Smallpox - 1900/1901


Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Jan 26, 1900

State Board of Health Takes a Hand and Stops Protracted Meetings at
Ayresville and May Order Vaccination.

     A man is down with genuine smallpox near Ayersville. 14 people are quarantined at Bennett, Davenport has been bombarded by telegraph for vaccine virus and the end may not be yet. And the whole excitement is over the return of Cad Ayers who has been a student at Dixon, Ill.

History of the Case.

     One week ago today, that is on Friday, Jan. 19, Cad Ayres came from Dixon, Ill. to Rock Island and there took passage on the B.C. & N. train Friday afternoon at 4 o'clock for Bennett. At Bennett young Ayres registered at the Hotel Bennett. He remained at the hotel over night and last Saturday morning the hotel proprietor, W. Delley, drove young Ayres to his home six miles south near Ayresville and not far from Wilton.

Ayres Taken Sick

     Yesterday morning Ayres, who had been sick several days, was found to be broken out on the arms and the physician, Dr. Battey, of Wilton, pronounced the case smallpox. He had his suspicions and had informed Dr. John C. Schrader, of Iowa City, a member of the state board of health, who arried yesterday morning and confirmed Dr. Battey's diagnosis. Dr. Schrader gave the necessary orders about quarantining all persons exposed.

Hotel Guests Quarantined.

     As a result of Dr. Schrader's orders the Bennett house located about one and one-half blocks from the B.C.R. & N. station at that place is quarantined and a rope is stretched along the sidewalk at the south of the building beyond which the unwilling guests and the hotel keepers family are not allowed to go. Caught in this quarantine are seven boarders, including Frank Cope, owner of a drug store and formerly employed by John Harding of this city; L.E. Kemmen, groceryman; Ed Conrad, Mr. Wingert, clerk in the Bennett bank; Louis Dawson, grain buyer. Besides these there are quarantined W. Dilley, his wife and two children; two hotel girls and Mrs. Dilley's
father, Mr. Leatherburg.
     The quarantine was established yesterday morning and at the same time William Templeton, the township clerk, went to Ayersville and stopped the protracted meetings that were in progress there.

A Bennett Man Talks

     Mr. Madden, who is car inspector for the B.C.R. & N in this city, and whose home is in Bennett, when seen by a Times man today stated that there was no indication nor great fear of the outbreak of that disease in Bennett. "People have not yet decided to close schools and vaccinate the children. Ayers has smallpox not varioloid."

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Thurs., Apr 26, 1900

It Breaks Out Near Fifteenth and Brady
Disease Diagnosed as the Dread Malady and Patient is Forthwith Removed to the Pest House

     Elmer Strombeck, 22 years old, a working man, employed on the C R I & P railway shops, is at the pest house suffereing from a genuine attack of
     Strombeck lived at 1522 Brady street with his sister in one of Dr. C.T. Lindley's houses. He was employed as late as ten days ago at the C R I & P shops in sweeping out cars, etc., and his illness is attributed to the inhalation of car dust.
     At noon yesterday, Dr. Raymond Peck was called to attend the patient and discovered him broken out into blotches very suggestive of smallpox. The sister of the patient several days before attributed the disease to blood poisoning due to an injury received in the hand some time previously.

Was Ill for Ten Days

     As there has been a misunderstanding on the part of some citizens who are complaining because the case was not called to the attention of the proper authorities earlier, a representative of this paper called upon Dr. Raymond Peck, who was the first one to discover the true condition of the man and obtained from him the following facts:
     Mr. Strombeck was taken sick with a severe cold and symptoms of the grip on Sunday the 15th day of this month.
     "Dr. Peck was called to see him on the following Wednesday and prescribed for him, called again Thursday and found him greatly improved and relieved of all symptoms complained of. He then left orders with the patient and sister that if improvement did not continue to notify him at once. Not hearing from the patient he concluded that his services were no longer needed and dropped the matter from his mind. That was the last he heard from his patient until 12 o'clock yesterday noon, nearly six days after his last visit, when his sister telephoned that he was not so well and showed new symptoms.
     "Eruptions first broke out Dunday morning and it was almost four days after the above serious indication that Dr. Peck was informed of the fact and called upon to view the case.
     "He immediately quarantined the place and called in City Physician Preston and Dr. Watzek, both of whom confirmed his diagnosis of the case as one of genuine smallpox. So it will be plainly observed by all that any delay in reporting the case was due to the negligence of the victim and his sister themselves and to no one else."

Those Who Are Exposed

     The family of Mrs. Sarah Ita occupies one half of the house and these parties have been exposed. All have been vaccinated. The Ita boy attends school No. 4 and up to yesterday the school children had been exposed. It is likely that all of the children there will be vaccinated as a safeguard.

Residents Are Vaccinated.

     Those who reside on the hill in the vicinity of the Strombeck home are much exercised over the appearance of the plague in the neighborhood and there were scores of vaccinations solicited. The place has been quarantined and thoroughly fumigated.

Vaccination Offered.

     On account of the fact that the little boy of the family went to school in No. 4 and was in Miss Miles' room in that building the city physician, Dr. Preston, ordered that the children in that room be vaccinated. The matter of the vaccination of all other pupils was left to the direction of Superintendant Young. In the room where the child attended school all the pupils who have not been vaccinated within 5 years will be required to be vaccinated at once.

Two Escape Quarantine

     Mrs. Strombeck and her little daughter who were in the family of the one taken will with smallpox escaped yesterday between the time the disease was discovered and the time Dr. Preston was notified. They went to Anover, Ill. but Dr. Preston at once telegraphed to that city and told of the exposure.

