.

             Veryrespectfully your obedient servant,
                                          ADD. H. SANDERS,
             Lieut.Col. Comd'g Sixteenth Iowa Infantry.

             Comd'gFirst Brigade, Third Div., Army of the Mississippi.++

     The regiment had again contributed its full share tothe defeat of a superior force of the enemy in this hard fought battle. Its losswas even greater than at Shiloh, in proportion to the number engaged. Soon afterthe battle of Iuka the regiment returned, with its brigade, to Corinth and, onthe 3d and 4th of October, participated in the battles which were fought there.Major William Purcell, who commanded the regiment after Lieutenant ColonelSanders had been compelled to retire on account of his severe wounds, wrote anadmirable official report of the conduct of his regiment during both days of thebattle. After describing the positions occupied by the regiment prior to that inwhich it was attacked by the enemy, he says:

      In this position we remained until the SecondBrigade fell back, and, the batteries with the Eleventh and Thirteenth Iowabeing ordered to the rear to form a line oblique to the one then held by us, weremained in position to cover this movement, and were under the immediatecommand of Colonel Crocker when the enemy drove in our skirmishers and chargedfuriously up the hill upon which the Fifteenth and Sixteenth were posted. Thischarge was repulsed, and after holding the enemy in check and severely punishinghim, were ordered to fall back upon the new
line. The movements of the batteries and of the rest of the brigade having beeneffected, the Sixteenth was ordered, in company with the Fifteenth, to retire,which they did slowly and in good order, rejoining the rest of the brigade,remaining there until ordered to retire with the batteries to the innerfortifications. During the fight this day Lieutenant Colonel Sanders wasseverely wounded in the thigh and had his horse shot in several places, butretained command until the regiment was ordered to the inner line of fortifications, when he retired to have his wounds dressed, and the commanddevolved upon me.
     + War of the Rebellion Official Records, Series 1, Part1, Vol. 17, Page 100.
     ++  War of the Rebellion Official Records, Series1, Part 1, Vol. 17, Page 78.  tabulated losses, Sixteenth Iowa: Killed 14, wounded 48, missing 13.

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     On the morning of the 4th the Sixteenth retained itsposition in support of the Fifth Ohio Battery, throwing forward, under cover oftemporary breastworks, Company A, under command of Captain Smith, to engage theenemy's sharpshooters. While in support of the battery three of our men werewounded by the sharpshooters of the enemy. Permit me to say while at this point,that the officers and men are entitled to great credit, and their superiorofficers and their State may well be proud of them. They did their whole duty inthe engagement on Friday. ***  I noticed with pleasure the courage andbravery displayed by the Color Sergeant, Samuel Duffin, Company F. He stoodwaving the colors and encouraging the men both by actions and words. He was thelast to leave the field, and bore the colors away with him while the missiles ofdeath flew thick and fast around him. The Color Corporals, McElhany, of companyE, H. B. Eighmey, of company H, and J. Kuhn, of company C, also deservemention for their gallant conduct.***

     For the third time the regiment had met the enemy in ahard fought engagement and acquitted itself with honor. Its losses in battle andon the skirmish line now aggregated 250. It had also lost a large number bydeath from disease and by discharge for disability, and yet it had been only sixmonths in active service in the field. Its subsequent splendid record cannot beadequately described without exceeding the space allotted to this sketch. Thecompiler will endeavor, however, to cover as fully as possible the principalbattles and movements in which the regiment participated, including only themost important details.

     The regiment now remained in camp for nearly amonth. On November 2d the brigade was ordered to march to Grand Junction, and,arriving there November 5th, joined the army which was to engage in the movementagainst Vicksburg. November 28th the march to the South began, the Third Brigadeof the Sixth Division of Hamilton's Corps (Crocker's Iowa Brigade) beingassigned to the advance. The Sixteenth Iowa, with its brigade, bore its fullshare of the great hardships of that winter campaign, which proved a failure onaccount of the brilliant exploit of the enemy's cavalry in getting in the rearof General Grant's army and capturing the immense depot of supplies which badbeen accumulated at Holly Springs, Miss. This compelled the abandonment of theexpedition and the retreat of the army. During this retreat the troops sufferedgreatly from the cold and from lack of sufficient food. The regiment, with itsbrigade and division, reached Memphis early in January, 1863, and on January18th again started for Vicksburg, this time on transports down the Mississippiriver. Landing at Milliken's Bend, the troops went into camp. From this point,detachments from the Sixteenth and other regiments of the Iowa Brigade were sentout for the purpose of watching the movements of the enemy, and were engaged insome skirmishing in which slight losses were incurred.    On the 20th of January, 1863, the regiment, with its brigade and. division, wasassigned to the Seventeenth Army Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen. James B.McPherson, Brigadier General McArthur being retained in command of the division,and Colonel Crocker, of the brigade. On February 8th the brigade and divisionwere conveyed to Lake Providence, and there began the arduous undertakingof  connecting the Lake with the Mississippi river by cutting a canal. Thiswork was steadily prosecuted, and completed on the 16th of March, 1863. While atLake Providence the regiment and brigade were inspected by Inspector General Wm.E. Strong of the Seventeenth Corps, who paid a very high compliment to ColonelCrocker for the splendid condition and perfect drill of his brigade.

