History
of
Muscatine County Iowa
1879




Source: History of Muscatine County Iowa, Historical Section, 1879, pages 501-555

MUSCATINE.

During the summer of 1833, Maj. George Davenport, who was trading with the Indians at Rock Island, sent a man named Farnham and two assistants to erect a log trading-post at "Sandstone Bluffs," or "Grindstone Bluffs," as some are disposed to call them, the present site of Muscatine. A two-roomed log building was erected by those men, and, some time later, a small stock of goods was opened for sale by Farnham, under Davenport's direction.

In 1834, according to the statement of Mr. McGrew, who passed over the site of the city in that year, while prospecting, there was no other building than the trading-house.

The house was built on the river-bank, just above where Iowa avenue now touches the shore. Mr. Farnham continued to sell goods there until the fall of 1835, at which time he died, in Stephenson, now Rock Island, Ill.

During the winter of 1836, John Vanater, who had prospected this region at a much earlier date, negotiated with Maj. Davenport for the claim and trading-post at this point. On the 20th day of February, 1836, quitclaim deeds were issued by Davenport in favor of Col. Vanater and Capt. Benjamin Clark, for $200.

The size of the "claim" was one-half mile square, running one-quarter of a mile each way up and down the river, from the house, and half a mile inland. The line extended about sixty feet beyond what is now called Eighth street.

In May, 1836, the proprietors employed Maj. William Gordon, then a resident of Rock Island, to survey a town on their claim. When the first plat was made, the name of "Newburg" was given the town; but before the work had progressed very far that title was discarded, and the name of

BLOOMINGTON

was bestowed upon the new aspirant for notice and fame, which designation was retained for about twelve years. Owing to the proximity of Bloomington, Ill., mail-matter was frequently sent astray, and to avoid that difficulty the name was changed to correspond with that of the county; the township, however, still retains the name of Bloomington. In these pages we shall speak of Bloomington and Muscatine according as the town was styled during the period then written about.

In 1836, the original proprietors began to sell undivided interests in the town. In August of that year, Dr. John H. Foster and Suel Foster paid $500 for a one-sixth interest. This was purchased of Capt. Clark, and was his last remaining portion. He resided at that time at Clark's Ferry, which now is called Buffalo.

Other parties bought claims in the property at about that date. Among the number whose names are now recalled were Moses Couch, Charles H. Fish, T. M. Isett, Adam Funck, Henry Funck, Robert C. Kinney, William St.John G. H. Right, B. White, William Devoe and J. W. Neally.

September 28, 1836, William Gordon (who was no relation of Maj. William Gordon, the original surveyor, by the way) landed at this place, and, the following day, began work on the

FIRST FRAME BUILDING

in Bloomington. It was designed as a hotel, and was used for that purpose for many years. In 1879, its remains are still standing. The building was erected for R. C. Kinney. At that time there were but two buildings in the place.

Mr. Gordon says he found the following persons in the village when he came: William St. John, Giles and Jonathan Pettibone, J. Craig, John Champ, Norman Fullington, Moses Couch, Lyman C. Hine, Suel Foster, John Vanater, James W. Casey, Adam Ogilvie, T. M. Isett, Mr. Norton and wife and R. C. Kinney and wife.

The year previous to this, as is shown in the general history of the county, in May, 1835, James M. Casey (or Kasey, as it is sometimes spelled in the records) made a claim just down the river from Vanater & Clark's, and called his place "Casey's Landing," or "Newburg." It was from that name the first plat derived its temporary designation. The original limits did not include Casey's claim in the town survey. As that is now a part of Muscatine, it is proper to say that the first proprietors were J. W. Casey, Edward E. Fay, William St. John, Norman Fullington, H. Reece, Jonathan Pettibone, L. C. Hine, H. H. Hine, R. P. Lowe, Stephen Whicher, J. E. Fletcher, Breese & Higginbotham, Abijah Whiting, W. D. Abernathy, A. Smith and others. This claim was one mile square, including the territory occupied by the cemetery, by Butlerville, and down to the slough.

The winter of 1836-37 was an exceeding cold one. The river froze over very early, there was plenty of snow and the mercury went down to 32 below zero one day. For five days and nights the mercury remained below zero. Flour was sold at $25 per barrel, and salt sold at $6 per bushel. Supplies had to be carried by team from St. Louis. This intense cold has been equaled but once since that date. On the 10th of February, 1868, the mercury reached 32 below zero.

The second frame building erected in Bloomington, and which for many years was the best building in the place, was erected in the spring of 1837, for John Vanater, by William Gordon, assisted by Henry Reece, John Reece, James Reece, Jonathan Pettibone, L. C. Hine and James Craig. These men boarded at the "Iowa House," Kinney's famous hostelry, at the time they were thus engaged. The frame of the building then in process of erection was made of timbers cut from near the site of the structure, and was of oak. No pine lumber was obtainable in those days. Even the weather-boards were of oak. The town pointed with pride to this building for several years. Vanater opened a tavern therein as soon as it was completed, and he was succeeded by John Coleman, the first resident Justice.

The sixth marriage that took place in the county was solemnized in the "parlors" of the hotel, by Esquire Coleman. The contracting parties were Washington A. Rigby and Lydia Barr. Josiah Parvin soon became manager of the hotel. Some say that Mr. Mitchell kept the house for a time, but that statement is pronounced erroneous by others, who say that Miss Mitchell was, for a time, the ruling spirit under other management. The house stood on the corner of Iowa avenue and Second street, but was moved to Third street, to make room for Silverman & Bro.'s building.

In 1837, Adam Ogilvie opened the second store in Bloomington, counting the trading-house as the first.

Joseph Bridgman began the dry goods business in 1837, the first house of the kind in town, and still continues in trade--the oldest merchant in the county.

William Gordon, Henry Reece and H. H. Hine had carpenter-shops in the place in 1837.

A terrible accident occurred on the river about seven miles below Bloomington, August 18, 1837. The steamer "Dubuque" exploded its boiler, killing twenty-two persons. Capt. Smoker was in command of the ill-fated craft. Seventeen of the victims were brought to the town and interred where School- house No. 1 now stands. William Gordon performed the sad duties of undertaker on that occasion. The records of the Commissioners' Court show that he was allowed $136, for his services and for the seventeen coffins furnished by him. The remains of the dead were removed when the schoolhouse was erected, and re-interred in the cemetery.

J. A. Parvin landed April 18, 1839. In May, he leased a small cabin on the hill and opened the first school in the county. He paid $8 rent for the building, and his school was very small. In 1839-40, he moved to a bullding near the Court House Square, and, in the spring, moved into the "town house," on Iowa Avenue.

In 1840, J. A. Parvin bought out Adam Ogilvie's stock of goods and commenced his mercantile career.

THE FIRST THREE YEARS.

While credit is given Col. Vanater for being the first resident on the plat of Bloomington, it is true that the first settler on the present plat (1879) was J. W. Casey, who built his cabin in the fall of 1835, on a claim immediately south of the claim made by Davenport.

In locating towns on the Mississippi, the great object was to find a sufficient depth of water to float a steamboat near the shore, so that landing could be effected. Mr. Casey had sounded the water along the shore, and found that the deepest point was opposite the high bluff, extending down nearly to the head of Muscatine Island. He, therefore, made claim to the land south of Farnham's claim. Mr. Casey was an active, energetic man.

When Mr. Vanater succeeded to the proprietorship of the trading-house, positive competition sprang up between the two men as to which place was the more desirable location for a town. Vanater asserted the superiority of his land, and Casey urged with equal vehemence the advantages of his landing. In time, both claims grew in value, and then a dispute arose as the boundary- line between the claims. To settle that controversy, Maj. William Gordon, who had a claim adjoining Benjamin Nye's, near Pine River, but who was living at that time at Rock Island, was called upon to survey the town into lots. Gordon was a graduate of West Point, and was a civil engineer as well as a military man, although not then in commission. Vanater's claim extended a quarter of a mile up and down the river from the trading-house, but as the cabin was a double log building, thirty-two feet long, it was necessary for the surveyor to have some definite point to begin at. Vanater told the surveyor that the outside of the stick-chimney, on the west end of the cabin, was the proper point to start the measurement from. The Major ran the lines accordingly, and Vanater's town site was made to encroach about twenty feet on Casey's claim. Soon after this, the claim laws were established, and the matter was submitted to arbitration.

In the fall of 1836, Mr. Casey died and was buried on the high land where Schoolhouse No. 2 was erected years afterward. This was the first adult death in the county.

In November, 1837, a child was born in the family of a Mr. Barclow, and in that month, or in December following, a young daughter of Mr. Barclow was buried.

Charles H. Fish laid off the upper addition to the city at about this time, and a cemetery was marked out upon the plat. Numerous interments were made therein during the succeeding ten years.

Mr. Fish moved to Bloomington in 1837, with his wife, son and two daughters--William, Emeline and Caroline.

Mr. Moses Couch, who came in 1836, was joined by his wife in 1837. Mrs. Reece and her sons--Henry, John, James and Joseph, came in 1837.

During the early years, that curse of Western settlements--fever and ague --made this locality a desolate one, to a great extent. The ladies referred to here were among the most efficient and self-sacrificing in their care of the sufferers, and deserve lasting tribute.

In 1836, as has been stated, R. C. Kinney opened the first tavern. The original part was 16x30 feet in size, divided into three rooms below and three above. This was the first frame building in Bloomington. It is a great pity that no record of the events which transpired in that house was preserved.

In 1837-38, Mr. Barton kept boarders in a log cabin which stood on the ground between Mr. Bridgeman's store and his dwelling. John Vanater built the second hotel in the spring of 1838, where the Tribune building stands. The building was afterward moved to Third street.

The first brick building was erected in 1839, by Matthew Matthews, on Lot 5, Block 13, on Water street. The mason-work was done by his brother Hiram Mathews, who came to the town that year.

The Court Rouse was begun in 1839, as is shown elsewhere.

John Coleman, one of the first Justices of the Peace in this county, kept his office for a year or so in the old Vanater Hotel. Among the cases that were tried before him were several for the crime of Sabbath-breaking. Three men were one day sentenced to pay $3 each for making a pig trough on Sunday. Joe Leverich, a man famous for his connection with a band of notorious men, was once fined heavily for blasphemy. He carried his case to the District Court and there created immense sport for Judge Williams and the bar.

ANECDOTES OF INDIANS.

The existence of the trading-post here made this point a famous one for the Indians during the first few years after the whites settled in Muscatine County. Hundreds of Indians would come to the slough, or some other convenient place, and pitch their temporary tents. Poweshiek, the chieftain, had his village on the Iowa River further up, and the camps made on the Mississippi after the year 1836 were but transient abodes. Many of the white settlers became very friendly with certain of the Indians, but the general characteristic of the red men is silence and dogged reserve. Some of the subchiefs were more disposed to be friendly than the Indians usually were because of their more frequent intercourse with the whites. Kishkekosh, who is spoken of at considerable length in the foregoing pages, was the central figure in a lively social scene in Bloomington in 1839. The incident is related by Suel Foster as follows:

"In the spring of 1839, Stephen Whicher gave a large social party, which event for those days was of a novel kind. His guests were composed of the entire elite of the town, and about twenty Indians with their squaws, who came dressed in calico breeches, roundabouts, moccasins ornamented with beads, and trinkets of various kinds attached to their persons. The Indians were also rigged out in their best for the party, with painted faces, gay blankets, buckskin breeches, and fantastic wammises ornamented with their war trophies, jewels in their ears and noses, brass bands on their arms, long ornamented pipes, weasel and skunk skin tobacco pouches, war clubs trimmed with feathers, bears' claws and tusks, and strings of highly ornamented wampum. This was probably the most peculiarly constructed social gathering that ever met in the State. The first thing on the programme of the evening was a war-dance by the Indians. The large front room being cleared, and nothing lacking but music, Mrs. W. brought out some tin pans, a fire-shovel and tongs, which with a few sticks made ample music. Kishkekosh, the noble chief, first stepped on the floor alone, divested of nearly all his garments, and presenting a fine, well-formed and powerful form, led the dance in a majestic, savage style. Soon one and another of the men joined, until the floor was nearly filled, the whole circling around in all sorts of savage and fantastic shapes and forms of attitude, keeping time with the din of the pans and tongs, at the same time uttering low guttural sounds-hew-wa-wa-hew-ha-wa-we-ho-hew-ha-woo--which increased in loudness and tone until it became a savage howl, and then charged at each other until the ladies were greatly frightened. The doors being closely guarded so as to allow no one to escape, the tumult soon became general. As the dance subsided one of the painted warriors suddenly sprang at and kissed one of the fairest of the fair white ladies, who, not appreciating the honor done her, screamed a scream more piercing and frightful than the howling of the Indians. As a return for this extraordinary entertainment, the Indians insisted that the whites, especially the "white squaws," should have a dance. A violin was accordingly procured, and several dances were performed in the most elegant frontier style, which appeared to delight the Indians as much as their performance had the whites. The entertainment was kept up until the wee small hours, when the parties dispersed to their respective homes and wigwams, thus ending one of the most brilliant and social entertainments in the history of Iowa."

A good story is told by Suel Foster of an Indian scare which occurred in the winter of 1836-37. There was a man of the name of Maine then living on the island some two miles below Muscatine, who kept a barrel of whisky for traffic with the Indians, who were very fond of that article. On one noted occasion, when there had been a new arrival in his family, this old man having taken a little too much himself, was troubled by several Indians who, having already drank enough to make them feel quarrelsome, insisted upon having more whisky, which he refused. The Indians, determined not to be refused, threatened him to such an extent that he started toward town to secure help. As he left, an Indian fired--at the whisky-barrel, and tapped it in the head. The crack of the rifle brought a neighbor woman who was helping in the house to the door, and finding the Indians sucking at the bullet-vent in the whisky-barrel, she resolutely caught up a hoe, drove the Indians off, and set the barrel on end. But the affrighted Maine, when he heard the rifle, imagined that his family and the woman there were being murdered, and he alone would escape to tell of their fate. The nearer town he got the faster he ran, and the more piteous were his cries for help. The villagers were alarmed, and as soon as he could get breath to utter an audible word, he said: "The Indians have murdered all my family, and as I ran they fired at me, but I have outrun 'em. Go down! go down!!" There was a hasty gatheriug of guns and what means of defense could be found, and guards were placed to protect the village. The "landlord," R. C. Kinney, who is said to have been the fattest, laziest, quietest, can't-run-man in the town, exclaimed: "God of Heaven, what shall we do! John Champ, take my horse and go to Moscow and give the alarm; tell them that the Indians have killed all the folks on the island, and that we will run in that direction, and they must come and meet us." The braves who charged on the whisky-barrel got so shot with the fire-water that they set fire to the rank grass, discharged their guns, and, after screaming and yelling at a fearful rate for a while, quietly entered their canoes and left for Cowmack Island.

THE BLOOMINGTON & CEDAR RIVER CANAL COMPANY.

During the early years of settlement in this Territory, the ambitious men turned their thoughts to the development of schemes for water transportation. Railroads were then in their infancy, and the most daring speculators did not even dream of securing Congressional aid for such methods of communication. In 1838-39, the country west of Bloomington was mainly tributary to that town; but the only means of reaching the Mississippi was by team. The valley of the Cedar supplied a large amount of trade to Bloomington, a point more accessible to the settlers of that fertile region than any other on the river. As a natural result of the advantages of location, Bloomington held the traffic for some time undisturbed, but, with the growth of rival river-towns, came also a realization of the necessity of inducing a continuance of the patronage. The prevailing mania was for the improvement of water-courses, during the period of which we write, and, as an inevitable outcome, a company of Bloomington men conceived the idea of uniting the Cedar with the Mississippi River, by digging a canal from Bloomington to the Cedar, and by that means diverting the trade of the valley to the growing town. The Cedar, during certain seasons of the year, was navigable as high up as Cedar Rapids, and a most extensive territory would be rendered accessible if such a project as that of the proposed canal Was carried out.

The gentlemen who appear as incorporators of the enterprise were Joseph Williams, John Vanater, Adam Ogilvie, Charles Alexander Warfield, Suel Foster, William Gordon, Harvey Gillett, William D. Viele, Stephen Tony, James W. Talman and John D. Foy. They secured the passage of a bill incorporating the "Bloomington & Cedar River Canal Company," which was approved January 12, 1839. The provisions of the charter were as follows: The above-named gentlemen were styled Commissioners of the Company; they were endowed with all the usual corporate rights; the capital stock of the Company was $200,000; shares of stock were placed at $10; the canal was to extend from the Mississippi River at Bloomington to the mouth of Rock Creek, where it emptied into the Cedar River; the Company had the right to take such lands as were needed to develop their work, by appointing appraisers and allowing a fair valuation for property thus seized, provided no mill-sites were destroyed; in short, all possible contingencies were provided for in the terms of the charter.

Besides the supposed advantages to trade, it was also argued that the canal would furnish power for factories, and thereby serve a double purpose. Mr. Foster, whose name is given as one of the incorporators, was opposed to the scheme, from the first, and wrote several articles to prove the absurdity of the undertaking. His name was used without authority. When he heard of the project to produce power in this way, he at once said that the elevation between Bloomington and the Cedar River was at least eighty feet, and could not be overcome. Subsequent exploration proved that the highest point was eighty- four feet above the Mississippi, and it is needless to add that the scheme was never carried out. In 1865, the project of constructing a canal from Muscatine to Moscow was revived, with the view of securing a water-power; but the scheme failed of success.

SECOND SURVEY.

The survey of the town of Bloomington, after the purchase waS made, in 1840, by George Bumgardner, ana the plat is now framed in the County Recorder's office.

IMPROVEMENT OF THE SLOUGH.

In 1845, another company was formed, for the purpose of damming the slough and reclaiming the lands annually overflowed. The dam was constructed and proved beneficial, improving many thousand acres; but the Secondary object in view--that of supplying power--was not achieved. The present occupation of the fertile "island" is largely owing to this improvement. The improvements of recent date are both extensive and permanent, and a large industry has grown up in the immediate vicinity.

INCORPORATION OF THE TOWN.

The town of Bloomington was incorporated by act of the Territorial Legislature, approved January 23, 1839. The original description was "all that part or tract of land in Township 76 north, Range 2 west, and Township 77 north, Range 2 west, which has been surveyed and laid off into town lots for commercial purposes," then known as Bloomington. The bill was merely the usual form of incorporating acts, and need not be reproduced. It may be found on page 248, statute laws of the Territory of Iowa, 1839, known as the "Blue Book."

At the time of its incorporation, the town contained a population of seventy- one souls, and boasted of thirty-three buildings.

Early in 1839, or late the preceding year (the record does not show which), John Vanater, Aaron Usher and Err Thornton, County Commissioners, selected the southeast quarter of Section 35, Township 77, Range 2 west, under the act of Congress donating to each county a quarter section of land for the purpose of erecting county buildings. They assessed the quarter (which now lies nearly in the center of the city) at $18,000, and taxed the lots therein to that amount. The other divisions of tbe present town plat, viz., a fractional part of the northeast quarter of Section 35; also a fractional part of the southwest quarter of Section 36, called Warfield's Division; a fractional part of the northwest quarter of the same section, known as Smalley's Division; a fractional part of the southwest quarter of Section 35, known as St. John's Division, together with what there is of the northeast quarter of Section 1, Township 76, Range 2 west, styled Foster's Division; the east half of the northwest quarter of the same section, known as Higginbotham's "Float," and the west half of the same quarter, known as Williams' Division--were entered about the same time by the individuals whose names they bear, as trustees or the claimants of lots in their several divisions. The following is a specimen of the bonds entered into by the parties concerned:

AGREEMENT made and concluded by and between Thomas M. Isett, Jesse Williams and Niles Higginbotham (a committee appointed by the holders and rightful owners of lots within that part or portion of the town of Bloomington, in the county of Musquitine and Territory of Iowa, on the Mississippi River, called and known by the citizens of said town as the "Upper Town," or part of said town, as described in the following resolution, adopted by the claimants of lots in said town, at a meeting held at Burlington, Nov. 27th. 1888 (viz. :RESOLVED, the boundaries of the upper addition to the town of Bloomington, be the lines as agreed to and marked by John Vanater and Farrington Barricklow, of the one part, and Charles A. Warfield, of the county aforesaid, of the other part), viz.:

IT IS HERERY AGREED by the said Charles A. Warfield, on his part, that he will officiate as the bidder or representative of the proper and rightful owners or claimants of each and every the lots within that part of the said town of Bloomington, called and known as the Upper Town, and described as aforesaid, at the land-sales now holding and progressing at the city of Burlington in said Territory, when and at the time such lands upon which said lots are, or said upper town is, laid out or located; and that he, the said Warfield, will well and truly bid in and purchase the said land from the United States, or so much of the said land as has hot been sold by the Government of the United States to the Commissioners of Musquitine County, so that all the lots within the plat of the said described town called Upper Town shall be bought and purchased by him, the said Warfield, in trust for and to the use of each and every of the bona-fide and rightful claimants of said lots, And it is further agreed, on the part of said Warfield, that so soon, or as conveniently after the said sale and purchase of the said lots in the manner aforesaid, as may be, he will well and truly release or convey, by such deed as shall be good and valid in law, all and every of the said lots in said portion or part of the said town as aforesaid described, to each and every the proper owners or claimants of the same, in fee simple, so as that the said claimants shall forever possess and have the same to the only proper use, benefit and behoof of themselves, their heirs and assigns--all which said stipulations he will faithfully keep and perform, And on behalf of the said lot-holders, it is agreed by the said committee, for them, that they, the said lot-holders or claimants, shall, by themselves or agents, pay or cause to be paid unto the said Warfield, their trustee aforesaid, 25 cents for each lot so as aforesaid bought in for them, for his trouble in and about the purchase of the said land at the land office; and also to pay to the said Warfield the cost or expenses of purchase of the said land from the United States for them, the said lot-holders, at the land-sale aforesaid, and the said owners or claimants, each and every of them, shall prepare and furnish, free of expense, to the said Warfield, the deed or deeds for his or their own lot or lots. It is also covenanted, agreed and understood, by and between the aforesaid parties, to this agreement that all the land or ground constituting the landing fronting the said described part or portion of Bloomington, from the line of the town surveyor plat on the street adjoining or next to the Mississippi River, is to be bidden off and purchased by the said Warfield to and for the use of the public, and by him to be conveyed in fee simple to Thomas M. Isett, Jesse Williams and Niles Higginbotham, in trust for the town of Bloomington, when it shall hereafter become incorporated, and to be for the citizens of said town for public use until said town shall become legally incorporated. It is also understood and agreed, That the said Charles A. Warfield is to bid in all the land or ground laid out according to the said town plat for streets and alleys, in trust for the public use, and after the same is so bid in or purchased by deeds, or other assurance good in law, to make and deliver to the said committee, in trust for the citizens or the town of Bloomington, now and after the same shall be incorporated, to the said town forever. And it is furthermore agreed to, by and between the parties aforesaid, That all the claimants of lots who shall fail to make payment, or fail to comply with the requisitions of this agreement, to the said Warfield, within six months from the date of purchase of the said lands and lots at the land-sales aforesaid, then the said owners or claimants so neglecting or refusing, shall forfeit his or their lot or lots; and the lot or lots so forfeited shall be sold at public sale for the benefit of the town of Bloomington, as aforesaid; Provided, nevertheless, that it shall be the duty of the said Warfield to give public notice in one or more newspapers of the Territory of Iowa for at least four weeks successively next preceding the expiration of the term of six months, as aforesaid,

And the said Warfield furthermore covenants and agrees, That so much of the said land, or parcels of land, as may be purchased by him at the land-sales aforesaid, owned or claimed by A. Smalley, adjoining the town of Bloomington aforesaid, shall be conveyed by him, the said Warfield, to the said Smalley, his heirs or assigns, by a good and sufficient deed in fee simple--the said Smalley paying to the said Warfield the purchase money paid to the Government of the United States, or their agents, at the land-sales aforesaid, by the said Warfield.