What Health Inspector Says

     Health Inspector Charles N. Jessen was seen this morning and said: "Dr. C.H. Preston first notified me yesterday afternoon. He first went to Mayor Heinz and asked what should be done in the matter, and as I understand it, the mayor ordered him to look after the matter in his official capacity with full power to act. This Dr. Preston did. Late in the afternoon the patient Strombeck was conveyed to the pest house or the St. Robert's hospital in the Black Maria together with his sister and her babe. Claus Barofsky and Robert Stange were placed on guard to watch the premises on upper Brady street, after the quarantine had been established. There will be no special board of health meeting held today."

Scourge of Smallpox

     All cases of regular smallpox according to physicians are divisible in to three stages, viz., first, that of the initial or eruptive fever, second,
that of the progress and maturation of the specific eruption and third, that of the decline. The first stage begins with chilliness, followed by heat and dryness of the skin, a quickened pulse, loss of appetite, vomiting, headache and pains in the back and limbs. On the third day minute red specks begin to appear on the face and rapidly spread over the body. The fever usually begins to subside as soon as the eruption appears. Statistics show that the eighth day of the eruption is the most perilous.
     The cause of smallpox is universally agreed to be a specific contagion whose nature the medical profession is in the most profound ignorance.
     Smallpox is considered the most contagious of all known diseases and appears in epidemic form at irregular intervals, and after raging for a longer or shorter period, it gradually dies out and as a rule does not generally appear again in the same community for years. The entire course of smallpox in all its various stages occupies about three weeks.

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa

June 11, 1900

Mrs. E.B. Lewis Stricken With the Infectious Disease
     Dr. C.H. Preston was advised late Saturday afternoon by Dr. Rudolph of the existence of a case of pronounced smallpox at Hadlai Heights in the west end of the city. The patient is Mrs. E.B. Lewis, wife of an employe of the Rothschild Elevator company.
     Mrs. Lewis came here last May 21st and had been treated for a cold. On Thursday and Friday she grew worse and an eruption showed itself which on Saturday Dr. Rudolph diagnosed as the smallpox. Since the residence of the Lewis family stands far aloof from any habitation, on the top of the hill, the health authorities have decided not to remove the patient and those exposed to St. Robert's hospital, but rather to establish the quarantine there. This has been done.
     Mrs. Lewis has two children. Since there is no smallpox in that locality it is thought that she contracted the disease in route here.

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa

June 26, 1900

Ed Eldridge, the Printer, the Latest Victim
The Patient Taken to St. Robert's Hospital This Afternoon- Story of the

     Ed Eldridge, printer, was this afternoon discovered to have the smallpox of a pretty pronounced type. He was feeling ill this afternoon and
interviewed Dr. Ed. Bowman for treatment. As soon as Dr. Bowman saw him he knew that it was a case of smallpox. He telephoned to Dr. Preston, who at once pronounced the case one of smallpox.
     This was about 1:30 o'clock. Eldridge was sent to the vacant place on Perry street, beyond Third to await the coming of the Black Maria. He was taken to the pest house, or St. Robert's hospital.
     Health Officer Jessen commenced an investigation this afternoon.

Another Case
     Hannah Walker, who was employed as a domestic in the Lewis home at the time the smallpox broke out there, and who was quarantined along with the others in the family, today showed pronounced symptoms of an attack of that disease. She has not been where she could have been exposed to the disease since she was quarantined and she has not been in a position to cause others to be exposed.

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa

June 27, 1900

Iceman Works All Day After Having Broken Out With Disease
City Physician Anticipates No Further Spread of the Disease at Present

     How would you like to be the iceman? That is, the iceman, who had the smallpox yesterday that went around delivering the crystal while he was broken out? The iceman is not in a dangerous condition nor is he scared, but there are a few people who have been getting ice from No. 2 of the Davenport Ice company, who wish the driver had not been afflicted with the disease.
     It all happened in this way. Ed Eldridge, who was taken to the pest house yesterday, said he had a "pal", whose name was William Klabiker, who was broken out with smallpox, or at least with the same disease he had, and that he was delivering ice.
     The health officer, to whom he told the story, at once set out to look for wagon No. 2 of the Davenport Ice company, but he did not find the man till evening at the close of the day's business. The man was then taken to the pest house.

Ernst Moeller's Story
     Ernst Moeller is the driver of wagon No. 2 of the Davenport Ice company, of which Nic Albrecht and John Henzelmann are the proprietors. He said to a Times reporter this morning:
     "I did not know the man's name, although he worked for three weeks with me. He came from Peoria. His neck, all under the chin and under his ears was broken out, and he thought it was from poisoning from a cheap shirt. I thought it was the barbers' itch. Yesterday it was much better than it was the day before, and it was only last night that he was taken out to the pest house."

The Route of Wagon No. 2
     The route of wagon No. 2 is principally in the saloon and German boarding house district of this city. Few believed that the iceman had the smallpox along the beat of the wagon to which he was attached, and it is thought that a cheap shirt worn by him, and which lost its color through perspiration, coupled with a closely shaven neck, was chiefly responsible for the eruption which is alleged was not pistular.

What Health Inspector Says.
     Health Inspector Jessen says that the man has been vaccinated, it not being though that he had a case of smallpox. "If the vaccination takes," said he, "we will have sufficient proof that he has not the smallpox."
     The police do not like the statement of the press to the effect that the police patrol, or ambulance, was used to take Ed Eldridge, the smallpox victim, to the pest house. The patrol was not used for such a purpose.
     Health Officer Jessen said that this afternoon that the man came from Joliet and not from Peoria, as Ernest Moeller stated. He also said that as soon as the vaccination proves to be effective, which will be in a week, the man will be released.