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     April 21, 1863, the brigade left Lake Providence and,from that time until the surrender of Vicksburg, was actively engaged in thearduous operations which culminated in that most important event. About the timethese operations began, Col. M. M. Crocker was promoted to Brigadier General andassigned to the command of the Seventh Division of the Seventeenth Army Corps.It was with deep regret that the officers and men of the brigade witnessed thedeparture of this accomplished officer. They fully appreciated the fact that itwas on account of his rigid enforcement of discipline, and his ability as aninstructor, that the brigade had reached such a high state of efficiency and hadgained such an excellent reputation throughout the army.  Colonel Hall, ofthe Eleventh Iowa, succeeded to the command of the brigade during the remainderof the Vicksburg campaign. Colonel Chambers, of the Sixteenth Iowa, was stillabsent on account of the wounds he received at Iuka, and Lieutenant ColonelSanders, although not fully recovered from the wound he received at Corinth, was—duringthe greater part of the campaign—in command of the regiment and wrote theofficial report, in which he describes in detail the movements of his regimentand the different positions occupied by
it, from May 16 to July 4, 1863.

     The service of all four of the regiments of the IowaBrigade during this period was practically of the same character. The compilermay, therefore, summarize in the same words he used with reference to theThirteenth Iowa, as equally applicable to the Sixteenth and to every regiment ofthe brigade:

     "During the entire campaign, which ended withthe surrender of Vicksburg, the Sixteenth Iowa with its brigade performed mostarduous and important service. It was moved from point to point, was part of thetime with the army of observation, in the rear of the lines of troops engaged inthe siege, watching the rebel force under General Johnston, who was constantlythreatening an attack for the purpose of raising the siege, and part of the timewith the investing forces in the entrenchments, assisting in the prosecution ofthe siege, but everywhere doing its full duty and sustaining its well wonreputation for bravery and efficiency."

     At the time of the surrender, the regiment wasskirmishing with the enemy on Black River, in the rear of Vicksburg. Thefollowing quotation is made from the brief outline of the movements andoperations of the regiment, furnished to the Adjutant General of Iowa by Maj. J.F. Conyngham:*

     Had a sharp engagement with the enemy July 4, 1863,part of the regiment having crossed the river and driven the enemy from hisposition on the opposite bank. July 12th was ordered to re-enforce GeneralSherman at Jackson and bring up an ammunition train. Johnston having evacuatedJackson, the army returned to Vicksburg July 28th; camped near Vicksburg tillthe 6th of August. The regiment was engaged in the march to Monroe, La.Returning to Vicksburg remained in camp till the 3d day of February, 1864; whenwe started on the Meridian campaign.  After a march across the entire Stateof Mississippi, returned to Vicksburg, March 4, 1864. Left Vicksburg March 17thon veteran furlough. The regiment again started from Davenport, Iowa, May 3d;arrived at Clifton, Tenn., about the middle of May; marched to Huntsville, Ala.;arrived at the latter place May 22d; marched to Decatur, Ala., thence across themountains to Rome, Ga., where arrived on the 5th of June. Starting again thenext morning, joined the main army under Sherman near Ackworth on the 10th;arrived in front of Kenesaw Mountain on the 11th; had a sharp engagement withthe enemy June 15th; part of the regiment was engaged in the attack on KenesawMountain June 27th, meeting with heavy loss. The regiment was under the enemy'sfire from June 14th to July 2d; moved from left to right of our line, meetingthe enemy again July 4th; had another sharp engagement, driving the enemy. Onthe
     *Adjutant General of Iowa, Report for year 1866, Pages 272-274, inclusive.

