Scott Co, Iowa - IAGenWeb Project

Davenport Democrat, July 20, 1924

            Davenporters' Thirst Was Satisfied Decade Ago by 200 Saloons

    Two hundred saloons flourishing in Davenport was the highest point of municipal saturation reached here in the old days before the successive waves of reform eliminated old "Bucktown" and turned that old resort district into wholesale and business section. Before the reform Davenport was known throughout the country as one of the wettest and most wide-open cities in America.
    Most of those saloons ran wide open the year 'round, never closing for a single hour day or night. When the midnight closing law was first put into effect, many of the proprietors had to rush to the locksmiths to order keys, never before having occasion to lock their doors.
    But there was something worse than saloon. There were things far worse. There was "the dump" operated under the disguise of a saloon, which was no more than a rendezvous for thieves and other criminals. There was the all night wine room, harboring men and women and girls and boys of tender years. Painted women freely roamed the streets of the city. Gambling houses and assignation resorts ran openly and without restraint. It was these conditions that led the late Bishop Cosgrove during a visit to Chicago, to term Davenport the wickedest city in the world. And it was under such conditions as these that the Mabray gang made its headquarters here for several years, swindling their dupes out of millions on fake horse races, prize fights, land deals, false tips on the stock market, etc. It was Rev. Giglinger, at that time secretary to Bishop Cosgrove, who demanded the first reform. He confined his efforts to what he considered the greatest evil-the wine room. Under threat of enforcing the prohibition law, he compelled "Brick" Munro, "Jock" Manwaring, "Perl" Galvin, "Clay" Woodward, and other east-end saloon keepers to suppress their wine rooms and bar women and girls from their places of business. As Rev. Ginglinger had no organization behind him, the effect of his reform was but temporary.
    Davenport's Latin quarter, variously called Bucktown and the Red Light district, included most of the region west of Perry street to the government bridge, and extending from the river to Third street. It is estimated that in its most flourishing days Bucktown contained no fewer than 40 saloons and almost as many houses of ill repute. The latter also sold liquor.
    In addition to its saloons, "dumps" and sporting resorts, "Bucktown" contained a number of variety theaters. There was the Standard, the Bijou, and the Orpheon. They operated wine rooms and drinks were served throughout the performances. The "programs" as they were called oftentimes continued until the early hours of morning. At Brick's Pavilion the lights burned merrily and the "bear cat", the Cubanois glide," and other "classics" were in full swing from 8 o'clock at night until 7 o'clock in the morning. The whole east end after nightfall was one blaze of lights and the sounds of revelry, of discordant orchestras, mechanical pianos, broken-voiced sopranos, and shuffling feet floated upon the night air.
    For years, Brick Munro was known as the King of Bucktown. His famous pavilion, according to his own statement, oftentimes entertained as many as a thousand people on a single night. His weekly receipts it is said, never ran short of $2500 and generally exceeded this sum. To use his own words, his place was a gold mine.
    Davenport's gambling houses were also famous all over the west. There was the Eldorado, the Senate, the Saratoga, the Ozark and many others. Continuous poker games running three to four days and at times as long as a week were not infrequent. Bert Smith, who in later years made and lost a fortune on "bookmaking" at Hot Springs was generally the promoter of these games of endurance. Among the best known "boss" gamblers were Sam Stucky, "Smokey" Reese, Hughey Corrigan, Ike Gray, "Cully" Flannigan, Charlie Gordon and Os Reynolds.


     The state of Scott; a capital, Davenport.
    If this designation didn't get into the geographies it was no fault of those thousands of personal liberty adherents who sent Attorney C.W. Neal, self-styled battler of King Alcohol, out of town to the strains of Chopin's funeral march; who applauded the beating of W.W. Lunger, another of the breed; who held gigantic mass meetings to advance the cause of wetness; and who swarmed to the polls to defeat any measure which might deprive them of or restrict, their saloons.
     The history of Davenport's and Scott county's fight against the Dry menace has furnished Iowa annals with many vivid political incidents. State prohibitory action of course, was the impelling motion and for this reason it is necessary to examine the workings of the legislature in order to understand the local attitude.
     It would be difficult to determine at just what time the idea of a state constitution began to take shape in the minds of its advocates. But it is evident that the first public announcement of such an idea was made at the annual convention of the Women's Christian Temperance union at Burlington in 1878 by Mrs. J. Ellyn Foster, chairman of the committee on legislation. Mrs. Foster wanted to issue a petition to the legislature to pass a bill submitting to the votes of the people an amendment to the constitution forever prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors, including wine, beer, ale and cider.
    This started the ball rolling. The Blue Ribbon clubs all over the state embraced hundreds of earnest workers and they were especially efficient in creating local sentiment in favor of the movement. And so, it was under auspicious circumstances that the Amendment idea was launched on its four years' campaign.

Amendment Passed.
    Great was the wailing and gnashing of teeth in Davenport and Scott county when the state constitutional amendment was adopted by a majority of 29,759 on Tuesday, June 27, 1882. Probably never in the history of Iowa has there been another election attended by so many demonstrations. The friends of the amendment were far more active than their opponents. In many places men, women and children, clergymen and laymen alike, were present at the voting places, distributing ballots and soliciting votes for the amendment. Free lunches were served near the booths by the W.C.T.U.; children paraded the streets carrying temperance banners; and all-day prayer meetings were held in the churches. In some cases the church bells were rung every hour during the day, and when in the evening it was learned that the amendment was probably victorious the air was filled with their peals. The saloons all over the state were closed during the day and good order generally prevailed.
    Why did the amendment pass? The victory has been accounted for in various ways. It has been asserted that thousands of Republicans voted for the measure simply because its submission had been favored by their party and that many Democrats had cast an affirmative vote in the hope that if the amendment was adopted it would prove the downfall of the Republican party.

Davenport Kills It.
    It was Davenport which had the honor of killing the distasteful amendment. A friendly case to test the point was instituted by two local brewers, Koehler and Lange and John Hill, a saloon keeper. The case was brought up for hearing at the October (1882) term of the Scott County District Court, over which Judge Walter I. Hayes was presiding. It was an action to recover one hundred dollars for a quantity of beer sold and delivered by Koehler and Lange, the plaintiffs, to John Hill, the defendant. Hill held that he could not lawfully be forced to pay for beer sold in violation of the constitution. The plaintiffs replied that the amendment had not been passed in accordance with the manner provided in the constitution and pronounced judgment upon the defendant. An appeal was taken to the supreme court of the state.
    The case thus appealed came before the supreme court at its December term in 1882, and was argued on both sides by some of the most prominent lawyers in the state. Among the counsel for the appellant were Smith McPherson, then Attorney-General. William Miller, J.A. Harvey, James F. Wilson, C.C. Nourse and John F. Duncombe. Representing the appellees were such men as John C. Lillis and George C. Wright. The opinion of the court, declaring the amendment invalid, was delivered on January 18, 1883, by Judge William H. Seevers.

Hurrah for "State of Scott!"
    The "State of Scott" had won a big victory! It was a great disappointment to the prohibitionists and a source of elation to their opponents. The Davenport Democrat said that while the decision was received, with considerable satisfaction here, there was no general demonstration.
    Then came statutory prohibition and mob violence. There were countless violations of the dry law. On August 13, 1884, a mob of 200 men broke up a trial for violation of the liquor law near Iowa City, tarred and feathered one of the prosecuting attorneys and stoned the house in which he took refuge. The life of a constable, who attempted to resist the fury of the mob, was threatened and but for the timely assistance of the deputy sheriff, the threat might have been executed.
    When the prohibitory law had been in operation one year, a Davenport newspaper editor issued a circular letter to the mayors of the principal cities of the state, inquiring to the extent of the enforcement of the law. A summary of the facts thus gained showed that in some places prohibition was entirely successful, in others the number of saloons was the same as before the law was enacted. It is notable that in a census of saloons in the 99 counties of the state in 1887, there is no number opposite Scott county, but instead the words, "Do Not Know." Nobody was telling anything.

The Mulct Law.
    Now let us skip a period during which, it may be supposed, residents of Davenport and Scott counties suffered no dearth of intoxicating beverages and turn to the mulct law of 1884. The essentials of this law may be summed up briefly. It provided that a tax of $600 should be levied against all persons, except registered pharmacists holding permits, engaging in the sale of intoxicating liquors and against the owner of the property where such business was carried on. The tax was to constitute " a perpetual lien upon all property both personal and real, used in or connected with the business." It was stipulated that nothing in the act "should in any way be construed to mean that the business of the sale of intoxicating liquors is in any way legalized, nor is the same to be construed in any manner or form as a license." It simply provided that in cities of 5,000 or more inhabitants the payment of the tax should provide a bar to the proceedings under the prohibitory law in case there should be filed with the county auditor "a written statement of consent signed by a majority of voters residing in said city who voted at the general election" and in case the person paying the tax should conform with certain other conditions.

Nuts for Davenport.
    This was nuts for the residents of Davenport and Scott county. So overwhelming was the sentiment in favor of wetness that, many times, the petition was never even circulated. The "State of Scott" didn't have to circulate petitions to know where it stood! Ninety per cent of the voters were willing to sign for the saloons.
    It was a state of blissful, albeit defiant, booziness which continued on until 1900. At that time two big Davenport breweries, the Independent Malting company and the Davenport Malting company, representing an investment of three quarters of a million dollars, were running full blast. They had no right to exist under the law; literally, they didn't have a leg to stand on. But in the "State of Scott" they didn't have any difficulty in putting their wares on the market.

First Tap of Law
    Then came the first tap of the law on the door. An injunction suit was started against the Downs hotel bar, Davenport, which used to occupy the site now held by the Black Hawk hotel. Local attorneys were thunderstruck. They couldn't understand. For years there had been no prohibition; there were more than 200 saloons in the city and now some busybody was stirring up trouble!
     This suit was compromised, but was followed by more injunctions in an ever-increasing tide. Every saloon in Davenport and Scott county was enjoined at one time or another. The instigators of the suits, "Captain" C.W. Neal and his client co-worker, T.H. Kemmerer. Judge J.W. Bollinger, of the Scott County District Court, issued compromise decrees for all the suits.
    When the Moon law, which limited the number of saloons to one for every thousand inhabitants came into effect, Davenport was "sitting pretty". The city had a special charter from the state, and the Moon lawmakers had neglected to stipulate that their restrictions applied to special charter cities. So, having gotten rid of Neal and Kemmerer, who had been branded as mercenaries working for money, and money alone, the good people of Davenport sat back and had a delicious chuckle.

Sidesteps Moon Law.
    But the farmers of the Moon law, observing their tremendous mistake, hasted to put the words "special charter city" on the statute books. It helped them out, but not at once, for thru the work of local attorneys, Davenport was granted more than a year to get rid of its surplus saloons, while the other non-charter cities had to cut down as soon as the law went into effect.
    In 1915 the state legislature repealed the mulct law, leaving unqualified prohibition on the statute books and passed a resolution submitting another state constitutional amendment to the vote of the people. This amendment was submitted in 1916. And then an unusual thing happened. There was no campaign, no agitation, before the special election. But a monstrous vote was polled, and, when the ballots were counted, it was found that the prohibitory amendment had been defeated by a vote of five thousand. The people of the "State of Scott" hadn't turned a hand-they just voted.
     The reason for the disapproval of the amendment, altho unqualified prohibition was in effect, was that the latter could be repealed with comparative ease, while it would take a lot of work to repeal a state constitutional amendment.
    The liquor events up to the present are too well known and too much discussed to need much mention here. The bootlegger, sly and sneaking, has taken the place of those old saloon keepers, who had the courage of their convictions and were not afraid to fight in the open. Whether the conditions are better is left for the Drys to say.


   It was during the last year of Mayor Harry W. Phillips' administration that the first real sign of officially recognized municipal reform struck Davenport.
    Even at this early stage, Mr. Phillips recognized the handwriting on the wall. He felt the all night saloon and the wine room were bad adjuncts to the city. He was convinced that if local measures were not taken to remedy the evil, outside parties would come here and take drastic action. So he issued his famous midnight closing order.
    Like a bomb it fell into the camp of many of the saloon keepers - but not all of them. A number of the saloon men had previous to this order conferred with the mayor and given him their approval of such a course. But others resented the order in no uncertain terms, and only be arrests and revocations of licenses of the offenders was the midnight closing order made effective.
    Smarting under the new conditions the liquor interests bided their time to "get even" with the mayor. This they did when he came up for re-election. He was defeated and his successor again threw open the town.

Enter W.W. Lunger.
    During the years 1906 and 1907 there was an epidemic of reformers in Davenport. The disease commonly called "easy money" appeared to be infectious and spread rapidly.
    At this time W.W. Lunger was a practicing lawyer. Business was slow in this line. He had previously served a term in the city council, but when he came up for re-election, his constituents proved so ungrateful as to elect his opponent. So, having plenty of time on his hands and no legal business in sight, he joined the ranks of the "reformers."
    His first act was to start a crusade against the slot machines, principally in the cigar stores. He also threatened to close all the pool rooms and many of the saloons, but for some reason or other failed to do either. But he did succeed in abolishing the slot machine. Lunger at the time claimed to have been selected by the Ministerial association. In the eyes of the public, his acts and sincerity were questionable.
    Several traps were laid in an effort to entangle the wily reformer but to no avail. At one time a citizen walked into his office and softly closing the door behind him, laid a pile of gold on his desk. "This is just a little present for you, Mr. Lunger, and i hope you will accept it as cheerfully as it is tendered to you," said the citizen.
    Did Mr. Lunger accept it? Well, hardly! When the citizen left the office, he carried his gold watch with him.
    During the prosecution of the slot machine owners, E.M. Sharon served as their attorney. Later he filed charges in the district court asking for Mr. Lunger's disbarment on the following allegations:
    First- That Lunger received money from the cigar dealers at the same time he claimed to represent the Ministerial association.
    Second- That after accepting $400 from the Ministerial Association he proposed to certain cigar dealers that if they would take out their slot machines in order that he could represent to the ministers that he had accomplished the task for which he was retained and paid, they might put the machines back in a few days with his consent and he would not do anything further to molest them.
    Third-That he had threatened and had commenced proceedings from motives of self interest against the saloons and compromised the same before trial.
    After much difficulty and many refusals, Judge Barker named A.W. Hamann, Charles Grilk, and J.C. Hall a committee to investigate the charges and report the result of their investigation to the court. They reported they found no evidence that would sustain an accusation for disbarment.

Has Own Newspaper.
    Both as an alderman and as a reformer, Lunger made many enemies and critics. He desired to punish some of them. Recognizing the power of the press but having no newspaper at his control, he decided to give vent to his feelings in weekly bulletins. These were published ten thousand at a time and circulated over the city. Public officials, politicians and leading citizens against whom he took a dislike were subjected to abuse and attack in these bulletins. At that time M.J. Malloy was a member of the city council. He and Mayor Scott were viciously attacked by Lunger.
    August 20, Alderman Malloy entered the tailoring shop of Alderman Lindholm on Perry street. In the shop at the time with a bundle of bulletins under his arm was Mr. Lunger. Mr. Malloy walked up to him and the following conversation is said to have ensued:
    Malloy- Still in the publishing business, eh?
    Lunger- Yap, have a copy of today's issue.
    Malloy- You dirty cur, you can attack me all you want, but you can't drag my family into your dirty sheet.
    Lunger- Well, stop me if you can.
    Three minutes later, Lunger arose from the floor. His nose was broken, one rib fractured, and an optic closed. His face was covered with blood. Without washing or otherwise alleviating his distress, he walked to the office of Police Magistrate Roddewig, three blocks distant.
    "I want to swear out a warrant charging Mike Malloy with murder," said Lunger to Roddewig.
    "But you are not dead," meekly replied the magistrate.
    "Well, it's no fault of Malloy's," reported Lunger.
    After considerable argument, Lunger agreed to a charge of assault with intent to commit bodily injury. Information was filed and Mr. Malloy appeared for trial, represented by Attorney Henry Vollmer. Much bitterness was evinced on both sides and the city hall echoed with the shouts and epithets of the opposing attorneys. Mr. Vollmer during the course of his remarks charged Lunger with holding up the Davenport breweries for $5,000. The remark was all the more significant on the part of Mr. Vollmer by reason of the fact that at the time he was attorney for the Davenport Malting company.
    Mr. Lunger only smiled as Mr. Vollmer hurled this charge at him and did not respond. After an all day trial, the charge of assault with intent to commit great bodily injury was dropped, and one of plain assault and battery substituted. To the latter charge Mr. Malloy pleaded guilty and was fined $100 and costs.
    Only one more of Lunger's bulletins was issued after this time. It was mild and harmless as compared with former issues. Mr. Malloy's blows had evidently taken all the pep out of its editor. Some time later, Mr. Lunger departed for the northwest and is now residing in Washington state.

Neal-Kemmerer Cleanup.
    It was also during the year 1907 that the Neal-Kemmerer crusade against the saloons, generally styled "the master cleanup,"- from the fact that Neal is said to have received $6,200 in fees- was inaugurated. Under the provisions of the mulct law, each saloon keeper enjoined was compelled to pay all court costs and in addition $25 as fees for the prosecuting attorney. At the time there were 200 saloons in Davenport and Scott county, and none were spared at the hands of Capt. Neal and his plaintiff co-worker, T.H. Kemmerer. The sheriff's office was kept busy day and night serving injunctions and in so doing enriching the coffers of Capt. Neal.
    Capt. Neal did not demand the strict enforcement of the mulct law. He still had a heart for the saloon keeper- after getting his money- and drew up a compromise decree the essentials of which were 11 o'clock closing at night and Sunday morning closing in addition to the elimination of screens and wine rooms.
    Attorney Neal's crusade occasioned much bitterness. Prominent citizens arose in protest and declared a greed of gain and not principle was at stake. He was openly accused of taking advantage of a law merely because it afforded him personal profit. Capt. Neal did not answer his accusers. It was harvest time with him and he believed in the old maxim of "making hay while the sun shines." Whether at that time he anticipated the storm clouds and tempests that were to greet him later is merely conjectural.

Breaks Cane on Reformer.
    During the height of the agitation, Dr. A. Richter, editor of the German Demokrat by chance met Plaintiff Kemmerer on Brady street. Dr. Richter, as was his custom, carried a cane at the time. This he broke over Kemmerer's head. Mr. Kemmerer swore out information charging Dr. Richter with assault.
    Dr. Richter appeared at the office of Magistrate Roddewig in the city hall for trial. Capt. Neal appeared as attorney for Mr. Kemmerer, the prosecuting witness, Dr. Richter demanded a jury trial. The request was granted and the case continued.
    The storm that had been smothering for some time quickly burst forth in all its fury. The flames were kindled when Fred Vollmer in a ringing speech announced a collection would be taken up to buy Dr. Richter a new gold-headed cane. He then passed the hat and the crowd clamored around him to hand in their contributions. About this time Capt. Neal and Mr. Kemmerer emerged from the building and attempted to make their getaway unnoticed. But this was not done. Both were confronted with clenched fist and direful threats.
    Capt. Neal started down Harrison street to his office in the basement of the Schmidt building. The crowd followed close at his heels shouting, "kill him, hang him, tar and feather him, throw him in the river, take him to Rock Island," etc.
    By the time Capt. Neal had reached third street, the crowd became so large and threatening that he entered the office of John Berwald nearby. The crowd pressed around the outside of the building and demanded that Neal come out. He went to the telephone and calling up the police station demanded that protection be sent him. The crowd in the meantime kept clamoring for Neal to come out. Pulling a Colt's automatic from his hip pocket, Capt. Neal accepted the challenge and rushed out into the street, at the same time threatening to shoot at the first man who laid a hand on him. One fellow who was clamoring the loudest for Capt. Neal's scalp when the attorney brushed against him with his gun, quivered, "I never said anything Captain."

Neal is Arrested.
    The sight of Attorney Neal flourishing his revolver had put a temporary effect in holding back the crowd for no sooner had he proceeded down the street in the direction of his office than the crowd was after him again. Reaching Second and Harrison streets, Mr. Neal entered his office and the crowd surrounded it until a squad of policemen arrived and dispersed them.
    In the meantime Dr. Paul Radenhausen had gone to the office of Magistrate Roddewig and secured a warrant for the arrest of Capt. Neal, charging him with carrying concealed weapons. Mr. Neal was placed under arrest and escorted to the police station, where he posted a bond in the sum of $100 for appearance for trial the following day. The "reform" attorney was then escorted to his home in the Andresen flats on West Third street, opposite Washington square. A crowd of several hundred insisted on following him to his home, altho they were kept on the opposite side of the street by one of the officers. That same night, Capt. Neal was hung in effigy in the public square opposite his home.