A Local Scare.
     Over in the Democrat office where Ed Eldridge spent some of his time at work or loafing, there were a number of men who thought they might have been exposed to the disease and all were vaccinated this morning.

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Monday, January 28, 1901

City Physician Believes That Epidemic Is Due to Some Unreported Case That Infected the School.

     Four cases of smallpox in the city-that is the inventory today. Of these one is so convalescent that he will get out of the pest house on Thursday of this week. But there are three new cases, two of which have not previously been reported and they are all from school No. 1. The new cases are Alma Thuenen, 12-year-old, daughter of George Thuenen, 510 Spring street. The other new case and the one reported this morning, is Albert Causby, son of T.W. Causby, of 1221 East Locust street. As a result of the apparent spread of the disease a board of health meeting was held in the city hall at 3 o'clock this forenoon. The purpose of the board of health meeting was to arrange for the care of those who have been afflicted with the disease.

The New Cases.

     The story of Helen Pauli was told in the Times of Saturday. The case at the residence of George Thuenen was discovered Saturday evening. The family physician was called to treat Alma Thuenen, the 12-year-old daughter of George Thuenen, on account of a high fever. He at once saw that it was a clear case of small pox and called the city physician. Dr. Preston confirmed the diagnosis and at once made arrangements to have the residence quarantined. It was ascertained that she had broken out with the disease on Jan. 26, and that prior to that time she had been going to school when she was still feeling well, which was up to last Tuesday. She had been attending school No. 1 and was in the sixth grade in room 7.
     In the family are five other and younger children, who have now been vaccinated. The servant, who left the house as soon as she found there was smallpox there, has been required to return to the house and remain in quarantine with the other members of the family. Mr. Thuenen not having been greatly exposed was allowed to go to the home of his parents to live, so that he could continue his work, but not until he had taken every precaution against the spread of the disease. The house is guarded.

Albert Causby.

     This morning another physician reported to Dr. Preston that Albert Causby, the 15-year-old son of T.W. Causby, of 1221 East Locust street, had the smallpox. Investigation proved that the statement was correct.

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Thursday, February 14, 1901

Interesting Session of the Board of Health at the City Hall
Detention Hospital Will Be Provided For Suspects Near Stone Yard-
Geo. Thuenen's Protest

     "Does smallpox exist?" was the very pertinent question discussed at a protracted board of health meeting which was held at the city hall yesterday afternoon.
     The discovery of six more cases of alleged smallpox since last Monday occasioned the call of the special meeting. Frank Lee Logan, who lives with William Hitchcock, at 1034 East Fourteenth street, and 19 years of age, was found to be suffering with the disease yesterday and was at once placed under quarantine. Then the special meeting was called.
     The meeting was convoked at 4 o'clock and adjourned at 5:45 to meet next Tuesday afternoon in regular session.
     Mayor Heinz, in calling the board of health to order stated that he wanted to find out all he could in reference to the smallpox conditions. He wanted to know what had been done and what should be done.
     He noticed that there was some contagious disease going around which isn't smallpox, but against which people should be protected.
     He asked the doctor how many of the cases existed at the present time.
     "There are 11. We had 12, but we got rid of the Brunn case," was the reply.
     "Then let us take each up in order and see what is being done," said his honor.

The Physician's Returns
     The Helen Pauli case was taken up. The girl was getting well and was around the house. Two guards had been placed on duty. The eruptions on the child began on Jan. 24. As the return card originally did not bear the name of Dr. A.W. Bowman, the physician who discovered the case, the same had been taken to him for his signature. This was the order made at the last meeting of the board of health.
     A letter from Dr. A.W. Bowman stating that as soon as he discovered the case he sent a notice by private carrier to Dr. Preston, which reached him 18 hours sooner than it would have done through the mail. He had thought that he had done his full duty in notifying the city physician.
     Dr. Rudolph, who attended the Lewis cases at Hadlai Heights wrote in the same strain. Dr. J.P. Crawford, who had been called to attend the Thuenen case had telephoned the clerk to the same effect.
     Mayor Heinz emphatically stated that hereafter he did not want any cards signed by the city physician returned to the board of health unless he himself, and without any attending physician being present, discovered the case. "The doctor has troubles enough of his own," suggested the mayor, "and he shouldn't shoulder that responsibility. We have to make out our bills to the county from these returns and we must know who is reponsible."

No Attending Physician
     Alderman Phillips stated that one of the smallpox guards at the Schroeder place on Marquette street had come to his home and reported that after the quarantine had been established at that home the patient, who is an adult, was left for 48 hours without an attending physician.
     Dr. Preston stated that it was not his fault because he had notified the patient to send for him when desired.
     Dr. Preston suggested that one physician at a salary be employed to care for all of the smallpox patients. He said the fee is ordinarily $10 per visit in a smallpox case. He stated that doctors did not care to take charge of such cases and could not legally be compelled to do so. His duties obliged him to diagnose the disease, establish and maintain the quarantine and not to wait on the patient.
     Alderman Lindholm asked if a physician was not compelled to go when called upon.
     "Not legally," replied the physician.
     "I can understand and see where he can be held liable," said City Attorney Thuenen. "You can't let a man die through neglect of assisting him."
     The doctor stated thereupon that the fraternity was philanthropic and that forgetfulness of self was characteristic of the cloth.