And for the faithful and true performance of all and every the agreements and stipulations mentioned and contained in the foregoing agreement, the said Thomas M. Isett, Jesse Williams, and Niles Higginbotham, for and in behalf of the lot-holders or claimants aforesaid, and the said Charles A. Warfield, bind themselves each to the other in the sum of sixty thousand dollars.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals this, the twenty-eighth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight.

                                                     CHAS, A. WARFIELD, [L.S.]
                                                     THOMAS M. ISETT,   [L.S.]
                                                     JESSE WILLIAMS.    [L,S.]

In presence of
CHARLES H. FISH,
GEO. W. FITCH,

In 1841, the first brick hotel was built by Josiah Parvin. It still stands as the National House.

In 1843, the first saw-mill was erected and run by C. Cadle. It stood where Chambers' old mill stands.

In 1840, the citizens of Bloomington appointed Suel Foster a committee to purchase, from the Government, the land on which a part of the town is located. The land was to be purchased in trust for such persons as might be able to present a certificate of an equitable claim therefor, paying him the original cost and his expenses. If any property remained unclaimed after the expiration of six months from the date of his purchase, such parcels were to become forfeited to the town of Bloomington. Mr. Foster entered the land, as agreed, paying therefor $39.22 1/2. The area was 31.38 acres, and extended along the river from the mouth of Pappoose Creek nearly to Broadway. In 1843, the city, by its attorney, demanded of Mr. Foster a deed for the unclaimed lands, but he claimed as his own a strip of ground of indefinite width, between Water street and the river, after allowing sixty feet for the latter thoroughfare. Suit was brought against Mr. Foster in the District Court, in 1844, In chancery. The case was decided against Mr. Foster, who carried it on appeal to the Supreme Court. That tribunal affirmed the decision of the lower court in 1851. The matter created considerable excitement at the time, but we deem it worthy of mention here merely because it affected the title to public property. Those who desire to learn of the several points raised can satisfy themselves by examining the Supreme Court reports of 1851.

In 1846, or ten years after its first settlement, Bloomington had a population of 1,600.

In 1848, Joseph Bennett erected a steam flour-mill. The building was five stories high, 50x85 feet, and run five buhrs. The capacity was 500 barrels of flour per day.

The first telegraph message was received in Bloomington August 23, 1848. 0. H. Kelley was the operator who took the dispatch from the instrument.

The first book store was established by Hinds & Humphrey, in 1848.

In 1849, the name of Bloomington was changed to that of Muscatine, by order of the District Court.

A GLANCE AT MUSCATINE IN 1855.

One bright afternoon, in the summer of 1855, a distinguished-looking gentleman stepped from the deck of a packet to the unpretentious wharf of Muscatine. The leading citizens of the city paid their respects to the stranger and presented him to the people. He whom the people delighted to honor was none other than the famous English statesman, Richard Cobden.

As the traveler gazed about him at the bold and rugged bluffs, he observed: "When the boat came around that point above, and the amphitheater of your town appeared in view, with the sight of those beautiful residences suspended by the high bluff above the river, I thought the picturesque Rhine had not the equal of that picture." The traveler saw none of the harsher and cruder features of the place. The lavish hand of nature had bestowed charms which even the "improvements" of man had not and could not efface. Surely the similarity between the castellated Rhine and the Mississippi in its wildness ceased when the visitor permitted his fancy to be overcome by a sense of the actual attempt to implant the germs of civilization. The rude streets, uncompleted and terminating abruptly in the towering walls which nature had silted up; the temporary and unpicturesque remains of the buildings which the early settlers were compelled to call their homes; and the evidences of newness which were to be seen on every hand, surely these marks of infancy in the life of the Western towns would effectually dispel the idea of poetic comparison which even the wildest flight of imagination might for a moment create.

But all that atmosphere of newness has disappeared, and those who see the beautiful city of Muscatine to-day join heartily with Prof. Swing in pronouncing this the most lovely scene on the Upper Mississippi.

August 18, 1857, the city was first lighted with gas; a grand celebration marked the event.

TOWN RECORDS.

The original records of the town of Bloomington are preserved in good form. The first entry is as follows:

At a corporation election held at the house of R C. Kinney, in the town of Bloomington, on Monday, the 6th day of May, A. D. 1839, the following persons received the number of votes opposite their respective names:

FOR PRESIDENT. Votes. Honorable Joseph Williams------------ 38 Arthur Washburn---------------------- 1 Lyman C. Hine------------------------ 1 FOR TRUSTEES. Arthur Washburn---------------------- 38 Henry Reece-------------------------- 21 B. P. Howland------------------------ 20 Suel Foster-------------------------- 15 Charles H. Fish---------------------- 13 Lyman C. Hine------------------------ 8 William Gordon----------------------- 7 Jonathan Pettibone------------------- 2 Thomas M. Isett---------------------- 2 FOR RECORDER. Moses Couch-------------------------- 29 James G. Morrow---------------------- 10 FOR STREET COMMISSIONER. Giles Pettibone---------------------- 10

The returns were approved and certified to by Moses Couch and Arthur Washburn, Judges, and John Marble, Clerk.

The first meeting of the Board was held at the office of Arthur Washburn May 10, 1839, when the officers were sworn in and took their offices as follows: Joseph Williams, President; Arthur Washburn, B. P. Howland and Henry Reece. Trustees, and Moses Couch, Recorder.

On the 16th of May, Moses Couch was appointed City Treasurer. John Marble was appointed Marshal; John J. Reece, Street Commissioner, in lieu of Mr. Pettibone, resigned, and Charles H. Fish, Assessor.

The first ordinance adopted was in relation to the sale of spirituous liquors. The second one was for the "preservation of good order."

No further business was transacted during the first year. As the official roster is given in full elsewhere, we make no further special mention of elections. During the first year, the Board had no regular place of meeting, but convened in offices, shops, etc., as the case required.

The session of May 19, 1840, was held at the post office, and the Board voted to call a meeting at the schoolhouse for the purpose of voting on the amount of corporation tax to be levied. The schoolhouse referred to stood on Iowa avenue, and was a building used for public purposes generally. The vote was duly taken May 23, and a majority of the electors decided one quarter of one per cent on the town valuation as the proper thing.

During the summer of 1840, the Board was mainly occupied in superintending the construction of a culvert over Pappoose Creek, at Second street. The first order on the Treasurer was issued July 21, of that year, to C. B. Leavitt, for work on that culvert.

In those days, liquor stores were politely termed "groceries," and licenses at the rate of $25 per year were required to conduct them.

Frequent allowances were made to men, who have since become identified with the progress of the town, for "removing stumps from the streets."

In 1878, W. F. Brannan, Esq., revised and arranged the city ordinances, and under his supervision they were published in convenient form. That fact obviates the necessity of this work's entering into a review of the city operations. The charter and revised ordinances are to be seen at the Recorder's office.

CITY OFFICIAL ROSTER.

List of officers of the town of Bloomington, from March, 1839, to March, 1851:

1839--Joseph Williams, President; Arthur Washburn, Henry Reece, Benj. P. Howland, Trustees; Moses Couch, Recorder; Giles Pettibone, Street Commissioner.

1840--John Lilly, President; Henry Reece, John W. Richman, R. P. Lowe, Trustees; E. E. Fay, Recorder; Matthew Matthews, Street Commissioner; Hiram Matthews, Marshal; D. J. Snyder, Treasurer.

1841--Thomas Darlington, President; John S. Lakin, Edward Ballard, Suel Foster, Trustees; Arthur Washburn, Recorder; William St. John, Street Commissioner; John W. Weller, Treasurer; John Marble, Marshal.

1842--David Clark, President; William Frye, Hiram Wilson, William St. John, Trustees; Arthur Washburn, Recorder; Daniel Mauck, Street Commissioner; Lyman C. Hine, Treasurer.

1843--John A. Parvin, President; William Frye, J. J. Hoopes, L. C. Hine, Trustees; Pliny Fay, Recorder; Daniel Mauck, Street Commissioner; John Zeigler, Treasurer; William Parvin, Marshal.

1844--Stephen L. Foss, President; A. J. Fimple, A. M. Hare, J. R. Bennett, Trustees; Thomas Crandol, Recorder; Daniel Mauck, Street Commissioner; William Leffingwell. Treasurer; Hiram Matthews, Marshal.

1845--Charles Evans, President; John M. Kane, William Leffingwell, A. J. Fimple, Trustees; John Lilly, Recorder; Hiram Matthews, Street Commissioner; William Parvin, Treasurer and Marshal; John Seiler, Sexton. Mr. Seiler has served in this office continuopsly since 1845.

1846--Stephen L. Foss, President; Hezekiah Musgrove, Joseph P. Freeman, Alexander Jackson, Trustees; Douglas Dunsmore, Recorder; Hiram Matthews, Street Commissioner; William Parvin, Treasurer and Marshal.

1847--J .M. Barlow, President; J. L. Cummins, Harris H. Hine, Edward Olmstead, Trustees; Richard Cadle, Recorder; Hiram Matthews, Street Commissioner; John M. Kane, Treasurer and Marshal.

1848--Thomas M. Isett, President; E. H. Albee, John M. McCormick, Pliny Fay, Trustees; Richard Cadle, Recorder; David Freeman, Street Commissioner; John M. Kane, Treasurer and Marshal.

1849--Elias Overman, President; J. G. Gordon, Jacob Butler, G. S. Branham, Trustees; Richard Cadle, Recorder; Charles Browning, Street Commissioner; William Parvin, Treasurer and Marshal. This year the corporate name was changed to Muscatine, by the District Court, at its June session.

1850--William D. Ament, President; G. W. Hunt, Alfred Purcell, Ansel Humphreys, Trustees; Thomas Crandol, Recorder; Charles Browning, Street Commissioner; William A. Drury, Treasurer and Marshal.

In 1851, by act of the State Legislature, a special city charter was granted Muscatine. From March of that year to the present time, the city officers have been as follows:

1851--Zephaniah Washburn (resigned), Aulay Macaulay, Mayor; Henry Reece, J. B. Dougherty, Absalom Fisher, John C. Irwin, H. D. Lacosett, B. Bartholomew, Aldermen; G. S. Branham, Marshal; C. F. Browning, Wharfmaster; Thomas Crandol, Recorder; William D. Ament, Treasurer; L. C. Hine, Assessor; C. G. Heilenberg, City Engineer.

1852--Thomas M. Isett, Mayor; Henry Reece, J. B. Dougherty, Absalom Fisher, George C. Stone, William St. John, Samuel Bamford, Aldermen; Alexander Jackson, Marshal; Thomas M. Williams, Recorder; S. B. Crane, Wharfmaster; John I. Reece, Assessor; William D. Ament, Treasurer.

1853--John G. Stine, Mayor; George C. Stone, William St. John, Samuel Bamford, Marx Block, A. M. Hare, Jacob Hershe, Aldermen; Charles F. Browning, Marshal; Henry C. Lamb, Recorder; William D. Ament, Treasurer; L. C. Hine, Assessor; S. B. Crane, Wharfmaster.

1854--John A. Parvin, Mayor; Marx Block, A. M. Hare, Jacob Hershe, Jacob Butler, Charles Nealley, William Young, Aldermen; Abial Fry, Marshal; D. P. Johnson, Recorder; M. Berkshire, Assessor; Edward Hoch, City Measurer.

1855--J. H. Wallace, Mayor; Jacob Butler, Charles Nealley, William Young, F. S. Phelps, D. C. Cloud, C. Cadle, Aldermen; Jacob Israel, Marshal; J. B. Dougherty, Treasurer; William L. Browning, Wharfmaster.

1856--William Leffingwell, Mayor; F. S. Phelps, D. C. Cloud, C. Cadle, I. R. Mauck, A.. M. Hare, B. W. Thompson, Aldermen, John A. McCormick, Marshal; D. P. Johnson, Recorder; J. B. Dougherty, Treasurer; A. J. Fimple, Assessor; L. C. Bailey, City Engineer.

1857--John J. Stine, Mayor; I. R. Mauck, A. M. Hare, B. W. Thompson, Edward Hoch, J. R. Nisley, A. Fisher, Aldermen; Elias Unger, Marshal; D. P. Johnson, Recorder; H. Lofland, Treasurer; William Leffingwell, Assessor; Samuel Tarr, Street Commissioner; Marx Block, Wharfmaster.

1858--George Meason, Mayor; Edward Hoch, J. R. Nisley, A. Fisher, S. G. Hill, J. P. Freeman, C. Hershe, Aldermen; Elias Unger, Marshal; D. P. Johnson, Recorder; H. Lofland, Treasurer; Peter Jackson, Assessor; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner; John Bartholomew, Wharfmaster.

1859--George Meason, Mayor; S. G. Hill, J. P. Freeman, C. Hershe, W. C. Kennedy, Henry Funck, Robert Williams, Aldermen; J. R. Nisley, Recorder; R. R. Lauther (resigned), Abel F. Adams, Treasurer; z. Washburn, Assessor; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner.

1860--George Meason, Mayor; W. C. Kennedy, Henry Funck, Robert Williams, S. G. Stein, Henry Molis, G. Hershe, Aldermen; William Dill, Marshal; R. T. Wallace, Recorder; A. F. Adams, Treasurer; R. T. Wallace, Wharfmaster.

1861--George Meason, Mayor; S. G. Stein, Henry Molis, C. Hershe, Luke Sells, F. Thurston, Abraham Johns, Aldermen; William Dill, Marshal; Hugh J. Campbell, Recorder; John Wiley, Assessor; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner; R. T. Wallace, Wharfmaster.

1862--George Meason, Mayor; Isaac R. Mauck, Henry Molis, Richard Musser, Luke Sells. F. Thurston, A Johns,* J. S. Patten, Aldermen; William Dill,* T. B. James, Marshal; E. 0. Upham,* L. H. Washburn, Recorder; John Wiley, Treasurer; Charles S. Porter,* Abial Fry, Collector; William Dill, Assessor; Marx Block, Wharfmaster; Romulus Hawley,* Cyrus Hawley, Street Commissioner; Cornelius Cadle, City Measurer. (*These gentlemen resigned their respective office to enlist in the army, when their places were filled by appointment.)

1863--Henry Funck, Mayor; Philip Stein, R. T. Wallace, Benjamin Middleton, Isaac R. Mauck, Henry Molis, Richard Musser, Aldermen; T. B. James, Marshal; D. S. Biles, Recorder; John Wiley, Treasurer; William Leffingwell, Collector; L. T. Goldsberry, Assessor; Marx Block, Wharfmaster; William A. Thayer, Street Commissioner; Joseph S. Mulford, City Measurer.

1864--S. D. Viele, Mayor; Henry W. Moore, Ferdinand Kaufmann, W. H. Simpson, Philip Stein, R. T. Wallace, Benjamin Middleton, Aldermen; T. B. James, Marshal; D. S. Biles, Recorder; A. F. Demorest, Treasurer; William Leffingwell, Collector; T. B. James, Assessor; Marx Block, Wharf Master; William A. Thayer, Street Commissioner; John Chambers, City Measurer.

1865--Benjamin Hershey, Mayor; Philip Stein, S. B. Crane (died in office), George Schneider, L. H. Washburn, Henry W. Moore, Ferdinand Kaufman, W. H. Simpson, Aldermen; T. B. James, Marshal; D. S. Biles, Recorder; John Wiley, Treasurer; William Leffingwell, Collector; William Gordon, Assessor; Daniel Sterneman, Wharfmaster; William A. Thayer, Street Commissioner; Edward Hoch, City Measurer.

1866--Benjamin Hershey, Mayor; F. Wienker, J. A. Reuling, C. F. Kessler, Philip Stein, L. H. Washburn, Noah Green, Aldermen; T. B. James, Marshal; D. S. Biles, Recorder; Henry Molis, Treasurer; William Leffingwell, Collector; William Gordon, Assessor; George Schneider, wharfmaster; Michael Murphy, Street Commissioner.

1867--George Meason, Mayor; C. E. Kent, Alpheus Palmer, L. H. Washburn, F. Wienker, J. A. Reuling, C. F. Kessler, Aldermen; J. G. Wells, Marshal; John H. Munroe, Recorder; A. F. Demorest, Treasurer; William Dill, Collector; Lewis Coe, Assessor for county purposes; J. P. Freeman, Assessor for city purposes; William H. Snyder, Wharfmaster; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner; Cornelius Cadle, City Measurer.

1868--E. Klein, Mayor; William Spring, V. Chambers, John Cackler, C. E. Kent, C. Cadle (to succeed Palmer, removed from city), L. H. ,Washburn, Aldermen; John K. Scott, Marshal; John H. Munroe, Recorder; William Leffingwell, Treasurer; 0. W. Brown, Collector; William Gordon, Assessor for county purposes; Lewis Coe, Assessor for city purposes; Marx Block, Wharfmaster; James S. Patten, Street Commissioner.

1869--William B. Keeler, Mayor; Joseph Bridgman, C. U. Hatch, J. B. Dougherty, William Spring, V. Chambers, John Cackler, Aldermen; John K. Scott, Marshal; John H. Munroe, Recorder; C. E. Kent, Treasurer; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for county purposes; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for city purposes; George R. White, Wharfmaster; James S. Patten, Street Commissioner; Cornelius Cadle, City Measurer.

1870--S. G. Stein, Mayor; Henry Funck, Henry Molis, John Cackler, Joseph Bridgman, C. U. Hatch, J. B. Dougherty, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; Galbraith Bitzer, Marshal; John H. Munroe, Recorder; C. E. Kent, Treasurer; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for county purposes; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for city purposes; W. G. Block, Wharfmaster; John Beard, Street Commissioner.

1871--S. G. Stein, Mayor; Michael Murphy, John Daiber, A. F. Adams, Henry Funck, Henry Molis, John Cackler, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; C. E. Kent, Treasurer; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for county purposes; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for city purposes; W. G. Block, Wharfmaster; Patrick Murphy, Street Commissioner.

1872--J. P. Ament, Mayor; Jacob Dold, I. L, Graham, Galbraith Bitzer, Michael Murphy, John Daiber, A. F. Adams, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; C. E. Kent, Treasurer; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for county purposes; P. A. Brumfield, Assessor for city purposes; W. G. Block, Wharfmaster; B. H. Eversmeyer, Street Commissioner.

1873--J. P. Ament, Mayor; M. Murphy, O. P. Watters, John Lantz, Jacob Dold, I. L. Graham, Galbraith Bitzer, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; William Leffingwell, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for city purposes; W. G. Block, Wharfmaster; WIllIam Calder, Street Commissioner.

1874--Richard Musser, Mayor; Alexander Jackson, J. J. Hoopes, M. Benham, Michael Murphy, Jacob Fisch (to succeed Watter, resigned), John Lantz, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; William Leffingwell, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; George Wiley, Assessor for city purposes; W. G. Block, Wharfmaster; R. H. Eversmeyer, Street Commissioner.