Mob Still Pursues.
    A surging mass of humanity constituting even a larger crowd than the day before assembled at the police station on October 15, 1907, to witness the trial of Attorney C.W. Neal, charged with carrying concealed weapons.
    Capt. Neal appeared early for trail and after stating to the court his reasons for pulling the gun on the mob pleaded guilty to the charge and was fined $5 and costs. Just before the fine was imposed Dr. Radenhausen interrupted the court with the remark, "Your honor, this is an extraordinary case." He was stopped by the presiding magistrate, who informed him that he was trying the case. No sooner had the fine been imposed than Dr. Radenhausen again spoke up and demanded that Captain Neal be searched right away for another gun. The court refused to grant the request accepting Capt. Neal's word that he had now weapons on his person.

Crowd in Waiting.
    At the conclusion of the trial, Capt. Neal walked into the police station proper and took a seat behind the enclosure where the desk sergeant's headquarters were located. He remained here for an hour waiting for the gathering to disperse, but they continued to remain on the outside of the building and crowded into the hallway and outer rooms of the police station.
    After an hour's wait, Capt. Neal asked that an escort of police should take him to the Masonic temple. The request was granted, and as soon as Mr. Neal emerged from the station the crowd let up a vast yell of derision and followed him and the officers down the street, hooting and calling the alleged reformer all kinds of names. The officers kept the crowd at a safe distance from Mr. Neal and no harm was done him.
    At the Masonic temple, Capt. Neal went to the Shriner's rooms on the upper floor, where he remained with the officers as a bodyguard until noon. He then proceeded to his home in the Andresen flats under escort of the officers. After packing his grip, he returned to the Masonic temple, where he remained until time for the departure of the Rock Island train for Des Moines.
    Capt. Neal took his departure for Des Moines amid rather unusual surroundings. Accompanied by the officers, he was escorted to the railway station. Here he met Mr. Kemmerer, who after bidding him farewell took his departure and did not wait to see the train pull out.
    At the depot, when Capt. Neal arrived, there was a brass band of some 20 pieces. As he started for the train, the band struck up Chopin's funeral march. Again as the train pulled out, a funeral dirge was sounded, and the crowd revealed its feelings by hissing Capt. Neal.
    The only disturbance was caused by Emil Speth, an ex-saloon keeper and later a member of the police force. In the depot building he threatened  Mr. Neal and made several lunges at him but was prevented by officers in attendance from doing any bodily harm.
    Altho Capt. Neal announced he was going to Des Moines on official business and would return to Davenport within a few days, he failed to make good his word in this respect. The scenes he had passed thru in the Civil war were hardly more stirring than those of the past few days in Davenport and undoubtedly he breathed a sigh of relief when he realized he was out of the city and beyond harm at the hands of its infuriated citizens.
    From Des Moines, Capt. Neal went to Seattle, and several years ago his death was reported in a Soldiers' home in the west. He had lost his profession, his fortune, and his friends, and died practically alone and penniless. His ill gotten gains as the citizens styled them, served him to no good end. His was the inglorious finish accorded to the majority of bogus reformers.

How the Town was Placed on Water Wagon.
    On the first day of January, 1908, there were 191 saloons in Davenport and 49 in the county outside of Davenport, making a total of 240 such places.
    On the first day of January 1910, two years later, there were 151 saloons in the city and 23 in the county, making a total of 174, showing a reduction of 40 saloons in the city and 26 in the county, a total of 66.
    During these two years the Civic Federation brought 118 injunction suits and instituted 41 cases for contempt of court. It secured 97 permanent injunctions. By this time gambling and the red-light district had been completely obliterated and all saloons were as a rule living up to the requirements of the Mulct law.
    After this came the new state law compelling all cities to reduce their number of saloons to one for every 1,000 of population. This elimination measure was in process in Davenport when the state wide prohibition law, effective Jan. 1, 1916, was passed.



   Before the good citizens of Davenport began to bother their heads with "traction problems"; before even the remote and dilatory horse-car rumbled its unwieldy way thru the muddy streets of the infant city, Davenport had a "transportation system."
    It is a small but unforgotten chapter in the early history of Davenport, then a thriving little frontier town of 8000 inhabitants, a town without a railroad but with five stage lines running to other settlements in Iowa. The history of the first transportation system is contained in Davenport's first city directory-a small but ambitious volume.
    In this little directory, which looks like a little primer compared to the big, thick volumes necessary at present, we read as follows:
    "Davenport Express- a splendid omnibus, bearing this designation, runs to East Davenport, leaving the corner of Second and Brady streets at 10 o'clock and 6 1/2 o'clock a.m. and at 2 and 6 p.m.; makes trips every morning and evening to Rock Island depot in time for the cars. Private parties can also be accommodated. On Sundays will run from the above corner to the Bluff.- John Schick, Propr."

A Pioneer Leader.
    john Schick was the father of Joe, Charles, John and Julius Schick, all well-known Davenport business men. He was one of the pioneer residents and industrial leaders of Davenport. A native of the village of Niederklein Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, he came to the United States, when a young man, to make his fortune. The journey was made in a sailing ship and was a long, tedious voyage lasting several weeks.
    Landing at New Orleans, the young German immigrant took passage on a Mississippi river steamboat and started on the journey upstream to Davenport. It was flood time on the Mississippi and as Mr. Schick was carried slowly upriver he saw houses washing down the river and great trees swirling along in the current. On some of the houses chickens were perched. The boat rescued many people from drowning in the inundated lands.

Bus Cost $1,000.
    Arriving at St. Louis, the young immigrant purchased an omnibus, the best he could buy. It cost him $1,000 in gold, a large part of the savings he had brought with him. Coming to Davenport, he put the rest of his savings in four iron-gray horses, and splendid animals they were. His young wife decked them out with red, white and blue ribbons, and they made a splendid appearance. Old residents of Davenport say it was the finest omnibus that the city ever boasted.
    At that time the railroad stopped at Rock Island. But here in Davenport there were numerous hotels and there was a large travel to and from the city. There were three passenger trains a day from Rock Island to Chicago, one at 9:15 a.m., one at 7 p.m. and one at 6:45 a.m. The first arrived in Chicago at 8 p.m. and the second at 4:30 a.m. Ten hours and thirty-five minutes to make the trip from Davenport to Chicago! The time card is given in the first Davenport directory.

A Real Stage Town.
    Davenport was a real stage-coach town in those days. There was the stage to Iowa City, one to Cedar  Rapids, one to Dubuque, and two to LeClaire. And the Schick omnibus, in addition to making the trip to Rock Island to carry passengers from the end of the railroad line to Davenport, also ran the transportation to East Davenport.
    East Davenport was a village, then, if you please, not a suburb of Davenport. It was located about a mile and a quarter east of the city of Davenport. When the Burtis house, then a magnificent hotel opened up business for the first "Bridge Line" grew. There was no bridge across the Mississippi at first, and the bus did not run every day in the year.
    In the summer time the bus was driven on the ferry boat and carried across the river. In the winter, the bus crossed on the ice. Sometimes the ice near shore melted and the stage was driven through the water sometimes two to three feet deep until the solid ice farther in the stream was reached.

Bus Didn't Pay.
    But the first transportation system in Davenport was not a paying venture. Mr. Schick lost all of the money he put into it. It was at that time that a gold rush to California was on and the young Davenporter joined the stream of gold seekers. He drove an ox team from here to Denver, walking all the way on foot. Shortly after arriving at Denver he started back home, disillusioned, penniless, and alone. He was to walk back across the plains to his home and wife in Iowa.
    Had he not been an exceptionally strong man, Mr. Schick would never have completed his journey, he often told his family in the days afterward.
    The Indians were his best friends he said. They gave him things to eat and directed him from one camp to another. When eventually he did arrive in Davenport, half starved but with a crust of bread in his pocket and a beard seven inches long, his appearance was so changed that his wife did not know him. He then entered the drug business, "staked" by J.M. Selle, a boot merchant, and followed the occupation until he died in 1886.

The Old Side Wheelers Opened Up the Middle West to Civilization
Davenport and Other River Cities Depended on Boat Transportation

    The majestic Mississippi, glorified in the histories of many lands, owned by many countries, holds within its muddy waters a tale of intrigue and war, civil strife and prosperity, love and hate. Many are the historic figures who have ridden on the prince of steams from the head-waters at Lake Itasca to where it discolors the salt waters of the gulf.
    Few Davenporters live yet to tell of those picturesque days before the Sixties, when the packet, the steamboat circus, the fair ladies in crinoline, the "darkies," the two-quart hatted gentlemen, and the gay-vested gambler were common sights along the levee.
    How many Davenporters still live who would at the whistle of a distant steamboat rush to the levee and watch the wood monster paddle its way to the muddy shore? And how many are left who lay on the river's bank, under the shade of a tree and wondered just why they worked, just why the big wheel would churn the water? Now the little boys of Davenport dream of being the man who opens the throttle on one of the limited cross-country trains; before the Sixties how many Davenport boys who are gone now, perhaps dreamed of being the captain of the "War Eagle," or the "City of Quincy?"

Men With Painted Vests.
    Are they forgotten, those Mississippi river gamblers with their "painted vests", their calm, calculating eyes, their gentleness which was predominated at times by gunplay when marked cards, other than their own, entered the game. Frequent lodgers they were in the old Burtis House, LeClaire House, Worden House, and the New Pennsylvania House. Gay fellows, who always stopped at Davenport's best hotels. They're gone, of course, with the hotels, an undying memory the only thing that remains.
    And are those Davenporters gone, too, who gave them their hard-earned money-in the early Sixties? Many are the stories that have been written about gambling on the Mississippi. "Skinning suckers" was a staple profession in those days. And in due reverence to posterity, times have changed, the names of those gentlemen will remain a secret. Only the "suckers" know, and they are gone, and only a few of us were told the names of those "fine" gambling gentlemen of the past. But its true that some of their children's children are among us in Davenport-and they are mighty fine citizens.
    Card playing in those early days was a commonly accepted form of amusement-expensive of course. Professionals who lived in the boats and stayed in the best hotels made it their business to "skin" the unwary. They always played with their own cards-marked cards.

"No Limit" Poker
    Five dollars ante, and no limit, was considered a big game in the early Sixties. Few were the Davenporters who could indulge in this expensive sport. A game of this kind, of course, allowed the gamblers enough scope to soon rid their victims of their money and invite new "suckers" in the game. Luckily, there was never gambling for the faithful family servant or the beautiful quadroon girl in the vicinity of Davenport. Such practices , of course, were quite frequent before the line.
    Today we have automobile, horse and airplane racing. Thrilling? Yes, but no half so thrilling, nor picturesque as the steamboat races that were staged here between rival owners. While the race between the "Robert E. Lee" and the "Natchez" between St. Louis and New Orleans remains as the biggest steamboat race in history, the many that were staged right along the banks of the Mississippi in the vicinity of Davenport would remain fresh in the memory of those "old timers" if they were with us today.
    Men have always raced against time; endeavored to out-do the elements. Snorting engines now race across the country and out-timing each other. Such it was in the early Sixties with the steamboats. Glory it was to the "skipper" of a boat who cut off a few minutes from the time between Davenport and points north and south.
    Steamboats were built for speed or for towing. In some of the fastest boats on the upper Mississippi were engines that were the "latest" thing in designing-they were; a little later the locomotive came along and steamboating was a thing of the past.

His Chain of Saloons.
    In writing about steamboats it wouldn't be fair to omit the saloons and the steamboat saloon keepers. In fact, they were the first form of a trust that Mississippi river folks knew. The head of this trust lived in St. Louis. He was a very rich man. He owned all of the saloons of a large number of boats. In those early days-before the Sixties-nearly everyone drank. Those were the days, of course, before prohibition.
    It's a safe bet that some of the old time Davenporters, if they were with us today, would laugh, maybe they did laugh, because prohibition has been with us for many days now, if they saw men using "chasers" after taking a drink of "Old Crow." The old timers would remember that whiskey was some cheaper than water on the steamboats during the low-water season.
    It is pretty safe to say that when the Mississippi river lost its steamboats, it lost its life, its picturesqueness. Even if it were to come back today, where would the gambler fit, and where would be the old-time barkeepers, and the be-whiskered "skipper"? It's a thing of the past and its pretty sure that fifty years from now they'll be writing about the wonderful days in the early "20's".
    Many a story is told of a steamboat that caught fire and some of its passengers cremated in the flames while the boat struggled in the mid-stream current. There were no headlines in those days to acclaim some steamboat captain who had heroically saved the lives of his passengers. But if some of the old-time Davenporters were here they could narrate some tales.
    Sometimes when the boats were built and sometimes it was several days before they were rescued. [ Sentence transcribed as written]. Several such wrecks occurred near Davenport. What stories they would make for the newspapers today!
    Among the old-time steamboats that stopped at Davenport were the "City of Quincy", "Fanny Harris", boats of the Diamond Joe line, "Grey Eagle," "Itasca", "Northwesterner", "Key City", "West Newton", "Kate Cassell", "Nominee", and a dozen or so more. Then, of course, there were dozens of smaller boats, tugs, that piled up and down the river.
    Many are the songs that the old-time Davenporters sang when they road on the palatial steamboats. They're forgotten songs now, with a few exceptions. They're gone too with the steamboats, the gamblers, and the old timers.
    If today we could only see those picturesque pilots who knew every inch of the river between New Orleans and St. Paul. There were lights along the shore to guide them as they plied their boat through the muddy water. Only the familiar land sights were the guides to where the sand bars extended out into the river. And those old pilots of the days before the Sixties knew the river. Every tree, hill, and bluff was a landmark. Today the government has buoyed the river so that by day the modern pilot if he is on the job runs no chance of going around. At night there are lights to direct him on his course.
    A familiar boat was the "Davenport", a side wheeler built in 1860 and which was sunk near St. Louis in 1876 by the breaking of an ice gorge. Later the boat was raised at a cost of approximately hit the Rock Island bridge in 1858 and was a total loss. [ Sentence transcribed as written].

Sinking of "Grey Eagle."
    One of the largest boats to sink here was the "Grey Eagle," large side wheeler built at Cincinnati at a cost of $63,000, a lot of money in the early days. Her length was 250 feet and she maintained an average speed of 16 1/2 miles an hour. On May 9, 1861, when caught in a gust of wind which veered her from the course it struck the Rock Island bridge and sunk rapidly. Captain Harris was in the pilot house with the rapids pilot who took the boats thru from Clinton to Davenport.
    "Grey Eagle" sank within five minutes with a loss of seven lives. Captain Harris, who was one of the best known Mississippi pilots and known in early Davenport, was broken-hearted over the loss of the boat. Soon after he sold out his interests in the packet company and retired. He died of a broken heart, the loss of the most beautiful and fastest boat on the Mississippi was more than he could endure.
    Another boat which was to sink near here was the "Iowa", which hit a snag near Iowa island in 1845. She was a side-wheeler and cost $22,000. The "J.M. Mason" sunk in 1852 above Duck creek when it hit a large rock.
    Another historic boat that sank opposite Davenport was the "Rollo." It was built at Galena in 1837 and on its maiden trip had Major Tallafero, U.S.A. aboard with a party of Indians. The boat arrived at Fort Snelling during November of the same year bringing delegates of chiefs who had been at Washington to make a treaty whereby the St. Croix valley was opened to settlers. Later in November on its first trip down the Mississippi it caught fire while moored on the Davenport levee when a flue collapsed. One fireman was killed and several severely scalded.

Destroyed in Civil War.
    Many of the boats that stopped in Davenport were destroyed during the Civil war. A dozen or so were destroyed by the great wharf fire at St. Louis. Several burned during a great fire at LaCrosse, Wis. A dozen or so were crushed in ice floes when too adventuresome pilots took to the stream.
    In an account of the early boats it is found that many of them were built at Pittsburg and Cincinnati. A great number of the smaller were built at Galena. St. Paul and St. Louis were also steamboat-building towns. But the art of steamboat building has been forgotten.
    And so the steamboat days on the Mississippi are a thing of the past. A few remain, innovations in steamboating have been introduced and have failed. Gone are the picturesque of the side-wheelers, gamblers, the crinoline gowns, the two-quart hats and the people who ran to the levee to welcome the packet.

Easterner Describes Journey Over Plains to the Infant Town

     How a traveler of 1855, a resident of that acedon of the country which used to be known as the "Effete East", saw Davenport is shown by an old letter now in the possession of George M. Bechtel. The letter was written to James Simmons, esquire, firmly ensconced in the "land of culture" by his friend, Andrew Shannon, who made an adventurous journey to Iowa.
    Following is the letter:
    I made one kind of promise before I left old Sadsury to you when I should arrive in the great West. I set down to fulfill that promise. I have little talent for and no practice in correspondence of this kind and therefore you will please excuse all omissions and deficiencies- for Israel's pioneer I am not endorsed with fluency of speech; therefore you will pardon my brevity. I have been in this state for 10 days traveling most of the time. I landed here on the 23d of June and happened to make the acquaintance of three middle aged gentlemen who meditated a journey to the interior of the state. We hired a carriage and two horses and struck out for Iowa City, capital of the state, distant 60 miles.
    Our party was to have counted 6 but one gave out before we started and another at Iowa City. We left Davenport at noon and arrived at Iowa City on the next evening. Wood of the company wished to located land-that is to buy of Government at $1.25 per acre and supposed he could fine in the neighborhood of the capital without any difficulty but were disappointed. Next morning we assembled in council to decide whether we should proceed or return now. The weather was cold and chilly and our horses showed signs of giving out. I voted for sending them back or returning with them, but the majority decided to proceed.

An Unexplored Region.
    According I took a draft of the road, turned our horses headed toward the setting sun, cracked our ship and boldly plunged into what to us was an unexplored region. Our destination a little town lying about 85 miles in a northwesterly direction where we arrived on Monday about noon (not traveling on Sunday). We found the country about as it had been represented to us, beautiful, grand and rich beyond description, but upon inquiry we discovered that there was no government land in the neighborhood but what was occupied or already taken up. I found after examining some of the plots several tracts lying about six miles south of the village. We procured a guide and proceeded to the spot but no one seemed inclined to fancy the bargain. It was too far from civilization, there was no house, and scarcely a shrub in sight, nothing but the green prairie, and that rough and rolling. A dampness seemed to come over the feelings of the party and we returned to town in moody spirits. I saw that most of the party were getting homesick and that by next morning they would be anxious to return. Morning came and we put it to vote. I was anxious to proceed, but the majority decided to return. Accordingly return we did and after traveling for 3 1/2 days and leaving one of our party on the road, three of us arrived safe in the port from which we started. Our horses were just able to draw us into town and that was all. It was a joint stock company, I was Secretary, Treasurer, Postillion, Hostler, and waiting man in general and particular; our gross expenses $76.55 of the four that continued faithful to the end. Each paid $17.06. The company have dissolved and most are on their way home, and I feel almost lonely, but that will soon wear off. It was a pleasant trip and rather a jovial company. We had Temperance, Anti-Slavery and Progression personated in the form of a liberal minded Doctor of medicine. We had old Hunkerism refined and concentrated and most truthfully presented in the person of a grey-haired, hide bound, hard hearted old line Democrat. Wise Saws and sharp saying in a New York Yankee and Genuine Know Nothingism in Myself. I shall look back on the trip in after time with feeling of pleasure and satisfaction. We certainly have traveled over some of the road that is East of "Jourdan" and is designated by the somewhat un-euphonius cognomen of "Hard" and it  may be that we have been just within sight of the promised land but was not permitted to enter.