To Dispense with Guards
     The question as to dispensing with the smallpox guards at the Pauli place came up. There is a day and a night watchman employed there, and it was thought that the night watchman's services might be dispensed with.
     Alderman Bawden did not care to relax the vigor of the quarantine. "Don't let us take down the gates yet," he said. "We may have reason to regret it."
     Dr. Preston stated that the quarantine should endure at least until the 24th inst. which would be one month from the appearance of the eruptions.
     Alderman Lindholm moved that the two guards be retained at the Pauli place until Feb. 24.
     Seconded by Alderman Bawden.
     Dr. Preston voted aye.

The Alma Thuenen Case
     In the case of Alma Thuenen, reported by Dr. J.P. Crawford, Dr. Preston reported two more infections, those of Mildren Thuenen, 3 years old, and Mary McMahon, the 15-year-old domestic, both light cases. The case of Miss McMahon is post vaccination and according to City Attorney Thuenen, the first child taken ill, Miss Alma, is doing the work for the hired girl whose arm is painfully swollen. The city physician stated that the diagnosis showed varioloid in both cases.
     "What is varioloid?" was asked.
     "It is the kind of smallpox you get after you are vaccinated." replied the mayor. This provoked laughter.

Doesn't Believe It Is Smallpox
     George Thuenen, through his brother, Henry Thuenen, the city attorney, registered a protest. He contended that his children did not have the smallpox, and therefore objected to Dr. Preston's visit to his home on the ground that he had gone directly to the Wards on Mount street to the Thuenen's thus possibly distributing the infection.
     Mr. Thuenen insisted that his children have not what is called the smallpox ,and has authority for it, as alleged in he person of the old practicing physician who served in the smallpox hospitals in the south when the disease was virulent and the mortality great. Hence Mr. Thuenen did not care to have the city physician come from a house wherein smallpox may exist, into his own home, where he believes it does not exist.

The Causby Guards
     In reference to the retention of two guards at the Causby home on East Locust street, it was suggested that the case was an isolated one, and that the guard might be dispensed with.
     Upon vote Bawden and Preston voted no and Lindholm and Phillips aye.
     "I vote aye," said the mayor.
     Hence the night watchman at the Causby place was ordered removed.

The Other Cases.
     The cases of Thomas and Malvern Iles, of Wm. Bennett, Albert Cook, Nettie Wirtz and the two Wards, and Mr. Schroeder, in Northwest Davenport, and also of Frank Lee Logan, the latest discovered, were all debated. No guards was deemed necessary in the Bennett case, but ordered placed in the Cook, Wards and Logan cases.
     The Wirtz case was quarantined but no guards placed.
     Dr. Preston suggested that Frank Lee Logan be taken to the pest house.
     Mayor Heinz vigorously object on account of the consequent expense.

Source of the Infection
     Dr. Preston stated that he attributes the source of the infection to a tramp who possibly slept in school house No. 1 some 10 or 14 days prior to the infection of Helen Pauli. This, however, he advances as a supposition.

Ten Dollars Out of Pocket
     The doctor stated that he had vaccinated 136 school children at school No. 1 and was out of pocket by $10 worth of virus. He reiterated his former statements that vaccination was a safety measure.
     Much discussion was had as to whether or not the smallpox existed. The mayor considered it chickenpox, or smallpox rash, and Alderman Phillips concurred in the diagnosis. Dr. Preston insisted that it was smallpox though of a non-malignant type. It was surely epidemic. It was a sort of natural vaccination rendering one immune. Still he desired to be upheld in his authority in the extirpation of the disease.
     Quoting from the definition of the disease in the report of the state board of health, the following is found which was pointed out to the reporter:
     "There are still physicians in Iowa who call it Cuban itch, yaws or chickenpox because some of the cases do not present all the symptoms and signs of smallpox. There are other physicians, who not being able to call it smallpox, claim that it is a new disease, and do not pretend to name it."

A Detention Hospital.
     Dr. Preston recalled the arrest of the deaf and dumb boy by Officer Quinn recently and of how the policeman was told to take the lad down to the river and keep him there until he could be examined for smallpox. He said that it was cold weather and dangerous to isolate a suspect on the river bank pending diagnosis. He suggested the building of a small structure in the patrol barn enclosure which could be filled up with a rapid heating sheet iron stove and a cot for the reception of all suspects such as was the negro Olliver.
     Alderman Phillips thought one section of the old police station might be used, and an entrance afforded through the great doors on the Main street side.
     The matter was referred upon suggestion of the mayor to Alderman Phillips.
     Thereafter adjournment.  

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Thursday, February 20, 1901

Physicians Discuss Smallpox for Edification

Interesting Session of the Health Officers and How the Doctors Describe the Disease.

     That the epidemic now existing in the eastern part of the city is smallpox of a pronounced but not of a malignant type can not any longer be doubted since our physicians have emphatically stated it to be so before the alleged doubting Thomases of the board of health, at the meeting of that body yesterday afternoon.
     All of the physicians who were present at the session open invitation were agreed upon the existence of the disease in this city as also upon its mildness of form and the general value, efficacy and necessity of vaccination. Three of them stated that the disease produced a voraciousness of appetite and suggested that rigidity be made the feature in the matter of the enforcement of the quarantine laws.
     The session of the board was a protracted one. It was called to order by Mayor Heinz at 3:15 o'clock and was adjourned upon motion of Alderman Lindholm at 5 o'clock, after a two and a half hours interesting symposium upon smallpox, chickenpox, vaccination, quarantine laws, citizens' protests and other miscellaneous subjects.