1875--Henry Molis, Mayor; Frank Moran, Jacob Fisch, T. R. Fitzgerald, Alexander Jackson, J. J. Hoopes, John Lantz (to succeed Benham, resigned), Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; William Leffingwell, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for city purposes; George F. Funck, Wharfmaster; Michael Purcell, Street Commissioner.

1876--J. P. Ament, Mayor; George W. Dillaway, John Byrne, Maurice Neidig, Frank Moran, Jacob Fisch, T. K. Fitzgerald, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; William Leffingwell, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; George Wiley, Assessor for city purposes; George B. Funck, Wharfmaster; Michael Purcell, Street Commissioner.

1877--T. R. Fitzgerald, Mayor; Edward Hoch, John Knopp, Galbraith Bitzer, George W. Dillaway, John Byrne, Maurice O. Neidig, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; D. L. Ewing, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; Henry Molis, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for city purposes; George F. Funck, wharfmaster; Michael Purcell, Street Commissioner.

1878--Richard Musser, Mayor; John Hahn, Samuel Cohn, J. B. Mark, Edward Hoch, John Knopp, Galbraith Bitzer, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; J. A. Eaton, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; James Jackson, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor for county purposes; George R. White, Assessor for city purposes; George F. Funck, Wharfmaster; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner; George Schneider, Steamboat Register.

1879--George W. Dillaway, Mayor; John Hahn, H. J. Lauder, Samuel Cohn, F. Huttig, J. B. Mark, G. Sparks, Aldermen; Robert Williams, Police Judge; R. T. Wallace, Marshal; Robert Williams, Recorder; James Jackson, Treasurer; D. P. Johnson, Assessor; George F. Funck, Wharfmaster; Romulus Hawley, Street Commissioner.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS.

The city owns a substantial building on Third street, corner of Sycamore, which was purchased of the German Presbyterian Church Society, in 1876, for $2,500. The edifice was originally used as a church, but has been remodeled to suit its present uses. The upper floor is now divided in a spacious hall, with a Council-chamber and a Police Court or Recorder's room in the front. These rooms are ample in size, and the requirements of the several departments are fully served. In the lower portion of the building, the Central Fire Department is stationed, where a well-stocked hose-cart and hook-and-ladder truck are kept.

The city owns no Jail, but makes use of the County Jail. Prior to the purchase of this building, the Council met in leased rooms in the Winn Building and in the Tremont House Building.

Although the Court House did not properly come under the head of city buildings, it is, nevertheless, an edifice which gives additional character to the structures of the city. Placed in the midst of a fine square, in a locality somewhat retired and free from the noise of the principal business thoroughfares, but still easy of access, the building forms a conspicuous object in the view as seen from many of the surrounding points of eminence. The Court House was rebuilt in 1864-65, and is now a satisfactory and creditable building. The spacious park is adorned with numerous fine trees. The noble monument which commemorates the deeds of those who fell in defense of the Union, stands in the foreground.

The Jail is located immediately in the rear of the Court House, but across Fourth street. This building was recently remodeled and made secure, by the addition of better cell arrangements, and is now a substantial structure. Joseph Mulford and H. H. Hine were the contractors who reconstructed the Jail.

POLICE DEPARTMENT.

The police of the city are under the charge of a Marshal, who is annually chosen by the Council. At present, that responsible office is filled by R. T. Wallace. There are the following policemen now on service: Thomas S. Berry, Newton M. Brown, John Kerwick and George W. King, the latter hav- ing charge of the stone-yard at the Jail, where the unwelcome tramps are placed at work.

POLICE COURT.

Judge Robert Williams is the present Police Judge, and has held the office since the institution of the Court, in 1870. The powers and jurisdiction of the tribunal is co-ordinate with that of Justice of the Peace, and has additional powers in some directions, to fit the case.

Judge Williams is also Recorder of the city, a position filled by appointment of the Council, and has both offices in the City Building.

FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Muscatine can rightfully boast of its Fire Department. It is composed of young men who take great pride in their connection with their several companies. Although some efforts were made in quite early times to establish companies, and those efforts were successful to a greater or less degree, it is but right to date the present system only from the time when the companies now in existence originated. The Department is in possession of no data which go back of those which are here recorded. As in many other places, there were, doubtless, bucket-brigades and volunteer companies, but no evidence of their existence is in the hands of the Chief of the present system. We join with those who give amplest praise to the citizen-firemen, who risk life and limb in times of danger, with no other motive or purpose than the relief of imperiled humanity. Since the institution of the Department, in 1876, Joseph Morrison has been Chief, and H. F. Bodman, Assistant Chief thereof:

Champion Hose Company No. 1 was organized January 7, 1875, at which time a number of German citizens met at the Mayor's office for the purpose of establishing a regular system. Mr. Gus Schmidt was the leading spirit in this commendable enterprise, and has since been an efficient member of the company. The officers elected in 1875 were as follows: Foreman, M. Saal; First Assistant, Bo Schmidt; Second Assistant, C. Henkel; President, Gus Schmidt; Secretary, D. Mayer; Treasurer, H. F. Bodman. The original membership was forty-eight. On the 27th of February following the organization, this company received from the city a Champion Chemical Engine, and a number of buckets, hooks, ladders, etc. The name adopted was that of the "Champion Fire Company." The election of officers in 1876 resulted in the choice of Gus Schmidt for Foreman; H. F. Bodman, First Assistant; John Neupert, Second Assistant; Sam Cohn, President; B. Schmidt, Secretary; Joseph Fessler, Treasurer. A Standing Committee was chosen, as follows; C. Ruckeleschel, John Koehler, Joseph Fredrichs. May 31, 1876, the city placed a hose-cart with hose at the service of the company, and the name was thereupon changed to that of "Champion Hose Company No. 1." Since then, the officers have been; 1877--Foreman, Gus Schmidt; First Assistant, B. Juettner; Second Assistant, C. Hetzel; President, C. Bierman; Secretary, B. Schmidt; Treasurer, James Fessler; Standing Committee, J. Fredr!fhs, C. Ruckeleschel and John Koehler; 1878--Foreman, Gus Schmidt; First Assistant, C. Hacker; Second Assistant, Gus George; President, B. Juettner; Secretary, B. Schmidt; Treasurer, J. Fessler; Standing Committee, A. P. Mess, H. F. Bodman, John Hartmann; 1879--Foreman, Gus Schmidt; First Assistant, C. Hacker; Second Assistant, John Neupert; Treasurer, Joseph Fessler; Secretary, Bo Schmidt; Standing Committee, C. F. Bodman, A. P. Hess, John Hartmann. Membership, forty-six men.

Rescue Hose-Company No. 2 was organized April 27, 1878, with a membership of thirty men. The original officers were: G. Bitzer, Captain; A. B. Hampton, First Lieutenant; Joseph Morrison, Second Lieutenant; C. G. Whipple, Secretary; J. A. Pickler, Treasurer. In June, Joseph Morrison was elected Chief of Fire Department, and William Fisher was chosen Second Lieutenant. Mr. Whipple resigned August 17, and William C. Betts Was elected to the vacant place of Secretary. Mr. Hampton resigned March 1, 1877, and William Fisher was elected First Lieutenant. Frank Ashcraft was elected Second Lieutenant May 3. In 1877, the official roll stood; G. Bitzer Captain; William Fisher, First Lieutenant; John Ellis, Second Lieutenant; Charles F. Garlock, Secretary. John Berry, Treasurer. In June, 1878. the election resulted in the choice of G. Bitzer, Captain; William Fisher, First Lieutenant; John Berry, Second Lieutenant; Charles F. Garlock, Secretary; John Berry, Treasurer. The membership, March 25, 1879, is forty-five.

Excelsior Hose Company No. 3 was organized in June, 1876, with twenty- four members. Its motto is "Always reliable." Herewith is given the official roll; 1876--Foreman, F. Moran; First Assistant, P. Ryan; Second Assistant, D. Burke; Secretary, J. H. Cosgrove; Treasurer, F. P. Anson; 1877--Foreman, P. Toohey; First Assistant, D. Burke; Second Assistant, M. J. Fahey; Secretary, J. H. Cosgrove; Treasurer F. P. Anson; 1878-- Foreman, P. Murphy; First Assistant, D. Burke; Second Assistant, M. J. Fahey; Secretary, C. P. Neff; Treasurer, F. P. Anson; 1879--Foreman, P. Murphy; First Assistant, D. Burke; Second Assistant, J. Pfeiffer; Secretary, C. P. Neff; Treasurer, J. W. O'Brien. Present membership, forty-two.

Relief Hook and Ladder Company No. 1.--This Company was organized April 12, 1877, with a membership of twenty-eight, and went into active service on the arrival of their truck, the lst of May. The officers of the Company, to April 1, 1878, were: Foreman, Lyman Banks; Assistant Foreman, W. S. Halstead; Recording Secretary, A. N. Garlock; Financial Secretary, W. C. Kegel; Treasurer, J. E. Coe; Steward, R. C. Williams; Standing Committee, James Mayes, F. W. Swan and Julius Molis. Officers to April 1, 1879: Foreman, Lyman Banks, First Assistant Foreman, H. W. Hanson; Second Assistant Foreman, F. W. Swan; Recording Secretary, A. N. Garlock; Financial Secretary, W. L. Mull; Treasurer, J. E. Coe; Steward, C. C. Smith; Standing Committee, H. J. Lauder, F. W. Swan, J. H. St. John. The membership at present is forty-five. Company quarters, rear room, under City Hall. Truck first-class; made by G. W. Hannis, Chicago.

Muscatine has, happily, escaped, thus far, from serious loss by fire. The most extensive one which has occurred was August 23, 1851, at which time Joseph Bennett's sash and blind factory was destroyed, with several adjoining cheaper buildings. The loss was estimated at about $40,000. Other minor fires have occurred, as might naturally be expected.

WATER-WORKS.

The admirable system of water-works now in operation in this city was first suggested by Mr. William C. Wier, now deceased. That gentleman visited Muscatine, in the summer of 1875, with the view of enlisting the capitalists in such an enterprise. In the fall of that year, a stock company was organized, and in December the Muscatme Water Works Company was authorized by the City Council to become incorporated under the laws of the State. The leading men in the undertaking were J. A. Bishop, G. W. Dillaway, S. and L. Cohn, W. W. Webster, W. S. Robertson, R. M. Burnett, W. C. Wier, R. Musser, R. M. Baker, J. T. Kreke, S. G. Stein, L. W. Olds, H. Funck, J. Rubelmann, and P. Stein. The charter was for tenty-five years, and covered all points essential to the completion of the works. On the 6th day of November, 1875, the Company was organized, and, on the 12th of that month, the following provisional Board of Directors was chosen: G. W, Dillaway, R. Musser, J. A. Bishop, A. Jackson, H. W. Moore, R. M. Burnett, J. Carskadden, G. A. Garrettson and W. S. Robertson. In 1876, the Board chose G. W. Dillaway, President; R. Musser, Vice President; H. W. Moore, Treasurer; J. Carskadden, Secretary.

In order to give a sketch of the detailed progress of the work, we here insert the Secretary's report to the corporation; submitted May 2, 1876. Mr. Carskadden said:

"To the Stockholders of the Muscatine Water Works Company: "The Provisional Board of Directors of said company respectfully submit the following report: On the 3d of December, 1875, and shortly after the organization of this company, an ordinance was passed by the City Council of Muscatine, granting to this company the exclusive right to construct and maintain water works for protection from fire, and domestic use, and containing guards, provisions and restrictions, which were deemed necessary for the preservation alike of the rights of the city and company. The ordinance was formally accepted by the company on the 6th of December, 1875, and by its terms became a contract between the parties.

"It was considered advisable by the directors, and by the stockholders, and the public generally, that the works should be commenced and pushed to completion as soon as possible, and in order to gain some practical knowledge of the subject, a committee of the Board visited the works at Davenport, Rock Island, Lyons and Clinton. This committee Was very favorably impressed with the style and operation of the works at Clinton, and especially with the merits of the pumping machinery there used; and it was finally determined to model our own on a similar though greatly cheaper plan.

"On the 22d of December, 1875, a meeting of the Board was held for the purpose of considering bids and propositions for the construction of the works. Several propositions were submitted and considered, but that of William C. Wier, the engineer who had drawn various plans and speculations for the works, was deemed the best, and it was also the lowest bid submitted for the construction of the entire works without the reservoir; and the contract was awarded to him, the contract price being $31,138, provided piston-pumps were used, and $32,138, if plunger-pumps were selected. The plunger-pump Was decided to be preferable, and the latter adopted at the contract price. Subsequently, the contract was executed between the company and Messrs. William C. Wier and T. Cowell, as contractors, the latter-named gentleman being associated with Mr. Wier, and joining in the contract subsequent to the letting. The contract bears date, December 29, 1875, and the contractors executed a bond for the faithful performance of their contract, in the penal sum of $5,000, with Mr. J. R. Maxwell, of the Cope & Maxwell Manufacturing Company, of Hamilton, Ohio, as surety.

"The contract provides, in brief, for the sinking and anchoring in the bed of the Mississippi River, for a distance of 700 feet from the shore between the elevator and Northern Line warehouse, of a wooden conduit similar to that adopted at Clinton, to convey the water from the channel of the river, and where, it is believed, the water will be free from the impurities of the shore, to the works--the construction of a water-tight well directly at the shore, in which a filter is to be placed, and into which water will be drawn from the conduit, and from which the water will be drawn to the pumps--the construction of a pumping-house and smoke-stack on the levee about eighty feet from the shore with the necessary pumps, boilers and machinery therein, and the laying of a twelve-inch street-main or water-pipe from the pumping-house across the levee and up Chestnut to Second street, and there connecting with the circuit of street-mains which extends from Broadway on the west to Oak street on the east, and includes main lines on Second and Fifth streets, and the necessary connections by cross streets, and the setting of a hydrant for fire purposes at each street-crossing, with several valves or gates by means of which the water can be shut off from any given section of the pipe for purpose of tapping, repairs, etc.; in short, the contract covers and includes all the main work and material necessary for furnishing water by direct pressure, and by its terms the contractors undertook to furnish all the material and do the work.

"The work of trenching and laying the pipe was begun immediately after the execution of the contract and was pushed forward as fast as the frequent rains and storms of the past winter would permit. Some delay in that respect, and also in setting hydrants, was caused by the non-arrival of material at as early a date as it was expected.

"The open winter, which in some respects interfered with the progress of the work, enabled the contractors to build the brick pumping-house and smoke- stack sooner than was anticipated.

"The continuous high water prevented the placing of the filter in the pump well, and the same cause, with the additional fact that the river Was not frozen over during the winter, made it impossible to lay a great part of the conduit; neither of these things could be properly done until low water in the river.

"The street mains and special castings were furnished by the celebrated iron house of Dennis Long & Co., of Louisville, Ky., and are believed to be of excellent quality. The fire hydrants and valves are from the house of S. Cummings & Son, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who have a well established reputation as manufacturers of these articles. The boilers were made by John Baker & Co., of Muscatine, and that is believed to be a sufficient guaranty of their quality.

"The pumping machinery was built, placed in position and connected with the pipes, ready for use, by the Cope & Maxwell Manufacturing Company, of Hamilton, Ohio. The pumps are similar to those of the Clinton Water Works, and are beautiful specimens of that class of machinery. Having a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons in twenty-four hours.

"The public test and trial of the works had on the 12th of April, demonstrated the entire efficiency of the pumping machinery, the strength of the pipes and the thoroughness of the manner in which, all the work has been done. Upon the strength of that test, the pumping machinery was formally accepted by the Directors.

"In order that the city might be ready to avail itself of the benefit of the Water Works at as early a moment as possible, the City Council has provided hose and carts, and at the public test before mentioned, a powerful stream of water, sufficient for all ordinary fire purposes, was thrown through 1,050 feet of hose affixed to a hydrant on the east end of Fifth street, being the hydrant farthest from the pumping-house. ThiS stream was played on the roof and tower of Schoolhouse No. 1, on the west side of Seventh street, and on a high elevation of ground. This severe test convinced all who witnessed it that the territorial extent of the protection afforded by the works is limited only by the length and strength of the hose in use.

"The throwing of two, three and four streams simultaneously, at the same trial, proved the ability of the works to concentrate a great mass of water at the same time upon any one point, and that the protection from fire which our citizens have been so anxious to obtain for years, has at last been accomplished.

"At a special meeting of the City Council, held on the 15th of April, the Council was formally notified by the Board that the Water Works were so far completed as to enable the company to afford the necessary fire protection, and that the rental of fire hydrants, as provided by the city ordinance should begin at that date, This communication was referred to the Council as a committee of the whole, and at a subsequent meeting was approved and assented to. The rental here referred to is the sum of $4,000 per year for the hydrants on the present line of pipe, being thirty in all.

"The works have not yet been accepted from the contractors, for the contract is still unfinished. About five hundred feet of the conduit is yet to be laid in the river; the filter is to be made and placed in the well, and some work remains to be done on the streets in back-filling the trenches and replacing the macadam along the line in Second street. With these exceptions, the work of the contractors is substantially performed.

"In the progress of work, some additions have been made to the original plan, and these have, of course, increased the cost of construction. Two hydrants have been set in addition to the number called for by the contract; the addition of a mud-settler was made to the boilers, and an arrangement of pipes, by which the water can be forced back in order to scour the conduit, in case it should be obstructed by sand; the size and capacity of the smoke-stack were increased, and various minor changes and modifications of the original plans.

"The subscriptions to the capital stock of this company amount, in round numbers, to $44,000. The Directors have made four calls or assessments upon the stock--one of 10 per cent and three of 20 per cent, making 70 per cent called for in all.

"With but few exceptions, the calls have been met by the stockholders with commendable promptness, as appears by the report of H. W. Moore, Esq., Treasurer of the company, made to the Board April 29, 1876, there had been collected in cash on the stock subscriptions to that date the sum of $24,504.75, and expended in cash the sum of $24,493.01.

"The system of water works contemplated by this organization includes the construction of a reservoir capable of holding 1,000,000 gallons, upon the westerly hill of the city--either on the public square or on property to be purchased or condemned for that purpose--the pressure from which shall be sufficient to afford fire protection and supply for domestic use to all lower parts of the town without the aid of direct pressure from the pumps, and, when this is done, the cost of maintaining and running the works will be greatly lessened, as it will not then be necessary to keep up steam constantly.

"In conclusion, the Board beg leave to congratulate you and your fellow- citizens generally upon the fact that this important enterprise has been carried so far toward completion, and with so little delay and loss. When you called upon us to do this work, we knew absolutely nothing about it, and were compelled to rely upon conclusions drawn by hasty observation of other works, and upon such information as we could gather from outside sources. We had to depend, in a great measure, upon the advice and suggestions of the contractors, and especially of Mr. Wier, at and before the commencement of the "fork, and it is but justice to them to say that they have (as we believe) fairly and honorably given us and you and the city the benefit of their knowledge and experience. We should also remind you that this is a work that cannot be built and then let alone, like a house, until time and the elements make repairs necessary. It will not run itself. It requires now, and always will require, constant and careful supervision, and economy and thoroughness in its management and future extension to make it either creditable or profitable to the Company. But we feel confident that the same liberality and enterprise which led to the construction of our Water Works, will sustain and extend them in the future."

In the summer of 1876, the reservoir was completed, with a capacity of 1,500,000 gallons. It is located on the public square on the southeast part of town. From 1876 to 1879, there were several extensions to main pipe laid, making in all three and a half miles of pipe now in use. Other improvements were made, including the grading, fencing, sodding and planting of trees and shrubbery on the public square, making it one of the finest pleasure resorts in the city. The reservoir is situated about three-fourths of a mile from the pumping works and at a height of 185 feet from pumps, giving the city a pressure of sixty-five to eighty pounds, which is used for all domestic and fire purposes. The company has located on the line forty double-discharge hydrants for fire purposes. The supply of water is obtained from the Mississippi River through an eighteen-inch cast iron pipe, running into the river 700 feet. The quality of water is as good as any in the State. The engine-house has been inclosed within a yard 130x75 feet, trees and shrubbery planted, and a beautiful fountain in the center.

The present Directors of the company, elected in May, 1878, consist of G. W. Dillaway, J. A. Bishop, H. W. Moore, A. Jackson, J. Carskadden, R. Musser, G. A.Garrettson, Samuel Cohn and L. W. Olds, with the following officers: G. W. Dillaway, President; J. A. Bishop, Vice President; H. W. Moore, Treasurer; J. Carskadden, Secretary; WillIam Molis, Engineer and General Superintendent; Charles Molis, Assistant.

THE POST OFFICE.

The first post office in the limits of Muscatine County was established in 1836, with Arthur Washburn as Postmaster. The office was called Iowa. The second post office was at Geneva, in 1838. The name then used was Vanderpool and S. C. Comstock, father of Mrs. W. A. Drury, was the official in charge. Amos Walton, father of J. P. Walton, was Deputy, and, subsequently, Postmaster. The name was then changed to Geneva.

Although Bloomington claimed to be a town in 1836, no post office was established until 1839 at this point. The settlers of "town" and "county" were compelled to go to Geneva for their mail. The first commission was issued to a Postmaster at Bloomington, in 1839, but a most unaccountable spirit animated the man who was honored by the appointment, Mr. Stowell, for, before the commission arrived, he left the village for parts unknown. He may have been appalled at the thought of acquiring wealth so suddenly, for, at that time, the office was worth about $4 a year. At all events, he retired from view, and the citizens discussed the merits of those who were more staid, with a view to selecting an officer. Finally, Edward E. Fay was induced to accept the trust, and his name was duly enrolled on the list of appointments. Mr. Fay was not trammeled with any of the modern ideas of a Postmaster's duties. The citizens did not wait about the general delivery and clamor for their mail, or grumble when he was five minutes too long in distributing the same. The reason was obvious: Mr. Fay carried his office in his hat! It was not an extraordinary hat, either. It had no lock-boxes or numbered drawers; but it created a system which has since been abandoned in this city--the carrier system.