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5th, we again had the advance, driving the enemy from his fortified position andacross Nickajack Creek; were under fire of the enemy until the 16th day of July,when the rebels were compelled to cross the Chattahoochee river, and pushed onto Atlanta. Was engaged in the battles of July 20th, 21st and 22d, meeting withheavy losses in killed, wounded and prisoners, reducing the regiment to lessthan 100 men present for duty; engaged in the battle of July 28th. Continued totake an active part in pushing forward our lines of investment till Aug. 26th,when the siege was raised, the army marching for the vicinity of Jonesboro,where the regiment was again under fire; was in the pursuit to Lovejoy'sStation, returned to Atlanta, remained till September 1st, when active movementswere again commenced by the transfer of Hood's rebel army to the north of thecity. After engaging in the pursuit of the enemy towards Dalton and throughSnake Creek Gap, thence to Gaylesville, Ala., returned to Atlanta. Our regimentbeing again increased to 450 men present for duty, by the exchange of prisonersin the month of September and the assignment of drafted men, we started fromAtlanta, November 15th, marched to Savannah, before which place we arrivedDecember 10th, after much hard marching and skirmishing, and drove the enemybehind his fortifications.  At Savannah our regiment was the first to seizethe Savannah and Charleston Railroad, and, under the direction of BrigadierGeneral Belknap, commenced destroying the same. Was engaged in the siege tillthe evacuation of the city. Marched to the suburbs of the city and went intocamp on the 21st, where we remained, getting ready for the next campaign.

     After a review of the entire army by GeneralSherman, we were put in motion Jan. 6, 1865, for Beaufort, S. C. Marched againstPocotaligo Jan. 15th, our corps (the Seventeenth) driving the enemy out of hisstrongly fortified position. Remained near Pocotaligo until the 28th, when thenew campaign commenced. Marching to Rivers Bridge, on the Salkehatchie, met theenemy's strongly fortified. At this point the Salkehatchie forms an almostimpenetrable swamp about two miles wide, which was waded by the Fourth Division,Seventeenth Army Corps (of which the Sixteenth formed a part) on the 3d day ofFebruary, 1865; and the enemy was driven from his position. Continuing themarch, driving the enemy before us, capturing every place which he attempted tohold, and after encountering many hardships, privations and dangers, arrived atGoldsboro, N. C., on the 23d day of March, 1865. Remaining at Goldsboro untilthe 10th day of April, the regiment was again on the march in search of theenemy. Pushing forward, the command entered Raleigh on the 16th, and campedthere until the 2d of May. the war being brought to a close, the command marchedfor Washington, where it took part in the grand review May 24th, left WashingtonJune 7th and arrived at Louisville, June 12th.

     The record from which the foregoing quotation is madeembraced the entire period of service of the regiment, but only that portion ofit commencing July 4, 1863, has been quoted, for the reason that the compiler ofthis sketch found it necessary, in preparing the earlier history of theregiment, to refer to official reports and other data, going more fully into thedetails of its operations than the closely condensed record given by MajorConyngham. At Goldsboro, N. C., under date March 25, 1865, Captain Conyngham,(subsequently commissioned Major,) in an official report addressed to Brig. Gen.N. B. Baker, Adjutant General of Iowa,* says;

      I have the honor to submit the following as abrief outline of the movements of the Sixteenth Iowa Infantry VeteranVolunteers, during the sieges of Atlanta and Savannah, the campaigns throughGeorgia and Carolinas, commencing on the 23d day of July, 1864, and ending onthe 23d day of March, 1865. I embrace the above dates, not that I was in commandof the regiment during the entire period, but because there has been no reportmade to your office during the time stated, and as I am the only officer, now inthe service, of those who have commanded during the
     *Adjutant General of Iowa Report for year 1866, Pages274-5.

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     This report, while giving a more detailed account ofthe movements of the regiment for the time indicated, refers mainly to theevents already briefly described. In the desperately fought battle beforeAtlanta, July 22, 1864, after completely exhausting its ammunition, and beingentirely surrounded by the enemy, the regiment with its gallant commander,Lieut. Col. A. H. Sanders, surrendered as prisoners of war. Upon his return fromcaptivity, Lieutenant Colonel Sanders made a detailed report for AdjutantGeneral Baker; Capt. C. W. Williams also submitted a report of the battle, witha list of the killed, wounded and missing, and Oliver Anson, Sergeant Major ofthe regiment, gave an account of the experience, while in prison, of those whowere captured.*  The length of these reports precludes their reproductionin full, but the compiler has chosen the following extracts from them, to showhow splendidly the sixteenth Iowa maintained its well-won reputation as afighting regiment in this tremendous conflict before Atlanta.  LieutenantColonel Sanders' report is, in part, as follows:

      SIR,—I have the honor to report the action ofthe Sixteenth Iowa Veteran Infantry in the battle before Atlanta, Ga., July 22,1864, resulting in the capture of nearly all of said regiment and myself.