Those Who Were Present

     There were present besides the members of the board and the representatives of all of the city papers, the following physicians and citizens:
     Dr. A.W. Bowman, Dr. Henry Mathey, Dr. J.P. Crawford, Dr. Custavus Hoepfner, Dr. Fred  Lambach, Dr. Benjamin Carmichael, J.W. Ballard, chairman board of supervisors: George Causby, Claus Jipp, Henry Holm and Henry P. Barnholt.

Claus Jipp's Request

     The first matter which the board considered was the request of Claus Jipp, a contractor, who owns tow houses recently constructed down on West Fifth street, near Pine street. Being compelled to return to his work at once he was given the floor immediately after the meeting was called to order.
     Mr. Jipp stated that a sewer was being constructed along West Fifth street, and that since the lots which he owns as also those owned by Mrs. Claus Bischoff (four in number) and by Rudolph Rolfs (three in number) were lower than the street and therefore retains water which seeps into the cellar the parties named be allowed to connect spouts of their houses with the sewer. The necessary permission was granted subject to revocation by the board at any time.

Opinions Sometimes Diverge

     Dr. Paul then stated to the board that since honest differences has arisen as to the nature of the disease which the board of health was now quarantining against, he had invited the doctors who had examined the cases and who had originally diagnosed them to be present at the board meeting with the request that they describe the said disease.
     "Well, let's take them up in order the same as we did at the last meeting," suggested the mayor.
     It was so done.
     The first case was that of Ernst Bruhn, but as that had already been disposed of by the lifting of the quarantine, no attention was paid to it.
     The next case was that of Helen Pauli.

Pauli Quarantine Raised.

     This case had been diagnosed by Dr. A.W. Bowman. According to the rigid quarantine laws of the state board of health the term of isolation must be 40 days. However, 30 days for such a mild case was deemed sufficient. Seventeen days after recovery, was included with this term, and therefore upon motion of Dr. C.H. Preston, it was voted that the quarantine should be raised on the 24th inst., (next Sunday) This will relieve two watchmen who have been employed, one on at day and the other at night, at a wage of $2.25 per day.

Dr. A.W. Bowman's Statement

     Dr. A.W. Bowman was asked to tell about the Pauli case. He stated that he had been called there and found that smallpox oxiated. He knew the symptoms and diagnosed them. The vescular eruptions  were there. He at once notified Dr. Preston, and thought by so doing he was notifying the board of health, and had therefore performed his duty. The intelligence of the existence of the disease had thereby reached the board 18 hours sooner that it would have done had he committed a return card to the mails.
     The doctor had no doubt whatever as to the nature of the disease first diagnosed by him.

The Alma Thuenen Case.

    Concerning the next in order, Dr. Preston reported that while Alma Thuenen was progressing nicely, and otherwise would soon be out of quarantine, the discovery of two other more recent cases in that household precluded the present raising of the quarantine.
     Dr. J.P. Crawford, the family physician of the Thuenens, had originally diagnosed the case.
     When asked to describe the case Dr. Crawford said:
     "I was called to the Thuenen home and found Alma ill. She had been out of school for several days. She had a high fever, a backache, and other symptoms which might indicate any disease. Two days later I again visited the Thuenen home and then discovered a papular eruption on the forehead and face of the child, which indicated either smallpox or varioloid.
     "I think I know smallpox when I see it. Nineteen years ago, in 1882, I had the privilege to take care of 30 or 35 cases of smallpox when I was home surgeon at the Mercy hospital. Some four or five of the patients died. I saw them constantly for I was there constantly and visited them through all states of their illness, had noted all from a clinical point of view. I have a right to my opinion as to what smallpox is.
     " I reluctantly reported the case to the city physician, because I am the family physician of the Thuenens and I would have liked to take care of the case myself. However, the other patients I have, and my duties to them, forbade this."

The Sanford Case.

     "Next was the Sanford family. Here were different conditions. I found there only a few papules or eruptive spots, which were only in the vesicular stage. This has a slight similarity to chickenpox.  Therefore, I advised the patient to be held as a suspect. I did this because I was not yet certain as to the true character of the disease.
     "The child was therefore held on parole and in due course of time a marked eruption made its appearance. This was of varioloid. Another Sanford child was also infected.

What Chickenpox is.

     "There is a question," continued the doctor, " as to the situation, and we must face it. I have been asked by the gentleman (Alderman Phillips) for the difference between smallpox and chickenpox. In chickenpox there is no pre-eruptive fever. The eruptions are a bleb, or bladder-like, like a blister, all the time. The vesicular stage does not reach the pustular stage as in smallpox.
      The doctor also stated that varioloid is a mild form of smallpox resultant after vaccination.
     The symptoms of smallpox were given as a high fever, backache, papular eruptions changing from the vesicular to the pustular stages, and often attended in severe cases by secondary fever and death.

Deaconness Stockwell.

     "We have other evidences of the malignity of this disease right here in this city. A deaconess of the Methodist church, a sweet-faced lady, contracted the disease here in Davenport and she will now be pit-marked for life, her sweet-faced beauty converted into deformity.
     "The strictest measures ought to be taken that this disease which has done this for her should be stamped out of this city. This commends itself to all. Quarantine is a hardship, but this is better than having a scourge in this city.

Reasons for Quarantine.

     "Not having deaths every week is no reason for not enforcing the strictest measures to stamp out the disease. It is a fact that it is in mild form. The same might be said of the modified form of the scarlet fever. Several years ago the scarlet fever used to be the most dreaded of all diseases, even more so than diphtheria, which was prevalent among children. Now we are having it in a mild form, but it still possesses the danger of becoming an epidemic.

Doctors Showed No White Feather.