Mr. Fay died in 1840, and was succeeded in office by his brother, Pliny Fay, who removed to California. The latter held office under the Harrison regime. During most of that time, the office was in a small frame building on Second street, where Union Block stands. The business had so increased as to require a local office.

When Polk's administration came in, the policy of the Government was one of change, and, in 1844, George Earll became Postmaster. He established his office in a small frame building, on the site of the old Tremont Hall. Mr. Earll soon died of consumption, and his daughter Lucy became first the Deputy and then the appointed officer in charge. Miss Earll became a general favorite, through her efficient and agreeable management. She subsequently married Mr. 0. H. Kelly, of National Grange fame, and died in 1850, in Minnesota.

Taylor's election to the Presidency again worked change. In 1849, Nathan L. Stout was appointed Postmaster. At that thime, he was editor of the Bloomington Herald. He removed the office to a new frame building which stood on the site of A. M. Winn's store. The quarters were more commodious than ever before; but Mr. Stout was, unfortunately, a poor business manager, and, in less than a year, his affairs became so complicated that a change was made by the Department, and Richard Cadle took the office. He served acceptably during the remainder of the term, moving the office to the lower room in Freeman's Block, at Pappoose Creek Bridge, on Second street.

In 1853, President Pierce appointed Henry Reece Postmaster. A portion of the time, Mr. Reece retained the rooms in which he found the office, but finally moved to the Boston House (now Scott House), on Iowa avenue. Mr. Reece opposed the Nebraska bill, and was removed from office after three years of service.

John A. McCormick succeeded to the place, and removed the office to the east end of Second street.

In 1860, Robert Williams was appointed by President Buchanan; but the change in administration, one year later, caused a change also in office.

John Mahin became Postmaster in 1861. In the spring of that year, he removed the office to Iowa avenue.

In 1869, R. W. H. Brent was appointed to the office by President Grant. The office was removed to Butler's Block, Iowa avenue.

In 1873, John Mahin was re-appointed, and, under his administration, the office was established in the spacious quarters still occupied on Second street, between Iowa avenue and Chestnut street, called Stein's Building, or, more latterly, the Post-Office Building. It is one of the finest offices in the State.

In 1878, B. Beach was appointed Postmaster, and is still serving in that capacity.

RAILROAD INTERESTS.

Both the city and county of Muscatine have played a conspicuous part in the great railroad drama of the West. Liberality on the part of the people was not met by a commensurate degree of success during the years of fierce scramble for power which preceded the war. Muscatine ought to have been the leading railroad town on the Mississippi; and it was through no fault of the citizens that such a grand accomplishment did not result from the efforts put forth. The county voted a large sum of money in aid of railroads, and the city was equally public-spirited. Fate conspired to defeat the measures introduced, however, and to-day the county has but just freed itself of a large debt, while the city has still a burden to carry, growing out of the issuance of railroad bonds to an unsuccessful and now exttinc corporation. Whatever may have been the past, however, the future is more encouraging. Muscatine is now open to the markets of the North, South, East and West, by the lines running to the city; while the county is peculiarly fortunate in the numerousness of its roads. The city is now one of the most important points upon the great Southwestern Branch of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific road, which unites the city of Chicago with the city of Leavenworth, Kan., and connects Atchison, by means of a branch, with those centers of trade. The entire system of railways throughout the Southwest is thus opened up and brought into close relationship with the line upon which Muscatine stands. Texas and the Gulf the border regions, by the Southern Pacific, and the vast treasure of mine and field there lying undeveloped, will some day find an outlet through the connections of which the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific is a part. Although the city of Muscatine is upon the branch, the main line runs through the northern tier of townships in the county,by which means this section can boast of two trunk lines within its limits, for the Southwestern is practically a main line.The east and west road passes through Stockton, Wilton, Moscow, Atalissa and West Liberty, and calls to those several towns the trade of contiguous territory in adjoining counties. A Wilton the Southwestern intersects the main line, and runs nearly south until it reaches Muscatine, thence it diverges to the southwest. Muscatine is the only town, except a mere station called Summit, on this branch, within the county.

The western tier of townships find markets upon the great north and south thoroughfare--the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Railroad. While the corporation so named controls the road no further south than Burlington, that road and its connections unite St.Paul with St.Louis. West Liberty profits by being located at the junction of the northern with eastern roads, and is a favorable marketing point for all staples produced in the magnificent region which surrounds it on all sides. The stations on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern road are Nichois, Conesville and Port Allen.

But these roads are not the only ones. A line extends westward from Muscatine, which is called the Muscatine Western, tapping the Burlington, CedarRapids & NQrthern road at Nichols, and pushing onward toward the coal-fields. During the coming summer, this road will be built several miles beyond its present temporary terminus,in Johnson County. Ultimately this road will become a great through line to Council Bluffs.

It is always better to consider the good that may be realized, than to repine Over the results of past mistakes.If the city of Muscatine failed to secure one of the main trunk lines at any early day,there is no reason for despairing of her being more fortunate in the future. The growing demands of rapid transit, between sea-board and sea-board will, sooner or later, compel the construction of a road to the Missouri River upon as nearly an air line as is practicable. Such a road would have to cross the Mississippi at Muscatine. The completion of the Western would serve as a stimulant to such an enterprise, as its route contemplates just such a project. It would become a mighty link in the chain, and the freights of the Pacific would find cheap passage-way through this city.

It is also possible that a road may be built along the river, from Clinton to Burlington, and open up another north and south highway.

RIVER NAVIGATION.

The business done by the packet lines--of which there are two--is quite an important feature in the aggregate of that transacted in the city, but the era of railroading eclipses that of steamboating. Considerable grain is purchased here, and shipped from the elevator on the levee. This is the only elevator in town.

A FERRY

is maintained between Muscatine and the opposite shore, whereby the farmers of the southern portion of Rock Island and the northern portion of Mercer Counties are enabled to trade with Muscatine merchants.

RELIGIOUS HISTORY.

The First M. E. Church of Muscatine came into active existence, and finally was created a regularly organized religious institution, in the manner hereafter cited. During the fall of 1837 and summer of 1838. Norris Hobert preached here. About the same time, Barton H. Cartwright, Methodist, held services and preached to audiences in the bar-room of the Iowa House. In the spring of 1839, Rev. Brace was sent by the Rock River Conference, as a missionary, to a mission which included Bloomington (now Muscatine). The place then contained about one hundred and fifty inhabitants, among them a few professors of religion.

Although meeting with great opposition, Rev. Brace fearlessly and boldly preached the word of everlasting life. Hon. J. A. Parvin states that the first time he heard him preach, it was in a small building, just inclosed, without plaster or floor, unless loose boards thrown across the sleepers could be called a floor. He stood in the door, as a number were around the house, and while he was explaining the "way of life," a distinguished citizen, to show his contempt for the preacher and religion, sat near him, reading a newspaper. Yet this conduct did not disturb the man of God. He acted as one who was commanded to "stand on the walls of Zion," and when he saw danger, give the alarm, and thus clear his skirts of the blood of sinners.

In the month of July, 1839, a class was formed, consisting of seven members, viz., George Bumgardner and Sarah Bumgardner, Thomas and Sarah Morford, J. A. Parvin and Hannah D. Parvin and Miss Mary Williams.

The next session of the Rock River Conference being in the fall of 1839, returned Mr. Brace, and sent the Rev. Barton Cartwright as his colleague, and made a four-weeks circuit, which embraced all of Muscatine and part of Scott and Louisa Counties. They preached the word faithfully, but met with many discouragements; seeing but little fruit of their labors, scarcely receiving a compensation sufficient to keep them from going ragged, traveling from day to day over the unsettled prairies, preaching in log cabins to a congregation of ten or twelve persons, they faithfully performed their duties. Among the additions to the membership this year were William and Hannah Parvin and Mary Williams, wife of Hon. Joseph Williams.

A Sunday school was commenced in May, 1839, which was, for several years, a union school, until the different denominations became able to support a school of their own. Since 1844, a Sunday school has existed and been liberally supported by the Church.

The Rock River Conference, at its session in 1840, made some alterations in the circuit, and appointed Rev. Henry Somers, Presiding Elder, and Nathan Jewett, preacher in charge.

The first Quarterly Meeting there is any record of was held at Bloomington, October 3, 1840. The members of that Quarterly Conference, besides the Elders and preacher, were: Micajah Reeder, Local Preacher; George Bumgardner, Exhorter; John Lilly, Gabriel Walling, William Reeder and Joseph Jeans, Class-Leaders. The following were appointed Stewards: J. A. Parvin, Recording Steward; Charles A. Warfield, District Steward, and Joseph Williams, Thomas S. Battelle and Robert Benfiel, Stewards. George Bumgardner was licensed to preach as a local preacher.

Joseph Williams and some others joined Church during this Quarterly Meeting.

The next Quarterly Conference was held January 2, 1841, at Bloomington. From this time on, the Church progressed gradually, increasing in membership and accomplishing much good work in the community. At the annual Conference in 1845, a Board of Trustees was appointed, consisting of the following members, viz.: J. Williams, G. Bumgarden, T. S. Battelle, T. Morford, John Lilly, George Earle, J. A. Parvin, Z. Washburn and S. C. Hastings, and measures were taken which ultimately resulted in the building of a meeting-house.

In 1840, the citizens built a house for school and religious purposes, on Iowa avenue, between Second and Third streets, which was used alternately by the Methodists and Presbyterians until 1846, when the former society obtained exclusive control of it. It was abandoned in 1851.

The old church-building now occupied by the city offices was dedicated the same year, and the present commodious church edifice was erected under the supervision of Rev. W. F. Cowles, in 1860.

The following is a list of the Pastors to the present date, in regular succession: 1840, Nathan Jewett; 1841, Joseph Kirkpatrick; 1842, James L. Tompson; 1843-44, E. S. Norris; 1845-46, David Worthington; 1846, J. B. Hardy; 1847-48, John Harris; 1849, L. B. Dennis; 1851, H. C. Dean and L. S. Ashbaugh; 1852, Joseph Brooks; 1853-54, JameS H. White; 1855, John Harris; 1856, J. w. Sullivan; 1857, John Harris; 1858-59, David Worthington; 1860, Emory Miller, Assistant; 1860-61, F. W. Evans; 1862-63, J. H. Power; 1864, W. P. Watkins; 1865-66, G. N. Power; 1867-70, W. F. Cowles; 1870-73, J. B. Blakeney; 1873-76, J. W. McDonald; 1876-78, G. N. Power; 1878-79, Dennis Murphy. The Present membership of the congregation is 400.

Connected with the Church is a large and flourishing Sunday school, a Lyceum, holding sessions twice a month, and a Women's Foreign Missionary Society.

The Musserville M. E. Church was erected during the year 1875, previous to any church organization. In the fall of the same year, it was dedicated, and became what is known as Muscatine Circuit M. E. Church. At the time of the dedication, Rev. A. V. Francis had been appointed to the pastorate, which relation he sustained for three years, during which time the Church was very prosperous. Its membership increased from three to about one hundred. Its constituent members were Thornton Nichols, Emily Nichols and Frank Holcomb. Its first officers or Board of Trustees were Peter Musser, W. H. Stewart, Thornton Nichols, William Newkirk, F. R. Holcomb, Peter Musser, H. V. Howard, Frank Coover and Samuel Miller. The Church has a present membership of eighty. Its present Board of Trustees consists of George Stinchfield, T. Nichols, W. H. Hoopes, S. Miller, J. Kendig, C. 0. Hurd and F. R. Holcomb. Rev. John B. Hill presides over the Church as Pastor. It has three appointments outside of the city limits, constituting the pastoral charge known as Muscatine Circuit; also supports a flourishing Sabbath school, under the superintendence of W. H. Hoopes, with an average of one hundred scholars.

The German Methodist Church was organized by Revs. Henry Fiegenbaum and John Plank. During the years 1850, 1851 and 1852, the first house of worship was built, at a cost of $1,050. The first Sabbath school included two teachers and eight scholars. In 1871, the Church property was sold, and May 30, 1872, the corner-stone of the present church edifice was laid; the building was completed on the 25th of August, 1872, and dedicated to the service of the Trinity of Almighty God. The cost of this church was $7,000. At first, Iowa City, Wapello, Wilton and Illinois City were included in this mission, which places, however, all have regular independent organizations now. Connected with this Church is a Sunday school, with an average attendance of 145 scholars and 20 teachers. Rev. Phil. Kuhl is the present Presiding Elder, and Rev. Phil. Nauman, the Pastor.

The African M. E. Church.--June 21, 1848, a lot, located on Seventh street, was purchased from Adam Ogilvie by Daniel Anderson, Morgan Lowrey and Alexander Clark, Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal (African) Educational and Church Society, which had its organization on the date of said purchase. The Society referred to transferred by deed the property in question to Benjamin Mathews, T. C. Motts, Isaac Manning, Ed. Mathews and Jacob Pritchard, Trustees of the African M. E. Church, which was organized the day of the transfer, October 10, 1849, by Rev. William Dove, who appointed Rev. William Jackson local preacher in charge of the Church until the annual meeting of the Conference, which appointed Rev. William H. Jones the first regular preacher of this congregation. The first officers were: Daniel Anderson, Steward, Class-Leader and Local Preacher; Benjamin J. Mathews, Steward and Class-Leader; Alexander Clark, Recording Steward and Superintendent of Sabbath school.

The following are the names of the first or constituent members: Daniel Anderson, Ellen Anderson, Jane Mathews, Anna Young, Hannah Mathews, Catherine Clark, Robert Young, William Clark, Rev. William Jackson, George Manly, George Hooper, Peter Manning, Alexander Clark, Deborah Pritchard, Mary Clark, Sarah Davidson, Eliza Watkins, H. Simons, Julia Manly, Elizabeth Jackson, Ed. Mathews, James Ruff, Benjamin Mathews, Jane Mott, Rosana Reno, Isaiah Simons, Caroline Manin, Sarah Stubbins, M. Manin, Elizabeth Jackson, Hulda Ruff, Archie Clark, Mahala Simons and Margaret Fuller. Connected with the Church is a Sunday school, with an average attendance of fifty scholars, five officers, five teachers, and one Superintendent. In the latter capacity, Alexander Clark has officiated for the past twenty-five years. The congregation has a library of 200 volumes, and a fine organ. The Church property, including the parsonage, is valued at $1,200. The present membership of the Church is sixty-seven, and its Pastor is Rev. William R. Alexander.

First Presbyterian Church (Old School).--On the 6th of July, 1839, Rev. John Stocker, a Congregationalist, from Vermont, afterward a member of the Old-School Presbytery of Logansport, Ind., removed to Bloomington and organized "The First Presbyterian Church of Musquitine County, Iowa Territory," which was for several years supported by the American Home Missionary Society. In the formation of this Church, the intention was declared to be connected, in case of a division of the General Assembly of the presbyterian Church of the United States, with that part, which united in exscinding the Synod of Geneva and others in 1837. The Church thus organized continued under Mr. Stocker's ministry, without forming any connection with either Assembly, until the winter of 1841-42, when Mr. Stocker, insisting that the question should be decided, a majority, including both Elders, voted for a New- School connection, whilst a minority of eleven determined on joining the Old- School body. These without any formal re-organization, claiming the succession, chose new officers, and perpetuated the Church, which now bears the name of the "First Presbyterian Church of Muscatine, Iowa." In 1843, a portion of this Church united with others in organizing the Congregational, by which the New-School Presbyterian was absorbed. The First Presbyterian Church, after disposing of their original house of worship, erected a commodious one on the corner of Fourth street and Iowa avenue. The congregation numbers about one hundred and seventy-five members; its property is valued at $22,000. Rev. Joseph H. Barnard is the present minister, and the last officers elected are: S. G: Stein, W. W. Webster and G. A. Garrettson, Trustees. Connected with the Church, is a prosperous Sunday school, with an average attendance of 250.

The First German Presbyterian Church.--Previous to any regular church organization, the members, who afterward established this congregation, held religious singing and prayer meetings in various localities, but soon became desirous to have some one to preach to them, and consequently called Rev. Paul Mais. Their services were held in the church of the English-speaking people of the same denomination. After the sale of the church-building in question, the Germans rented a room on Second street. The church was finally organized June 1, 1855, by a committee of the Presbytery of Cedar, Iowa, composed of Rev. A. Van Vliet, of Dubuque, Rev. Samuel Baird and Elder I. S. Horten, of Muscatine; Bernhard Naeve and Friedrich Hacker were then elected Elders and John Schmidt and Ernst Kudobe were chosen Deacons. At a meeting held March 30, 1857, by the congregation, Rev. Jacob Kolb was elected the first regular Pastor. The original members of the organization were, Bernhard and Johana Naeve, F. Hacker and wife, Elizabeth Lowre, Heinrich Linke, John Schmidt and wife, Mary Reis, Wilhelmina Otto, Catharine Otto, William Jacob and wife, Ernst Kudobe, Mary Meis, George Schweinsberg and wife, Conrad G. Schweinsberg, Agatha Closer, Bernhard Kemper, Joseph and Margaret Looser, Johana Sywasnik and Elizabeth Briedenstein. At a meeting held May, 1857, it was decided to buy a lot and build a house of worship. To this end John Schmidt and F. Hacker were elected Trustees. The church was incorporated by Rev. Jacob Kolb, Bernhard Kemper, John W. Sywasnik, Henry Linke and Joseph Looser July 3, 1857. The congregation came into possession, by trade, of the old Methodist Church on Third street, which they afterward sold to the city and eventually built their present meeting-house on Cemetery street. The congregation is composed of Germans and Hollanders, and to accommodate both nationalities, services are held in the German language in the morning and in the Holland tongue in the evening. The church property is valued at $2,000. The present membership is twenty- six; the present pastor is K. Smits.

The First Baptist Church.--Agreeable to previous notice, the brethren and sisters of the Baptist denomination, in Bloomington and vicinity, met, October 2, 1841, in order to take into consideration the propriety of becoming a constituted church, and after mature deliberation unanimously resolved to request a council, and appointed a committee to draft a Constitution, Covenant and Articles of Faith and report to the next meeting. A. L. Beatty was Secretary of this meeting. October 17, 1841, the brethren and sisters met according to arrangement at previous meeting, with S. Headly as Moderator. The Committee appointed to draft Articles of Faith reported that they had the matter under consideration, and recommended the adoption of those articles held by the Ninth Street Baptist Church at Cincinnati, Ohio, which report was accepted, and after reading, the articles referred to were adopted as the Confession of Faith for the contemplated church. On motion it was resolved to invite Elder E. Fisher, and such other material aid as might be procured for the occasion. October 30, 1841, agreeable to adjournment, the Baptist brethren and sisters of Bloomington convened at the house of Robert C. Kinney. The meeting was opened by prayer, with Elder E. Smith as Moderator. The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. Elder E. Smith, an ordained minister from Davenport, sat in council, whereupon the following brethren and sisters presented letters, which were read, to wit: Albert L. Beatty, Stephen Headly, Julia C. Deweber, Margaret Musgrave, Betsy Ingallis and Nancy Bear, all of which proved satisfactory, and were accepted and pronounced by the Council the First Baptist Church of Bloomington, Muscatine County, Iowa Territory. On motion it was resolved that the Articles of Faith, Discipline and Covenant of the Ninth Street Baptist Church, of Cincinnati, Ohio, be adopted. On motion, the Church voted to elect one deacon, in pursuance of which Stephen Headly was appointed. On motion, it was resolved that the Church call Elder E. Fisher to preach once a month, commencing the last Sabbath of October, 1841; and further that they agree to raise $100 per year for his support. This resolution was made known to Elder Fisher, and he accepted the call. At a business meeting held January 14, 1843, it was resolved to solicit Elder E. Fisher to move to Bloomington, and devote one-half of his time to the service of the Church, for which they agreed to give him $100 per year in addition to his former salary. May 21, 1842, Elder Fisher and Stephen Headly were appointed delegates to represent this Church in the Baptist Convention to be held at Iowa City, on the 5th day of June, 1842. July 23, 1842, Brethren Perrin, Fisher, Headly, Beatty and Deweber were appointed delegates to the Baptist Convention to be held at Davenport September 2, 1842. December 27, 1842, the following officers were elected: Stephen Headly and Lyman Carpenter, Deacons; A. L. Beatty, Clerk, and W. F. Deweber, Treasurer. January 10, 1843, Elder E. Fisher was engaged as Pastor of the Church for the ensuing year, commencing January 1, 1843. Until February, 1843, all meetings were held in private houses, but afterward the congregation, which had in the mean time largely increased, worshiped in the Court House. February 24, 1844, the Church voted to send Brother Seely to Ohio and Kentucky for the purpose of raising a subscription to build a meeting-house in Bloomington. June 8, 1844, the Church met, reconsidered their Articles of Faith, and adopted new articles in their stead. At the same meeting, the Church voted to become a corporate body, also resolved to establish and support a Sabbath school, with four Superintendents, who would direct said school alternately in each month. Brothers Headly, Carpenter, Reynolds and Cooper were chosen Superintendents. In December, 1844, the schoolroom of Mr. Hines was rented as a place of worship. The regular house of worship of this Church was completed in 1850, although it was occupied for some time before it was finished. Its location was on Cedar street, between Second and Third streets. Many changes had been made in the pastors up to 1848; and from February until December, 1848, the Church was without a minister, when Rev. John Cummins, of Edgerton, Ill., was ordained to the work of the Gospel ministry December 2, 1858, by a Council consisting of Brothers Burnett, Ketcham,and Davis, of Muscatine, formerly Bloomington; J. and C. Shoemaker, of Holland; Edwin Miles, of Fulton; Cogshell and Chase, of Wapello; Collins, White, Folwell and Powell, of Davenport. In the cemetery at Muscatine are deposited the remains of Rev. G. I. Miles, who died December 10, 1857, while Pastor of the Church. February 4, 1859, a delegation of seven brethren, con- sisting of the Pastor, three Deacons, H. Lofland, A. Chambers and W. Prosser were appointed to attend a Council to organize a German Baptist Church in this city. June 3, 1869, fifteen members of this congregation were dismissed to form a new Church at McCloud's Schoolhouse in this county. March 8, 1860, a special meeting was held to consider the want of a new church-building, as the accommodations were not equal to the need. A committee, consisting of Brothers Fisher, Burnett, Ketcham, Barrus, Chambers, Lofland and the Pastor were appointed to see what use could be made of the lot and building they then occupied. August 10, 1860, the Pastor, Brothers Burnett and Chambers were appointed a committee to negotiate for the purchase of the remainder of the lot on which stands the old meeting-house, and for which the committee bargained the same month, at a cost of $1,000. At a meeting held November 15,1863, it was resolved to send Rev. T. L. Burnham forth among Baptist Churches to collect funds to build a new meeting-house. Brothers R. M. Burnett, William Chambers and G. W. Dillaway were appointed a Building Committee, to which Brothers E. Covington and John Munson were subsequently added; and upon Mr. Munson's departure from the city, John Barnard was appointed in his place. The new church edifice was completed early in November, 1868, and on Sunday, November 8, 1868, it was dedicated, the services being conducted by Revs. C. H. Remington, Ed. Miles and A. Eberhart--Rev. Remington preached in the morning, Rev. Eberhart, the dedication sermon in the afternoon, and Ed. Miles, in the evening. Rev. Ed. Eaton, D. D., was the first pastor in the new church. The old church was sold, and possession given July 1, 1865, to St. Paul's Evangelical Church. October 17, 1878, Rev. D. T. Richards was unanimously called to the charge of this Church, and preached his first sermon as its Pastor November 3, 1878, in which capacity he still serves the congregation. The present officers of the Church are: Deacons, R. M. Burnett, John Barnard, A. K. Raff and L. H. Washburn; Trustees, R. W. Durkee, George W. Dillaway, A. K. Raff, Thomas B. Prosser and Lewis Knowles; A. S. Knowles, Treasurer; Robert Thomas, Collector, and L. H. Washburn, Clerk. The present membership is about two hundred and twenty-six, and the Church property is valued at about $14,000.