Saw "the Elephant"
    One thing is certain we HAVE SEEN the "Elephant" all except the tails! (It was a large rock covered with moss not unlike that giant quadruped. Several companies had turned at this point and we supposed that was the occasion-they were satisfied). Seriously, this is a great country. I cannot begin to do it anything like justice. One who has lived all his life in hill of old Pennsylvania can scarcely conceive of the richness of the soil and grandure [sic] of  the prospects out on the broad prairies. II will try to give you a faint idea of the village of Martha, the terminus of our journey, as it struck me the most forcibly of any place I have yet seen in this country. It is situate on a high point of land surrounded by slightly rolling prairie. The Iowa river lined with timber runs one mile north, a large stream about one mile south, the village of LeGrand nine miles east visible to the naked eye, another small village to the northeast, groves of timber to the west and southwest, and unbroken prairie all around. Land sells at this price 140 miles from the Mississippi for form four to six dollars per acre according to the nearness to the village; town lots from 50 to 120 dollars. They raise potatoes about as big as your dog's head-I forget his name.- Onions large round as our ice cream plate from the seeds, watermelons, sweet potatoes in abundance; burn all their straw, make no manure, buy no grain at 50 dollars per ton nor anything of the kind; they sow nothing but spring wheat out here and that often without ploughing the ground, and get 20 & 25 bushels to the acre. What is worth about 150 at this time, corn about 50, flour 9 and 10 dollars barrel.
    The country has disadvantages, fencing timber is scarce and inconvenient, mills far apart. Log cabins very plenty-not much room inside but almost any amount out.
    I will not be able to say all I want and therefore had better draw to a close. I am at the house of Richard Hoode in this place, staying for a few days. He is Martha Fulton's husband. They live on the brow of a bluff back of the town. They have a grand view of the town, river and Rock Island on the Illinois side, a place just opening out and destined to be one of the most important on the Mississippi. I have just had my dinner and think the best thing I can do is to shut right down as my paper is growing scarce. I have enjoyed abundant health and a saw mill appetite. Am burned as black as an Indian. By the way, we fell in with a caravan of wandering Indians in our journey west but I have no room to tell you about them. To an Anglo Saxon they seem to live a miserable idle and dirty life. I'll tell you more when I have more leisure. Till then farewell. Give my respect to all who enquire and believe me
    Yours truly,


Cleanup "Moving Day" Sad One for Denizens of the Old Underworld.

    When the tap of the law was heard on the doors of Davenport's notorious vice resorts of the East End, back in 1909, "respectable citizens' who had boasted that they were eager to give the fallen girl a chance changed color, threw their vaunted altruism to the winds, and barred their homes to the refugees.
    Mayor G.W. Scott did not wait for Cosson's red-light law, passed by the legislature to become effective on July 4, 1909. The reformers were threatening him, and one evening in June he gave orders to the night police to close every resort in the city. Like a thunderbolt out of a clear sky, the order struck the vice element.
    That night eighty women and fifty men were turned out into the street.
    For years the city of Davenport had tacitly countenanced gambling and prostitution. a monthly fine was exacted and the women were segregated. This plan was adopted by each succeeding administration and brought to the coffers of the city approximately $20,000 annually.

A Sad Spectacle.
    One of the saddest spectacles ever witnessed in the city of Davenport was the exodus of the women from the redlight district. Coming as it did without warning, it found the keepers and inmates of these resorts unprepared to move. Thrown out into the streets destitute, homeless and in many cases without sufficient clothing, they were a sight to enlist the sympathy of the hardest hearted citizen who witnessed it. Many of the girls had known no other home for years. When they fell from grace they were ostracized by their family and friends. Therefore, in their hour of trouble they had no one to call upon for assistance. There were no good Samaritans to receive them.
    The oft-repeated assertion of the moral element of the city that there was no necessity for these girls to remain in the redlight district, that all could secure honorable employment should they so desire, and that the philanthropically inclined people of the city were not only willing but eager to lend them a helping hand while sounding well in theory, did not work out in reality when put to a practical test by the new state of affairs.

"Cleanup" Too Hurried.
    The general sentiment, or at least the sentiment of the majority of the citizens of Davenport was that the denizens of the redlight district should have been given sufficient time in which to find other employment and new homes, to adopt themselves to a different mode of living, before being turned adrift in a cold and unsympathetic world.
    That it was no easy task for these girls to secure honest employment after leading the lives they did, was well illustrated in the case of Laura Stoner, an inmate of Mabel Rink's resort at Second and Rock Island streets.
    The Stoner girl was what is know as one of the better class of girls in the east end, if a classification of them is possible. In other words, she came of a good family, was neat in appearance, and had been an inmate but a short time. Previous to her life of shame, she was employed at one of the Davenport hospitals. Her mother was dead.

Minister Backs Down.
    When the edict to move out was served on her, she knew not where to go. She had repented of her life of shame, and was desirous of a better life. She therefore decided to endeavor to secure employment in some household. She heard the pastor of one of the fashionable churches of the hill district was in need of a servant. She applied to him and was engaged. She then secured an expressman to move her belongings to what she supposed was her new home. She called at the pastor's residence ready to go to work. He asked her for her references and she told him that she had none. She further admitted to him that she had come from the east end, that she was desirous of leading a better life. He told her that he could not keep her, and that she would have to find employment elsewhere. When the expressman reached the pastors' residence with the girl's belongings he was told not to take them from the wagon. With no alternative left, the expressman hauled the effects to a downtown livery stable, where they remained all day.
    The experience of the Stoner girl was similar to that of many others. Wherever they applied for work or for lodgings, they were denied them.

A Feast for Shylocks.
    Many of the girls, when forced out of the resorts, did not possess street clothes. They appeared on the street in the frail gowns worn by them inside, and were to be observed scurrying all over the east end endeavoring to borrow some suitable clothes.
    Unscrupulous money lenders who feasted on the ill-gotten earnings of the keepers and inmates were very conspicuous in the district, some of them as a last resort settling their loans by taking the personal of the Shylocks demanded the last pound of flesh and the last drop of blood. He charged the women exorbitant rates of interest and became rich on his nefarious methods of doing business with them.
    Many of the women, when the moving order reached them, crossed the river to Rock Island in the hope of locating there. But the gates of that city were locked to them. The entire police force of that city was on the lookout for them and as fast as they detected them marched them back to Davenport. Not one, as far as is known, was allowed to stay in that city. one girl, with an oil stove under one arm and all the clothing she possessed in the world tied in a bundle under the other arm, headed for Rock Island expecting to make her home with a friend there. She walked across the government bridge and had reached Second avenue when she encountered a policeman who marched her to the bridge and sent her back to Davenport.
    The second-hand dealers also feasted on the misfortune of the women. They camped in the district, buying the furniture and other belongings at their own price. One dealer bought out the entire contents of four houses for the paltry sum of $150. It is stated that the total furnishings of these four houses had when new cost not less than $2,500.
    These were but a few of the many sad features of moving day in the red-light district. There were hundreds of others, equally as pathetic, that would record several volumes if published in full.

Employed 600 Men and 50 Girls When at Heighth in Operation.

    From a manufacturing enterprise that was Davenport's largest in its day to a pile of junk that is being cleared away for salvage, is the history of the old Glucose form the time it was constructed to the present day. In Davenport's manufacturing circles its history is a yarn chock full of interesting incidents.
    At one time during the last administration of Theodore Roosevelt, it was the target of the anti-trust interest in politics. It was that, probably, that caused the "trust" to leave the great factory slowly decay away, to become the victim of time and devastating fires.
    A great many of the early Davenporters watched with interest the construction of the factory, its rapid growth-and with sorrow they watched its slow destruction in which time played a prominent part. The history of the old Glucose, could it be told in whole, would be one of vast interest; in which, small capital thru clever manipulation turned out as its finished product a city's finest manufacturing enterprise. Its story, too, deals with the big interests of the east, Wall Street, and of John D. himself.
    The earliest history of the Glucose is a story of civic unity in which the people of Davenport were the builders-the capital furnishers. As the story is told, it was a sort of socialistic plan in which all of the workers owned a part of the company they were working for. Even when the Glucose was bought over by the "trust" in 1904, some of the employes had stock.

Old Plant Heads.
    When the plant became the property of the Corn Produce Refining company in 1904, Mr. L.P. Best was said to be the chief stock holder. A rather young man in the starch and syrup game by the name of A.W.H. Lenders came here and took charge in 1900, Prior to its coming, the Glucose was a mecca for workers. It was considered one of the best places in the city to work-that is, the workmen were allowed to have one of their companions go to a neighboring saloon and bring them a pail of "suds". This practice, wit heating a lunch nine or ten times a day, was thought to be the usual thing.
    With the coming of Lenders also came a change in the manner in which the plant was managed. It was only when they could put something over on the new superintendent that it was possible to smuggle in the pail of "suds." Lenders proved to be a success. He stayed at the plant two years and then went to the Roby street plant in Chicago, where he was made superintendent. At the present time MR. Lenders is a vice president of the Penick and Ford interests of Cedar Rapids and New Orleans, one of he largest concerns of its kind in the world.
    Such reads the biographies of many of the superintendents of the Glucose. It was P.R. King who became the manager of the plant after Lenders left. He was in charge one year and then entered in the printing business in Davenport.
    Henry Siegle was the chief superintendent of the Glucose under the supervision of the Corn Products interests. He stayed at the plant about two years and then went to Pekin, Ill. as superintendent. Pekin is the plant that had the terrible explosion some 12 months ago. Mr. Siegle has been dead for eight years.
    In 1905 after Mr. Siegle left, Clarence Soverign was superintendent for about three months. After he left Mr. Harrison, acting manager of the Corn Products interests, came here for a time as superintendent.

Ground 14,000 Bu. Day
    In those early days the ubiquitous reporter had a hard time in worming a story out of the Glucose officials. Many of the members of the Fourth Estate who had the Glucose on their "beat" and who are with us today, remember with what secrecy the news was guarded. But such was the habit over the entire United States, and with all other kinds of businesses. It wasn't until a later date that news from the largest manufacturing plants were given for publication.
    The Glucose when it was running full capacity ground from 12,000 o 14,000 bushels of corn every 24 hours. The last seven years that it was operated it turned all of its raw starch into table syrup-Karo. It was also during the later years that the hull and fiber of the corn was utilized by turning it into one of the most expensive feeds on the market today. Prior to this the wet hulls and fibers were hauled to the river bank and dumped-some was sold in the wet state to local farmers.
    Excellent corn oils, too, were an unthought of thing when the plant was in its infancy. Even when it was shut down in 1913, the manufacturing of corn oils was not regarded as a success. During the last years of the plant the oil was used for soap making.
    It is true that Davenport lost one of its finest interests when it lost the Glucose. It proved to be a fine place of employment for 600 men and about 50 girls. Altho the wages were not of the highest, as untrained labor was able to do the bulk of the work, it was only on the harder and more disagreeable jobs that the foremen were at times seeking new help.

Tom Lund.
    One of the best superintendents in the corn products game today, Charles Ebert, was here from 1906 to '09. While here, he rebuilt the entire plant into one of the most modern in the country. He is now one of the officials of the Corn Products company, the inventor of several new methods in the way of manufacturing starches, syrups and oils.
    After Mr. Ebert left in 1909, H.B. Lawton took charge until the plant was shut down in 1913. Mr. Lawton is still in the game. A factory superintendent who started at the Glucose in 1903 and stayed until 1911, serving under the superintendents who were here from one to three years, was T.M. Lund, known to the factory men as "Tom." He served in nearly every capacity from a starch shoveler to foreman of various departments. It was during the time when Lenders came to the plant that Mr. Lund started and when Mr. Lawton, the last superintendent was in charge that he left. At the present time he is with the Corn Products interests at Argo, Ill.
    And such writes one of the old time employes of the Glucose: "The old time gang of roremen that used to work at the plant are scattered over the entire earth. Some are dead, some in another kind of business, some are unable to leave the 'game.'
    Among the old time foremen is T.B. Willhoft, once grain elevator foreman and now night superintendent of the Argo plant, the largest in the world. A well known Davenporter, who is with us today and who at one time was in charge of the pipe fitters, is Mike Lamb. In a starch and syrup plant a pipe fitter is about as essential as powder to an army.

Other Old Timers.
    Others that will be remembered are Jim Dudicker, who had charge of the syrup refinery for many years; John Clare, syrup mixer; Herman Wiese, chief miller; James McConwell, chief millwright; and Carson Jacobs, wet starch foreman.
    Old timers will remember that Clare was the oldest employe of the Glucose-not in years.
    How surprised some of the old Glucose men would be could they step into a modern corn products manufacturing plant. The methods have changed from manual labor to machines that do the work much more rapidly with a great savings of money. One of the most talked of jobs at the Glucose was starch shoveling. It took men of real strength to man the shovels and hoist the wet starch from the tables into the carts. Now, however, the starch is either shoveled from the tables by machines, they resembled snow plows, or is flushed and put thru presses.
    The method of syrup making has changed till now it is one of the most sanitary food products on the market. Not so, in the early days, if all the stories we hear are to be believed.
     The manufacturing of by-products has made the manufacturing of corn products a dividend payer. Starches, sugars, syrups, oils, soaps, rubber, grease, acids, feeds, flours and even gun powder are some of the products made from corn today.

How Davenporters of the Early Thirties Prepared Their Food.

     Nowadays, when Davenport might be called "the city of restaurants," there are very few citizens who would turn up their noses at the delicious, substantial fare enjoyed by their forebears of the early thirties.
    To witness the various processes of cooking in those days would alike surprise and amuse those accustomed to cooking stoves, ranges and fireless cookers. Kettles were flung over the large fire, suspended with pot-hooks, iron or wooden, on the crane, or on poles, one end of which would rest upon a chain.
    The long handled frying pan was used for cooking meat. It was either held over the blaze by hand or sent down upon coals drawn out upon the hearth. This pan was also used for baking pancakes, also called "flap-jacks," batter-cakes, etc. A better article for this, however, was the cast-iron spider, or Dutch skillet. The best thing for baking bread, those days, was the flat-bottomed bake kettle, with closely fitting cast iron cover, and commonly known as the Dutch oven. With coals over and under it, bread and biscuit would quickly and nicely bake. Turkey and spare-ribs were sometimes roasted before the fire, suspended by a string, a dish being placed underneath to catch the drippings.
    Hominy and samp were very much used. The hominy, however, was generally hulled corn-boiled corn from which the hull or bran had been taken by hot lye; hence sometimes called "lye hominy." True hominy and samp were made of pounded corn. A popular method of making this, as well as real meal for bread, was to cut out or burn a large hole in the top of a huge stump, in the shape of a mortar, and by pounding the corn in this way a maul or beetle suspended by a swing pole like a well sweep. When the samp was sufficiently pounded it was taken out, the bran floated off and the delicious grain boiled like rice.
    The chief articles of diet in an early day were corn bread, hominy or samp, venison, pork, honey, pumpkin (dried pumpkin for more than half the year), turkey, prairie chicken, squirrel and some other game, with a few additional vegetables a portion of the year. Wheat bread, tea, coffee and fruit were luxuries not to be indulged in except on special occasions as when visitors were present.


     Dog feasts were one of the big events of Indian life in the days when the redskins roamed the vicinity of Fort Armstrong. At such celebrations, white men were occasionally the invited guests, and they were obliged to eat all that was placed before them or else hire some person to do so. Not to do so was considered a great breach of guest etiquette.
    Such feasts usually terminated all afternoon exercises, which were not only interesting but also highly instructive to those who witnessed them. Meats, vegetables and pies were served up in such provisions at the Indian banquets that many armfuls of the leavings were carried off- it being a part of the ceremony, religiously observed- that all victuals left upon such an occasion should be taken home. It was usually after the ceremony of painting the post that dog feasts were held.
Post Painting.
    At the post painting, the feats of Wau-co-shaw-she, the chief, were portrayed. Ten headless figures were painted, signifying that the chief had killed ten men. Four others were then added one of them smaller than the others, one of them a child. A line was then run from one figure to another, terminating in a plume to signify that all had been accomplished by a chief. A fox was then painted over the plume, which plainly told that the chief was of the Fox tribe. These characters are so expressive that if an Indian of any tribe were to see them he would at once understand them.
    Following the sign of Pau-tau-co-to, who thus proved himself a warrior of high degree, were placed 20 headless figures-the number of Sioux he had slain.



    Davenport once boasted  of having the finest hotel "in every respect superior to any other in the United States." That was in 1858, and perhaps it was only a boast, but it was certainly one of the finest in the West. It was noted for its elegance, accommodation and beauty of structure."
    The building extended 118 feet on Fifth street and 109 feet on Iowa street, and had a dining room 39 by 81 feet, supported by "iron columns and magnificently frescoed by Messrs. Paterson & Hildebrand." The structure rose to a height of five stories including basement.

Hot and Cold Water.
    A 35-horsepower engine in the basement and a Worthington pump forced water to a tank in the fifth story from which in hot and cold jets it was distributed to every hall in the house. The basement also contained a laundry room, restaurant, billiard room, smoking room, and store rooms. Steam heat was used for heating and cooking.
    The dining room occupied the center of the main floor and was lighted by means of a skylight. There were 150 sleeping rooms.
    Dr. Burtis himself designed  the structure assisted by Mesrs. Underwood & Cochran and a Mr. Carroll. The eminent doctor had a reputation with travelers for "those gentlemanly and hospitable attentions that end so much to lessen the discomfort of travel and to ameliorate the hardships of absence from home."
    Frank Kendrick was assistant manager of the hotel. Frank was undoubtedly the most suave of managers-except of course, for Dr. Burtis himself. "To all who know him, " one man said, "nothing need be said in regard to his qualifications; to others it need merely be said that he is- a gentleman."

The Chef Extraordinary.
    William Coulter was the man who made the old Burtis house famous all over the United States thru his cooking. In fact, so great was the improvement in the preparation of the food when he returned to the kitchen after an absence of a few months that The Democrat spoke glowingly on the following day, July 2, 1864.
    "The boarders at the Burtis house were highly gratified yesterday at the change of the order of affairs in the culinary department. There was such a sudden change in the style of cooking that an inquiry was at once instituted to ascertain the cause. The investigation resulted in bringing out the fact that the old time and popular Burtis cook-William Coulter-was back at his post again. Mr. Coulter is one of the best cooks in the country. He was with the Burtis house from its opening until last spring when he left for a while. He commands in the kitchen and the public will have the return of those splendid dinners such as he along knows how to place upon the table."
    Previous to coming to the Burtis, Mr. Coulter had made the LeClaire house noted for its cuisine. He had come to Davenport from Chicago in 1858 and previous to that time had been chef of the Collamore and Globe hotels of New York, the National at Washington and a number of leading Chicago hotels.

Burtis Once a Dentist.
    Dr. J.J. Burtis had been a dentist before he came West from New York, his native state, and settled in Missouri; but did not seem to enjoy the profession. He is described as a fine looking man with raven black hair and a black mustache.
    Tho one of the most public-spirited citizens in the history of Davenport and at one time one of the wealthiest, Dr. Burtis had but $5,000 when he left the city to engage in the hotel business in Topeka, where he purchased the Taft house, a center of political gathering in the state. Here he made a success of his venture. Dr. Burtis was born May 27, 1811, and died at Topeka, July 19, 1883, his funeral being one of the largest ones ever held there under Masonic aupsices.


    Now that Davenport is a clean city the name of the Civic Federation has been almost forgotten. But 15 years ago or rather from its birth in 1907 on for some nine years the name of Civic Federation was on the tongue of every Davenporter.
    So strong were the vice powers organized that when the clean-up movement was formed it was secretly organized. This was in December of 1907. This organization demanded the strict enforcement of the mulct law and won out only after a hard fight during which many saloons were closed, many violators were prosecuted and hard feelings between the law enforcement and wide-open town elements were engendered.
    The German press was particularly hostile to the Civic Federation and dubbed the "Civic Degeneration."
    During the entire period of its existence, the meetings were held in secret and its officers and membership were unknown. Rev. W. H. Blancke was its active head and H.B Betty its attorney. Every effort was made by the liberal element of the city to ascertain the identity of its members, but to no avail. A number of leading citizens were looked upon with suspicion and boycotts were started against their place of business.
    On March 9, 1908, the Federation issued an ultimatum to the saloon keepers of Davenport giving them until March 14 to rearrange their places of business to comply with the mulct law and after that date to comply with all its requirements. That year, 86 saloons were put out of business.