     Dr. Crawford took exception to the statement that after the doctors had diagnosed a case as one of smallpox they skipped by the light of the moon." He said emphatically that the physicians have not shown the white feather. They have done their duty and it remained the duty of the board of health to do the rest.
     "There are ten to twelve cases of smallpox in the city today.," said he, " and if each case had its attending family physician there would be all the more danger of spreading the disease. If each of these physicians had 15 families which he attended, just think of the possibility of infection. By the very supposition that the family doctor should take care of each of the cases diagnosed by him, the spirit of the quarantine law is violated. The disease should be treated and attended to by one doctor and not by many. This one physician should be one who relinquishes his practice for  the time being for a remuneration."
     Dr. Crawford made a statement in his own behalf wherein he said that when he found smallpox existed in the Thuenen and Sanford families he promptly vaccinated all of the members of those families, procured medicines himself for them and with their full and free consent turned them over to the city physician and supposed, and had reason to suppose, that the patients would then be taken proper care of by some physician appointed to or retained by the board.

What Dr. Cantwell Did

     Dr. Crawford paid a tribute to the late Dr. A.W.C. Cantwell, the late eminent physician of the board of health. He said that during the epidemic of 1882 Dr. Cantwell gave up his regular practice for a part of two months, and devoted himself entirely to the care of the numerous smallpox patients at that time. he was ostracized by his regular patients. He presented a bill for something like $600 or $800 and it was paid.
     "The citizens of Davenport," concluded the doctor," and public sentiment is in favor of a strict quarantine. Our schools demand it. Our commercial and business and social interests also demand it. We should not advertise Davenport as the abode of continual smallpox pestilence."

"Don't Let Down the Bars."

     The doctor suggested that those who had been quarantined had been encouraged from some sources to protest. He insisted that the board of health standing by the quarantine. Dr. Palmer and other diagnosticians might say this is not smallpox, but he could absolutely say that it was.
     Henry Thuenen, city attorney (interrupting), "Doctor, don't you think that the quarantine is satisfactory?"
     The doctor replied that it was "Keep up the bars" said he, "Let the taxpayers come up and assist these poor people who are quarantined. They will be in favor of paying these expenses if a scourge is saved the city. Be loyal to the situation."

Dr. Matthey's Experience.

     Dr. Henry Matthey, a member of the Iowa state board of health and a local physician of much knowledge and experience, was called upon. He spoke for several minutes and furnished much interesting data concerning the late epidemic in Muscatine.
     He stated that in his official capacity as a member of the state board of health he had visited many cities and investigated many cases of smallpox.
     Notably he had visited at Muscatine last year on Feb. 20 (one year ago today) and diagnosed the cases he met with there as genuine smallpox. The mayor of Muscatine, himself a physician, opposed the diagnosis. The doctor had gone over the city with Dr. Schmidt  of the Muscatine board of health and found very severe cases which without the least possibility of doubt were those of the genuine article. Both he and Dr. Schmidt then made an effort to get the newspapers of Muscatine to suppress ridicule of the matter and to warn the people of the peril. For five months, the mayor, the board of health, and the newspapers made a joke of it. There were 400 cases and that was no laughing matter. Finally  the board of health took decisive action and the disease was soon stamped out. But it cost Muscatine county a pile of money. The doctor did not care to see Scott county or Davenport, go through the same experience.
     For himself, he would not look after a smallpox patient less than $25 a visit. He stated, however, that he had not yet been called by Doctor Preston to observe any of the cases existing here at the present time. His charges evidently had been considered too high.
     City Attorney Thuenen asked Dr. Matthey if he thought that even in a mild case of smallpox such as exist here, it would be advisable to leave the patients without an attending physician. Dr. Matthey replied that it was very bad to do so.

The Mayor's Remarks.

     When Dr. Matthey had replied to Mr. Thuenen's question, Mayor Heinz stated that without a doubt whether the prevailing disease was smallpox or chickenpox, the question remained as to what should be done with the poor people, who were infected, and whose houses were quarantined.
     He was satisfied that the sufferers ought to have all of the necessary medical attention, and therefore he had prepared the following resolution which he thought embodied the opinions of the doctors on the subject and he submitted the same to the board as follows

The Text of the Resolution

     "Whereas it appears to be a fact that it is not the duty of the city physician to attend to persons who are sick and quarantined, as a physician, and,
     "Whereas, it appears to be a fact that no physician is legally bound to treat professionally or personally any person who is sick or quarantined and as we believe that all persons who are quarantined should have all necessary medical attendance therefore be it
     "Resolved that a committee of two be prepared to find out whether some competent physician can not be employed by this board whose duty it will be ????????? to all sick people who are quarantined and who are ?????? own means to procure the proper medical attention."
     Upon motion of Dr. Preston the resolution was adopted.
     Aldermen Phillips and Lindholm were nominated as that committee and they were directed to enter into a contract and to report the same at the next regular meeting of the board of health which will be held on March 5.

The Supervisors' Statement

     J.W. Ballard chairman of the board of supervisors was present and he was asked to make a statement. He said that the board of supervisors depended upon the board of health doing its own duty. He thought that all dangers of an epidemic ought to be diminished and suggested that no half way measures should be taken.
     He stated that Dr. Preston and Hon. W.C. Hayward, of the school board, had appeared before the supervisors at the recent session and asked that it order general vaccination of the school children or second the efforts of the school board in that direction. This, he said, the board could not do because it was solely and simply within the province of the board of health, acting under the sate board regulations. The chairman of the board of supervisors, however, stated that the county would agree to pay for the vaccination of all those who desired to be innoculated and who were unable by reason of poverty to pay the fee.