Connected with the Baptist Church is the Ninth Street Mission School, organized April 17, 1864, with G. W. Dillaway as Superintendent, which he has since remained. They own a corner lot and commodious school-building.

The German Baptist Church.--In January, 1859, the German members of the Holland Baptist Church dissolved their connection with the latter, and, with new-comers from Europe, organized the German Baptist Church February 20, 1859, with an original membership of thirty. Rev. John Henry Sander was the first minister. The newly-organized church was recognized by a council of delegates of the English and Holland Baptist Churches April 10, 1859. Until October, 1864, the congregation worshiped in a schoolhouse located in South Muscatine and owned by Joseph Bennett. A house of worship was erected the same year and dedicated the third Sunday of September, Rev. J. S. Gubelmann, of St. Louis, Mo., preaching the sermon. In 1870, the congregation was, on account of the grading of the streets, obliged to make extensive repairs on their meeting-house, and, in doing so, enlarged the building in such a manner as to obtain a comfortable dwelling-place for their minister. The present membership is 179, including three mission stations. The present Pastor is Rev. August Transchel.

Congregational Church.--In the year 1839, a church named "The First Presbyterian Church of Musquitine County, Iowa Territory," was organized. It was made a part of the record of this organization that it should be what is called "New-School Presbyterian" in its ecclesiastical connection. This Church was assisted in the support of its minister for several years by the American Home Missionary Society, and was dissolved by vote of the Presbytery of Yellow Springs, to which it belonged, in 1845. In the year 1841-42, another PresbyterIan Church connected, eccleslastically, with the "Old-School" branch existed. There were several members of Congregational Churches residing in the county not connected with either branch of the Presbyterian Church. The Congregational Church was the result of an effort, desired with great unanimity, by all three parties to unite in one church. It was organized on the 29th or November, 1843, with articles of faith, covenant and by-laws accordant to the Congregational order. Then there were twenty-six members included in its organization, viz.: Pliny Fay, Adelia Fay, Samuel Lucas, Nancy K. Lucas, William Brownell, Lucy Brownell, Isaac Magoon, Hannah Magoon, C. G. Austin, Harriet Austin, H. I. Jennison, Mary B. Jennison, Harvey Gillett, Elizabeth Fay, Nathan Price, Eliza C. Robbins, Azel Farnsworth, Mary E. Whicher, Edward E. Fay, Louisa Gillett, Charles Shuggs, Mary A. Allen, Giles Pettibone, Asenathe Pettibone, Maria Wheeler and Letta M. Day. The first officers were: Deacons, Pliny Fay and Samuel Lucas; Harvey Gillett, Clerk; H. I. Jennison, C. J. Austin and Nathan Price, Business Committee. The Rev. A. B. Robbins, of Salem, Mass., a missionary of the A. H. M. S., served the Church as Acting Pastor till January, 1853, and was then installed Pastor. This relation continues at the present time, March, 1879. There have been received into the communion of this Church 507. The present membership is 247. This Church erected the first house of worship, properly so called, dedicated to this purpose, in the town of Bloomington, now Muscatine; in the year 1843-44. It is now using its third house of worship erected in 1857, and valued at $12,000, and preparing for its fourth. It has a home and mission Sunday schools of about three hundred attendants. It has two missionary societies and an organization for Christian work. Its contributions to the various benevolent causes amount, as recorded on the books of the clerk, to the sum of $35,864.41 since 1851--twenty-seven years, an average of $1,328.68 per annum. It has ever been radical in its opposition to the system of American slavery, and honored for many years with the name of "Uncle Tom's Cabin." It has also been prominent in the advocacy of the principles of total abstinence from the traffic and use of intoxicating drinks. Its present house of worship is on Chestnut street, between Second and Third streets. Its present officers are: Alden B. Robbins, Pastor; Cornelius Cadle, Suel Foster and Henry Hoover, Deacons; W. H. Woodward, D. C. Richmond and I. Graham, Business Committee; A. B. Robbins, Clerk; J. Kulp, Chorister; T. M. Salmon, Organist. Its Sunday-school officers are: E. E. Holmes and Charles C. Smith, Superintendents; 0. Terry, Chorister Q.; Nellie A. Bishop, Organist Q. S. S.

The German Congregational Church was organized in 1854. Its first officers were Conrad Schaefer and Henry Blumer, Deacons. Its first Pastor was Christian Veitz. The congregation erected a house of worship in 1855. The Church supports a Sunday school, and is connected with the German Minor Congregational Association of Iowa, and that again with the General Association of Iowa. Deacons Jacob Schafluetzell and William Hine are the present officers, while Rev. Henry Hetzler fills the pulpit. The present membership is forty-nine, and the church property is valued at $1,000.

Trinity (Protestant Episcopal) Church was organized in 1839, and, in 1841, built a house of worship in connection with the Masonic fraternity, which used the upper story of it for a lodge-room. The society now worship in a stone church, built in Gothic style, in 1852, and enlarged into a cruciform building in 1855, located on Second, between Walnut and Mulberry streets. April 13, 1844, the congregation was incorporated according to the laws of the State for religious societies. The first officers under the incorporation were J. S. Larkin, Senior Warden; Ansel Humphreys, Junior Warden; Hiram Mathews, J. S. Richman and Charles Mattoon, Vestrymen. The present officers are H. W. Moore, J. Carskadden, Thomas Brown, William H. Van Nostrand, Thomas N. Brown, George R. White and F. R. Lewis, Vestrymen; G. R. White, Senior Warden; F. R. Lewis; Junior Warden. The present Rector is Rev. W. A. Gallagher, and the membership numbers seventy-eight. The first church edifice, built by this society, was furnished with black-walnut seats; but that variety of lumber was not deemed suitable for such purposes, and in order to make the wood-work look as much like pine as possible, the seats and chancel were painted white.

St. Mathias Roman Catholic Church.--The first edifice in which the Catholics of Muscatine County worshipcd was a frame house, 20x30 feet, made in Prairie du Chien, Wis., by order of Bishop Mathias Loras, of Dubuque, and rafted down the Mississippi River to Bloomington, Iowa, where it was erected in 1842, on the corner of Second and Cedar streets. This church soon became too small, and was added to at different periods, but the number of members increasing more and more, and the place proving inadequate, it was sold, building and lot, in 1856, for $650, and out of the proceeds of the sale a block was bought of Reece Hooper, on Eighth, between Pine and Chestnut streets, and a building erected 80x40 feet, and 72 feet high in the clear. Up to 1851, the congregation was under the charge of missionary priests, who visited it occasionally from Dubuque, Davenport and Iowa City. In 1851, the first resident priest, Rev. P. T. McCormick was sent here, but remained only a few months. In November, of the same year, the Rev. P. Laurent took charge of the congregatiOn, and is yet at the same post. The school attached to the church was founded in 1862, and is under the charge of nine Sisters of Charity, of the Order of the Blessed Virgin. The average number of scholars is 300, divided into four class-rooms, including the select school. All branches of a common English education are taught in this school, together with the German language and the higher branches in the select school. The congregation of Mathias was an assemblage of people of many nations and languages, the English predominating. The Germans were to the Irish as one is to three. In 1854, the church of St. Malachy, in Township 76, was built by this congregation; in 1857, the first Catholic Church at Wilton was built by the same means; and finally, in 1875, the church at Nichols was built by the people of that place. In 1876, St. Mary's Church was erected by the people of St. Mathias congregation, and given to the Germans. Notwithstanding these different branches, the Church of St. Mathias still numbers 200 families of Irish, Americans, French and Germans. The language of the church is English. St. Mathias Church, though rather unprepossessing outwardly, is a gem inside, and reminds one of the Annunciado of Genoa. Its situation on one of Muscatine's most romantic hills is unsurpassed, save, perhaps, by that of St. Mary's, in this city. St. Mathias stands unrivaled for its paintings, its fine organ and music, and its general arrangement and taste.

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church. During the spring of 1875, Rev. Father P. Laurent purchased of G. Schultz, of St. Louis, Mo., five acres of land, for the sum of $2,000, which he deeded to the German-American Beneficial Society of Muscatine, with the understanding that in case of the sale of a portion of the ground, they make a deed to the purchaser according to the former's directions. Eventually, some two acres of the land were sold to John and George A. Schaefer, of this city for $1,945. The remaining ground was deeded to the Right Rev. Bishop John Hennessey, of Dubuque. During the same year, Father Laurent obtained permission from the Bishop to build a church on the premises referred to. A subscription was subsequently taken up, added to the amount realized on the sale of the two acres, and, in 1876, the erection of the church edifice was commenced, being completed in 1877. The building stood idle until Jannary, 1879, when Rev. Father J. I. Greiser was appointed by the Bishop to preside over the Church, and during the same month the congregation was regularly organized, with a membership of over one hundred families. The church property is valued at about $15,000.

The German Independent Lutheran Church was organized in 1848. Among the constituent members were John Huber, Friederich Hacker, Henry Molis, Friederich Hofmeyer, Henry Stahl, Henry Funk, Theodore Krehe. Rev. Conrad Rico performed the first ministerial duties, while Henry Molis and Henry Stahl filled the offices of Secretary and Treasurer. As the membership increased yearly, the congregation was enabled to build a brick church in 1860, to take the place of a small frame building formerly occupied. The membership now numbers 100. A Sunday school is connected with the church, which has an average attendance of 140 scholars. The present officers are John Nietzel, President; John Dietrich, Secretary; Adam Ruling, Treasurer; Juettner and John Hahn, Trustees. Rev. Ulrich Thomas is the present Pastor. The church property is valued at $4,000.

St. Paul's Evangelical Church was organized in 1865. The first minister was Rev. Wm. Kampmeyer, now residing at Pekin, Ill. The original organization consisted of forty members. Rev. Kampmeyer was the first Pastor sent by the Evangelical Synod of North America, to which the Church belongs. The house of worship was purchased of the Baptists. The present membership consists of about forty families, but some sixty families worship here. The present Pastor is Rev. Charles Bonekamper. Connected with the Church is a flourishing Sunday school of about fifty scholars and eight teachers; also a Ladies' Benevolent Society. The church property is valued at $2,000.

The Church of the United Brethren in Christ was organized in 1850. J. Hershe, S. Frantz, Isaac Neilig, Trustees, were its first officers; Rev. George Miller served as its first Pastor. The church edifice of this congregation was erected in 1851. J. Hershe, W. B. Ament, J. Erb and M. Bitzer serve at present as Trustees, and Rev. R. E. Williams officiates as Pastor. A Sabbath- school was organized in 1852, and has been in successful operation to the present time. Recently a Women's Missionary Society was started, with Mrs. Williams as President. The church property, including the parsonage, is valued at about $5,500.

The Society of Friends.--A branch of the Iowa Yearly Meeting of the Society of Friends was established at Muscatine in 1852. Indulged Meetings had been held through the summer by the families of this Society for some time, and, in September of the year mentioned, the Preparative Meeting was started, which was held in private houses, until 1856, at which time a regular house of worship was erected. Mrs. Emelia Darling was the first minister to the Muscatine Meeting. which, at the present writing, has no recommended minister; the last ministers were: Sarah Jane Jepson, Mr. and Mrs. Tibbitts. The present membership consists of about one hundred families. The value of property owned by the society is $2,000. The last officers elected are: Mrs. Edith Painter, Mr. and Mrs. Cattell, Elders; the same ladies and gentleman, with the addition of Levy Reader, act as Overseers. Eli Cook and Miss Amelda Painter are Clerks.

The Evangelical German Association, familiarly known in Muscatine as Albright's Church, has a house of worship, where services are held, but the Church has no resident minister. Rev. John Abrams, of Wilton, visits this congregation.

The Holland Baptists also have an organization and a church-building here, but no resident minister.

The Y. M. C. A. of Muscatine was organized at a meeting held in the First M. E. Church, March 5, 1877, with L. H. Washburn, Chairman, and E. E. Holmes, Secretary. The first officers, elected at this meeting, were, D. C. Buchman, President; P. M. Musser, Vice President; William H. Woodward, Corresponding Secretary; William E. Betts, Recording Secretary; A. K. Raff, Treasurer.

The present officers are: L. H. Washburn, President; F. 0. Cliner, Recording Secretary; Plinay Fay, General Secretary; W. Parkins, Treasurer. The Association meets at the corner of Iowa avenue and Second street, has a present membership of eighty-four, and holds Sunday meetings at Butlerville, the Poorhouse, South Muscatine, the County Jail, Adams Station and Kalarama.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

The first school taught in this county was under the direction of J. A. Parvin, who rented a small cabin for $8, in May, 1839, and founded the educational interests of Muscatine. Mr. Parvin was a gentleman well suited to professional duties of that character, and he succeeded in doing good work, although the region was an uncultivated one in every sense. The young teacher had no occasion to complain of the spoiling of his territory by former efforts. The soil he broke about the roots of the tree of knowledge was virgin soil, and susceptible to the influences of a skillful hand and mind. The little flock of children who attended this primitive school was no different, probably, from many another class in the Western wilds, and by slow degrees the patient labors of the teacher began to reap reward, and the interest of the rapidly- growing settlement centered more and more decidedly in the unpretentious school. The only compensation received by Mr. Parvin was such as parents paid him directly. The stipend was regulated by the teacher and the parents, whose purse was never so well filled as to warrant extravagant outlays in that direction. The early settlers in this locality were more intelligent than in many other regions of this State, but, as a general rule, they were poor in worldly goods.

During the eleven years which succeeded the establishment of the first school, there were several private schools, of greater or less importance, a record of which has not been preserved.

The earliest concerted action of the people, in regard to schools, dates from 1848. The writer, in his efforts to secure an accurate history of those first movements, ascertained the prominent part taken in the matter by Mr. G. B. Denison. Upon applying to him for information, Mr. Denison kindly consented to furnish all he was possessed of in that direction, stipulating merely that he should "tell his story in his own way." We gladly complied with that provision, although it is a most unusual request for a man to ask that responsibility be thrown upon his shoulders. We generally find men anxious to express opinions at the expense of other parties.

Mr. Denison's recital covers the period between 1848 and 1863, and is here given over his own signature:

                                                       MUSCATINE, IOWA, April 8, 1879.
WESTERN HISTORICAL COMPANY:

Gentlemen: In compliance with your request to furnish you with the statistics of the public schools of Muscatine from 1850 to 1863, I thought it best to do so over my own signature, in the form of a communication. This will relieve you of all responsibility in the matter, and will enable me to express myself in my own language. Muscatine having built the first large schoolhouse and established the first graded school in Iowa, and I having been selected as Principal of said school, and as I also had considerable to do with shaping the school laws of the State during the first ten years of my residence here, I prefer to tell my own story in my own way.

Under the provisions of the school laws of Iowa, up to 1858, the formation of school districts was left entirely with the School Fund Commissioner; and for some unexplained reason, Muscatine was early divided into two school districts. District No. 1 occupied all that part of the original town east of Sycamore street, and No. 2 all west of said street. Nothing could induce them to unite the two districts until the passage of the revised school law, March 12, 1858, when they were consolidated, nolens volens.

In 1848, District No. 2 commenced the agitation of building a schoolhouse. Up to that time, there were no schoolhouses in either district. While there were, in many of the country districts, schoolhouses that would have been considered creditable to old Massachusetts, yet, in the towns of Iowa, very little had been done toward providing suitable schoolhouses. Dubuque had built two small brick houses, with two rooms each, but no other town of any importance in the State could boast of any public schoolhouse whatever. After much canvassing by about a dozen friends, a public meeting of the electors of District No. 2 was called at the old Methodist Church, standing on the ground now occupied by the Muscatine Journal printing office, and a vote was taken, which was in favor of building a schoolhouse. At this meeting, a tax was voted, and the School Board were instructed to procure a site and build a suitable schoolhouse, sufficient to accommodate the wants of the district. The lots where the First Ward Schoolhouse now stands were selected, and a contract was entered into for building a schoolhouse; but the project soon met with a set-back unlooked for. While the collector was on his route, collecting the tax, Mr. John H. Wallace refused to pay his tax, claiming that the district was not legally organized. So the matter went to the Court, and the decision was against the district. This put a stop to the enterprise. As soon as people recovered from the shock, the necessary steps were taken to re-organize the district, making sure that no flaws could be found in the organization this time. All that they had done up to that time had to be done over again. Another meeting was called, and this time they made sure work of it. Not only that, but they determined to build a much larger house than was at first contemplated; and another tax was voted larger than the first, new plans were drawn up and the work commenced in right good earnest. But they had been set back a full year in their work, and the house was not completed, ready for occupation, until May, 1851.

District No. 1, not relishing the idea of being outdone, in 1850, voted to build a larger house than the one in No. 2. They levied a tax and secured the lots where the present Third Ward Schoolhouse now stands, and, in the spring of 1851, commenced a two-story brick house 46x60 feet, while the house in No. 2 was only 40x45 feet. The house was completed and the school commenced March 7, 1853, with D. Franklin Wells, a graduate of the State Normal School, at Albany, N. Y., its Principal; Miss Margaret M. Lyon, a graduate of the same school, as First Assistant; Miss Malinda Davidson, Second Assistant, and Miss Emeline Fisher, Third Assistant. At the commencement of the second term, the teachers were as follows: D. F. Wells, Principal, salary, $500; Miss M. M. Lyon, First Assistant, salary, $250; Miss Kate Foster, Second Assistant, salary, $200; Miss M. Davidson, Third Assistant, salary, $200; Miss Henriette Mikesell, Fourth Assistant, salary, $150.

In 1850, District No. 1 elected John A. Parvin, President; Ansel Humphreys, Secretary, and Absalom Fisher, Treasurer. There was no election of Directors in 1851, so these officers held over, and had the sole charge of building the schoolhouse. At the time of commencing the school in 1853, the district adopted the new school law, and elected Theodore S. Parvin, President; Arthur Washburn, Secretary, and Absalom Fisher, Treasurer. Mr. Wells continued as Principal of the school until the close of the school year in 1856, when he was appointed by the Trustees of the State University as Principal of the State Normal School, at Iowa City, and entered upon the duties at the commencement of the school year in September, 1856. Miss Lyon and Mr. Wens left at the same time. I can't recall Mr. Wells' successor, but he only taught for a few weeks, and was succeeded by Thomas Beaham, and Mr. Beaham by D. H. Goodno, which takes us up to 1863.