"Personal Liberty" Parade.
    During this time occurred the famous "Personal Liberty" parade, participated in by 2000 marchers. The procession terminated with a mass meeting in Washington square. Here a number of leading citizens made speeches attacking the mulct law and the Civic Federation.
    This outward display of protest instead of intimidating the Civic Federation as hoped by the promoters appeared only to stir them to further and more decided action. They brought outside parties to the city to spy on the saloon keepers and gather evidence against all violators.
    It was after the trial of a case in July, 1908, that one of those spy witnesses, William Schoenig of Muscatine, was assaulted on Main street, and was saved from great bodily harm only by the timely arrival of the police. The attacking party escaped and were never apprehended. Three other witnesses, all boys who had gathered evidence against Jack McPartland, were arrested in Rock Island on a warrant issued in Davenport charging them with perjury. Attorney Betty on behalf of the Civic Federation secured their release on a habeas corpus procedure.
    Some time later, McPartland, thru Attorney Walter H. Petersen, filed a suit for $50,000 damages against the Civic Federation, its officers and members, alleging they were in conspiracy to ruin his business. This suit was looked upon more in the nature of an attempt to "smoke out" the membership. It contained a prayer to the court asking that the defendants named be required to answer certain questions the main of which was, "Who are the members of the Civic Federation and what amount has each contributed to the fund?" The request was never sustained by the court and the suit was later dismissed without being called to trial.
    Efforts were being made to entice Attorney Betty to Rock Island on phony telephone calls, presumably to give the gang a chance to beat him up and at another time he learned of a well defined plot to kidnap him in an auto. He received hundreds of threatening letters, but passed thru the entire crusade without being harmed.
    As rapidly as cases were made out, injunction proceedings were started against violators of the mulct law. The decree entered required the defendants to live up to the letter of the law, and a violation was regarded as not only a violation of the mulct law, but brought the defendant also in contempt of court.
    Many citizens arose in their might and declared the campaign on the Federation to be one of persecution, not prosecution. A committee of leading business men, after injunctions had been taken out against Turner hall, Schetzen park, Suburban island, Washington garden, etc., met representatives of the Civic Federation at the Commercial club and asked for a more lenient enforcement of the mulct law. The request was denied. Previous to this conference, a petition signed by a thousand citizens making the same request of the Federation was ignored by that body.
    During the height of the prosecutions, the various breweries served notice on all saloon keepers stating that inasmuch as many injunctions and agreements were being violated the only safety for them was to abide by the law. They therefore would refuse to sell to any saloon keeper who refused to respect the mulct law.
    Fourteen saloons in the country outside of incorporated towns and therefore in prohibition territory were ordered closed by the Federation. The St. Julien and Kaiserhof hotels were put out of commission by reason of the lawlessness governing their managements.

Famous "Sappy" Rink Case.
    A test case was started against a saloon keeper by the name of Charles (Sappy) Rink during the month of February 1909 for re-engaging in the saloon business.  Rink did only what all of the saloon keepers were doing under like conditions. They would comply anew with all of the provisions of the mulct law within their power. The Civic Federation contended that they could not do this under the same general statement of consent under which they had been enjoined. Judge Bollinger held with the contention of the Federation and Rink was held to be in contempt of court and sent to jail upon failure to pay a fine of $200.
    Upon the strength of this ruling by the district court, the Federation issued a statement that all saloonkeepers who had been enjoined and were found in business by May 1, 1909, would be prosecuted for contempt of court, and that the owners of the buildings occupied by such saloon keepers would be proceeded against for contempt. All the enjoined saloon keepers quit business. About 23 of the places opened up under a new management. Thereupon contempt proceedings were brought against the owners of these places. The Rink case was carried to the supreme court by the liquor interests, and the decision of Judge Bollinger was reversed, which resulted in all of the above contempt cases being dismissed. The attorney for the Federation argued the Rink case before the supreme court on a petition for a rehearing which was refused.
    A test suit was brought in the district court to test the legality of the new general statement of consent that was secured in the city of Davenport in June, 1909. Judge Bollinger decided in favor of the legality of the new statement of consent.

The 300 Foot Limit.
    After practically all the provisions of the mulct law had been put into force by the Civic Federation, there remained one clause that it was believed would be overlooked by them. This was the closing of all saloons and bars within 300 feet of churches, cemeteries and school buildings. But in this belief the sympathizers reckoned wrongly.
    The Federation thru its attorney finally took action on this clause and demanded its enforcement. In the neighborhood of a dozen places were affected by it, principally the Commercial club, and the Hotel Davenport. The former installed the locker system and the hotel escaped the deadline by changing its bar entrance from Main street to the alley. In order to permit of this change it was necessary to have the city council alter the alley into a street and it is now known as Library avenue. Previously it had been designated Pretzel alley.


     After the Davenport pioneer of the early days made his long, arduous journey from the east, he found that the job of becoming an "old settler" was perhaps not so easy as he had anticipated. One of the biggest tasks was that of erecting a suitable habitation.
     Selecting a location, the pioneer would all together as many of his neighbors as were available and have a "house raising." Trees of uniform size had been chosen and cut into logs of the desired length, generally 12 to 15 feet, and hauled to the site of the future dwelling.
     Each end of every log was saddled, and notched so that they would lie as close down as possible; the next day the proprietor would proceed to "chink" and "dash" the cabin to keep out the rain, wind and cold. The house had to be redaubed every fall, as the rains of the intervening time would wash out a great part of the mortar.

Cabin 8 Feet High.
    The usual height of the house was seven or eight feet. The gables were formed by shortening the logs gradually at each end of the building near the top. The roof was made by laying very straight small logs or stout poles suitable distances apart, and on these were laid the clapboards, somewhat like shingling, generally about two and a half feet to the weather. These clapboards were fastened to their place by "weight poles" corresponding in place with the joists just described and these again were held in their place by "runs" or "knees" which were chunks of wood about 18 or 20 inches long fitted between them near the ends.
    Clapboards were made from the finest oaks in the vicinity, by chopping or sawing them into four foot blocks and riving these with a frow, which was a simple blade fixed at right angles to its handles. This was driven into the blocks of wood by a mallet. As the  frow was wrenched down thru the wood, the latter was turned alternately over from side to side, one end being held by a forked piece of timber.

How Chimney Was Made.
    The chimney to the Davenport pioneer's cabin was made by leaving in the original building a large open place in one wall, or by cutting one after the structure was up, and by building on the outside from the ground up a stone column, or a column of sticks and mud, the sticks being laid up cob-house fashion. The fireplace thus made was often large enough to receive firewood six to eight feet long. Sometimes this wood, especially the "back log" would be nearly as large as a saw log. The more rapidly the pioneer could burn up the wood in his vicinity, the sooner he had his little farm cleared and ready for cultivation.
    For a window, a piece about two feet long was cut out of one of the wall logs, and the hole closed, sometimes by glass, but generally with greased paper. Even greased deer-hide was sometimes used. A doorway was cut thru one of the walls if a saw was to be had; otherwise the door would be left by shortened logs in the original building. The door was made by pinning clapboards to two or three wood bars, and was hung upon wooden hinges. A wooden latch, with catch, then finished the door, and the latch was raised by anyone on the outside by pulling a leather string. For security at night the latch string was drawn in; but for friends and neighbors, and even strangers, the "latch string was always hanging out" as a welcome.

The "Mantel"
    In the interior of the cabin over the fireplace would be a shelf, called "the mantel" on which stood the candlestick or lamp, some cooking and table ware, possibly an old clock, and other articles; in the fireplace would be the cane, sometimes of iron, sometimes of wood; on it the pots were hung for cooking; over the door, in forked cleats, hung the ever trustful rifle and powder horn; in one corner stood the larger bed for the "old folks" and under it the trundle bed for the children; in another stood the old fashioned spinning wheel, with a smaller one by its side; in another the heavy table, the only table, of course, that there was in the house; in the remaining was a rude cupboard holding the table ware, which consisted of a few cups and saucers and blue edged plates, standing singly on their edges against the back to make the display of table furniture more conspicuous, while around the room were scattered a few splint-bottom or Windsor chairs, and two or three stools.
    These simple cabins were inhabited by a kind and true hearted people. They were strangers to mock modesty and the traveler seeking lodging for the night, or desirous of spending a few days in the community, was always welcome, altho how they were disposed of at night the reader might not easily imagine; for, as described, a single room was made to answer for kitchen, dining room, sitting room, bedroom, and parlor, and many families consisted of six or eight members.


     Sau-ke-nuk, Black Hawk's town, was nearly four miles south of Rock Island city, and one mile west of the Milan bridge, on the north side of the Sinasipi or Rock river at the yellow sand bank. It was said to number about 2,000 people, which was a large estimate. Many families had bark houses made by setting poles in the ground, then running small poles along, lashed to these posts with rawhide things, then siding up and covering with elm bark. This elm bark siding was procured by the squaws in the spring.
   They would cut thru the bark to the wood of the tree, and then again would split and open the bark straight downward from one cut to the other, and then pull it off clear around the tree. This would given an unbroken strip of bark seven feet high and nine feet wide from a tree three feet in diameter; and this sides up very rapidly.
   Black Hawk's residence was built of bark. It was about 16 by 20 feet, with the doorway at the east end. His bed stood in the northwest corner. It was made by setting a forked-post in the ground at the southeast corner, of the bed and then carrying poles from the fork to the cross pieces that held the siding of the house. Then small sticks were laid across the frame work thus formed, which made the foundation for the matting, skins, etc. The opening for the door was usually closed with a hung blanket, tho sometimes a rush matting or a large skin was used.
   This house was close to the bank of the Rock river. A large majority of the houses were wickiups, constructed by setting willow poles in the ground in a circle, then bending them together into a rounded shape near seven feet high in the middle. They were then covered with matting made of rushes woven closely together a yard wide.
   An opening was left in the top for the escape of smoke. The fire was made on the ground in the center of the wickiup. Another opening was left for a doorway, closed with a blanket. Matting, hides and dressed robes were placed all about for sitting and lying. The cooking utensils were mostly of sheet iron. Spoons were wooden ladles, and there were large and small wooden bowls, some quite prettily ornamented. Their mode of cooking was, of course, very different from ours.

Indians Move from Wigwam to Pesthouse.
    The Indians confined at Camp McClellan are dying off fast. There are about 250 left and 50 of these are in the hospital and pesthouse. Smallpox has got among them and it is thinning them out rapidly. About 20 have been sent to the pesthouse within a week..---The Democrat, March 11, 1864.


    Mercy Hospital, founded in 1869, is the pioneer institution of its kind in this section of the country. At the time of its opening, 55 years ago, it was the only institution outside of a hospital at St. Louis, west of the Mississippi river.
    Prior to 1869 the only public relief for the sick and injured was transferred to the Poor Farm, four miles out in the country in an open wagon.
    The pauper charges of Scott county and the insane of the community were crowded together, and conditions were deplorable. The officials, and especially the Scott County Board of Supervisors, were intensely interested in the adoption of plans for the betterment of existing conditions. Several plans had been offered and had later been rejected.
Appeal to Sisters.
    One evening in September, 1869, while G.H. Watkins, county overseer of the poor, was attempting to formulate a better system for the care of indigent insane and other charges of the county, he decided to appeal to the Catholics.
    Calling upon J. McMonomy, Mr. Watkins explained the plans and asked if there was not a possibility of persuading the Sisters of Mercy of Chicago to establish a hospital in Davenport.
    A meeting was held at St. Anthony's church and the matter was given further consideration, in the minutes of the board of supervisors of October 13, 1869, the following words are recorded:
    "Mr. Watkins on the Committee of the Poor reports that the Sisters of Mercy are willing to open an institution and include in their plans the care of the poor and insane of Scott County; the general purpose of the institution to include the care of every class of suffering and sick except contagion."

Building Provided.
    Negotiations between the county officials and the Sisters of Mercy of Chicago provided that suitable facilities for the establishment of a hospital should be provided. At that time a Sisters' Academy was located at the west edge of the city, on the site now occupied by Mercy Hospital. This building had been erected 14 years previous to 1869. It was now vacant and in sad need of repairs.
    The Board secured permission to convert the building into a hospital, providing that it should be used for no other purpose than the care of the sick. Before establishing the hospital the Sisters insisted that at least 10 patients be secured and a loan of $2,000 be secured from Scott county.

Hospital Opened.
    The necessary pledges were forthcoming and in November, six Sisters of Mercy from Chicago arrived in Davenport and assumed charge of the work of renovating and overhauling the building preparatory to he opening of the hospital proper. This was soon accomplished and on December 8, the doors were opened to admit the first patients.
    Active in the establishment of the hospital were Dr. Peck, who had served as an army surgeon during the Civil war; Miss Fejervary; Mrs. Mitchell; Rev. Father Palamoges, and numerous others who gave liberally not only of their money but of their time as well. Rev. Mother Borromeo was the first Mother Superior in charge of the hospital. She passed away several years ago, and here remains repose beneath a memorial in the rear of the present Mercy hospital.
     The first candidate to join the band of Sisters was Sister Mary Catherine, who is still living at the hospital and is active despite her years of unrequited toil among the sick and the needy of the community.

First Year's Work.
    During the first year of its existence, Mercy hospital cared for 76 patients, both general and insane. When the hospital was first opened, a medical board was formed by the foundress, Reverend Mother Borromeo, assisted by Dr. Peck. Dr. O.C. Rundy was elected president and Dr. C.S. Maxwell, secretary. Drs. Maxwell and Greggs comprised the consulting board. The following were members of the attending board: Drs. W.F. Peck, G. Hoekfner, J. McCourtney, W.A. Hasford ,W.D. Middleton, and D.C. Roundy, and Henry Braunlich who was for five years a member of the board and is still active in the work of the hospital.
    Immediately after the organization of the hospital the private hospital operated by Drs. Henry and Carl Matthey and others, closed its doors and turned their effects to the Sisters.

Cholera Epidemic.
    In September, 1877, cholera swept down on the little city of Davenport like a fog in the night, snuffing out the lives of hundreds of human beings.
    The board of health was hastily reorganized and public measures adopted to combat the plague, Judge James Grant came to the rescue of the stricken city and secured rooms for an emergency hospital. In less than five hours after the opening, the hastily improvised hospital was filled with patients. But who was there for care for them, to minister to their needs?
    Unannounced by the blare of trumpets, at this crisis in the history of the struggling city two Sisters appeared at the improvised hospital and offered their services.
    The Sisters remained in charge during the epidemic ministering to the wants of sufferers, cheering them, soothing fevered brows, and receiving the last messages to those who were about to pass into the Great Beyond.

Growth of the Hospital.
    Mercy hospital filled an urgent need in this pioneer community, and its growth was rapid. Before the first year was at an end additional quarters were necessary, and additions were built. From that day to this the work has gone ahead; addition after addition has been erected, new buildings planned and constructed until today the hospital ranks as one of the best equipped in the country.
    Accommodations are provided for approximately 200 patients in  the main hospital and for 200 in the buildings for the mentally afflicted.
    The 76 general and mental patients of 1869 have increased to 4500 in 1923.
    The Nurses' Home which was erected in 1919, is a model building, accommodating 90 nurses.

Other Foundations.
    From the local institution foundations have been sent out to Iowa City, Dubuque, Cedar Rapids, Des Moines and Marshalltown. In addition to this work, the task of teaching others to carry on the work has been maintained both here and elsewhere. In every emergency, whether of county or community- during the Civil war, during the World war, in the cholera and the influenza epidemics- Mercy hospital has hurried to the call of duty and humanity.
    Mercy hospital is situated in the northwest part of the city, just within the corporate limits. The building fronts on Lombard street, while the spacious ground look out upon the rich farm lands and the scenic beauty of the Mississippi bluffs. The site is not surpassed in point of beauty and healthfulness. Apart from the noise of the city and yet partaking of all its advantages, the location is ideal for hospital purposes.
    The hospital embraces the most improved features of hospital construction and equipment, and furnishes the best facilities for the care of the sick.
    On the first floor are located the hospital offices, laboratories, pharmacy, rooms for resident physicians, medical library, record room, operating and Doctors' consulting rooms.
    The second, third and fourth floors are devoted mainly to private rooms. Each floor, however, has four private wards, an auxiliary pharmacy, diet kitchen, and a linen room aiding toward greater efficiency and comfortable service.
    There are four operating rooms each with its own equipment for general surgery. Special operating rooms with special equipment are devoted to eye, ear, nose, throat and genito-urinary surgery. Convenient to each operating room are two surgical dressing rooms, instrument supply rooms and complete modern sterilizing apparatus.
    The Laboratories occupy eight rooms in the south of the first floor. The equipment is the latest and best that can be obtained.
    The Pharmacy is located on the first floor. It is well stocked with all chemicals and pharmaceutical preparations that may be of service in a large hospital. A Sister who is a Registered Pharmacist devotes her time to the work of this department.
    On each floor there are auxiliary medicine rooms supplied with all the necessities for routine and emergency needs.
    The Obstetrical Department to which the entire new wing of the fourth floor is given is well equipped for efficient service in this special branch of work.
    In the Dietetic Department are prepared diets for the various conditions of health and disease.

Training School for Nurses.
    Mercy Hospital School for Nurses was established in 1895.
    Since that time 240 nurses have received diplomas. Graduates are in great demand and many of them are holding responsible positions as Hospital and Training School Superintendents, Surgical Nurses, Visiting, Public Health and Social Service Nurses thruout the United States.
    The course of lectures is thorough, comprising all subjects, medical, surgical, obstetrical, nervous and infectious, needed to complete a nurses training.
    The Training School is accredited by the State.

    The Training School is non-sectarian. There is no interference with the religious convictions of the student. The school is conducted by the Sisters of Mercy, hence it is Catholic in its purpose and atmosphere. The Nurses, pupil and graduate, enjoy the blessing of an annual triduum- a pleasure looked forward to and a source of much spiritual good. Catholic Nurses are to hear Mass in the Hospital Chapel on Sundays and holy days; it is the custom to receive Holy Communion on Sundays and on the first Friday of every month.
    Officers of Mercy Hospital are Rev. Mother Mary Gertrude, directress; Sister Mary De Pazzi, superintendent of the hospital; Sister Mary Loretto, superintendent of the nurses school.
    Officers of the Hospital Staff are Dr. A.B. Kuhl, president; Dr. B. Schmidt, secretary; Dr. R.R. Kulp, treasurer.
    The executive committee is composed of Dr. F. Neufeld, Dr. W.E. Foley, Dr. L. Kornder, Dr. O.A. Dahms, Dr. O.R. Voss.


     Among Davenport philanthropie and charitable institutions there are few closer to the hearts of the people that St. Vincent's orphanage. The reason for this is, no doubt, to be found in the fact that St. Vincent's is a real home.
    This worthy and charitable institution was established in 1895. It was first located on the northwest corner of Fifteenth street and Grand avenue. The Sisters of the Humility of Mary, whose mother house is located in Ottumwa, Ia., were invited by Bishop Cosgrove to take charge of the young institution. Four sisters, with Mother Vincent in charge, took up the laudable work. In less than a year it was apparent to all the friends of the growing institution that more commodious quarters were necessary if St. Vincent's were to meet the demands made upon it.
    In 1896, under the immediate supervision of Bishop Cosgrove, property- about ten acres- was purchased on North Gaines street where St. Vincent's home now stands. An appeal for funds was sent out and in an incredibly short time the bishop and sisters were able to erect a substantial three story brick building that was to serve the needs of the home for some years. The pew St. Vincent's was opened, Nov. 2 1897. At that time 35 children were cared for by four sisters.

    Bishop Cosgrove Officiates.
    This was indeed a happy day for the friends of the struggling institution. On the occasion of the solemn dedication Bishop Cosgrove officiated. Addresses were made by the Hon. S.F. Smith, mayor of Davenport, and the Very Rev. Thomas Machin, pastor of St. Joseph's church, Rock Island. Music was furnished by Strasser's band and the Orion quartet composed of Messrs. Brown, Kelly, Huot and Johnson. Articles of incorporation were filed Oct. 31, 1897, and the trustees of the home were Mother Angeline, Mother Vincent and Mother Joseph- all Sisters of Humility. Mother Angeline passed away May 10, 1903. The other trustees are still living and actively engaged in the work of the community at the mother house in Ottumwa, Ia.

    Now 125 Children.
    At the present time St. Vincent's home is caring for 125 children. Eight Sisters of Humility are in charge under the direction of Sister Visitation. In 1902 it was found necessary to enlarge the building to more than twice the original size. From time to time more property was acquired. Today, St. Vincent's has a thoroly modern building fully equipped with all modern conveniences; 60 acres of land; barns; chicken house; fruit trees; drives and other equipment necessary for the successful operation of the home.
    In 1907 an up-to-date laundry was installed under the direction of F.J. Lewis, now of Chicago. A few years ago extensive improvements were made at an expenditure of $20,000. These much needed improvements were made possible by the munificient legacy left to St. Vincent's by the late Mr. and Mrs. W.J. Dittoe.
    In March, 1917, the articles of incorporation were amended. According to these amended articles the members of the corporation shall be the bishop of Davenport and the vicar general by virtue of their positions, and three priests of the diocese of Davenport. The present directors are Rt. Rev. James Davis, Very Rev. J.T.A. Flannagan, V.G., Very Rev. A.H. Schoeningh, Rev. R.J. Renihan and Rev. C.J. Donahue. The officers of the corporation are: President, James Davis, bishop of Davenport; vice president J.T. A. Flannagan, V.G.; secretary and treasurer, C.J. Donohue.