Hoy! Prussia Made a Test

     Dr. Henry Matthey then had some thing to say upon the subject of vaccination, which Mr. Ballard had called up by his remarks.
     The doctor stated that the Prussian government had strong laws regarding vaccination which dated from the '50s. There was an epidemic of smallpox at the time and vaccination was broached as a preventive. The government decided to make a heroic test. This was done in a fort where two regiments were quartered. One of the regiments was ordered to be vaccinated. The epidemic spread to the two regiments. In the one innoculated only two members became ill with smallpox and none died. In the other regiment all were taken down with the disease and 55 per cent of the cases were fatal. This he said was the reason why the Prussian government took such rigid measures regarding vaccination. Now a certificate of vaccination in that country immediately follows the birth certificate.

What Salt Lake City Shows

     Salt Lake City, Utah, according to Dr. C.H. Preston, is much like Davenport. Not in the fact that she harbors Mormons but rather in the fact that she has smallpox. Salt Lake City, so says the recent issue of the Medical News, in the last three months had 334 cases of smallpox out of which number only seven patients had been vaccinated within the last twenty years.
     In Davenport, by comparison, he found 26 cases in the last six months with only two patients out of the 26 who had been vaccinated.

Vaccination for 25 Cents.

     The doctor thought that school No. 1 should not be the only school looked after in the matter of vaccination. Hence he desired to report to the board that he had secured the agreement of the Drs. Stiles, Peck, Sala, Rodgers and Decker to vaccinate the school children all over the city for 25 cents apiece, the usual charge being $1, although 50 cents was charged in times when epidemic existed. The doctor listed 753 vaccinations made by the five doctors at 25 cents each, all paid for and performed principally at schools Nos. 1 and 13 in East Davenport, where the infection was most likely, if at all, to spread.
     The doctor also stated that he himself had vaccinated 210 persons for which he had not yet received a penny and for which he intended to submit a moderate bill, although he thought it was for the board of supervisors to pay the same upon order of the board of health "O.K"ing of the same.

Dr. Hoepfner's Statement.

     Dr. Hoepfner, who was called into the George Thuenen family after Mildred and the hired girl had been infected, was the next physician to make a statement.
     He said that he agreed with his colleagues as to the identity of the disease. He had ordered ventilation of the rooms of the Thuenen home and left disinfectants there. He said that one of the children, Mildred, had three vesicles or papules and that a child 2 years old and a babe 9 months old were uninfected. The hired girl had the varioloid. He agreed with Dr. Preston's diagnosis.

Vaccination Certificates

      Dr. Preston then asked that the board authorize him to have 1,000 blank vaccination certificates printed for distribution among the physicians whereon the medical fraternity members might place the name, day and date of the party and the innocula.
     The doctor was authorized upon a motion to have 2,000 instead of 1,000 of the blanks printed.
     This action was taken in order to secure uniformity in the text of the certificate.

Virus is Innocuous

     Dr. Gustavus Hoepfner asked to say a few words about vaccination. He was granted the permission.
     The doctor stated that the virus or lymph which was now used was innocuous. It was no longer secured from cows which might be infected with tuberculosis, but from especially bred calves which do not become infected with that disease. There is no longer the arm-to-arm vaccination used or what is known as the human virus innoculation in vogue sometime ago. Hence, in vaccination there is absolutely no danger as to the contracting of syphilis or tuberculosis in the operation which he stated was a sure and safe preventative of the smallpox.

The Causby Case Next.

     The next case considered was that of George Causby, Jr., who resides on East Locust street. Dr. Braunlich had attended the case but that physician was not present at the meeting of the board.
     Dr. Preston thought that the quarantine established there might be raised on the 24th inst. (next Sunday). A night watchman had been dispensed with there at the last regular meeting of the board.
     Upon motion it was decided that the aforesaid quarantine be raised on the date mentioned.

Mr. Causby's Statement.

     Mr. Causby, the father of the quarantined lad, was present at the meeting. He asked permission to address the board and it was granted. He prefaced his remarks by asking Dr. Crawford if smallpox was always preceded by a fever.
     "Always!" replied the physician.
     "That's all I want to know," said Mr. Causby. "Those who know me know that I am a law abiding citizen. I know that Dr. Preston is a thorough gentleman. But doctors even make some mistakes. I honestly believe that my boy has not got the smallpox, because simply my boy has never been sick. He is the healthiest looking patient in the city. He never had a fever. The whole trouble is the boy was constipated and had a very bad cold and his mother gave him the old-fashioned remedy, sassafras tea and a hot foot-bath. The next day he had eruptions.
     "My boy simply has the chickenpox and under the circumstances I think I have been harshly treated.
     "I've seen the real article in Old England when it was rampant there. I tell you, gentlemen, it is one of the most loathsome of diseases.

Fever Hard to Discover

     Dr. J.P. Crawford, when Mr. Causby had concluded, arose and stated that it was difficult to detect fever without the physician's thermometer which is always carried by practitioners. He said that not even a physician could tell without the instrument and a variation of three degrees from the normal temperatures and this could only then be discovered by a morning and evening test.
     The doctor stated that we have today typhoid fever in the "walking" form, wherein the patient does not even have to take to bed, but it is typhoid fever just the same. Varioloid is a smallpox which does not reach the pustular stage. It is papular and vesicular, but not pustular and hence the distinction in the names. When the eruption is in a confluent form a secondary fever is apt to result which makes the disease grievous and dangerous.