I landed in Muscatiue, May 4, 1851, and, on the 12th, opened the school on the hill in the First Ward, known as No. 2. The School Board at that time consisted of N. L. Stout, President; Henry O'Connor, Secretary, and Pliny Fay, Treasurer. My salary was to be $500. The Board employed two female assistants, to wit: Miss Lydia E. Denison, First Assistant, at a salary of $250; Miss Mary A. Stiles, Second Assistant, at a salary of $225. The school year consisted of ten months, divided into three terms of fourteen weeks each. As will be seen by the above, the School Board had contracted to pay as teachers' wages, $975, about one-third of which they would receive from the apportionment of the school fund, but the balance was set down as an unknown quantity. Where it was to come from or just how they were to obtain it, were questions they were unable to solve. It was enough, that they had engaged the teachers for a year, and apart of the Board, at least, borrowed no trouble about the question of pay. That question must take care of itself when the time came. As there was no provision in the school law at that time whereby the money could be raised by tax or rate bill, Mr. Fay felt troubled in his conscience that he had been a party to a contract of which he did not see clearly how he was going to fulfill his part. So he came to me and asked me if I could not devise a plan to relieve the Board of their embarrassment; in short, he wanted me to act as a "committee of ways and means."

Being largely interested personally, I took the matter under thoughtful consideration. I ascertained what the district would probably receive from the apportionment of the school fund, and the balance I determined to raise by rate bill. Though the law made no provisions for raising anything by rate bill, here was an actual necessity; the balance of the teachers' wages must be raised, or the school must be closed. So, under my advice, the Board assessed the pupils as follows, to wit: The primary department, $1.50; the intermediate department, $1.75; and the higher department, $2 per term, which was an average of 12 1/2 cents per week. And they also adopted a rule not to admit anyone to the school whose parents refused to pay this assessment. District No. 1 adopted the same schedule of tuition, but being less rigid in the enforcement of collecting the tuition than No. 2, they ran behind, while No. 2 accumulated funds.

But I foresaw we would be likely to have trouble in collecting these assessments in the future, so I drew up an amendment to the school law consisting of eight sections, entitled "an act to extend the powers of school districts," which was passed by the Legislature, and approved by the Governor, January 22, 1853. (See edition of the School Laws for 1853, and subsequent years.) This act left it optional with each district to organize under it or not; it established the legality of the rate-bill system; the Directors were increased from three to six, optional with the electors, and were elected for three years instead of one; it also made the school district permanent and not subject to alteration by the School Fund Commissioner. This law was universally adopted by the towns throughout the State, and by many of the county districts, also. It was while I was in Iowa City, during the session of the Legislature of 1853, that I made the acquaintanee of Gov. Grimes, who was a member of the lower house, and I intrusted my bill to his care. The Legislature passed the bill as I had drawn it, without any alterations, and it remained unchanged until repealed by the passage of the Revised School Law, March 12, 1858.

District No. 2 adopted it in the spring of 1853, and elected six Directors, as follows: Rev. A. B. Robbins, President; Joseph Bridgman, Secretary; James S. Hatch, Treasurer; Jacob Butler, Joseph P. Freeman and Franklin Thurston, Directors. The new Board made a change in the teachers, dismissing Misses Denison and Stiles, and putting in their places Miss Emeline Lincoln and Miss Charity N. Merrill.

This was the first graded school established in the State, and the old No. 2 was the first large and commodious schoolhouse built in Iowa. The State Superintendent, Thomas H. Benton, Jr., in his report for 1850, gives Muscatine credit for taking the lead in public school matters in the State. My private record shows that. "the Muscatine School," as it was then known, attracted much attention abroad. We received calls from many eminent persons from all parts of the State as well as elsewhere. Among them are the names of James Grant and, Prof. Bullen, of Iowa College, Davenport; the State Superintendent, Thomas H. Benton; W. Penn Clark, of Iowa City; Gov. R. P. Lowe, Glen Wood and Edward Kilbourn, of Keokuk, and many others.

But it was evident soon after the re-organization of the district, and the election of the new School Board under the law which I had prepared, that a revolution was contemplated by the ruling spirit of the Board. The President and I differed in regard to the manner of conducting the school, and our difference was of such a nature, there was no room for a compromise. He was unyielding, and I was equally stubborn in my opinions, and the result was a collision.

There were at that time, many children of Catholic parents attending the school, as they had a right to do, and the course which he proposed to pursue they looked upon as an infringement of their conscientious religious scruples. In short, they would be compelled to yield their religious convictions or leave the school. I claimed that the public schools, being supported by public funds, should be entirely free from sectarian influences; that they should be so conducted, that people of all shades of religious opinion could meet on one common platform, where the children of all sects and creeds could study the same text-books and recite in the same classes under the same teachers. That would make them as I believed, what the law contemplated, "public schools, free to all." The matter was submitted to the electors of the district at the annual meeting in 1854, and the voice of the district was against the Board and they all resigned and a new Board was elected, consisting of S. G. Stein, Henry Reece, J. P. Freeman, S. B. Hill, Alexander Dunsmore and Alfred Purcell. Mr. Alva Tuttle was appointed Principal of the school, but he only remained with the school two terms when the Board re-appointed me. At the close of the school year, I resigned to engage in other business. Mr. Nathan Hoag was appointed my successor, which position he held but one year, when Samuel McNutt took his place, and Moses Ingalls succeeded Mr. McNutt. In 1860, the School Board dispensed with all the male teachers except Mr. D. H. Goodno, who acted in the capacity of City Superintendent. Mr. Goodno held this position. as well as that of County Superintendent, till the formation of the Gray-Beard Regiment, in October, 1862, when he, resigned to accept the position of Major in that regiment. This left the schools without a male teacher, and in January, 1863, the School Board requested me to take Mr. Goodno's place at the head of the schools, which I did, but at the close of the school year, I suggested to the Board that the work was not satisfactory to me, and requested them to appoint male Principals for the two large schools. The Board appointed Mr. Thomas Brown, Principal of No. 2, and I took charge of No. 1, which position I held till the close of the school year in 1864. Mr. Brown remained as Principal of No. 2 till January, 1864, when he resigned, and Mr. F. M. Witter, a graduate of the State Normal School, at Iowa City, was appointed as his successor.

                                               I remain, yours respectfully,
                                                                          G. B. DENISON.

The following summary of the school history since 1862 is taken from official sources:

In 1863, Prof. F. M. Witter came to Muscatine and accepted the Principalship of the school in the First Ward. At that time, not only were the two schools in the First and Third Wards independent of each other, but even the several rooms in the buildings were, in a measure, operated upon distinct plans relative to studies and government. There was no recognized head of the schools. In the spring of 1864, certain extraneous influences created a change in the character of the School Board in the city, and the outgrowth of that change was the invitation of Mr. Witter to act as Superintendent of both schools. It was also proposed that Mr. Witter establish a high school, of which he was to be Principal. The proposals so cordially extended were accepted by Mr. Witter, and the labor of grading the schools was undertaken in the spring of 1864. During the previous year, the Professor had succeeded in classifying the First Ward School and greatly enhancing its usefulness. It was upon the strength of that work that the Board based its calculations of the gentleman's efficiency as an organizer. During the early part of 1864, Mr. Witter visited several places which were noted for the excellence of their schools, and received valuable suggestions concerning the best methods of grading and arranging the courses of study. August, 1864, the Board adopted the plans and rules of government submitted as the result of such investigations. The rules were published in pamphlet form. This was the first pamphlet ever issued by the Board, under the graded system. From it is taken the following plan of organization:

"The schools of the city of Muscatine shall be organized with the following general grades, viz., Primary Schools, Grammar Schools and High School. The Primary Schools shall be divided into two grades, viz., First and Second, the first grade being the lowest. Each of these grades shall be organized into at least three classes, known as A, B and C, C being the lowest. The two grades shall contain at least six classes, and, if necessity requires, additional classes may be formed; but in no case must they change the grade. Each Primary School shall be under the immediate control of a Principal, who shall have as many assistants as the school may require.

"The Grammar Schools shall be composed of at least four classes, known as A, B, C and D, D being the lowest. Additional classes may be formed, if required, but they shall in no case change the grade. Each Grammar School shall be under the immediate control of a Principal, who shall also have general supervision of the Primary School in the same building. There shall be as many assistants in the Grammar Schools as are needed for the prosperity of the schools.

"The High School shall embrace three classes, A, B and C, C being the lowest. It shall include a course of study ordinarily requiring three years to complete. The High School shall be in charge of a Principal and as many assistants as the work demands."

The first corps of teachers employed under the new system was as follows: Prof. F. M. Witter, Superintendent and Principal of the High School; Miss A. H. Reed, Assistant in High School; E. Cleveland, Principal, and Misses A. B. Raymond, E. Williams, Assistants, School No. 1; William Hoopes, Principal, and Misses M. C. Mitchell, Minnie Morrison, Assistants, School No. 2, Grammar Department; Misses Marietta Bentley, Anna Johnson, S. M. Mitchell, N. Martein and B. Van Buren, teachers in the Primary Department; Miss M. H. Washburn, teacher in the African school.

The Board of Directors, at that time, was composed of the following gentlemen: H. W. Moore, President; J. H. Wallace, Secretary; M. Block, Treasurer; J. A. Dougherty, G. A. Garrettson, S. Smalley and Charles Page.

The first examination of applicants for admission to the High School was made in September, 1864. Probably one hundred pupils presented themselves. Of that number, nearly 100 per cent were accepted and two classes were formed, in order that one class might graduate in two years' time. The more advanced scholars, of course, were placed in the first division.

This formation of classes was in anticipation of the erection of a suitable building for a high school, and to supply the deficiency the Board leased a frame building which stood on the corner of Fifth street and Iowa avenue, which had been built for school purposes by a stock company, a few years previously, and had been known as the Greenwood Academy, but which was no longer in use, through the abandonment of the enterprise. The High School remained there until 1865.

During the year 1864, from school reports it appeared there were about seven hundred children in the public schools.

In 1865, the Board leased rooms in the Scott House, on Iowa avenue, and fitted them up for high-school purposes. The lease was written for ten years. For several years, matters moved on smoothly in the two ward buildings and in the leased rooms above named.

On the 2d day of July, 1868, the city was visited by one of the most terrific thunder-storms ever experienced here. Several buildings were struck by lightning, and more or less injured. Among the number was Schoolhouse No. 1, in the Third Ward. The lightning so effectively operated on that structure as to completely destroy it by fire. Fortunately, the accident occurred at a time when there was no session of school in the building, so that its loss was not rendered greater through destruction of life. The policies of insurance upon the house amounted to about $8,000, and had been placed but a short time prior to the calamity.

This destruction of the Third Ward House proved a blessing in disguise to the school interests of the city, for it became an imperative necessity that another edifice should be erected at once. The times had so far advanced that modern plans alone were admissible in the councils of the Board, and to that fact is attributable the splendid system of buildings which now graces Muscatine, and renders her educational department a model one in the eyes of the State.

The questions of dimensions and character of the building were fully discussed at the meetings of the Board, and a majority finally decided upon the building which now stands on the site of the old house. Some objections were raised to the erection of so large a house; but wiser judgment prevailed, and the plans were drawn for a building capable of seating about seven hundred pupils, with accommodations for the High School on the upper floor.

During the period which elapsed between the destruction of the old and the completion of the new house, the school in that ward was carried on under great difficulties, Such apartments as could be secured were rented for the several classes; but a feeling of indifference pervaded the ward. It was upon that score that the acceptance of so extensive plans was disputed. When the new house was opened, in 1870, not a single seat was vacant, a fact which proved the wisdom of the Board.

The original house in District No. 1, as the Third Ward is called, was built upon an elevation which was ungraded. The new edifice was placed upon the same lot, which had been graded considerably, making the location a more desirable one. The contractors and builders of this house were H. H. Hine and Hiram Rowland, of Muscatine. The cost was $16,973.50.

In 1871, a frame house was erected in Musserville, at a cost of $1,000, by C. U. Hatch. Mr. S. 0. Butler owned a private school-building in South Muscatine, and after his schoolhouse burned, Mr. Tomley leased his house to the Board.

About this time, the subject of increasing the school facilities of the city was agitated, and during the following year, lots were purchased for a central building, on Iowa avenue.

In 1872, the project of building a high school was furthered by the people voting bonds to the extent of $8,000. In 1873 the present spacious high- school edifice was erected. J. P. Walton drew the plans, and S. G. Hill was the builder. The cost was about $18,000. The sessions of the High School were for one term, in 1873, held in rooms over Olds & Reppert's drug store.

On the 1st of November, 1873, the new building was dedicated. Hon. T. S. Parvin was present, by invitation, and addressed the large audience assembled. Judge D. C. Richman read a poem appropriate to the occasion. From that time to the present date, the High School has remained in the house erected for its use.

The year 1878 found the Board obliged to rent rooms in the suburbs to accommodate the increasing number of pupils. A loan of $10,000 was called for, in March, to erect new houses, and was carried. It was agreed to build a small house in Weedville, and also to construct a more modern house in the the First Ward. Plans were asked for, and it soon became apparent that the sum voted was not sufficient to perfect the work. It was suggested to use the moneys already held as a certain branch of the school funds, but not of the schoolhouse fund, for the supplementing of the amount raised. This method of converting the funds to other than specified uses was objected to, and some considerable controversy grew out of the matter. The difficulty was finally overcome by the people voting, in July, an additional $10,000 of bonds, conditional upon the erection of houses in Butlersville and South Muscatine. Those smaller buildings were accordingly put up, and a four-room brick in South Muscatine, and the model schoolhouse, which is now in process of completion, begun. The latter is one of the most convenient and substantial school-buildings in the State, even considering the comparatively small cost thereof. It is an ornament to the city and an honor to the Board which accepted the plans. The architect was William Foster, of Des Moines. All modern improvements are introduced in the construction of this admirable building. First Ward house will cost about $16,000.

From the inception of the graded plan of schools to the present time, a spirit of liberality has prevailed. Prominent among the influential workers in this cause, as members of the Board, were Messrs. Vincent Chambers, Abraham Smalley, Dr. Hardman, M. Block, L. H. Washburn, R. Musser, J. S. Patten and Allen Bloomhall. Mr. Bloomhall is the present President, and Mr. L. C. Crossman is Secretary, as well as Assistant in the high school.

Not only can Muscatine boast of her School-buildings; she can also claim high rank in efficiency and quality of work. The true principle of retaining the best teachers by paying liberally, and grading according to merit, obtains in the methods of the Board. Mr. Witter is surrounded by the best of assistants in the several departments, and the reputation of the schools extends favorably throughout the State, to the writer's certain knowledge.

Herewith is given a full list of the graduates of the high school:

1866.--Frank R. Lewis, Jennie S. Sinnett, C. Edward Stewart, Rebecca J. Myers, Annie M. Robbins, M. Lillie Morrison, Mary L. Humphreys.

1867.--Emma Lillibridge, Eliza Prosser, Mary Leyda, Lydia B. Daugherty, Mollie M. Humberger.

1868.--Fannie M. Nisley, Sarah V. Johnson, Mamie E. Underwood.

1869.--Daniel Van Dam, Clara Lillibridge, John Krug, F. W. Winter, Eva A. Johnson, Clara J. Statterthwaite, Belle Sinnett.

1870.--Fred H. Eaton, Thomas J. Morford, Lew G. Burnett, Ella L. Reynolds, Emma L. Clapp, Lucy Jackson, Libbie S. Wallace, Lue Dillaway.

1871.--Milton D. Painter, Charles T. Campbell, Belle L. Washburne, Mary C. Dean, Emma Underwood, Anna E. Warren, Katie A. Hoch, Anna J. Keeler, Bettie C. Satterthwaite, John M. Bishop, Susie V. Clark.

1872.--Anna M. McAlister, Emily H. Foulke, Mamie L. Hill, Mary E. Coriell, R. Emma Lord, Anna B. Lewis, Eva D. Hardman, Lydia A. Brown.

1873.--Mary M. Brogan, Minnie E. Steere, Manza M. Lord, Ella L. Fisher, Addie B. Jones, Nellie A. Bishop, Flora E. Coriell, Josephine M. Brogan, Ollie L. Harlan, Minnie C. Douglass, Anna M, Reuling, Fannie V. Mathewson, Mary E. Smith, Phebe S. Bennett, James W. Page, Asher W. Widdifield, Lizzie C. Funck, Edward C. Cook, Alexander G. Clark.

1874.--Marston Stocker, Leona E. Howe, Harry Springer, Frank P. Sawyer, Mary Dobbs, Mattie Gilbert, Floy Rowland, S. T. Sinnett, Abbie Cadle, James Seldon, Charles Page, Ella Martin, Addie Chambers, Lizzie Adams, Ada Wilson, Anna Braunwarth, C. Garlock.

1875.--Alice B. Walton, Ellen G. Stocker, Edward Sells, Jennie Hazelett, Sallie R. Foulke, Sarah L. Adams, Lou J. Page, Ella Kranz, Louisa A. Franklin.

1876.--George Whicher, Oscar Groschell, Amanda E. Gilbert, Amelia M. Allyn, Emma L. Braunwarth, Ferdinand Kaufman, J. Frank Brown, Lydia Freeman, Laura B. Pierson.

1877.--William Price, Hattie Foulke, Lillie Walton, Ella Broomhall, Nettie Washburne, Stella Richardson, Susie Conway.

1878.--Minnie 0. Deitz, Madge Ament, Jesse M. Washburne, Annie B. Cloud, Isaac Mathewson, Julia M. Price, Juda Chambers, Libbie Green, Ada A. McDonald, John F. Dobbs, Edward B. Molis, L. Maggie Adams, Lillie A. Biles, Mattie E. Sweeney, Ida E. Appel,Ida M. Brown.

1879.--Mary 0. Walton, Aggie L. Hatch, Edith L. Winslow, May V. Patten, Lucy Brown, Jennie Miller. This class will graduate next June.

MUSCATINE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE.

BY F. M. WITTER.

On Monday evening, November __, 1875, the following gentlemen. met at the residence of F. M. Witter, on Fifth street, between Mulberry and Walnut: H. H. Benson, R. H. McCampbell and J. P. Walton. The purpose of this meeting was to organize a club, which should have for its object the discussion of topics relating to science. It was thought best at that time not to introduce any formality in the conduct of the club, except to call the organization, if organization it could be called, "The Scientific Club of Muscatine."

In 1871, Monday evening, June 26, the Club met at the same place, and adopted the following constitution:

ARTICLE 1. The name of this association shall be the "The Muscatine Scientific Club." ART. 2. The object of the association is the promotion of science.
ART. 3. The officers of the Club shall consist of a President, Vice President, Secretary
and Treasurer, who shall be elected on the first Monday in October of each year, and shall hold their office until their successors are elected.
ART. 4. Any person can become a member of this Club by a unanimous vote of all the members present at any regular meeting.
ART. 5. This Constitution can be altered or amended at any regular meeting of the Club, by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the Club. H. H. BENSON,
F. M. WITTER, Secretary. President.

At this meeting, H. H. Benson and wife, J. P. Walton and wife, Peter Musser and wife, F. M. Witter and wife, R. H. McCampbell and wife, F. L. Dayton and wife and William Hoffman were by ballot elected members; and H. H. Benson was made President; P. Musser, Vice President; F. M. Witter, Secretary, and J. P. Walton, Treasurer. Nothing of importance was done during the remainder of the year.

On the first Monday evening in October, 1861, the Club met at the residence of J. P. Walton, and the following officers wore elected: President, R. H. McCampbell; Vice President, J. P. Walton; Secretary, F. M. Witter; Treasurer, P. Musser. During this year, little or nothing was accomplished, except to discuss, in a very informal way, a few topics of a scientific character.

In October, 1872, the Club again met at Mr. Walton's and the following were chosen officers for the ensuing year: President, Dr. J. Hardman; Vice President, T. N. Brown; Secretary, Mrs. F. L. Dayton; Treasurer, Mrs. J. P. Walton.

In November of this year, the Club made a canvass of the city to sell tickets for a course of public lectures. March 31, 1873, Dr. Hardman reported as follows: price of single tickets, $2; double, $3.50; family, admitting four, $5, for the course. Sale of tickets amounted to $402.50; door receipts, $240.80. Amount paid to lecturers, $485; for incidentals, $129.60, leaving a balance of $28.70.

The lectures were from Dr. I. I. Hayes--"Adventures and Discoveries in the Arctic Regions."

Miss Phoebe Couzins--"The Education of Woman." Prof. Gustavus Hinrichs--"The Physical Forces in the Human Organism." Dr. C. C. Parry--"Aspect of Rocky Mountain Scenery." Rev. Robert Collyer--"Clear Grit." Mrs. Scott-Siddons--Readings.

In October, 1873, Mr. J. B. Dougherty was elected President; ___ ____, Vice President; G. W. Van Horne, Secretary; Mrs. J. P. Walton, Treasurer.

A second course of lectures was agreed upon for this year, and a committee was appointed to canvass for the sale of tickets.

The course consisted of the following: Rev. Robert Collyer, James Parton, Mr. Andrews and Col. J. P. Sanford. The total receipts, with fund on hand, were $644, and the expenditures, $580; leaving a balance of $64 in favor of the Club. A few papers were read during the year.

An the annual election in October, 1874, William Hoffman was chosen President; F. M. Witter, Vice President; G. W. Van Horne, Secretary; Suel Foster, Treasurer. At this meeting, a resolution was passed requiring all who wished to continue members, to sign the constitution within thirty days.