    Sister Ignatus' Work.
    No sketch of St. Vincent's would be complete without special mention pictures, auto rides, and other by the late lamented Sister Ignatus. From the founding of the institute to the day of her death, Dec. 7, 1907, during those struggling years, this true servant of God worked early and late to make St. Vincent's a real home for the children committed there. To the orphan and friendless she was a mother and when she died at the post of duty the children in the home and all others who knew her broad charity and kindness felt they had lost the truest of friends.
    Besides looking after the bodily needs of the children, St. Vincent's home conducts a regularly graded school. Physically, mentally and morally, the children committed to St. Vincent's receive every attention to make them grow up as worthy members of the church and loyal citizens of the state.
    During the years of its existence St. Vincent's home has taken care of 1500 children. Almost 1000 of these have been returned to friends or relatives. Good homes have been found for those whose relatives have passed away. But t?? children died at the home. This is certainly a remarkable record and is a fine tribute to the self-sacrificing work of the devoted sisters charge.
    On account of the ever increasing number of children that seek a home at St. Vincent's the institution is badly in need of a suitable contagious hospital. Besides the hospital a gymnasium should also be erected. With this gymnasium there should be installed more play ground apparatus. The needs of the home appeal to those anxious to bring sunshine and happiness into the lives of our less fortunate children.
    The Sunshine club of Davenport, a non-sectarian organization, contributes materially to the well being of the home by furnishing motion pictures, auto rides and other forms of amusement.


    There is probably no older society in Davenport than the Ladies' Industrial Relief, which had its beginning as the Ladies' Benevolent society about 1849 and grew into the Soldiers' Relief Society during the Civil war.
    In its present form, the Ladies' Industrial Relief opened its home Oct. 1, 1892. The home was made possible thru the liberality of Davenport citizens, notably the philanthropic Nicholas Kuhnen, whose bequest formed a large part of the fund.
    It was a group of devoted women who banded together for benevolent work and labored with self-denial to aid an comfort the soldiers in the field during the dark days of the Civil war standing ready when the need for such work no longer existed for war work to do any humane task. In 1869, actuated by a desire to improve the moral, social and spiritual condition of helpless women, the ladies of the society decided to provide and maintain a home for these unfortunates.
    At the Ladies' Christian association, they organized and adopted a constitution on April 24, 1869. Soon afterward, thirty ladies pledged their influence to the cause. They made an earnest effort to secure and maintain a home, rented and furnished a building on the corner of Ripley and Fifth streets, and welcomed a number of homeless women in a place of refuge until they could take care of themselves.
    Despite all effort, however, the members were obliged to close their home on Dec. 1, 1869, for want of material support and the furniture was sold to pay off the indebtedness that had been incurred. The indomitable spirit of the society remained inactive but a short time, however, for the Chicago fire of 1871 was a bugle note to which they responded with all the zeal of war times.
    This activity performed, the society rested until the autumn of 1872, when a new impulse and a new direction were given by the thought of Mrs. James Armstrong, who in her care for the poor found more than she could do unaided and called a meeting of the ladies of the Sixth ward to propose that they organize for relief work.
    Learning of this, the ladies who had previously held membership in the Soldiers' Relief and Christian association of 1869 asked that the plan of work be enlarged to cover the needs of the whole city. This met with a ready response, and a call was issued to all women of the city thru the Y.M.C.A.. The result was the new form of organization known as the Ladies' Christian Auxiliary to the Y.M.C.A., the object being to relive the wants of the city's poor.

Open Industrial School.
    By change of constitution in 1876, the connection with the Y.M.C.A. was discontinued but the object remained the same. Then in 1878 a change was made in the method of helping the poor and the industrial school was begun. The first department opened was the sewing school for girls of needy families, to which in 1887 a cooking school was added.
    The name was changed at this time to indicate the scope of the work, and on Dec. 31, 1886, it was voted to be known as the Ladies' Industrial Relief Society. As such, the society has since stood as one of Davenport's most useful charitable organizations. Miss Phoebe Sudlow, in whose honor the East Intermediate school was recently named, was one of the members, and served as president for many years.

Present Activities.
    In the Ladies Industrial Relief Home on Sixth street between Main and Brady, the poor woman can do her washing with appliances, soap, hot water-everything necessary-without cost. Here her children are cared for out of school hours, those too young to go to school are cared for all day while the mother goes to work. Warm, nourishing food is given to the children, and mothers are instructed as to how to care for their families with greater efficiency. Clothing is furnished, and hundreds of Christmas diners are sent out annually. Girls have been helped thru school by the society.
    In one respect the Ladies' Industrial Relief is unique among Davenport organizations. Never has it conducted a drive. The society is supported by voluntary contributions which, with the endowment fund, carry on the work.

Cases Cared For.
    The Industrial Relief's object is a constructive family welfare work, to relieve distress, to promote self-support, and to raise the standards of home life. The society maintains relief, free employment, day nursery, and juvenile protective departments.
    Among the cases cared for are those of non-resident families in the county less than a year, transient families, and resident families.  Emergency visits are made when destitute families are unable to call at the office, and relief is given when needed until the proper organization can be notified. In the case of family problems, the cooperation of relatives is enlisted in supplying relief. Other organizations are asked to assist in removing causes of distress as rapidly as possible and promoting a wholesome family life.

The Nursery.
    The day nursery provides for children of families whose mother is obliged to work or thru illness or other unfortunate circumstances in the home is unable to give the proper care. The nursery helps keep such families together and instructs the heads in proper care for the children and developes a sense of responsibility as parents. The nursery also assists in the normal development of the children.
    The nursery is open five days a week, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, from 7:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and is closed on legal holidays. No distinction is made in respect of nationality, race or religion, and children from the age of 1 month thru school age are cared for. Noon meals and lunches are furnished and kindergarten children are taken to and from school by a nurse.
    The free employment bureau furnishes day work for women, such as laundry work and cleaning, odd jobs for men and boys.
    The cases dealth with include school truancy, illegitimacy, neglected children, extended constructive work for young people, cases referred by other agencies, delinquency problems of juvenile offenders to the age of 18 years, underprivileged children needing social contracts and correspondence investigations of outside agencies.

Trustees of the Industrial Relief.
    Mrs. C.A. Ficke, president.
    Mrs. G.H. Ficke, secretary.
    Mrs. J.W. Watzek, treasurer.
    Mrs. Nathaniel French.
    Mrs. J.A. Crawford.
    Mrs. W.H. Kimball.
    G. Warren French.
    Wm. H. Kern.
    Frank D. Throop.
    G.M. Bechtel.
    S.A. Sahem?
    Mr. Mary Ravenhill Dopp, general secretary.

Splendid Record Achieved by This Department of County Welfare

     The Scott County Nursing Service was organized under the auspices of the Davenport Chapter American Red Cross during the summer of 1919. In November the work was begun in the Rural Schools of the County. It was financed by the Red Cross the first year-then jointly by Red Cross and Scott County Tuberculosis funds. Since July 1921 the work  has been financed by the Board of Supervisors.
     The County Nursing Service has free use of the Visiting Nurse clinics and clinics have been held in various parts of the country-but the greatest work along this line was the 10 Sheppard-Towner Clinics held recently where 137 mothers were advised and 204 children examined. Plans are completed for each town in the county to have a clinic during the summer.
     The work in the County is largely educational being carried on in the schools thru the Modern Crusade which is teaching positive health and keeping record of health chores performed. It has been organized in all of the schools in the County, altho not in operation in every school today but the benefits are very noticeable where the rules are followed.
     For the last 3 years several schools have won national honors by their efforts so we now have several national banners and pennants and feel we have had a big part in keeping the Silver Cup in Iowa.
     The Hot School Lunch has been served in various schools with great advantage to both pupils and teacher.
     Health talks have been given to adult groups- and nursing care and instruction given in homes-where requested.
     During this time 1007 visits have been made to 659 schools, 14,189 children observed-3156 defects found-950 corrections made-732 homes visited-308 meetings attended.
     Miss Grace Van Evers, Scott county rural nurse, has reason to be proud of her work among the sick. She is known to hundreds of children and their parents as the "good angel" who never fails to come when needed.

School of Nursing Graduates Most Capable in the Profession.
Latest Scientific Developments Incorporated in Hospital

     St. Luke's hospital's phenomenal growth is not the result of an unusual number of disabilities among the inhabitants of the community, for the patients cared for in this institution include many from other cities besides Davenport.
    Almost before a year had passed in the new building at 1228 High street, it was seen that another wing would be necessary, and this will probably be added in the near future.
    It was away back in 1894 that the hospital was established thru the efforts of Davenport physicians and officials of the Episcopal diocese, the first building being in the old Newcomb home at the corner of Main and Eighth streets. It grew from the start and additional quarters were soon added.
    The new building on East high street was completed in 1918, and has continued to occupy a prominent position among the leading institutions of its kind in the Tri-Cities.
    The excellent care and treatment of patients is the result of the policy adopted by the trustees and superintendent, Miss I. Craig-Anderson, of adhering to a high standard of equipment and proficiency in the nursing personnel. Many Davenporters are not aware that each member of the school of nursing receives four months of special work at the University of Iowa, and that at the hospital the school is under the strict supervision of the superintendent. So highly are its graduates esteemed that they may by examination become registered nurses in the state.
    The course is both scientific and practical and in order to conserve the pupil a large amount of theoretical work has been planned for the preliminary course. The teaching is done by trained instructors including doctors and nurses of the staff.
    The excellent treatment received by the student nurses has resulted in a flood of applications for entrance to the school, more than can be accommodated. The students receive an allowance more than covering the cost of books, uniforms, shoes, and other incidentals; they reside in a beautiful residence adjacent to the hospital building; and are kept from drudgery that has no place in nursing routine. Furthermore, a vacation of three weeks annually is given to the students.

Wonderful Equipment.
    One of the things that impress visitors to the institution is the absence of disinfectant odors common to the hospitals. Nothing but soap and water is used as a cleansing agent so fare as floors and furniture and walls are concerned. The sick-room atmosphere, so depressing in most instances, is conspicuously absent.
    Immaculateness is evident at every turn in St. Luke's. And the pleasant personality of the staff from superintendent down to the newest nurse is not unnoticed by visitors. The rooms are large, light and airy, and the color of the walls is such as to make them restful to the eye. There are no glaring white walls except in the operating rooms. The class room for the school of nursing is beautifully situated on the top floor.
    Sun porches and a solarium on the roof add to the excellent treatment by the nursing staff that natural therapy which has been recognized as the greatest of all in convalescence. The building itself is in the center of a large tract of land, large enough to furnish space for a huge garden from which fresh vegetables are taken daily as one of the food sources of the institution.

Many Innovations.
    In new scientific apparatus, St. Luke's is always interest, and devices of recognized worth are in many instances purchased and used here for the first time in the Tri-Cities. The baby necklace, for instance, which is now being acclaimed as the greatest of all identification systems for infants in hospitals, was used by St. Luke's a year ago. Before the baby is born a necklace containing the beads spelling out the surname of the new arrival is place in the basket containing the instruments for the obstetrician after being shown to the mother to assure her that there will be no mix-up in babies.
    Another device adopted early by St. Luke's is Dr. Abt's breast pump on the obstetrical floor. Then, too, St. Luke's was the first Tri-City hospital to use ethylene gas as an anaesthetic. In recent months it has been administered quite frequently.

Obstetrical Department.
    Babies are the most interesting things in the world, and their arrival at St. Luke's hospital is anticipated with appropriate apparatus of the latest type. The delivery room is modern in its equipment, and the nursery with its rows of sleeping youngsters would be crowded continuously with visitors if they were allowed to come in. As it is, they can peep thru the glass partition, and smile as they watch Davenport's newest citizens peacefully slumbering. Each is in a separate little bed or basket, where it spend its first earthly hours for the most part in sleep. Occasionally one wakes up, gives a cry, then goes back to sleep.
    Great care is taken to keep the linen, beds, and other equipment for the babies immaculate. Every morning each youngster is laid up on a bath mat, where it receives a shower bath of the proper temperature. Cotton is used in lieu of towels, and after such use is discarded. There is no possibility of infection by this means. Every precaution is taken in order that babies may get a proper start in the world.
    One of the interesting sights in the hospital is a premature baby, seven and a half months old, which occupies a room all by itself. This baby's life was saved by incubation, the temperature being maintained in the proper degree, and feeding is affected thru a stomach tube.

    In its equipment the operating room of St. Luke's is not surpassed in the Tri-Cities.  Of course the four operating rooms are spotless, light and airy. They constitute a suite on the top floor of the building.
    One of the precautions taken against shock in the case of critical patients being removed to ????? from the operating room is the stretcher with large, rubber-tired casters and rubber buffers on the edge. This is the same height as the operating tables, expediting the removal of the patient thereto.

All Steel Furniture.
    In an effort to keep the hospital immaculate, the superintendent and trustees recently decided to remove from the patients' rooms all wooden furniture and replace it with the all-steel variety.
    Fourteen rooms are being equipped with this all-steel furniture. The beds are fitted with devices that permit the raising or lowering by means of a crank either the head or foot of the bed. The bureaus and other articles of furniture are likewise of steel, which can be washed with soap and water thoroughly when the room has been vacated and a new patient is to be received.

Labor Saving Devices.
    In the department of cuisine as in other departments, labor-saving devices are installed wherever possible. In the kitchen a giant four-speed mixer performs the various functions of beating potatoes, dicing vegetables, mixing creams, and slicing meats. A refrigerating plant in the basement keeps the food in excellent condition and a large, well-stocked store room contains food of the highest quality.

Crowded for Room.
    So popular has St. Luke's hospital been that at times it has been necessary for as many as four incoming patients to postpone the reception. The superintendent has given up her apartment on three different occasions to be used for those undergoing treatment and sun porches were for a time equipped with beds in an effort to take care of the many who have chosen this institution for treatment.

Dr. William L. Allen, Dr. F. Bendixen, Dr. W.G. Boyer, Dr. G. Braunlich, Dr. C.E. Block, Dr. J.D. Cantwell, Dr. R. Carney, Dr. G.E. Decker, Dr. H. Decker, Dr. A.P. Donahue, Dr. J. Dunn, Dr. A.W. Elmer, Dr. E.O. Ficke, Dr. W.E. Foley, Dr. W.C. Goenne, Dr. L. Guldner, Dr. A.F. Hageboeck, Dr. J.T. Haller, Dr. G.F. Harkness, Dr. S.G. Hands, Dr. R.R. Jameson, Ray Kulp, Dr. F. Lamp, Dr. F. Lambach, Dr. J.I. Marker, Dr. D.J. McCarthy, Dr. C. Middleton, Dr. F. Neufeld, Dr. R.E. Peck, Dr. J.E. Rock, Dr. W. REndleman, Dr. O.P. Sala, Dr. L.E. Shafer, Dr. Ben Schmidt, Dr. P.A. Schroeder, Dr. W.F. Skelley, Dr. E.F. Strohbehn, Dr. K. Vollmer, Dr. Lee Weber, Dr. G. Willie, Dr. Paul White.

Trustees and Managers of St. Luke's.

    Right Rev. T.N. Morrison, president.
    Dr. W.L. Allen, vice president.
    C.M. Cochrane, secretary-treasurer.
    Right Rev. Marmaduke Hare, Dr. George E. Decker, Dick R. Lane, Joseph L. Hecht, Martin L. Parker, George White, Ira R. Tabor, Seth J. Temple.

Board of Managers.
    Mrs. J.A. Crawford, president.
    Mrs. Nellie Whitaker, vice president.
    Mrs. C.V. Dart, secretary.
    Miss Lillie Preston, Mrs. J.W. Datzek, Mrs. Geo. W. French, Mrs. Leopold Simon, Dr. Jennie McCowan, Mrs. J.L. Hecht, Mrs. Geo Decker, Mrs. W.H. Rendleman, Mrs. Dick Lane, Dr. William Allen.


    Dr. John Emerson, owner of "Dred" Scott, whose name gave title to one of the most famous and momentous decisions ever handed down by the supreme court of the United States, once lived in Davenport and practiced medicine here. He was familiar with many of the old residents, having been their family physician.
    The Dred Scott case became the most important slavery case ever held in a U.S. court. The final decision meant a great deal to the . It meant that if a went into free soil with his master and returned that he was not a free .
    Dred Scott, the , was also at one time a resident of Davenport. The home of his master was where the Beck safe now stands. No doubt Dred Scott was a well known figure in Davenport.
    The remains of Doctor Emerson are buried in Davenport. He was first buried in the LeClaire cemetery at the intersection of LeClaire and  Sixth streets. Later the body was removed to either the city or St. Mary's Church yard cemetery.
An Important Case.
    The case of Dred Scott is an interesting one and every school child has read it. After Dred Scott returned to Missouri with his master, Francis P. Blair, a rising young lawyer, who was interested in anti-slavery, sought Dred Scott as a client. He wished to test the rights of slavery to reclaim persons once on free soil.
    After Dred Scott was whipped by Doctor Emerson, he had the doctor arrested on assault and battery charge, claiming that he was a free man and had that right. But since Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States, the charge had no effect.
    While Doctor Emerson was serving his country as a surgeon to the garrison on Rock Island the Black Hawk purchase carried him across the river with other settlers who were homesteading on the new land. He built a substantial home where now Beck's cafe now stands and entered a claim on the banks of the Mississippi adjoining the claim of Antoine LeClaire. Since Dred Scott was his slave, the doctor had him live on the land and fulfill the requirements expected of him. Later the doctor sold the tract for $1,000.
     The Dred Scott decision came in 1856 when Chief Justice Taney was in office. It is one of the most lengthy of decisions and is one of great interest.
Can't Be Citizen.
    It reads in part: " A free of the African race whose ancestors were brought to this country and sold as slaves is not a 'citizen' within the meaning of the Constitution. According to the constitution Dred Scott was not able to sue in that character.
    The plaintiff himself acquired no title to freedom by being taken to free territory and back to Missouri. A is not free of the owner takes him to a state where slavery is not permitted, and afterwards back to Missouri.
    Action was brought for his freedom in circuit court of St. Louis County, Missouri, where there was a verdict and judgment in his favor. On a writ of error to the Supreme court of the state, the judgment was reversed, and the case remanded to the district court."
    Briefly in the following paragraphs is told the story of Dred Scott and how he became involved in one of the most famous cases in the history of our supreme court.
    In the year 1834, Dred Scott, a slave, belonging to Doctor Emerson, who was a surgeon in the army of the United States, came north with his master. Doctor Emerson took Scott from the state of Missouri to a military post in Rock Island, Illinois. Later to Fort Snelling, Minn., then known as Upper Louisiana. He held Scott there until 1833.
    It was in the year 1836 that Scott married a woman by the name of Harriet. They had two children, Eliza and Lizzie.

14th Amendment.
    The decision of the supreme court remained a U.S. law until the passing of the 14th amendment after the Civil war.
    A story is told that at one time Dred Scott escaped from his master and hid in a building on the outskirts of the town for several days. "Nigger" runners who were working in Davenport then traced him and delivered him to Doctor Emerson. While earning a title for his master's homestead, however, Scott remained a faithful slave. It was the fact that he was torn away from his loved ones that made him fight for freedom.
    It was the fight and the audacity of the young attorney, Blair, who was able to win Scott his freedom in the state of Missouri, only to have the decision reversed by the supreme court. At that time pro and anti-slavery politics played a great part in the government of our country. It meant a great deal to slave owners if a could go into Free Soil and become a free man. But the Constitution of the United States was against them. The framers had taken care of the slavery question until the passing of the 14th amendment.
    Just where Doctor Emerson's grave is located, no one seems to know. It certainly would be a spot of national historic interest.