A Big Appetite

     Dr. Crawford, Dr. Lambach and Dr. Matthey stated that smallpox patients who are suffering from a mild form of the disease are usually of a voracious appetite much similar to the "hard coal stove" appetite alluded to in a recent article contributed to the evening paper.
     This stirred up Dr. B.F. Carmichael who had diagnosed the case of Frank A Logan who is now quarantined at the Hitchcock home on East Fourteenth street. He said that the "hard coal stove appetite" article had compromised him. He defied any one to say that the Logan case was not a genuine one of smallpox. He registered his protest most emphatically.
     Clerk Smith, however, had a letter on hand from the author of the published open letter in which apologies were made to the board for the "harshness" of the criticism contained in the published communication.
     Upon suggestion of the mayor this effusion was not read.
     Dr. Lambach stated that he had diagnosed both of the Ward cases as being smallpox and that his diagnosis was correct. The typical eruptions were in evidence.

These Cases Yet Quarantined.

     The following quarantines are still in force by reason of other outbreaks of the disease in the place or by the recentness of the discovery:
     Wietz case a recent development, the quarantine obtained.
     Iles case, another case having developed, quarantine still obtaining.
     Bennet case, a recent development.
     Ward cases, recently developed.
     Cook case, recent development, still under quarantine.
     Logan case, recently developed, must obtain until March 13.
     Second Thuenen cases (2) only recently developed.
     Upon motion it was ordered that the quarantine rules obtain in all of the above cases until next regular meeting of the board of health which will convene on March 5.
     The city clerk then presented the following payroll of the smallpox or quarantine guards from Feb. 1 to Feb. 18, inclusive, which was approved and recommended to the board of supervisors for payment. The pay roll involves over $170.
     Henry Gardner, 18 days, $40.50.
     Hans Jochim, 18 days, $40.50.
     Jud Irish, 18 days, $40.50.
     Chas. Carstens, 13 days, $29.25
     Max Roege, 5 days, $11.25
     Fred Schultz, 18 days, $40.50
     Frank Connell, 18 days, $40.50
     Joseph Cummings, 13 days, $29.25
     Henry Ramm, 18 days, $40.50
     Peter Vogt, 18 days, $40.50
     Peter Brehmer, 12 days, $27
     A.D. Fien, 7 days, $15.75
     J. Vonder Geest, 6 days, $13.50
     John Dwingle, 7 days, $15.75
     Oliver Evans, 6 days, $13.50
     Robert Oakes, 5 days, $11.25
     Detlef Hafel, 1 day, $2.25
     The total amount of the payroll is $172.25

Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Monday, February 25, 1901

Charles Risler of De Sota Street Has Smallpox
Patient is a Member of a Family of Nine and Lives in House With Two Other Families

     Today another case of smallpox was reported to City Physician Preston by Dr. Ewell. The case is in the family of W.C. Risler, of 720 DeSota street. The son, 21 years of age, Charles Risler, has developed a very pronounced case of the disease. He was at once with other members of the family of nine, placed under quarantine regulations. The family lives in the middle rooms of a house which accommodates three families. It is likely that it will be quarantined for a time.
     There is another suspected case in the city, although it is not definitely developed yet.


Davenport Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Thursday, February 28, 1901

They are Among People who Have Been Quarantined
Authorities Consider the Fact That No New Homes are Represented as Very Fortunate.

     There are three new cases of the mild form of smallpox in the city, although there are no new places to quarantine. The cases have developed in homes that were quarantined and for that reason there is no indication that the disease is spreading.
     In the home of Mrs. Ed Larkins of 541 Mississippi avenue, there are two little sufferers of the disease. They are Thomas, four years old, and Fanny, three years old. This is the home where Albert Cook was quarantined. The eruptions appeared on the faces of the children on February 24 and were not reported until this morning. Both of these children were vaccinated at the time of discovery that Cook had the disease. They had never been vaccinated before. They have developed the disease just 16 days after they were first exposed to it. The form of the disease as developed is mild.

At the Bennett Home

     The other one of the three cases reported this morning is at the home of Mr. and Mrs. A.L. Bennett, 1118 East Thirteenth street, where Ashton Bennett, the two year old son, has been taken ill with the disease. He, too, never was vaccinated until after he was exposed to the disease. The case developed is a very mild one.
     There is no surprise that there are additional cases developing in the quarantined homes. The fact that the news cases are mostly confined to the quarantined homes is a good indication that the disease is not spreading in the city and that all danger of its spreading is past.

Daily Times
Davenport, Scott, Iowa
Mar 16, 1901

Lou Hennings the Victim, Who Has Been Attending School Here.

     The people of McCausland are considerably excited over the appearance of smallpox at that place. Yesterday Dr. Henry Matthey of the board of health received a telephone message stating that Lou Hennings, a young man who had been attending school in this city, had, it is believed a case of smallpox. The Hennings home is about one mile from McCausland and is now under quarantine but this does not rest the fears of the people thereabouts, for many have come in contact with him. The doctors of McCausland have held a consultation in regard to the matter and it is probable that other homes will be put under quarantine.
    It is said that Hennings contracted the disease in this city at a house where the quarantine had been recently removed, but this is a mere theory.

Develops in an East Fourth Street Boarding House.

     This afternoon Christ Tuzlin, who one week ago was afflicted with a fever that Wednesday developed into symptoms of smallpox, was taken to the St. Robert's hospital from his boarding house on East Fourth street. The young man is about 28 years old.
     Dr. Preston was notified in regard to the matter and at once put into use all the known precautions in regard to the spread of the disease. The case was definitely diagnosed as smallpox today. The black Martin was called into service and the patient taken to the hospital.

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