This year was probably the most active and prosperous in the history of the Club. Papers were read as follows: Dr. W. S. Robinson, "Thermometry in Disease;" F. M. Witter, "Transit of Venus;" Rev. John Armstrong, "Harmony of Genesis and Geology:" Rev. Roach, "Health;" Suel Foster, "Design in Creation;" Dr. I. L. Graham, "Law and Design in Creation;" Mr. John Underwood. The death of ex-President J. B. Dougherty caused sad remembrance of the otherwise pleasant year."

October 4, 1875, the Club elected for President, F. M. Witter; Vice President, G. W. Van Horne; Secretary, J. P. Walton; Treasurer, Suel Foster. The following papers were read during the year: Mrs. J. P. Walton, a poem, "The Ruins Sadden, but the Unfinished Building Chills; "F. M. Witter, "Australian Fever-Tree," and "Shells;" Dr.J. Hardman, "Final Suppression of the Teeth;" F. Reppert. "Possible Accumulation of Carbonic Acid." Hon. S. C. Hastings, of San Francisco, was elected an honorary member. The year was rather quiet. On October 2, 1876, the, following were chosen to act as officers for the year: President, Dr. J. Hardman; Vice President, Suel Foster; Secretary, J. G. H. Little; Treasurer, J. P. Walton. Papers Were read as follows: Ron. S. C. Hastings, "Anti-Spiritualism;" G. W. Van Horne, "What We Ought to Know," and "Baconor Shakespeare?" J. P. Walton, "Indications;" J. A. Pickler, "Oliver Goldsmith."

At the end of this year, the President, in a closing address, expressed what had been felt by several members of the Club, viz., a desire to so re-organize that an opportunity might be had for some more earnest and original work in science, and to unite with us others who would not join under the existing circumstances. In fact, it was plain that science had little chance as it was, and, unless some change was speedily made, a new organization would be formed for the cultivation of science. The election of officers October 8, 1877, resulted as follows: President, F. Reppert; Vice President, F. M. Witter; Secretary, William Hoffman; Treasurer, Peter Musser.

At a meeting held November 12, a committee was appointed to revise the Constitution, and a room was rented of Dr. Hardman for the use of the Club. About thirty-five persons had been elected members of the Club up to October, 1877.

The Club took possession of its room November 26, since which time regular meetings have been held in accordance with the new Constitution.

December 22, 1877, the following was adopted:

WHEREAS, The "Muscatine Scientific Club" having, by its recent transactions, declared it to be its deliberate choice to assume other and more extended organic forms, therefore,

Resolved, First, That the Constitution as lately revised and adopted shall now and here- after be the fundamental guide of this new form of association (the Muscatine Academy of Science), and that all former rules, constitutional or otherwise, are hereby declared null and void.

Second, That the present incumbent officers of what has been known as the "Muscatine Scientific Club," be and are declared fully qualified and authorized to perform all the essential and official functions of the Muscatine Academy of Science, until their successors be elected at the next regular annual election and qualified.

Third, That all finances, financial and property matters pertaining to and possessed by the "Muscatine Scientific Club," be and the same are fully and exclusively henceforth belonging to and possessed by the Muscatine Academy of Science.

Fourth, That the old members of the "Scientific Club," in consideration of money advanced by its members, be exempt from initiation fees.

The following is the Constitution of the Muscatine Academy of Science:

ARTICLE 1. This association shall be known as the Muscatine Academy of Science.
ART. 2. The object of this association shall be the cultivation and pursuit of science in all its branches.
ART. 3. The officers of this association shall be a President, Vice President, Recording Secretary, Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer and Librarian or Curator, who shall be elected annually by ballot, at the first regular meeting held on or after the first day of October in each year, and who shall hold their respective offices until their successors are duly elected and qualified.
ART. 4. The President, Vice President, Recording Secretary and two other members of the society, to be appointed by the President, shall constitute an Executive Committee, whose duty it shall be to have the supervision and management of the business and general interests of the association, and who shall perform such other duties as shall be imposed upon it by the society.
ART. 5. Any person may become a member of this association by receiving the affirmative vote by ballot, of three-fourths of all the members present at any regular meeting succeeding that at which his or her name has been proposed in writing; the payment to the treasury a membership fee of one dollar, and signing this Constitution.
ART. 6. This Constitution may be amended at any regular meeting, by the affirmative vote of three-fourths of the members present, provided that such proposed amendment shall have been submitted in writing at least two regular meetings prior to action tbereon.

BY-LAWS.

ARTICLE 1. The regular meetings of this society shall be held on Monday evening, once in two weeks from October to May, and once every four weeks from May to October in each year; the hour of meeting shall be 7 1/2 o'clock in fall and winter, and 8 o'clock in spring and summer.
ART. 2. Eight members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, but any number not less than five shall constitute a quorum for other purposes.
ART. 3. Each member shall be subject to an annual assessment of one dollar, payable quarterly, to begin with the first meeting in January, 1878, such payment to be made to the Secretary, whose duty it is to demand delinquencies.
ART. 4. Cushing's Manual shall be the standard of parliamentary practice.
ART. 5. Order of exercises:

     1st. Reading of the minutes of previous meeting.
     2d. Written communications and discussions thereon.
     3d. Verbal communications and discussions thereon.
     4th. Unfinishsd business.
     5th. New business.
     6th. Adjournment.
ART. 6. These By-Laws may be amended at any regular meeting by a two-thirds vote of the members present, providing such proposed amendment shall have been submitted in writing at a preceding regular meeting: but any By-Law may be suspended for the evening by vote of a majority of those present at such meeting.

Thirty-five names have been signed to the Constitution, and several others have paid membership fees and are paying dues, who have not yet signed.

Since the re-organization of the society, fifteen or twenty papers have been read, most of them based on original work, a considerable number of specimens of various kinds have been received, and some valuable relics taken from mounds near Toolsboro, in Louisa County and elsewhere have been placed in the collection of the Academy.

The election of officers in October, 1878, resulted as follows: President, F. Rippert; Vice President, F. M. Witter; Recording Secretary, James W. Page; Corresponding Secretary, F. M. Witter; Curator, Dr. J. Hardman; Treasurer, Peter Musser.

The Academy, in January, 1879, employed Dr. Alexander Winchell to deliver three public lectures on science, as follows: "Life-Time of a World;" "Man in the Light of Geology;" "Evolution, Its Principles and Proofs." The Academy, at its meeting April 7, 1879, decided to rent larger and better rooms and furnish suitable cases for specimens. The membership is now about fifty, and the prospect is quite promising. It is hoped and believed that an institution of this kind can be sustained in this city, and that it will be useful in an educational point of view, and will encourage the youth who are inclined to pursue science.

MUSCATINE CONCHOLOGICAL CLUB.

This organization is devoted exclusively to the study of the Mollusca and especially the Mollusca of Muscatine County. It has been in existence about two years. The officers at this time are: President, F. M. Witter; Secretary, William Roach; Treasurer, John Fogerty. Meetings are held each week during a part of the winter, at which papers are read on the species of Mollusks found near Muscatine, each member taking such species as he may be best able to illustrate by specimens. No membership fee is charged and there are no dues, but a fund from voluntary contribution is accumulating, for the purpose of publishing at an early day, a full annotated list of the living Mollusks in this vicinity.

SECRET ASSOCIATIONS AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES.

Iowa Lodge, No. 2, A., F. & A. M., was instituted at Bioomington, Iowa Territory, by letters of dispensation granted by Deputy Grand Master Joseph Foster, of the Grand Lodge of Missouri, February 15, 1841. The first officers were: Ansel Humphrey, W. M.; John Lilly, Jr., S. W.; B. S. 0lds, J. W.; Phil. J. Jean, Tiler. Original members under the dispensation were Josiah Parvin, Silas L. Lathrop, Isaac McGoon, Joseph C. Mathews, Theo. S. Parvin, B. P. Howland, Alex. Lewis and Joseph Williams. A charter was granted January 8, 1844, by the Most Worshipful Grand Master Oliver Cock, of the Grand Lodge of Iowa Territory to Theo. S. Parvin, W. M.; A. F. Hofmeyer, S. W.; F. 0. Beckett, J. W ., and others. The present officers of this Lodge are: Samuel Cohn, W. M.; Henry Hanson, S. W.; Charles Weltz, J. W.; J. P. Ament, Treasurer; D. H. Block, Secretary; W. P. Frazer, S. D.; Joseph T. Davidson, J. D.; Kimmel Dunn, Tiler. The Lodge has a present membership of eighty, meets at Masonic Hall and owns property valued at $500.

Humphreys Lodge, No. 30, A., F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation, September 8, 1851, with the following first offices: E. Klein, W. M.; John S. Lakin., S. W.; George B. Magoon, J. W.; L. B. Adams, Treasurer; H. D. LaCossitt, Secretary; James A. Humphreys, S. D., William Gordon, Tyler. A charter was granted June 2, 1852 to the following members: E. Klein, L. B. Adams, George D. Magoon, J. W. Smith, J. S. Lakin, James A. Humphreys, John J. Lower, John Hinds, T. S. Battelle and H. D. LaCossitt. The first officers under the charter were: E. Klein, W. M.; H. D. LaCossitt, S. W.; L. D. Palmer, J. W.; J. A. Humphreys, Treasurer; R. A. Ackerman, Secretary; J. G. Stephenson, S. D.; John Beaham, J. D.; L. B. Adams, Tiler. The present officers are: T. R. Fitzgerald, W. M.; J. K. Martin, S. W.; John Robertson, J. W.; M. Block, Treasurer; W. H. Mccoy, Secretary; Bernard Fowler, S. D.; J. Worst, J. D.; James Marshall, S. S.; E. Denton, J. S.; Kimmel Dunn, of Iowa Lodge No. 2, Tiler. The present membership is eighty; the meeting-place is Masonic Hall and the value of property, $500.

Washington Chapter, No. 4, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted under dispensation granted by the Ninth R. A. C. of the U. S., and a charter was granted September 17, 1852, to the following charter members: Ansel Humphreys, Theodore S. Parvin, George Wilkison, Josiah Parvin, William Williams, J. D. Biles and George Plitt.

The first officers were: Ansel Humphreys, M. E. H. P.; Theodore S. Parvin, King; George Wilkison, Scribe; J. D. Beyers, C. of H.; William Williams, P. S.; L. A. Williams, R. A. C.; Josiah Parvin, M. of Third Veil; B. Brooks, M. of Second Veil; Madden, M. of First Veil.

The present officers are: J. P. Ament, M. E. H. P.; W. B. Langridge, King; Jacob Fish, Treasurer; J. G. Jackson, Secretary; H. M. Dean, Scribe; G. K. Dunn, Guard; Samuel Cohn, C. of H.; C. R. Fox, P. S.; J. W. Berry, R. A. C.; H. Hanson, G. M. of Third Veil; T. R. Fitzgerald, G. M. of Second Veil; C. A. Weltz, G. M. of First Veil.

De Molay Commandery, No. 1, Knights Templar, was instituted under dispensation from the Grand Commandery of the United States, represented by Sir Knight W. B. Hubbard, General Grand Master of the General Grand Encampmept, March 14, 1855. The first officers were: Theodore S. Parvin, M. E. G. C.; J. L. Hazin, Generalissimo; William Reynolds, Captain General; William Leffingwell, M. E. P.; L. D. Palmer, S. W.; William Gordon, J. W.; J. B. Dougherty, Treasurer; J. H. Wallace, Recorder; J. R. Hotsock, Sword- Bearer; Henry Hoover, Warder. A charter was granted in September, 1856, and the following officers were installed; Theodore S. Parvin, E. C.; A. Chambers, Generalissimo; G. W. Wilkison, Captain General; William Leffingwell, Prelate; J. P. Dougherty, Treasurer; G. A. Satterly, Recorder; L. D. Palmer, Sword-Bearer; w. Gordon, J. W.; Henry Hoover, Warder; G. D. Magoon, Sword-Bearer; L. Carmichael, Standard-Bearer; D. T. Miller, Guard. The present officers are: W. S. Robertson, E. C.; J. P. Walton, Generalissimo; G. D. Magoon, Captain General; W. B. Langridge, Prelate; William Calder, S. W.; C. R. Fox, J. W.; J. Patton, Treasurer; J. P. Ament, Recorder; J. W. Berry, Warder; C. A. Weltz, Standard-Bearer; J. M. Van Patten, Sword-Bearer; J. Morrison, First G.; J. Fish, Second G.; W. S. Berry, Third G.; K. Dunn, Sentinel. The present membership is forty-five, the meeting-place at Masonic Hall, and the value of property is estimated at $500.

Eleata Chapter, of the Order of the Eastern Star, was organized January 10, 1874, growing out of the "Constancy Family," a lodge of the same Order, which owed its prosperity to Hon. P. A. Brumfield, then Deputy Grand Patron. The charter members were P. A. Brumfield and wife, W. B. Langridge, S. C. Dunn and wife, J. P. Walton and wife, J. Morrison, C. Page and wife, H. Madden and wife, M. Block and wife, R. Hawley and wife, E. B. Lewis, J. Schumaker and wife, W. Leffingwell, Mrs. H. E. Bitzer, Mrs. R. Dunn, Mrs. H. E. Parmelee, Mrs. R. B. Ewing, Mrs. R. Miller and Miss Morrison. The following were charter officers: W. B. Langridge, W. P.; Mrs. S. Block, W. M.; Mrs. H. Brumfield, A. M.; Mrs. A. Hawley, Treasurer; Mrs. H. E. Bitzer, Secretary; Mrs. J. Dunn, Cond.; Mrs. J. P. Walton, A. C.; Mrs. P. Pyatt, W.; Mr. G. Winn, S.; Mrs. H. E. Parmelee, A.; Miss L. Morrison, R.; Mrs. R. Dunn, E.; Mrs. R. Miller, M.; Mrs. R. Ewing; E. The present officers consist of W. B. Langridge, W. P.; Mrs. H. E. Parmelee, W. M.; Mrs. S. C. Dunn, A. M.; Mrs. R, Dunn, Treasurer; Miss E. C. Parmelee, Secretary; Miss M. Frazier, Cond.; Mrs. C. Fox, Asst. Cond.; Mrs. P. Murphy, Warder; P. Murphy, Sentinel; Mrs. H. E. Bitzer, A.; Mrs. N. Ewing, R.; Mrs. F. Sprague, E.; Mrs. E. B. Lewis, M.; Mrs. S. Wymer, E.

The present membership consists of eighty or ninety persons, many who were members having removed to other places. The place of meeting is in Masonic Hall, Second street. A few words in regard to the origin and objects of the Order may not be amiss. The Order of the Eastern Star is an Adoptive rite, so called from having originated and been adopted by members of the Masonic fraternity, as a means of social enjoyment, whereby the wives, mothers, widows, sisters and daughters of Master Masons in good standing, may work together in the common cause of humanity, to assist in ameliorating the condition of the sick and needy, to reach forth the hand of sympathy in the hour of trial; and especially to give aid to strangers, who may need assistance, and who are proven, by the secret signs of the Order to be worthy members. Electa Chapter has not been backward in its deeds of charity, and has the testimony, of not only many in our midst, but also of strangers to prove this fact.

Muscatine Lodge, No. 5, I. O. O. F., was instituted March 23, 1846. The charter members were E. H. Albic, Richard Cadle, H. Johns, Plilly Fay, Joseph Bridgman and J. R. Burnett. The first officers were: E. H. Albic, N. G.; R. Cadle, V. G.; Osic John, Secretary; Pliny Fay, Treasurer. The present officers are: T. S. Berry, N. G.; W. Satherswaite, V. G.; D. Rothschild, Recording Secretary; M. Block, Permanent Secretary; B. Beil, Treasurer. The Lodge meets at Renting's Hall.

Prairie Encampment, No. 4, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted in 1853. After the lapse of several years, for certain causes, the charter, books and papers were surrendered to the Grand Scribe. The books have never been returned, but a new charter was granted October 19, 1869. The first officers then elected were: Joseph Bridgman, C. P.; W. B. Keeler, H. P.; S. G. Stein, S. W.; H. M. Hine, J. W.; Ed. Hock, Scribe; M. Block, Secretary; all of whom were installed January 5, 1870. The present membership is thirty- eight. The last officers elected are: J. P. Lewis, C. P.; Joseph Bridgman, H. P.; G. Bitzer, S. W.; F. R. Lewis, J. W.; M. Block, Scribe; John Lamp, Secretary. The property of the Encampment is estimated at $500.

The Germania Lodge of Knights of Honor was organized May 9, 1878, and a charter was granted the 5th of September of the same year to F. Huttig, W. Huttig, G. Aumiller, G. Schneider, J. Hoffman, L. Lang, Charles Tappe, J. Schmidt, Charles Graefe, U. Thomas, H. Schmidt, Chris. Nolte, H. Eversmeyer, F. Grade, J. Nietzel. The first officers elected were William Huttig, Dictator; G. Schneider, Vice Dictator; Charles Tappe, Assistant Dictator; G. Aumiller, Past Dictator; F. Grade, Reporter; F. Huttig, Financial Reporter; Charles Graefe, Treasurer; J. Schmidt, Chaplain; L. Lang, Guide; J. Nietzel, Guardian; J. Hoffman, Sentinel. The following are the present officers; George Schneider, Dictator; Charles Tappe, Vice Dictator; H. Geiss, Assistant Dictator; W. Huttig, Past Dictator; F. Grade, Reporter; F. Huttig, Financial Reporter; G. G. Carstens, Guide; Chris. Nolte, Guardian; H. Freiermuth, Sentinel. This Lodge has a present membership of thirty, meets at Odd Fellows' Hall and holds property valued at $250. The Association was established January 1, 1874; has a membership of 60,000. The objects of the Order are to unite fraternally all acceptable white men of every profession, business and occupation, to give all possible moral and material aid in its power to its members and those depending on its members, by holding moral, instructive and scientific lectures, by encouraging each other in business, and by assisting each other to obtain employment; to promote benevolence and charity by establishing a Widows' and Orphans' Benefit Fund, from which on the satisfactory evidence of the death of a member of this corporation, who has complied with all its lawful requirements, a sum not exceeding $2,000 shall be paid to his family, or as he may direct; to provide for creating a fund for the relief of sick and distressed members, and to ameliorate the condition of humanity in every possible manner.

Eagle Lodge, No. 10, Ancient Order of United Workmen, was organized and a charter granted June 9, 1875, to the following charter members: S. H. Downie, G. W. Keckler, W. F. Eichoff, J. M. Bishop, T. S. Berry, G. A. Nicholson, J. K. Martin, J. Robertson, A. S. Knowles, J. L. Berry, H. S. Howe, G. w. Stewart and W. T. Kirk. The first officers elected were: J. K. Martin, P. M. W.; S. H. Downie, M. W.; J. Robertson, G. F.; W. T. Kirk, Overseer; G. W. Stewart, Financier; A. S. Knowles, Receiver; T. S. Berry, G.; J. L. Berry, W. The present officers of this Lodge are: J. S. Mulford, P. M. W.; W. G. Block, M. W.; C. W. Smith, G. F.; George Koehler, Overseer; H. Hartman, G.; W. F. Eichoff, Recorder; H. S. Howe, Financier; W. Mull, Receiver; S. H. Downie, I. W.; John Robertson, 0. W.; C. W. Smith, Medical Examiner. This Lodge meets in the A. 0. U. W. Hall. It has a membership of 102, and property valued at $500.

Muscatine Lodge, No. 99, A. 0. U. W., was instituted under dispensation by D. D. G. M. w. H. S. Howe February 16, 1877, and chartered by Roderick Rose, G. M. W., and William H. Flemming, G. R. The following were the first officers: T. R. Fitzgerald, P. M. W.; Allen Broomhall, M. W.; John Stockdale, G. F.; J. G. H. Little, Overseer; E. P. Day, Recorder; A. N. Garlock, Foreman; James A. Eaton, Receiver; H. P. Jones, I. W.; John Hyink, 0. W. The charter members numbered 60; the present membership is 103. The present officers are: G. W. Porter, P. M. W.; A. N. Garlock, M. W.; R. D. Bodman, Foreman; W. M. Kincaid, Overseer; R. C. Schenck, Recorder; Frank Stewart, Financier; C. Giesler, 0.; W. Lohr, Guide; John Markman, I. W.; S. P. Wilhelm, 0. W. The Lodge meets in A. 0. U. W. Hall, and has property valued at $300.

The Muscatine Turnverein was originally organized July 12, 1856, but having broken up several times has been re-organized. The original members were Fred Tappe, Peter Schorr, Henry Fiene, Henry Clarner, C. Krainz, T. Ulrich, J. Dold, Joseph Koeberle, Jacob Lorenz, Anton Brenner, H. Schmidt, Fred Eitman, John Butz, Karl Kleine, H. Geiss, Charles Stegeman, F. Bernhardt, Hyman Salomon, Ephraim Hecht, Ferdinand Smallz, John G. Koehl, George Schneider, Joseph Bauerbach, John Storz, P. F. Mueller, C. A. Buescher, Henry Kaut, Aug. Rehbein, Franz Koehler, Jacob Fisch, J. A. Aeurer, A. Hengstenberg, Mathias Becky, John Huber, H. Funck, John Schmidt, John Stengele, A. Wilhelm, Lorenz Haeng, F. A. Wienker, Daniel Binz, William Achter, Jacob Horr, Henry Molis and Jacob Bowman. The names of the first officers cannot be given on account of the loss of the records containing them. The following are the present officers: B. schmidt, First President; J. Blum, Second President; J. Martin, First Turnwart; M. Kaut, Second Turnwart; Charles Tappe, First Secretary; H. Gremmel, Second Secretary; S. Cohn, Cassenwart; J. Butz, Zengwart; H. Schmidt, Sesangwart; J. Koehler and H. Schmidt, Trustees. The society meets at Hare's Hall, has a present membership of forty, and property valued at $3,000.