     Cities are but men magnified; their histories are definitely formed and their development as truly shaped by characteristics and decided by simple events which controlled their destinies as any man's. The glamour of their rise to high position and their accession of power is no less wonderful than that of the individuals who make up the municipality.
    Few there were perhaps in LeClaire's day who dared to let their imagination pierce the future but little more than three quarters of a century away to visualize a city on the Mississippi with industries which reached to all parts of the world, with buildings scarcely then conceived in the minds of the builders in the civilization they had left. Even fewer, then were there who in the activities about the French & Davies mill of the '66's saw in the lad packing shingles at that plant, a bui8lder who in four decades was to be so nationally known that the United States of America would invite him to bid upon its first Panama canal project; few, too, of those who toiled in the stone-yards at the Rock Island Arsenal a decade later would believe that before their own span of life had finished, their fellow-worker, Patrick T. Walsh, native of Davenport, was to direct railroad construction works throughout the nation; handling contracts whose totals annually mounted into millions.
    It seemed a far journey from a humble home and struggling family of eight to dazzling pinnacle of command in the engineering world, but it was Pat Walsh's journey and he accomplished it. No magic formula of success was his; he held no Aladdin lamp to fortune.
    "Success can be classified as that quality which prompts the average individual to 'move up' as he enters a crowded street car," Pat Walsh once explained.  "About the entrance, the crowd huddles together and the congestion is being gradually added to by the incoming passengers. Finally, someone gets aboard whose disposition and temperament is to 'move up' where there is more room and tho he bumps some of the passengers and gets jostled himself, he reaches the place where there is more room and a better atmosphere and really makes it more satisfactory for the crowd he passed on his way to comfort."

"Moving Up" Always.
    That was Pat's creed. His life exemplified the "moving up" process. Those who caught his spirit moved along with him as biographies of half a dozen of his associates can attest and they found him quick to recognize the same quality in others that he himself possessed. No little of his success in life can be attributed to his fidelity and keen judgment of his aides. Men who proved their worth in his early years rose with him to high position in the Walsh ranks.
    Born March 17, 1855, of parents but lately come from County Clare, Ireland, and settled in this community, he was one of a family of eight. An elder, too, upon whom early fell some of the responsibilities of providing for the home. Thus the summer when he was 11, Pat went into the world of wage earners, a shingle packer and probably general errand boy. Two summers of this and the next year found him carrying water for men engaged in the "Big Cut" in West Davenport- his first association with railroad construction gangs and the initial touch of the romance of the builders. Then the Rock Island Arsenal was booming and for the lad who seemed destined to earn his livelihood by the toil of his brow, the stonemason's art held promise of future sustenance. For a decade he worked there.
    In the '80s, tho, the men sought better working hours and in the difficulties which ensued Walsh took an uncompromising stand. The men won their contention. Their working conditions were adjusted to their satisfaction, but Walsh, tho a victor in the fight- emerged defeated- a defeat which started him on the high-road to wealth and prominence.  He was not returned to the Arsenal and his years of faithful service seemed to have been lost.
    He didn't turn from his chosen occupation nor from his home. With no financial backing and only such equipment he could assemble by his limited means, he sought minor contracts, digging cellars, and similar supplementary excavation jobs. But Pat had a line of action. He was in the crowd at the entrance to life's reward and he determined to "move up."

Lands First Contract.
    Cellar work led to sewer-drains and street improvement and his field was gradually expanding until one happy day he landed a contract for the "fill" on the Burlington right-of-way at Galva. That was a crucial point in his life for from then on, Walsh Construction company, under various names and in varied combinations, forged slowly to the front as a railroad construction concern. On the Newer larger roads, the Walsh crews were continuously employed.
    Success of these later days never turned Pat's head. He was ever thotful of the needy. His charity was broad and once he learned of a sick or crippled youngster and their needs he never failed to remember them by generous gift. His civic pride kept pace with his own charity. Institutions and causes have occasion to remember his generosity as those of his aides who advanced with their leader to important places.
    In the construction field the Walsh interests were centered. Later years brought a diversification of his enterprises. The Walsh Construction company which was the development and focal point of all his engineering activities represented the merger of half a dozen companies which had operated under his controlling genius; the Blackhawk hotel will stand a monument to his civic industry and pride as well as his art as a builder, the Sacred Heart Cathedral, another of his local projects, was his particular pride.
    So, this is the story of a boy who rode from water-carrier to ride in his private car, who lost in victory and turned defeat to success, who never failed to take note of faithful service and rewarded it, whose charity grew as his means.


     Few of the Davenporters to whom Campbell's Island is a familiar place realized that one of the most important events of the city's history took place there when Lieutenant Campbell, traveling up the river to Prairie Du Chien, was attacked by Indians under the command of Chief Black Hawk.
     The battle was one of the most exciting in the long record of those early encounters, when the settlers warred with an unfriendly race besides with the unfriendly elements.
     Early in July, 1814, and expedition under the command of Captain John Campbell, First United States infantry, left St. Louis and proceeded to Prairie Du Chien to strengthen the garrison at that place. The expedition, consisting of 42 regulars, 66 rangers and about 21 other persons, including boatmen, women, and the sutler's establishment, went up the river in three jeel-boats as far as Rock Island, near which place the expedition was attacked by the Indians and nearly destroyed.

Expedition Reaches Rock Island.
    Lieutenant Campbell commanded the boat with the regulars, and Captain Stephen Rector and Lieutenant Riggs the other two barges manned by the rangers. The expedition reached Rock Island in peace, but the Sac and Fox Indians, in great numbers, swarmed around the boats while still professing peace. The barge commanded by Rector was navigated by the French of Cahokia, who were good sailors and soldiers. During the night while the boats lay still at Rock Island, the Indians were making hollow professions of friendship. Many of the French, knowing the Indians too well, informed Lieutenant Campbell of their treachery. But the Lieutenant could not be convinced that the Indians were anything but friendly. Not without reason were the fears of the French; the Indians wanted them to leave the Americans and go home. They would squeeze the hands of the French, pulling their hands down the river, indicating to leave. The Indians disliked to fight their old friend the French.

"Campbell's Island"
    When the fleet set sail in the morning the wind above Rock Island blew so hard that Campbell's boat was forced on a lee shore and lodged on a small island near the mainland known from this circumstance as "Campbell's Island." Commanded by Black Hawk the Indians began an attack on the boat as soon as it hit the shore. Ahead, the boats of Rector and Riggs could see the smoke of the fire arms but could not hear the report of the guns. The two ships returned to assist Campbell, but the wind was so high that their barges were almost unmanageable; they were forced to anchor at some distance from Campbell, unable to help him because the storm raged so severely.
    Driven ashore by the wind, Campbell's men began cooking their breakfast. But despite the sentinels that Campbell had placed out, the enemy rushed in on them by the hundreds, killing many on the spot. The survivors took rescue in the boat where, on and around it, the warriors kept up a continuous attack until they succeeded setting the boat on fire.

Rector to the Rescue.
    Campbell's men had almost ceased firing when Rector and his men came to the rescue. The bottom of the burning boat was covered with the dead and wounded; Campbell himself lay wounded in the midst of his dying men. Rector and his men, unable to remain inactive spectators to the destruction of Campbell and his men, had raised their anchor in a tempest of wind and in the face of almost a thousand Indians, had imperiled their lives to rush to the scene of action.
     During the rest of the war in the west, no act of daring and bravery surpassed the rescue of Campbell. The French rangers under Rector were well acquainted with managing a boat in such a crisis, while neither the commander nor his men lacked in chivalry and patriotism.
     Rector's boat had first been lightened by casting overboard quantities of provisions. Many of the crew then actually got out of the boat into the water, and leaving the vessel between them and the fire of the enemy, pushed their boat against the fire the entire distance to Campbell's boat, which was in the possession of the Indians. Rector and his 40 men made a steady advance until, forging their barge to the burning boat, they faced nearly a thousand of the enemy and carried the wounded and living soldiers, together with their commander, to safety.

Return to St. Louis.
    By his superior knowledge of the management of a vessel, a saltwater sailor by the name of Doadley did gallant service in the daring enterprise.
     Rector took all the live men from Campbell's boat into his while his men, in the water, hauled their own boat out into the stream. The Indians fasted on the abandoned boat of Campbell.
     With his boat crowded with wounded and dying, Rector rowed night and day until they reached St. Louis. The boat of Riggs was supposed to have been captured by the enemy, but the vessel, strongly fortified lay in the hands of the enemy for several hours, the enemy in possession of the outside, the whites the inside. In the evening the wind subsided so that Riggs got his boat off, leaving the Indians in the lurch.
     There was a general jubilee in St. Louis when Riggs, without losing many men, arrived to safety. But Rector and Riggs, with their troops, presented a distressing sight; those who were not wounded were worn down to skeletons by labor and fatigue.

Territory's Settled Portion for Long Only a Narrow Strip on River.

    In 1833 settlers began to stake out claims in Iowa. The principal crossings of the Mississippi were at Davenport, Burlington, and Dubuque, where ferries were located.
    In June, 1824, the whole region lying between the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers and extending from the state of Missouri to the British possessions on the north was annexed to Michigan territory. When the council met in September the Black Hawk purchase was divided into two counties, the division line running due west from the lower end of Rock Island. The northern county was called Dubuque and the southern Demoine. For judicial purposes the two counties were attached to what was Iowa county, Michigan territory. In court parlance the three counties thus united were called the Iowa district, of which David Irving was made a judge.
    As an assurance of peace on the frontier, the war department stationed three companies of the First United States Dragoons on the Iowa bank of the Mississippi river a short distance above the mouth of the Des Moines, called Camp De Moines.

Take Census.
    In 1836 a census was taken of the territory, when the four counties east of the Mississippi returned a population of 11,687 and the two counties west, 10,531, of which 6,257 were in the county of Demoine and 4,274 in Dubuque. The apportionment for the election to be held in September of that year was based on the population for Demoine county ten members in the two houses of the territorial legislature and for Dubuque county eight, making eighteen members in all against nineteen elected from the east side of the river. In the election, George W. Jones was returned to congress. The council elected met at Belmont in what is now Wisconsin, Oct. 5, 1836, when Peter Engle of Dubuque county was elected president of the lower house.
    At this session Demoine county was subdivided into counties as they now exist, except that the southern part of what is Scott county was then called Cook.
    On Nov. 6, 1837, the first legislative body met in what is now Iowa, being the second session of the first territorial council of Wisconsin. A temporary building erected for the meeting was destroyed by fire so the council met in a Methodist church to which the name Old Zion was given. At this session Dubuque county was subdivided into the smaller counties as they now exist.
    On June 12, 1838, President Martin Van Buren signed the bill by which Iowa territory came into existence on the fourth of July of that year.

First Territorial Government.
    Despite its immense size, Iowa territory's settled portion was confined to a narrow strip along the Mississippi. Of this vast domain President Van Buren made Robert Lucas of Ohio governor and Wm. B. Conway of Pennsylvania secretary. As justices of the supreme court the president appointed Charles Mason chief justice and Joseph Williams and Thomas S. Wilson associate justice.
    Governor Lucas was a Methodist, a strict moralist, who abhorred drinking and gambling and announced he would appoint to office no man addicted to these habits.
    Secretary Conway, who is described as not always scrupulous, arrived on the scene before the governor and virtually assumed the office of governor. As governor pro tempore he divided the territory into judicial districts and assigned the judges to their places. He went to Davenport and entered into negotiations to make it the capital, and was on the point of issuing a proclamation for legislative districts, when the governor himself arrived.
    The governor proceeded to inspect his domain and desired to locate the temporary capital. Dubuque was the largest city. Here he met a young man named John Plumbe, jr., whose townsmen said he was crazy on the subject of a transcontinental railroad. Bellevue in Jackson county was well established; there was a settlement at Lyons, but Clinton was still unknown.
    Davenport was a new town, the creation of Antoine LeClaire and the trader after whom it was named. Rockingham opposite the mouth of the Rock River and Buffalo a few miles lower still regarded themselves as rivals of Davenport. Muscatine was then called Bloomington. The governor finally made Burlington the temporary capital of the territory.

Peter Cartwright, Famous Backwoods Preacher, Rode Circuit Here in Early Days

    Religious services in the twentieth century are held in edifices so magnificent that it is difficult to realize the difference between present-day worship and that of the days when Davenport had not yet become a town.
    Back in 1828, Peter Cartwright, the most picturesque of the many backwoods preachers, traveled a circuit from Galena to Kentucky and it was then that Methodism first reached Iowa. Wm. D.R. Crotter first broke ground in Iowa at Burlington. Cartwright, his father-in-law, followed soon after.
    "There was but a scattered population," Cartwright says of his first preaching in Iowa. "Yet when they came out to meeting the cabins were so small that not one in the settlement would hold all. We repaired to a grove and hastily prepared seats. With an old bent-over tree trunk as a pulpit, I declared the unsearchable riches of the gospel of Jesus Christ."

The Old Time Religion.
    Religion today is a dignified ceremony compared to the time when Cartwright rode the circuit. Decorum characterizes the worship of our huge cathedrals. Occasionally there is a revival, and people hit the sawdust trail; but even a red-hot revival produces no such varieties of religious experience as Cartwright frequently witnessed.
    "A new exercise broke out among us called the jerks," he says, "which was overwhelming in its effects upon the bodies and minds of the people. Whether saints or sinners, they would be taken under a warm song or sermon and seized with a convulsive jerking all over, which they could not avoid. I have seen more than 100 persons jerking at one time. To obtain relief they would rise up and dance. Some would run, but could not get away.
    "To see these proud young gentlemen and young ladies dressed in their silks, jewelry and prunella from top to toe, take the jerks could often excite my risibilities. The first jerk or so, you could see their fine bonnets, caps and combs fly; and so sudden would be the jerking of the head that their long loose hair would crack almost as loud as a wagoner's whop.

Riding the Circuit.
    Cartwright was appointed to the Quincy district in 1832 and cared for a number of missions commencing at the mouth of the Illinois river and running up the Mississippi to Galena. There were 1400 Methodists in the district.
    His district consisted of new settlements. His travel entailed long hard rides, cabin parlors, straw beds and bedsteads made of barked saplings, and puncheon bedcords, but the people were kind, and showed genuine frontier hospitality. The men were hardy, industrious, enterprising. The women  were also hardy- would think nothing of turning out and helping raise cabins, and would mount a horse and trot 10 to 15 miles to meeting or to see the sick!
Disliked "Hothouse Plants"
    Cartwright did not like the ladies of fashion. Of them he says they would faint if they had to walk 100 yards in the sun without a parasol; that they were braced and stayed to such and extent that they could not step more than six or eight inches at a time. "Should they by an accident happen to lose their moorings and fall, they were imprisoned with so many unmentionables that they could not get up again."

Almost Pawns His "Benny."
    It was in the late 30's or early 40's that Cartwright first visited the mission at Rock Island, in charge of Philip T. Cordier, " a man of feeble talents, unstable, one who did but little good, and was finally expelled." The mission was located at what was then called Wells' settlement, a few miles above the mouth of Rock river.
    The river was high, and the preacher did not want to swim. He asked the ferryman to take him across, promising to pay him on Monday. The ferryman, " a very mean man who charged high and imposed travelers," would not do it without Cartwrights pawning something. He suggested that an overcoat be left. Cartwright needed the coat, and so was unable to ride. A little further, he saw a horseman fording the river, which appeared not to be deep, and crossed.
    When he asked the stranger about his experience with the ferryman, the latter said, "You have made a blessed escape, for if you had left your overcoat you never would have got it again. He is a great rascal and makes his living by foul means."

Falls in the River.
    On another visit to a quarterly meeting on the Rock Island mission, he was accompanied by Brother Summers, a traveling presiding elder. The two decided to cross the upper ford on Rock river. Both were riding horses and carrying many religious books. Cartwright's horse slipped on a rock in the middle of the stream and fell. The saddle turned and Cartwright was thrown into the stream. He left his horse and swam after his saddle bags, which he recovered just before they began to sink. His books and clothes were ruined.

His Visit of 1861.
    In his 76th year, Cartwright returned to Rock Island to preach. The Davenport Gazette for Oct. 3, 1861, said: "This octogenarian lectures this evening at the Methodist church in Rock Island this evening. In all probability it will be the last opportunity our citizens will have to hear the celebrated man. They should avail themselves of it. The proceeds of the lecture are to be given to the Methodist church of Rock Island."

A Picturesque Character.
    The noted circuit-rider was born in Amhurst county on the James river in Virginia, Sept. 1, 1785, and died near Pleasant Prairie, Ill., Sept. 1, 1872, in his 87th year. His work among the pioneers suffered many hardships. When the slavery question, which split the Methodist church into two factions that are not attempting to unite, was broached to him, he said, "I believe that the most successful way to ameliorate the condition of the slaves and Christianize them and finally secure their freedom is to treat their owners kindly and not to meddle politically with slavery."

Talks with Mormon Leader.
    At Springfield, Cartwright once met Joseph Smith, who was head of the Mormon church, at Nauvoo, where it took refuge after having been expelled from Missouri. They fell into a conversation on the subject of religion. "I found him to be a very illiterate and impudent desperado in morals, but at the same time he had a vast fund of low cunning," Cartwright said of the incident. "He made his onset by flattery and laid on the soft sodder thick and fast, called me one of God's noblest creatures. He believed that among all the churches in the world the Methodist was nearest right, as far as they went, but had stopped short by claiming the gift of tongues, prophecy, and miracles, and quoted a batch of scripture to prove his positions correct. Pretty well for clumsy Joe, I gave him rope."
    Later Smith said of the circuit rider, I will show you that I will raise up a government in these United States that will overturn the present government; I will raise up a new religion that will overthrow every other form in the country."
    Yes, Uncle Joe, but my bible tells me 'the bloody and deceitful man shall not live out half his days'; and I expect the Lord will send the devil after you some of these days and take you out of the way."
    "No sir, I shall live and prosper while you will die in your sins."
    "Well, sir," Cartwright came back, "if you live and prosper you must quit your stealing."- and here the preacher made an illusion to Smith's polygamy in no polite terms. "Thus we parted to meet no more on earth; for in a few years after this an outraged and deeply hurt people took the law into their own hands and killed him and drove the Mormons from the state."

Palmer School Growth the Life Work of Man Who Fought Great Odds
Birth of Chiropractic in Davenport Brought Era of Good Health

    A bright star must have been shining in the heavens that night. It must have been such a star that in 1881 years before had shone in the heavens, leading the Three Wise Men to Bethlehem and heralding a new day for the earthborn. But there were no three wise men to see this star 38 years ago. It was 14 long years before the world caught the radiance of the new light.
    The star of 1881 saw the birth of a new healer of humanity, one who was healed by the "laying on of hands," who also trod a path of stones and carried a cross, the cross of bigotry and hatred for long years before the world accepted him. It has accepted him now, this greatest healer of the sick since Christ, and it calls him B.J. Palmer, of whom the world learned thru his message to suffering humanity, spelled with the letters C-H-I-R-O-P-R-A-C-T-I-C.
    Like the greater Master he came into the world without a retinue. He was born in poverty. He grew up a little barefoot boy, a bright-eyed, mischievous youngster loving nature and all living things; but so poor that his little friends in What Cheer, Iowa, pointed him out as one not of themselves. He differed from them; however, in a way they did not know.
    B.J. was not an ordinary boy. He did unheard-of things, supplied his own ideas, supplied them for the entire neighborhood. During B.J.'s boyhood, the father removed to Davenport with no prophets to herald his arrival. The father was a healer of the sick, a man who had never studied in a college or received a diploma. Hence the public called him a "quack". He had found medicine unable to cure the ills of life and had tossed it aside. He called medicine "quackery."
    The heavy hand of physicians fell on him, and he was found guilty of practicing medicine without a license and thrown into jail. He came out determined that the grave alone should end his fight against medicine. Gone, now, his standard has not gone down in the dust. The reputation of the father was tacked on to the son, who saw in the things that were bad for a child to see only their opposites, the better things of life.

Cures the Deaf.
    It was an accident that led B.J.'s footsteps on the path to fame - at the age of 14. An old janitor in the building where the father of the Child of Destiny had his office had been deaf for 18 years. Physicians and medicine had failed him. He came to the Palmer office. The magnetic healer ran his finger along the patient's backbone. He felt a bump as if one of the vertebrae had been misplaced, pressed on it, and the bump disappeared. Three days later the janitor, Harvey Lilliard, could hear as well as anyone.