      On the morning of July 21st, my regimentcharged on the rebel batteries, and, after a desperate assault, lost sixty-fivemen. The regiment was complimented by General McPherson for its daring bravery.General McPherson's last words to me, the day he was killed, were: "The oldSixteenth shall be remembered." On the afternoon of the 21st, the old Iowabrigade was removed to the extreme left flank of Sherman's army, about two milesfrom Atlanta. The Sixteenth Iowa formed a line at right angles with the mainline of the army. Immediately on the right of the Sixteenth's works, theEleventh Iowa established themselves in rifle pits; on a road running betweenthe Eleventh and Sixteenth Iowa's works were planted two Napoleon guns of theSecond Illinois battery protected by heavy works. On the left of the Sixteenth,and a little to the rear, the Fifteenth Iowa had rifle pits. About a hundredyards to the rear of the Sixteenth, the Thirteenth Iowa had breastworks. Duringthe night of the 21st, each regiment of the brigade built substantial rifle pitsalong the line that I have designated, and each cleared a space of fifty yardsin front of its works. Still the heavy underbrush concealed the works of thedifferent regiments from each other's view.

      On the 22d were under arms at daylight, but noenemy appeared. The afternoon before, immediately on our arrival, I had thrownout two companies (B and G) several hundred yards in front, to act as picketsand skirmishers. About noon on the 22d I received an order from GeneralSmith,+  in person, to have my regiment ready to fall in at a minute'snotice, and that he expected me to hold those works to the last, as the safetyof the division might depend upon the delay we could occasion the enemy at thatpoint. This was the last order I received that day from any commanding officer.About 1:30 o'clock P. M., our skirmishers in front commenced a brisk firing. Iimmediately formed the regiment in the entrenchments, and soon after theskirmishers were driven in upon us. I again sent them out, but a strong line ofthe enemy forced them back.  Lieutenant Powers, commanding the battery,opened fire on the advancing enemy, but I requested it stopped until the enemyshould get nearer. I ordered my men not to fire a gun until they received mycommand, no matter how close the enemy came. The rebel line advanced steadily tothe charge, and I permitted them to approach to the open space of fifty yards infront of my works, when, cautioning the men to aim well and fire low, I orderedthe rear rank to fire, and then the front rank. The response was a terrific anddeadly volley from one rank, followed Immediately by another, and then acontinuous rapid firing, fast as eager and experienced soldiers could load anddischarge their guns. The result of our fire was terrible; the enemy's lineseemed to crumble to the earth, for even those not killed or wounded fell to theground for protection. Lieutenant Powell's battery here did excellentexecution.  An-
     * These reports are found in the report of the AdjutantGeneral of Iowa for the year 1865, Vol. 2, Pages 1104-13, inclusive.
     + Brig. Gen. Giles A. Smith.

Page 1068:

other heavy line of the enemy advanced, and were repulsed in the same terriblemanner. ***

      More splendid firing, or more effectual in itsresults, was never witnessed in the army. The Second and Eighth Arkansasregiments, with two Texas companies, got into a position in our front, in whichthey could not advance, and dared not attempt to retire, but hugged the groundclose, suffering a terrible fire. While thus lying down, they raised the whiteflag. I ordered the firing to cease, and these regiments threw down their gunsand hurried over to our works as prisoners. We had at this time double thenumber of prisoners we had men in ranks. A part of these men were sent to therear, but before the remainder could be secured the enemy had taken theThirteenth's works Immediately in our rear, and commenced a heavy firing intoour ranks. ***

     The report then describes the desperate situation inwhich the regiment was placed; how the fight was continued against tremendousodds until it became evident that the other regiments of the brigade had beenoutflanked and compelled to abandon their works, when, all hope of receivingreinforcements being abandoned, the brave officers and men of the Sixteenth Iowareluctantly surrendered themselves as prisoners of war. At the conclusion of hisreport Lieutenant Colonel Sanders shows the utter hopelessness of the situation,and that he would not have been justified in urging his brave men to furtherresistance. He says:

      At the time of our surrender we were entirely outof ammunition, the rebels having been so long in our rear that supplies wereprevented from reaching us. Why we were left alone, an isolated regiment,surrounded and helpless, while the other regiments around us were ordered fromtheir works, as I suppose they were, I  cannot realize. If the sacrifice ofthis noble regiment was intended to give the army in our rear time to rally,then it was well, and the sacrifice was nobly made of a band of as brave andfaithful men as any who fought upon the field that day.  They could not betaken from the front, and only surrendered when further resistance would havebeen suicide. ***