Chiropractic Was Born.
    Like every other great movement that has startled the world, it was born of accident. Chiropractic is the simplest science of adjusting the causes of human ills the world has known. The chiropractor says disease results from lack of mental impulse nourishment to some part of the body. Mental impulse energy goes out from the brain to all parts of the body thru the spinal column as a distributing station. The nerves come out of the spinal column at vertebral joints. If a vertebrae is out of place, it impinges on or pinches the nerve. The normal impulse current can not flow thru the pinched nerve. Hence the organ or muscle or bone does not get its proper current and nourishment. "THE HOSE HAS BEEN STEPPED ON. GET OFF THE HOSE," the Chiropractor says. The process of putting the vertebrae back in place is called "adjustment." The Chiropractor feels down the spine, locates the subluxated vertebrae, and sends it back into place with a quick and firm movement of the hand.
    Dr. Palmer now has the largest collection of spines in the world, his museum showing over 10,000 specimens, revealing in a subluxated vertebrae the disease of which the patient died. The second largest collection is at Harvard University.

Name the Science.
    In 1895, knowing his discovery would startle the scientific world, the father had sought for it an adequate name. Rev. S.H. Weed of Monmouth, Ill., who had been restored to health thru it, coined the word "chiropractic" from the Greek words "chiro" and "practice", meaning "done by the hands." No sooner had the science been christened than it came under a baptism of fire from the medical profession. The father was old. A stronger spirit was needed to bear his banner, and it was found in the son, who brought the faith, the enthusiasm of youth, boundless energy, the soul of a crusader fighting for his convictions.
    The sick were ready for this enthusiast to lead, but his enemies- entrenched behind wealth, prestige, popular opinion, the laws of the land- were in the field. The medical profession saw in the young B.J. Palmer an antagonist to be feared, however, and a fight was begun against him that has been raged relentlessly to this day. Huge sums of money were collected and skilled legal talent was engaged to put him out of business. The cross was gradually made heavier, Grand juries were invaded, and a desperate effort was made to locy the chiropractor behind prison doors. The effort failed because people had been cured of long sickness and testified in B.J. Palmer's behalf. In gratitude they bent their shoulders to his cross.
    But that didn't stop the battle. B.J. had begun teaching the science when but a lad of 14 years. Every graduate got some of the doctor's business and all this but multiplied the size of his target. The arrows of injustice increased so fast that the battle spread all over the country. It is all over the world today.

Started With 3 Students.
    Beginning at the bottom of the ladder with three students and a little bedroom for his school, B.J. had built up an embryo Chiropractic college. A small bedroom 24 years ago- today a wonderful institution cover over two city blocks, pulsating with activity with its thousands of people daily sending its message of health thru stricken humanity to the corners of the earth.
    He began to teach when a child as Christ had done when he revolutionized the world's ideas on the one thing greater than health- immortality. It scarcely seemed the work of earth or of man.
    The first students were people whom Chiropractic had cured, zealots of a new religion of healing their fellow men. They went into the world and spread the teachings of the master as the disciples of the greater Master had gone centuries before. The college of Chiropractic grew like a spring torrent. B.J. grew with his students. His only education had been in the school of experience.
    The youthful teacher soon outgrew his little school and cast his eyes to the top of a hill covered with churches and fine old mansions overlooking the busy marts of commerce below. Little did he dream that his school was to grow into an institution representing an investment of nearly a million dollars. His new school at the top of the hill grew amazingly and became known as "the fountain head," the source of pure gospel of true Chiropractic. The gospel took root in many places; school sprang up in other cities; but their founders lacked the deep purpose, the rare insight and the unflagging energy, of B.J. Palmer. They taught a business, not a principle; they saw the dollars- he saw lives. They never usurped the place of "the fountain head." Schools were even built next door on a Chiropractic name with antipodal teachings, but today the "school of revenge" is in bankruptcy.
    Today the Palmer school still remains the mecca of the incurables of all diseases, the alma mater of the science of Chiropractic.
    Wonderful individual tho he is, B.J. has not done all this alone. He met among his patients a girl who outranked all his friends. She was of deeply scientific mind, but above all else she was a woman such as could not be found in a thousand, nay, a million. They were married- Miss Mabel Heath and B.J. Palmer. She shared all his trials, bore with him all his burdens. To her he turned for sage counsel. When his spirit wavered, her faith bore him up. Together they burned the midnight oil. Passers-by in the early morning saw two heads over a student lamp. Intently they studied together mastering the knowledge fate had placed in their safe-keeping. They worked together as they work together today, teaching classes, developing the science thru research and experiment, each helping the other toward a common goal.
    To one who knows Mrs. Palmer- and there are many who pride themselves on her friendship - it is no wonder that the husband calls his wife "My better seven-eighths."
    Mrs. Palmer is now the most widely known woman as well as anatomist in the Chiropractic profession. She conducts all the advanced classes in anatomy, and is a world-wide authority on the subject. Her lectures on anatomy have been published in book form and have had wide circulation. Her great scientific knowledge and her active work of teaching did not prevent her crowning her womanhood with motherhood, however. Their only son, David, is a worthy successor to his illustrious father.
No Social Ladder to Climb.
    Dr. and Mrs. Palmer care nothing for society. The social activities of the Palmer school keep them busy. They belong to few social clubs. They do some entertaining, but are not often entertained. They are workers, not wasters.
    Today the Palmer school is known where Yale and Harvard have never been heard of. It is the ranking Chiropractic school of the world. Students throng its halls from all parts of the earth. Its buildings, laboratories, collections, equipment, and other assets could not be bought for less than a million dollars.
    A whole professional army has climbed upon the ladder Gen. B.J. Palmer has built out of his cross. The army is led by 10,000 lieutenants, the chiropractic graduates. Twenty million privates- their patients- compose the vast army.

Emergency Runs Occasionally Brought Owners as High as $1,000 a Day.
Two Hundred Carloads of Wheat and Flour Not an Unusual Cargo.

    It was in 1860 that the boats on the Mississippi enjoyed their largest profits. By the end of the war they carried immense volumes of freight and made prodigious sums. One boat carried over 200 carloads of wheat and flour, and at the end of that year its accounts showed a profit of $70,000 after running expenses and repairs had been paid.
    Large elevators were erected at East Dubuque, Prairie du Chien, Winona and LaCrosse, and barges carrying from 5,000 to 10,000 bushels each were used for the traffic. At first the grain had been handled in two-bushel sacks, but the bulk shipment method superseded the former practice.
    Every boat made money, and all received as much business as they could accommodate. It was not unusual for a boat to make $1,000 a day and sometimes more. The swiftest returns ever known here-abouts were made by Captain D.S. Harris of the War Eagle, who at the end of the season, when ready to quit, received official notice from the packet company that a large amount of freight must come down the river.
    Company rates were fixed and the captain enjoyed no discretion. Captain Harris got as far as Hastings, Minn., and within four days was back loaded. When he reached Galena he was unrighteously mad, as was the clerk. Asked the reason, he replied emphatically that he had set out to make $10,000 on the run but had cleaned up only $9,700.


    Wood was the sole fuel used by steamboats on the upper Mississippi in the fifties and sixties. Small flue boilers in which coal could not be burned were used.
    Fortunately, there was an abundance of excellent wood all along the river. This was paid for in cash. Wood yards were opened up at many points. On the steamer Yankee, $1.25 a cord was paid for good dry wood; on the Northern Light, as high as $4.
    At first the boats landed to "wood-up"; later, as time became more valuable, wood was taken on while the boat was running. The woodyard kept a barge or two with a capacity of 30 or 40 cords. Captains desiring wood would have a loaded barge dashed to his boat and proceed while the cargo was being transferred the the deck of his boat. The empty barge would drop down the river after unloading.
    Thirty or 40 cords was as much as a boat usually took at a time. A three-boiler boat with an 18-inch cylinder would burn about 30 cords of wood in 24 hours; a 22-inch cylinder about 40 cords.

Territory's Settled Portion for Long Only a Narrow Strip on River.

     In 1833 settlers began to stake out claims to Iowa. The principal crossings of the Mississippi were at Davenport, Burlington, and Dubuque, where ferries were located.
     In June, 1824, the whole region lying between the Mississippi and the Missouri rivers and extending from the state of Missouri to the British processions on the north was annexed to Michigan territory. When the council met in September the Black Hawk purchase was divided into two counties, the division line running due west from the lower end of Rock Island. The northern county was called Dubuque and the southern Demoine. For judicial purposed, the two counties were attached to what was Iowa county, Michigan territory. In court parlance, the three counties thus united were called the Iowa district, of which David Irving was made justice.
    As an assurance of peace on the frontier, the war department stationed three companies of the First United States Dragoons on the Iowa bank of the Mississippi river a short distance above the mouth of the Des Moines, called Camp Des Moines.
Take Census.
    In 1836 a census was taken of the territory, when the four counties east of the Mississippi returned a population of 11,687 and the two counties west, 10,531, of which 6257 were in the county of Demoine and 4274 in Dubuque. The apportionment for the election to be held in September of that year was based on this population, for Demoine county ten members in the two houses of the territorial legislature and for Dubuque county eight, making eighteen members in all against nineteen elected from the east side of the river. In the election, George W. Jones was returned to congress. The council elected met at Belmont in what is now Wisconsin, Oct. 5, 1836, when Peter Engle of Dubuque county was elected president of the lower house.
    At this session Demoine county was subdivided into counties as they now exist, except that the southern part of what is Scott county was then called Cook.
    On Nov. 6, 1837, the first legislative body in what is now Iowa, being the second session of the first territorial council of Wisconsin. A temporary building was erected for the meeting was destroyed by fire, so the council met in a Methodist church to which the name Old Zion was given. At this session Dubuque county was subdivided into the smaller counties as they now exist.
    On June 12, 1838, President Martin Van Buren signed the bill by which Iowa territory came into existence on the fourth of July of that year.

First Territorial Government.
    Despite its immense size, Iowa territory's settled portion was confined to a narrow strip along the Mississippi. Of this vast domain President Van Buren made Robert Lucas of Ohio governor and Wm. B. Conway of Pennsylvania secretary. As justices of the supreme court the president appointed Charles Mason chief justice and Joseph Williams and Thomas S. Wilson associate justice.
    Governor Lucas was a Methodist, a strict moralist, who abhorred drinking and gambling and announced he would appoint to office no man addicted to those habits.
    Secretary Conway, who is described as not always scrupulous, arrived on the scene before the governor and virtually assumed the office of governor. As governor pro tempore he divided the territory into judicial districts and assigned the judges to their places. He went to Davenport and entered into negotiations to make it into the capital, and was on the point of issuing a proclamation for legislative elections when the governor himself arrived.
    The governor proceeded to inspect his domain and desired to locate the temporary capital. Dubuque was the largest city. Here he met a young man named John Plumbe, jr, whose townsmen said he was crazy on the subject of a transcontinental railroad. Bellevue in Jackson county was well established; there was a settlement at Lyons, but Clinton was still unknown.
    Davenport was a new town, the creation of Antoine LeClaire and the trade after whom it was named. Rockingham opposite the mouth of Rock river and Buffalo a few miles lower still regarded themselves rivals of Davenport. Muscatine was then called Bloomington. The governor finally made Burlington the temporary capital of the territory.


    It was the great army of immigrants which began to pour into the country during the decade of years immediately following 1850 that carried the cross beyond the mountain wildernesses of the Alleghanies into the great open country of the West. Flinging westward the boundaries of the nation, this already moving procession of human life was indeed the joyous realization of that idea conceived by Mathias Loras, first bishop of Dubuque, to build in the land of the Mississippi communities and institutions of enduring usefulness. Across the great river they came at the invitation of the saintly Loras to assume their part in the shaping of the destinies of the Iowa commonwealth.
    In these years, particularly, there was arising in the state of the Mississippi valley a new people whose lifeblood was to embody the best energies a well as the fairest social and political aspirations of various nations. Many of them found in the then primitive town of Davenport a place where their efforts might be sustained in the years that were to follow; so many, indeed, that those among them who were children of Catholic lands crowded beyond its capacity the venerable church of St. Anthony, on Fourth and Main streets, Davenport's first religious structure and the second oldest Catholic church in the state of Iowa. And so to provide for the increasing Catholic population of the city it was decided that there should be erected on the eastern bluffs another permanent and exclusive place for the service of the altar. This was the beginning of the present Cathedral of the Sacred Heart.

Antoine Le Claire and Old Saint Marguerite's

     Irrevocably linked with the beginning of the city and the city's religious history is the name of Antoine LeClaire. Sacred to his memory, likewise, is the Catholic Cathedral of the city of Davenport.
    When the news was given that there should be another religious structure to hold on high the Cross of Christ, the generosity of this early settler prompted him to offer the church authorities a square of land as the site for its proposed edifice. This plot of ground, bordered by Iowa, LeClaire, Ten and Eleventh streets, was accepted for the church by the Reverend A. Trevis, who had been sent by Bishop Loras to take possession of the property.
    On the twenty-ninth of June, 1856, the first stone of St. Marguerite's, as the church was called, was blessed by Bishop Loras in the presence of a great concourse of people. The work went rapidly forward and on the third Sunday of the following October the structure was dedicated by the pioneer priest of Davenport, the Reverend Anthony Pelamourgues. All the needed furniture for the church was provided by the same generous founder who later built and furnished the parochial residence. Pre-eminent, indeed, stands the figure of Antoine LeClaire in the religious history of Davenport; his name should be ever laid in benediction not only by the parishioners of the Cathedral parish but also by the Catholics of this community.
    The first priest in charge of St. Marguerite's was the Reverend A. Trevis whose six year's pastorate was blessed with excellent results. The most important and indeed the most lasting of Father Trevis' labors is the parochial school was was founded in 1860; that which he dared to prevision in those early days has by constant effort and sacrifice on the part of those who came after him became the ride of the Cathedral parish. In 1862 Father Trevis was obliged on account of illness to give up his duties as pastor of St. Marguerite's, leaving his young assistant, the Reverend Henry Cosgrove, in charge of that rapidly growing parish.

The Reverend Henry Cosgrove

    Father Cosgrove came to assist Father Trevis when St. Marguerite's was but one year old and when he himself had been ordained priest but eleven days before. With zeal and energy he entered upon his duties as assistant and for five years he served in this capacity. When full charge of the church was placed in his hands he proceeded at once to meet efficiently the wants of the large congregation that had grown up in the parish. It was a just tribute to his labors of so many years, that when in 1881 Davenport was raised to the dignity of an episcopal see Father Cosgrove was named vicar-general of the diocese by the newly appointed and consecrated bishop, the Right Reverend John McMullen, D.D.  St. Marguerite's Church was at this time chosen as the Cathedral for the diocese.
    The work of Davenport's first bishop had scarcely begun when death came to close his career, one that held so much promise for the church in the new see city. But the young diocese was not long left an orphan. The Holy See recognizing the worth, the labor, the plety and the wisdom of the vicar-general, named as second bishop of the diocese the long time pastor of St. Marguerite's. His consecration took place on Sept. 14, 1884, and immediately he took up the work so lately commenced by Bishop McMullen. Obliged to relinquish the duties as pastor of St. Marguerite's, Bishop Cosgrove selected as his vicar-general and successor one from St. Marguerite's earliest hour was identified with its creation, its history and its duties.

Father Trevis Again Pastor at St. Marguerite's

    When Father Trevis returned from France, whither he had gone to regain his health, he was given charge of Mercy Hospital. It was, therefore, fitting that Bishop Cosgrove should call to the pastorate of St. Marguerite's its first priest, his own guide and preceptor under whose direction his priestly character was formed and the lines of his wise useful life were marked out. Father Trevis continued as pastor of St. Marguerite's until 1889.
    For some time previous to this date the inadequate facilities of the church that had been used as the Cathedral of the diocese were appreciated and lamented. It was finally decided to erect by the side of the old church a cathedral that would be adequate to the needs of the parish and of the dioceses. For the accomplishment of this laborious work, strong and willing hands were necessary. In view of the heavy weight of years under which he labored, Father Trevis felt that the task would be too great for him and upon younger shoulders should fall the burden of the rectorship of St. Marguerite's with its new added duties. So in the fall of 1889 he sent his resignation to Bishop Cosgrove and asked for a successor.

The Reverend James. J. Davis

    From among the faithful hand of his able priests, Bishop Cosgrove could not have selected a man better fitted in every respect to win the regard and confidence of his parishioners and to carry on the work of erecting the new cathedral than the Reverend James J. Davis. The people of St. Marguerite's responded generously to the appeal of their energetic, zealous and able leader and with the aid that was given them thruout the diocese the Sacred Heart cathedral is today a monument to the worth, aspirations and labors of the bishop of the diocese and of the pastor and people of this congregation. The cornerstone was laid April 27, 1890, with Bishop Cosgrove officiating. The name of the cathedral was changed from that of Saint Marguerite as it had been decided to dedicate the first church of the diocese to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Within the cornerstone it contained the inscription:
    The former church among the trees of the secular forest at the eastern part of this ground, built and given by A. LeClaire to them that were first to arrive, and in these days gives place to a new structure to which it is worthy to give it an increase. The beginning of the good work - the Inspirer of generosity - The Protector of the whole place - is the most Sacred Heart of Jesus.
    On Sunday, Nov. 15, 1891, the dedications of the cathedral took place with imposing ceremonies. Today it is the pride and joy not only of the parishioners of the cathedral parish itself bug also of the Catholics of the city and indeed of the whole diocese. While there is but little trace of the primitive Saint Marguerite's, with its humble dimensions of 40x80 feet, yet the work which those pioneers inaugurated so long ago continues to advance and prosper in the imposing Cathedral of the Sacred Heart, an efficacious reminder of the great thins accomplished by hard work and much sacrifice by those who have gone before us on these very scenes.
    For 17 years Father Davis gave the best that was in him to the cause of religion in the cathedral parish. Two years before his death, Bishop Cosgrove was given a coadjutor in the person of Father Davis who had been his vicar-general since Dec. 18, 1896. The consecration took place Nov. 30, 1904, and two years later Bishop Davis succeeded Bishop Cosgrove, upon the latter's death, as the third bishop of Davenport.

The Very Rev. J.T.A. Flannagan, V.G.

    Bishop Davis was followed in the cathedral by the Very Reverend John T.A. Flannagan, who for 22 years had served first as professor, then as vice president and finally as president of Saint Ambrose college. Father Flannagan was given also the duties of vicar-general and has now for 17 years capably and efficiently executed his two-fold office. It was particularly through his efforts ad personal generosity that the splendid parochial school attached to the cathedral was erected for and given over to the children of the Sacred Heart parish. The cornerstone was laid in July, 1914, and the building dedicated in July, 1915. This noble monument, which speaks so much for the pastor and people of the Sacred Heart cathedral parish, to bring to countless little ones of Christ the blessings of a good and thoro education was made possible at the expenditure of $125,000. Eleven Sisters of Charity have under their care over 400 pupils, the promise and hope of the future Cathedral parish.
    Today there are approximately 500 families within the boundaries of the parish, totaling nearly 2,500 souls. Flourishing sodalities help to keep the light of faith a burning flame in the hearts of the young and old whose privilege it is to worship in the cathedral of the Sacred Heart the worthy successor of the venerable Saint Marguerite's.


    The Church at St. Mary's is one of the oldest churches in the city, being the fourth Catholic edifice for worship that was erected in Davenport.

Need of a New Parish

   The growth of the western end of the city, particularly in what is known as the Mitchell Additions, was rapid and at least 150 Catholic families had established themselves there (prior to the '40s). In 1855 a stone church dedicated to St. Kunigunda was erected by Rev. Michael Flamming in the Mitchell Additions, the land being donated by Judge G.C.R. Mitchell. This church gave way in 1882 to St. Joseph's church, a distinctly German parish church. The 150 Catholic families residing beyond it felt it a hardship to be compelled to go to St. Anthony's to hear mass, so they cried out for a church of their own. In response Rt. Rev. John Hennessey, D.D., bishop of Dubuque, commissioned that famous pioneer priest, Rev. J.A.M. Pelamourgues, of St. Anthony's to establish a new parish. Accordingly, a church was built and on July 27, 1867, the cornerstone was laid. The following year, 1868, it was dedicated to the Virgin under the title of St. Mary's. Rt. Rev. John Hennessey, D.D., attended the services of dedication and was assisted by Rev. J.M. Pelamourgues, Rev. A. Trevis, and Rev. Baumgartner, of this city.
    The church edifice is of brick, and is handsomely furnished. A picture by Rene of the Madonna is among its treasures, which also includes a series of 14 Stations of the Cross painted by Fick and donated by Horace Bradley. It was erected at a cost of $25,000, and in the same year the priest's residence, costing $8,000 was built on the lot adjoining the church on the south.
    Across the street, on the corner now occupied by the new school, was erected the two storied school house which served the parish until the Sisters of Mercy erected a building on Eighth and Fillmore streets, now used as a home for working girls.
    The old St. Mary's school, taught from the beginning by the Sisters of Mercy from Mercy hospital, was established in 1868 by Mother Baptist. Rev. Maurice Flavin, who on May 15 of this year succeeded Father Pelamourgues, erected this school. After one year Father Maurice Flavin resigned on account of ill health, and was succeeded by his brother. Later the Sisters erected a school at 1326 West Eighth street, which accommodated the parish until 1900. In 1872 Father Maurice Flavin died and his memory is commemorated by a marble entablature on the north wall of St. Mary's church.