      I should have stated in its proper place, thatwhile firing heaviest, and guns so heated that they could scarcely be handled,we were re-enforced by companies D and K, of the Thirteenth Iowa, commanded byCaptain Pope and Lieutenant Rice. Captain Pope informed me that they wereordered to our assistance, fearing our ammunition as well as men must soon beexhausted. I assigned these companies places along the trenches, and they wentinto the work like veterans, fought nobly to the last, and surrendered with us.
     That the order to withdraw from their works was givento the two flanking regiments of the Iowa Brigade is shown by the followingextract from the report of Gen. Giles A. Smith, who commanded the FourthDivision: *

      I ordered Colonel Hall to withdraw his two flankregiments which this movement enveloped, and to move them by the right flankaround the front or east side of my main line of works, having already directedthe men occupying that line to take the same position and drive back the enemy,now already pressing their rear. This movement was promptly executed, andsuccessful except in the case of the Sixteenth Iowa, occupying the extreme left,which was completely surrounded, and over two hundred and thirty men captured.

     That the order failed to reach Colonel Sanders was nodoubt owing to the fact that the staff officer, to whom it was entrusted, foundhimself cut off by the enemy, and was thus prevented from delivering it. Capt.C. W. Williams of the Sixteenth Iowa also wrote a report of the part taken byhis regiment in the battle of July 22d, in which he says, in part:

     * Adjutant General of Iowa Report for 1865, Vol. 2,Page 1278.

Page 1069:

      + The other regiments of the brigade did all thatcould be done under the circumstances to arrest the calamity to this regiment,but it will be remembered that they were attacked by a large force upon the leftflank, and were compelled to change front under a severe cross fire of theenemy, so that the best they could do was to take care of themselves. It isproper to add, that a detail for fatigue duty had been made from the regimentjust previous to the attack, consisting of three commissioned officers, viz:Captain Williams, and Lieutenants Conyngham and Weingartner, and eighty enlistedmen, all of whom were absent from the regiment, and did not rejoin it, havingnearly a mile to travel. The detail was posted upon the left of the ThirdDivision, and materially aided in the final repulse of the enemy, all doingtheir duty nobly. Some twenty-five of them were killed, wounded and missing,most of them before they gained the works, as they were exposed to a cross fireof the enemy's artillery during the interval of leaving their works and gainingour main line, as well as to direct a fire of musketry. ***I append to thisreport a list of the killed, wounded and missing, on the 22d inst.; also acomplete list of casualties in the regiment from June 14th to August 8th,inclusive, making an aggregate of 369 killed, wounded and missing.

     Sergeant Major Oliver Anson, in a communicationaddressed to General Baker* relative to the capture of the officers and men ofthe Sixteenth and their treatment while prisoners of war, says, in part:"*** We were taken to Macon, and there the enlisted men were separated fromthe officers, and taken to Andersonville, six miles farther south. The enlistedmen of the regiment captured numbered 225. *** The men are suffered to lie outin the open air without any shelter whatever, and many of them are in a mannernaked. They do not get enough to eat, and what they do eat is not fit to eat. Itis killing the men faster than the army. When I went into the prison the 28th ofJuly, there were over 33,000 prisoners, and on the 7th of September, the issuingclerk told me they issued to 29,553, and since the 28th they had captured theEighth Iowa Cavalry and some of the Fifth, and a large number from McCook andStoneman, besides making captures from Sherman's army, and yet the number randown in spite of them. *** "

     The compiler has endeavored to compress within thelimits of this brief sketch the main outlines of the history of this splendidmilitary organization, and to give some of the details of its most importantachievements. In the subjoined roster will be found the record of personalservice of every soldier who at any time belonged to the regiment, condensedinto a paragraph opposite his name. The transcript of these rosters has beencarefully made from the official records of the office of the Adjutant Generalof the State of Iowa. In addition to official sources, surviving officers of theregiment have been asked to correct errors and omissions and to completerecords, but only to a limited extent has it been found possible to secure suchinformation.

     The commonwealth of Iowa has fulfilled a high duty inproviding for the preservation of the history of her brave sons who went forthto battle for the unity of the States, and for the perpetuation of a Governmentwhich has proved such an inestimable blessing, not only to the loyal andpatriotic men who so nobly fought to save it but, also, to those misguided menwho fought so desperately to destroy it.
+ Adjutant General of Iowa Report for 1865, Vol. 2, Page 1107.

*Adjutant General of Iowa Report, 1865, Vol. 2, Page 1113.

Total Enrollment 1,441
Killed 62
Wounded 311
Died of Wounds 35
Died of Disease 220
Discharged for wounds, disease and other causes 224
Captured 271
Transferred 29
Buried in National Cemeteries 141

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