Second Pastor.

    Rev. Michael Flavin was born in Ireland, April 12, 1841, was educated in Mount Mellary seminary and graduated in Carlow seminary in 1865. He came to America immediately, where he entered Cape Girardeau, Mo. college, pursued a theological course and was ordained in July, 1869. After one year spent at the Cathedral in Dubuque he assumed, in 1872, pastorate of St. Mary's church, and protectorate of St. Mary's school, which he retained until the death of Father Brazil of St. Ambrose church in Des Moines, when he was given charge of the capital congregation where he now has an irremovable pastorate.
    With Father Flavin's promotion to Des Moines, Rev. J.P. Ryan was named pastor of St. Mary's. Rev. Father Ryan was born in Ireland and reared in Muscatine.

Adams School Dates Back to 1843 When It Was Privately Managed
Sixth and Warren Building Erected in the Year 1856.

    Among the group of 24 buildings, exclusive of the administration building, devoted exclusively to public school use in the city of Davenport, only two now standing were in existence when the district formed in 1858.
    These two buildings are the Jefferson school at Sixth and Warren streets, and the Adams school at Seventh and Perry streets. The former was abandoned several years ago and is no longer used for school purposes. The Adams school was closed for a time and later re-opened.
     The history of the Adams school dates back to 1843 when it was operated as a private school by a Mr. Prescott. The building was then located at Fourth and Perry streets and was a frame structure built of oak timbers sawed or hewed at the Duck Creek mill.
    In 1853 the present stone school house, heralded as an architectural triumph, was erected at Seventh and Perry streets, at a cost of $5,000. This school building, the oldest in the city, is still in use. It has been remodeled from time to time but its general architectural lines are practically the same as the original building erected in 1853.
    Jefferson school was formerly located at Fifth and Scott streets in a little frame structure. This was in 1853. Two years later, the school was moved to Third street between Gaines and Brown streets, and in 1856 the present building was erected at Sixth and Warren streets.
    Three other buildings now in use were both built in the '60s. They  are the Washington school, East Twelfth street and Mississippi avenue, 1865; Madison school, Main and Locust street, 1865, and the Monroe school, West Third street near Division street, 1868.
    The Harrison school Fourth and Ripley streets, was built in 1871 and the Polk school, Eighth and Marquette streets, in 1878, Lincoln school, formerly the high school, Seventh and Iowa streets, was built in 1875.
    Tyler school, Grand avenue between Locust and High streets, was built in 1892 and remodeled in 1902. Taylor school, Fifteenth and Warren streets, was built in 1897 and Van Buren school, Redwood street and Lincoln avenue, was also built during the same year. Jackson school, Sixteenth and Fillmore streets, was built in 1893 and remodeled in 1902. Fillmore school, Fourth and Warren streets, was erected in 1898.
    Among the schools built since 1900 are the Pierce school, East Twelfth street and Christie avenue; Buchanan school, Sixth and Oakes street: Johnson school, Locust street and Wilkes avenue; Grant school, Main and Hayes streets; the three intermediates, West, J.B. Young and the Sudlow in 1918 and 1919, and the two new grade schools, Garfield, Twenty-ninth street and Arlington avenue, and the Hayes Concord street and McKinley avenue. The last two named schools will be completed in time for the opening of the new school semester in September.
    Practically all of the above schools, including the three intermediate schools and excepting of course the Garfield and Hayes schools, have been remodeled from time to time. Additions were added to each of the intermediate schools this year at a cost of $150,000.
    The present high school was completed in 1907. An Industrial Arts building for the manual training department was later erected at the corner of Eleventh and Main streets.



Davenport Grand Army a Bulwark of Patriotism for Over a Half Century

    Why was April 6 set aside to be known as Grand Army Day thruout the nation?
    The 40 living members of the Grand Army, in our community, will tell you, with a good deal of enthusiasm, that the day was brought about by a certain important historical event known as the organization of the Grand Army of the Republic. This event took place on April 6, 1866, at Decatur, Ill., and so it seemed to fit to the nation to set that date aside as a memorial day to those veterans who served so faithfully in the Grand Army.
    The G.A.R., as it has become known, is a patriotic organization of men organized in the interest of the soldiers and sailors of the Civil war, their families, and the perpetuation of those principles of sacrifice and patriotism for which so many of our nation's brave made the supreme sacrifice during the days of the struggle between the North and South. And honor is done not only to those who made the great sacrifice, but also to those great number of the army who were maimed for life.

Long Patriotic Service

    The patriotism of the Boys in Blue did not end with the close of the war; they have ever carried their love of their country in their hearts - on thru the years of peace that have passed since that great struggle to which they gave their youth. Thruout the years the Boys in the Blue have stacked arms in response to the final roll call until today there is but a remnant of the men who represent the G.A.R. Loyalty to the cause for which they fought is still uppermost in the minds of the living veterans. They believe that the observance of Grand Army Day thruout the state and nation has upheld and perpetuated the spirit of Christian patriotism which has made the United States the greatest democracy in the world.

August Wentz Post.

    In 1862 General A.H. Sanders, deputy department commander, organized a patriotic association in Davenport. General Sanders was colonel of the 16th Iowa regiment, a pioneer settler in our city and the editor and publisher of the Gazette. Great pride was taken by General Sanders in organizing this first patriotic association in Iowa within our own city, Davenport. Captain Robert Littler was the first commander of this post. The organization fell on stormy days; however, and disbanded about 1870.
    In 1882 the G.A.R. was reorganized by department officers from Des Moines. Major Andrews was elected the first commander. This post was named in honor of August Wentz, who was the first commissioned officer killed in action, from Scott County. The remains were brought her for burial and laid in state at the opera house. Comrade Wentz was a soldier of commanding presence and every inch a man. Mrs. Julia Karwath was among the large number who attended the funeral service. The riderless horse was led beside the hearse, with the saber and boots of Mr. Wentz fastened upon either side of the saddle. The remains were laid to rest in Oakdale cemetery.

Pledge to Comradeship

    A stirring incident occurred in 1875 when Francis Calligan was found dead on a little bale of straw in a secluded room in the building where Blackhawk hotel now stands. Rev. John Cavitt, Methodist minister and first lieutenant of Company E, 20th Iowa, regiment, discovered the body. Going to Henry Karwath, the only member of the first Davenport post living at the present time, Rev. Cavitt said, "Henry, I have sad news. We have lost one of our boys." Rev. Cavitt went on to relate the condition under which he had found the body.
    Together, Rev. Cavitt and Mr. Karwath went to the undertaker, John Siems, a veteran of the Civil war. After preparing the body for burial, Lewis Doah, attorney, who had served as fife major in Company E 20th Iowa regiment, accompanied the remains to the lowly grave and there interred them. At the grave the four men - all veterans of the Civil war - crossed hands over the open grave pledging each other that not another soldier would die such a lonely death of negligence and be buried under such desolate conditions as had the comrade who had just been called away.

Organization Formed

    Following the service the four veterans published a request for all soldiers to meet at the court house to effect some kind of organization. About 400 men responded to the cal and "The Veterans' Benevolent Organization of Scott County" was organized, with Major Andrews commander. This organization continued until the organization of the Wentz post. Rev. John Cavitt was the last commander, and Henry Karwath was the last adjutant of the organization.
    Many changes have taken place since those early days but the Grand Army of the Republic remains true to the basic principles of the representative government, the defense of the constitution and of unselfish patriotism for which it was organized.

Women Also Organize

    In May, 1884, the Women's Relief Corps was organized in Davenport. There are but three living members of that organization. They are: Mrs. Margaret Hamm, Mrs. Mary Ruedy and Mrs. Julia Karwath. There were 80 charter members. Mrs. Augusta Marks, wife of Major Marks, was the first president. The Women's Relief corps has maintained an active organization since the day of its founding. The present officers are Mrs. Maude Smith, president; Mrs. Eva Hinkley, secretary; Mrs. Mamie Muhs, treasurer; Mrs. Julia Karwath, worthy chaplain. Today the Women's Relief corps has a membership of 250.
    At a recent meeting, Mrs. Ida Groves moved that the corps plant a tree in the courthouse yard in memory of the G.A.R. The motion was unanimously passed, and a committee was appointed to make full arrangements with Mrs. Mary Dilly chairman.
    The G.A.R. has always had past Capt. S.E. Walcott has been charge of Davenport's Memorial Day exercises and for several years grand marshal of the day.

Old Guard in the Van of G.A.R. 1924 Activities, August Wentz Post

    The following are the officers of August Wentz Post, No. 1, G.A.R.:
    Senior vice commander - August Reading, 921 East Locust.
    Junior vice commander - Peter V. Quick, 2718 Bridge avenue.
    Post commander - M. Quittins, 420 Kirkwood boulevard.
    Adjutant - Fred Wendt, 430 1-3 West Third.
    Quartermaster - S.E. Walcott, 432 1/2 West Third.
    Assistant quartermaster - John H. Jordan, 1309 Perry street.
    Sergeant major - Jonathan Macey, city.
    Chaplain - Frank Miller, 1002 West Fifth.
    Officer of the day - Lawrence Doyle, 1125 East Twenty-ninth.
    Guard - Milton H. Smith, 1531 Judson.
    Surgeon - W.E. Benton, 305 1/2 Harrison.

1924 Roster, August Wentz Post

    The following are members in good standing of August Wentz Post No 1, G.A.R. :
Joseph D.Barnes, LeClaire, Ia, Co E, 20th Iowa Infantry.
George W. Bagley, LeClaire, Ia. Co I, 14th Iowa Infantry.
W.E. Benton, Davenport, 305 1/2 Harrison St. Co I, 47th Iowa Infantry.
F.H. Bartemyer, Davenport, Co E, 11th Regiment, US Ship
H. Barmettier, Los Angeles, Cal., C E 45th NY Infantry.
H.P. Brown, Marshalltown, Co C, 16th Iowa Infantry.
J.H. Clark, City, 7th Iowa Cavalry
Lither Crammar, Marshalltown, Co D, 25th Iowa Infantry
Lawrence Doyle, 1125 East Twenty-ninth St, Co C, 14th Iowa Infantry
M.J. Eagal, Los Angeles Cal, Co H, 69th Illinois Infantry
Leroy R Ely, City, Co A, 41st Ohio Infantry
W.B. Flanigan, 1026 East River, Co G, 24th Michigan Infantry
D. Grupe, 217 East Fourteenth St, Co G, 25th Iowa Infantry
Frank Grace, Hollywood, Calif, Co C, 20th Iowa Infantry
M. Gittins, 420 Kirkwood Blvd, Co ?, 61st Penn Infantry
E.B. Hayward, 902 Bridge Ave, Co H, 5th NY Cavalry
William Harrington, Buffalo, Ia., Co ?, 57th Ohio Infantry
C.H. Harris, Marshalltown, Co H, 112th Illinois Infantry
H.H. Holt, Montpelier, Ia, Co D, 140th Illinois Infantry
J.C. Highly, 225 East Thirteenth St, Co A, 16th Iowa Infantry
John Irwin, 1405 LeClaire St, Co M, 16th US Infantry
John Jehring, 1201 N Pine St, Musician, 46th Illinois Infantry
John H. Jordan, 1309 Perry St, Co E, 13th Illinois Infantry
Henry Karwath, 1938 Main St, Co E, 20th Iowa Infantry
Carl Kahler, 955 Harrison St, Co E, 14th Iowa Infantry
Henry Lau, City, 2nd Iowa Cavalry
Edward Lee, 515 Kirkwood Blvd, Co K, 147th NY Infantry
Frank Miller, 1002 West Fifth St, Co E, 20th Iowa Infantry
Simeon Meyers, Buffalo, Ia., Co K, 20th Iowa Infantry
Jonathan Masey, City, Co D, 132nd Ohio Infantry
Peter V. Quick, 2719 Bridge Avenue, Co L, 7th Illinois Cavalry
J.P. Risley, Des Moines, Co D, 20th Iowa Infantry
August Reading, 921 East Locust, Co D, 20th Iowa Infantry
E.A. Rugan, Louisville, Ky, Co E, 149th Ind Infantry
E.P. Raff, 2221 Farnam St, Co A, 104th Ohio Infantry
John A.Reeves, Moline, Ill, Co D, 4th Ohio Infantry
Milton H Smith, 1531 Judson St, Co F, 60th US Infantry
S.E. Wolcott, 432 1/2 West Third St, Co D, 23rd NY Infantry, Co E, 12th NY Cavalry
W.A. Shirk, LeClaire, Co E, 13th Iowa Infantry
Joseph C Snyder, 1328 East Eleventh, Co F, 93rd Illinois Infantry
Fred Wendt, 430 1/2 West Third St, Co C, 20th Iowa Infantry
Fred Worth, 309 1/2 Harrison St, Co E, 5th NY Heavy Artillery
F.G.M. Yarren, 2818 1/2 Telegraph Road, Co G, 35th Mass Infantry
Peter F, Burns, Davenport, Unit not listed.

Old Drum Major Directs Affairs of G.A.R. Post
[Picture of August Reading]

    After drumming his way thru the Civil war as drum major for the old 20th Iowa Infantry, August Reading, 921 East Locust street, senior vice commander of August Wentz Post No. 1, G.A.R., is today one of the most active members of the post in Davenport.

Venice Has Nothing on Us During the Flood Stage

Worst Flood in Local History Occurred in '92 - Stage Was 19.4 Feet
Overflows of Mississippi in 1920 and 1922 Remembered by All.

     Ten times since the year 1872, when the Weather bureau began to make flood records here, has the Mississippi river flooded its basin with a resulting loss of millions of dollars to crops and buildings in almost every instance.
    Davenporters will remember the floods of 1920 and of 1922 very distinctly. On each occasion a flood stage of 17.1 feet was reached. Water stood well above the railroad tracks on Front street upon both occasions.
    Neither of these floods, however, compared with the flood of 1892, which was by far the worst in local history. In that year the river reached a stage of 19.4 feet on June 27, and according to the "old timers," it was possible to use a canoe on Second street. That was before the days of improved levees and the flood caused probably more havoc than would be the case if the water were to stand at the same height today.

Some Other Floods.
    The first big flood recorded here, was in 1874, or two years after the Weather bureau commenced to make daily records of the river stages, and the flood taught the people of the vicinity the immense value of the bureau's work. Tradition tells of previous occasions in which the Father of Waters attempted to claim for her own the floor of the mighty valley thru which she flows, but none were officially noted.
    It was on March 9 that the high water mark of the flood of 1874 was reached. The stage was 15.6 feet. Davenport was then a comparatively small city but considerable damage was reported. That, however, was not an excessive flood.
    The year of 1880, however, saw the third worst flood on record here. June 26 found the water standing at 18.4 feet.

Two Floods in One Year.
    Then came the year of 1881, unique in local weather records, because of the fact that two floods were recorded during the one year. There was both a spring flood and an autumn flood.
    On April 12 the crest of the spring flood, 16.5 feet, was recorded. Then in October the waters again washed up towards the business section of the city. On October 25 a stage of 17.7 feet was reached and for two days the Mississippi stood stubbornly at that height. It could come no further, but neither would it recede. This second flood of 1881 was the only fall flood ever recorded here. All of the others occurred in the months from March to June, April being the month most frequently marked by high waters.

Other Big Floods.
    Other big floods occurred in 1888, in 1892 and 1897. Stages of 18.6, of 19.4, and of 15.1 feet were reported in these years.
    Then there was a period of 19 years when the Father of Waters rolled quietly down thru her channel. Not once in the entire period did the waters rise above the so called flood stage for this point. The flood stage is at that point on the official gauge at which damaging overflow begins, or in the case of Davenport, 15 feet of water.
    On the last three floods, which occurred here, - the floods of 1916, 1920 and 1922,- the records of the advance of the flood and of the amount of damage is much more accurate than on any of the previous floods. J.M. Sherier, for many years in charge of the local station, and Andrew M. Hamrick, who is now meteorologist for the Davenport district, both devoted much time and study to the rising and falling of the restless river.
    Work is now being carried on by Mr. Hamrick which it is believed will make it possible within the next decade to forecast in the time of a flood the exact spots at which the water will stand when a certain crest is reached. An immense map has been prepared at the local office on which the flood conditions are charted.
    The report of Mr. Sherier tell the story of the flood of 1916.

Flood of 1916.
    The flood of 1916 was due to a heavy accumulation of snow in Minnesota and Wisconsin. As early as January of that year the water stood at 14.2 feet, which was the highest that had been recorded in two decades.
    On April 11 the rising waters caused a flood warning to be sent out. The water receded slowly and stubbornly. Then there came a great snowstorm over the northern states followed by a rapid melting spell. From all the creeks and tributaries the snow water poured into the Mississippi. Again the flood warnings were sent out. On May 5 and 6 the high water mark for the flood of 15.6 feet was reached.
    One of the features of the flood that year was the breaking of the dike at Muscatine. South Muscatine as well as Drury Township, Ill, across the river, were flooded. This probably saved Davenport and Bettendorf from more serious trouble. 
    Damage to buildings amounted to more than $75,000 while crop damage, it was estimated, amounted to more than half a million dollars.

Flood of 1920.
    Damage from the flood of 1920, when a crest of 17.? feet was reached amounted to almost four millions of dollars. Loss to crops in the counties of Illinois in this section of the river were placed at more than $3,000,000. The land in this section was under water so long that it was impossible to plant any crops that year. Loss of city buildings was $134,000.
    Heavy snows were responsible for the 1920 flood as they had been for the flood of 1916. The crest of 17.? feet was recorded on April 9. The Bettendorf shops were in danger of being inundated for several days and crew of men were kept at work building dikes. A great "L" shaped mound extended several miles along the shore near the plant and made a big hook to protect the Zimmerman Steel company buildings also. Many houses were under water in the Mexican section of Bettendorf known as the "Holy City."

Still Another Flood.
    Two years later occurred the flood of 1922, the most recent and best remembered of the Mississippi floods in the district.
    Rainfall during the month of March in 1922 was more than an inch above normal thruout this territory and when the rains continued thru early April it became apparent that Davenport was to experience another flood. Forecast of rising waters were made daily and interested parties were notified of the impending high water.
    So accurate had the business of flood forecasting become that on this occasion it was possible for A.M. Hamrick, now in charge of the Davenport station to forecast one tenth of a foot the stages that would be reached at LeClaire, Clinton, Davenport and Muscatine. The flood here reached 17.1 feet.
    As had been the case in 1920, water came up to the railroad tracks on Front street and the Milwaukee Station, the Lagomarcino Gdupe warehouses, the River Park and other buildings were in several feet of water. The Bettendorf plant was not so seriously menaced as the dike of 1920 had been allowed to stand.
    Loss on this flood was comparatively light despite the fact that the water reached the same crest as in 1920. It was estimated that the loss in Davenport and other towns did not exceed $100,000. No accurate figures upon farm losses were secured.

Rainfall and Flood.
    Under average conditions one inch of rainfall in 24 hours over all of the territory between Dubuque and Davenport will cause a rise of about one half a foot in the Mississippi river at Davenport. The crest of the rise due to that rainfall will reach Davenport between two and a half and three days after the precipitation occurs.
    With a rising river and with saturated soil over the watershed, a similar raise of .7 of a foot while with a falling river and no recent rains the same amount will only bring the river to a stand.
    The average low water at Davenport is .8 of a foot above zero. When the river stands at that height, the distance across the water to Rock Island at the Ferry Landing is 2.360 feet or a little more than half a mile. When the river is higher the distance is about three-quarters of a mile.


Return to History Index Page