The Muscatine Catholic Mutual Aid Society was organized July 1, 1871, with a membership of thirty. The first officers elected were: Frank Moran, President; John Byrne, Vice President; George Rutherford, Financial Secretary; Dennis J. Ryan, Corresponding Secretary; John Tomney, Treasurer. The present membership is sixty, and the officers are: John Byrne, President; James Fitzgerald, Financial Secretary. The Society's disbursemenls have amounted to over $2,500. The sick benefits are $3 per week in case of sickness. In the event of death of a member, $20 are contributed toward defraying funeral expenses, and $2 per month are paid to the heirs of the deceased.

St Joseph's Mutual Aid Society was organized in 1859, and incorporated under the name of the "German-American Roman Catholic Beneficial Society," which was subsequently changed as above, without any re-organization. The present officers are Joseph Fuller, President; Joseph Kleinfelder, Vice President; J, L. Knopp, Secretary; Aug. Balhof, Assistant Secretary; Henry Fuller, Treasurer. In case of death of a member, $20 are allowed toward funeral expenses, and $2 per month to the heirs. The sick benefits are $3 a week. The Society meets jn George Schaefer's Hall.

The German Mechanics' Aid Society was organized December 14, 1865, with the following orjginal members: F. H. Wienker, George Schneider, John Daiber, Peter Hess, Joseph Kleinfelder, Gottfried Neff, Martin Eichholz, Christian Otto, Sebastian Adamer, F. Goeser, Frederjck Weckerlen, Gottfried Baer, C. F. Schmalz, John Burri, William Lohr, Israel Kintzle, John Wenner, Gus. Schmidt, Joseph Fuller, John Huber, I. W. Koehler, Fred. Witteman, Vincent Maurath, Henry Grau, M. Vetter, Joseph H. Bulster, P. Hartman and A. Hartman. After the Constitution and By-Laws had been framed by Messrs. Otto, Hartman, Adamer, Kleinfelder and Schneider, and adopted by the society, the following permanent officers were elected for the ensuing year: F. H. Wienker, President; Joseph Kleinfelder, Vice President; George Schneider, 1st Secretary; John Daiber, 2d Secretary; Peter Hess, Treasurer. The Society was incorporated April 18, 1866. Since the organization, 237 members have been admitted. The present membership is 146, who contribute from $3 to $4 per month, in each case, to the support of eleven widows. The benefits are $3 per week in case of sickness. At the death of a member, the Society pays $20 toward the funeral expenses. The capital of the institution is $3,800. The following are the present officers: George Schneider, President; G. Aumueller, Vice President; J. J. Engel, lst Secretary; Joseph Fessler, 2d Secretary; Charles Gaefe, Treasurer. Twelve of the original members are still connected with the Society.

MISCELLANEOUS ORGANIZATIONS.

The Athletic Rowing Association.--The healthy and manly pastime of boating, so long confined to the Eastern section of the country has, within a few years, crept westward, and now every town of any pretensions whatever, upon the "Great Father of Waters," boasts its rowing clubs. Muscatine, not to be outrivaled by her sister cities and towns, caught the infectjon, and the Athletic Rowing Association was the result. Such an enterprise had long been a subject of speculation, but no definite steps were taken until September, 1878, from which time dates the perfective organizatjon of the Club. The membership consists of twenty-two of the best young men of the city, selected with reference to their moral character and physical ability to sustain the reputation of the Association at all times and in all contests in which the club may be engaged. The followjng are the officers of the organization: H. J. Lauder, President; Samuel M. Hughes, Secretary; Ed. Cook, Treasurer. A practical and experienced boatbuilder from the East, was engaged to build the first boats of the club, consisting of one six-oared barge forty feet long; one four-oared barge thirty-six feet long, and one single scull twenty feet in length. These boats are all built in the highest and most modern style of the art, and cost the club over $450, including their equipments. Preliminary steps have been taken for the erection of a commodious boat-house. A gymnasium has been established for the training of the members of the club, and, as soon as sufficient training will justify it, application will be made for membership in the Mississippi Valley Rowing Association.

The Muscatine City Cornet and String Band, formerly known as the Independent Cornet and String Band, originated as follows: The first brass band in Muscatine was started July 1, 1856, by Huttig Brothers, and was known as Huttig's Band. One year later, another band formed under the leadership of Angur. In 1859, the two bands combined and organized the Independent Cornet and String Band, consisting of the following members: W. F. Eichhoff, John Horner, G. Schmidt, John Vaupel, Herman Schmidt and C. Schultz. After the war, some of the members having died in the army, the band was re-organized and the name was changed as above. The present membership of the organization is eleven. Its instruments and books are valued at $2,000.

Amateur Bands.--The Social Band, with a membership of sixteen. The Germania Band, with a membership of fourteen. The Enterprise Band, with a membership of twelve. The Flowers Family Band, is a concertizing or traveling band, but at present make Muscatine their home.

The Ninth Regiment Infantry I. N. G., was organized August 17, 1878, with the following six companies, viz., Company A, at Clinton; B, at Davenport; C, at Muscatine; D, at Monticello; E, at Waukon, and F, at West Liberty. The officers of the regiment are Lyman Banks, Lieutenant Colonel; D. W. Reed, Major. The appointed staff officers are: John H. Monroe, Adjutant; I. N. Vore, Quartermaster. The headquarters of the regiment are at Muscatine.

Company C, of the Ninth Regiment I. N. G., was organized in June, 1878. Its first officers were Lyman Banks, Captain; W. M. Woodward, First Lieutenant; Robert C. Schenck, Second Lieutenant. The present officers are: Fred Welker, Captain; A. K. Raff, First Lieutenant; Robert C. Schenck, Second Lieutenant. The present membership is sixty-five.

BANKS AND INCORPORATIONS.

Merchants Exchange National Bank was organized September 20, 1865, and authorized to commence business on the 25th of the following November. The first Directors were P. Jackson, S. C. Butler, S. G. Stein, H. W. Moore, W. H. Stewart, R. M. Burnett, W. C. Brewster, L. W. Olds and I. L. Graham. P. Jackson was the first President and W. C. Brewster the first Cashier. The present Board of Directors consists of H. W. Moore, S. G. Stein, Charles Page, I. L. Graham, R. M. Burnett, D. C. Richman, W. H. Stewart and F. R. Lewis. S. G. Stein is President, and F. R. Lewis, Cashier. This bank has a capital of $50,000 and a surplus of $50,000.

There are also two strong and wealthy private banking firms here. Cook, Musser & Co., and G. A. Garrettson & Co., successors to the Muscatine National Bank, the affairs of which are really not yet wound up.

The Muscatine Loan and Building Association was incorporated June 19, 1877, by John Mahin, W. A. Clark, Thomas Hanna, P. M. Musser, J. A. Bishop, J. Rubelmann, J. P. Ament, J. H. Painter and J. S. Kulp. The Board of Directors consists of Thomas Hanna, John Mahin, J. A. Pickler, J. Rubelmann, Joseph Morrison, W. A. Clark, P. M. Musser and J. P. Ament. The first and present officers are the same, viz., Thomas Hanna, President; W. A. Clark, Vice President; W. H. Woodward, Treasurer. The articles of incorporation extend over a period of twenty years, and may be renewed.

The Muscatine Gas-Light and Coke Company was organized February 17, 1857, and incorporated February 25, of the same year, for the period of twenty years. On the 28th of August, 1876, by virtue of and in accordance with the laws of the State of Iowa, it renewed and extended its corporate existence for a further period of twenty years, from and after February 25, 1877, altering and amending its original articles of incorporation. The capital stock is $50,000, divided into shares of $100 each, which amount may be increased to $100,000, by a three-fourths vote of the stock. The following were the original subscribers of stock: G. C. Stone, Jacob Butler, J. A. Green, P. Jackson, Thomas M. Isett, Chester Weed, John Lemp, S. G. Stein, W. C. Brewster, J. G. Gordon, Hatch, Humphreys & Co., J. B. Dougherty, Charles Dougherty, Charles Neally, Abraham Smalley, A. 0. Patterson and William W. Cones. The first Directors were Jacob Butler, G. C. Stone, Chester Weed, John G. Gordon, John B. Dougherty, W. C. Brewster and Peter Jackson. Chester Weed was the first President; Peter Jackson, first Secretary. The present officers are: R. T. Coverdale, President; J. J. Childs, Secretary and Treasurer; James Hannan, Superintendent.

The Hershey Lumber Company was incorporated March 20, 1876, with a capital stock of $200,000. The officers of the Company are: B. Hershey, President; S. G. Stein, Vice President; Allen Broomhall, Secretary.

The Board of Trade, formerly known as the Citizens' Association, has been re-organized several times since it was first established; owing to the removal of its Secretary from the city, in whose possession the records still remain, and to the fact that other officers of the institution, who have been solicited for information, dare not trust to memory for dates, we can only say, that the intention of these gentlemen seems to be to make the Board of Trade more successful in the future than it has been in the past.

The Muscatine County Medical Association was originally organized in 1867, since which time several re-organizations have taken place, the last being effected June 12, 1874. The first officers of the Association were: A. Ady, President; D. P. Johnson, Vice President; L. B. Powers, Secretary; S. M. Cobb, Treasurer; C. Hersche, w. H. Baxter, W. D. Cone, Censors. The membership of the Association numbers fifteen, and the present officers are: G. 0. Morgridge, President; H. M. Dean, Secretary and Treasurer; A. Ady, W. H. Porter and H. McKennan, Censors.

The Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Company was organized and incorporated November 13, 1873, and authorized to commence business as they had assumed risks to the amount of $50,000, which was in March of the following year. When a loss occurs an assessment is made to pay the same. The first Directors were as follows, viz.: Isaac Negus, William M. Price, Josiah Day, Hugh R. Stiles, Christian Smoker, Richard Lord, H. P. Brown, Samuel Sinnett, Marshall Farnsworth, B. K. Wintermute and Lindley Hoopes. The first officers were Hon. John A. Parvin, President; Hon. Samuel McNutt, Vice President; Seth Humphrey, Secretary; Suel Foster, Treasurer, who have been annually re-elected.

The Muscatine Cemetery Company was organized in December, 1873. The officers have been continually the same and are as follows: R. M. Burnett, President; G. B. Denison, Vice President; Henry Jayne, Secretary; J. Carskadden, Treasurer. The stockholders number fourteen. The grounds are located adjoining the old City Cemetery, or, rather, they are both in the same inclosure.

St. Mary's Cemetery Association was incorporated September 1, 1876. The first officers were John Knopp, President; Frank Moran, Secretary; Rev. P. Laurent, Treasurer. The present officers are: Theodore Becke, President; John Byrne, Secretary; Rev. P. Laurent, Treasurer. The grounds are located on a beautiful knoll within the city limits and are well cared for.

The Israelites of Muscatine have a cemetery independent from any other organization.

The Muscatine County Agricultural Society.--A public meeting was held at the Court House in this city, October 9, 1852, for the purpose of organizing the Muscatine County Agricultural Society. Dr. James Weed was called to the Chair, and J. H. Wallace appointed Secretary. A Constitution and By-Laws were adopted, and the meeting adjourned. October 23, 1852, agreeable to adjournment, the members of the Agricultural Society met in the Court House and proceeded to the election of officers for the ensuing year, as follows: Hon. George Meason, President; Dr. James Weed, Vice President; J. H. Wallace, Secretary; J. G. Gordon, Treasurer. William H. Miller, Bloomington Township; Gamaliel Olds, Pike; Henry Y. Iddings, Sweetland; William A. Clarke, Wapsinonoc; Richard Sherer, Seventy-six; E. H. Albee, Moscow; Douglass Veille, Montpelier; A. Cone, Cedar; A. Smalley, First Ward; J. Bennett, Second Ward, and Samuel Bamford, Third Ward, Muscatine City, Directors. The following are the names of the members of the Society in 1852, and signers of its constitution: James Weed, Joseph Bridgman, Nathan Taber, William Smalley, William M. Miller, Strix & Oppenheimer, George Bumgardner, A. Reuling, Samuel Lucas, S. B. Crane, Henry Y. Iddings, J. S. Hatch & Co., J. H. Wallace, Adam Ogilvie, J. G. Gordon, J. Bennett, J. M.. Cummins, Charles Neally, Saul Gilbert, William A. Clark, D. R. Warfield, Thomas M. Isett, Samuel Sinnett, H. N. Sumner, H. H. Garnes, S. M. McKibben, George Meason, William Leffingwell, I. R. Williams, A. T. Banks, A. Cone. J. E. Fletcher, Shepard Smalley, George W. Chase, Richard Sheres, Abraham Smalley, Samuel Bamford, Levi Cross, R. Pritchard, John Critchfield, John A. McCormick, M. W. Byers, James A. Rankins, Richard Lord, Chester Weed, John H. Miller, Williams Watkins, Skilman Alger, A. 0. Patterson, E. T. S. Schenck, Joseph Crane, Amos Cooper, Lyan C. Hine, Abraham Keen, D. C. Cloud, S. D. Viele, J. B. Dougherty, A. B. Wiles, S. Heilbrun, William G. Holmes, John Rose, Hiram Gilbert, Richard Cadie, Thomas L. Estle, J. P. Freeman, Henry S. Griffin, Henry Molis, Samuel Littrel, D. Dunsmore, William Lundy, James M. Jarboe, Jesse B. Overman, L. S. Goldsberry, W. Fultz, R. W. Chinn, John Idle, H. W. Moore, Jacob Smetzer, L. D. Parmer, James M. Brockway, W. D. Ament, Cyrus Townsley, J. LaTourrette, William Townsley, Jeremiah Lequat, W. M. Elliott, Charles Newell, George W. Kincaid, William Fryberger, William Moxley, Jacob Butler, Thomas Morford, A. Jackson, Levi Eliason, H. Q. Jennison, John G. Stein, P. Fay, John Leitzinger, Cornelius Nicholson, George Plitt. Suel Foster, T. D. Song, F. H. Store, John Ward, John Lemp, Thomas Vanatta, D. W. Clover, Edwin J. Browning, Brent, Miller & Co., Oliver Jack, George C. Stone, Jonathan Ady, John Ziegler. In 1853, the membership was increased to 399.

June 4, 1853, agreeably to a call published in the county newspapers, a large number of farmerS and others convened in the Court House for the purpose of organizing a County Agricultural Society, according to the provisions of the general incorporation laws of the State of Iowa. Hon. G. Meason was called to the Chair, and J. H. Wallace appointed Secretary. It was then resolved to abolish the former organization; a new constitution was adopted, and the following-named officers elected: President, Dr. James Weed; Vice President, William H. Miller; Secretary, J. H. Wallace; Treasurer, J. G . Gordon. A new Board of Directors was also chosen, which met August 13, at the store of Wallace & Breading Messrs. Weed, Miller, Wallace, Olds, Lundy, Sherer, Cone, Smalley and Vickle were present. On motion, the time for holding the first annual exhibition of the Society was fixed on Wednesday and Thursday, October 12 and 13, 1853. A list of premiums and judges for the several classes were then adopted and appointed. Resolutions were adopted, authorizing the Executive Committee to procure suitable grounds and put them in proper condition for holding the fair.

September 19, 1853, the Executive Committee leased from J. Bennett his outlot on the Graded Road for a term of five years, from the first exhibition. The Society was incorporated for twenty years, and, at the expiration of the term, the articles were renewed for twenty-five years from 1877. The society has a membership of 236, and its buildings, etc., are estimated to be worth $3,500. Fairs are held annually. The present Board of Directors consists of W. W. Webster, F. Kaufmann, George E. Jones, John Barnard, John Idle, James Mallicoat, Hon. Samuel McNutt, William P. Wright, William Furnass and Robert Miller. The present officers are: Col. C. C. Horton, President; Hon. J. K. Terry, Vice President; J. G. H. Little, Secretary; Richard Cadle, Treasurer; James Hartman, Marshal.

HORSE STOCK.

The reputation of Muscatine is second to no county west of Orange County, N. Y. This is, we are well aware, a bold assertion, but all well-informed horse- men will admit its correctness. The first attempt at improvement of horse stock was made by a party of gentlemen, who, in 1854, brought out from South Royalston, Mass., Young Green Mountain Morgan, a son of Hale's famous Green Mountain Morgan, and a fine representative of his race. He died at the close of his first season in July, 1854. The second attempt at improvement was in 1855, when a Mr. Weatherby brought out from Vermont several horses, which he kept here for breeding. Among these were Black Hawk, Prophet and Ethan Allen II, sons of Vermont Black Hawk, a large brown horse, known in Vermont as Andrus' Hambletonian, a descendant of Old Messenger in a direct male line, and others of the Morgan family. Ethan Allen was purchased by J. H. Wallace and kept here several years. Hambletonian died here after two or three years. In the fall of 1855, Col. F. M. Cummings brought a mare and colt here from Orange County, N. Y., bred by his father-in-law, Jonas Seely. In 1856, the colt was sold to Joseph A. Green, and named by him Bashaw. He has sired many colts, among them six with a record of 2:30 or better. He was sold in July, 1864, to Walter Carr, of St. Louis for $5,000; by him to a Mr. Beckworth, of Hartford, Conn., where he made one season. His colts became so promising here that Mr. Green repurchased him in 1866 for $6,000. He remained here until the death of Mr. Green, when he was sold to his present owner, George L. Young, of Leland, Ill. Benjamin Hershey in 1864 bought his horse, Gen. Hatch. He was bred in Kentucky, got by Strader's Cassius M. Clay,. Jr., dam by imp. Envoy, g. d. by imp. Tranby, g. g. d. by Aratus, g. g. g. d. by Columbus. This is one of the handsomest horses on the continent, sixteen hands high and exceedingly fine and stylish. His colts are remarkably uniform in their appearance, resembling their sire in a marked degree. Their trotting action is not surpassed by any. Had Gen. Hatch received the proper training, such as Bashaw, no better horse could be found in the West. He is not only a trotter, but a getter of trotters. Mr. Hershey bought the horse for his own use, and gave him, personally, all the training he received. He is now eighteen years old, sound, without a blemish and can trot in 2:40 any day. The only two of his colts that have been trained to any extent are Fleeta and Envoy, full brother and sister. Fleeta's time is 2:34 1/4 and Envoy's, 2:28. In the spring of 1867, Mr. Hershey brought from Canada for breeding purposes, a son of the famous Royal George, which is known here as Hershey's Royal George. With him he brought some twelve or fifteen superior young mares, many of them from imp. Thetester. Royal George is out of a mare by thorough-bred Flag of Truce. He is a horse of great substance, strong enough to pull the plow or do any heavy work and with trotting action that will carry him low down in the thirties. His colts are fine specimens of horse-flesh. Mr. Hershey's stud now numbers eighty-six head, the largest and most complete in point of blood in the State. He has on his farm a splendid mile track, two elegant stables, besides several large sheds. Robert Switzer has full charge of the horse department.

F. & C. L. Warfield owners of the Riverside Stock-Farm, a few miles above Muscatine, on the river, have lately engaged in the horse business and secured some fine stock, such as Attorney, sired by Harold by Rysdyk's Hambletonian. Harold is a half-brother to Maud S., which, as a four-year-old, trotted in 2:17 1/2, the fastest time ever made by a horse of that age. This mare was purchased by Mr. Vanderbilt for $21,000. Charles G. Hayes & Bro. have the horse Tramp, son of Gage's Logan. They also have several full sisters of Bashaw, Jr., and Kirkwood.

STAR CREAMERY.

The Star Creamery is owned by B. Hershey. The building of this colossal and model establishment was commenced in October, 1877, aud as noW completed consists of the main structure, 75x120 feet by 90 feet high from the sill, including the cupola. The gold cow placed on the cupola stands ninety-five feet high from the sill. It is an imposing building of two stories, with a mansard roof, well lighted by twenty large windows on the front side, which faces the Mississippi, and is adequately ventilated. The system of drainage and placing of the offal, used as fertilizing material upon the farm, is an admirable one. It contains 148 stalls, 75 of which are now occupied by superior, cows. The second story is used for feed-bins, and contains the millroom, where all corn and oats are ground. The mill machinery is propelled by a thirty-five horse-power steam-engine. The haymow is located between the bins, and runs from the first floor to the cupola, being fifty feet high, and having a storage capacity of 400 tons. The creamery proper is in an adjoining wing on the lower floor, and embraces the milk and churn room, the washroom and cellar. The milkroom is supplied with four milk-pans, with a capacity of 175 gallons each, and in which the milk is set for the cream to rise. The temperature of the room is kept at 62, regulated by a steam heating apparatus, and a tunnel run through the hill, at the foot of which the building stands, a distance of 500 feet and from twenty to thirty-five feet underground; the temperture of the ground at that depth from the surface is 51. The churn used will contain sixty gallons, and produce from one hundred to one hundred and twenty pounds of butter in a batch. It is operated by a small steam-engine. The butter, after being properly worked, is packed in tubs and shipped to Chicago and New York. An additional fine barn is on the grounds used for stabling sick and dry cows. Over the creamery is a splendid residence, where Mr. Hershey spends part of his time. On the north side of the main building is an elegant cottage for the accommodation of the Superintendent, A. H. Fisher. The farm embraces 800 acres of land. The entire establishment is perfect and managed with great skill. It is an enterprise the county may be proud of.

THE BUSINESS INTERESTS

of Muscatine are of a gratifying character. The location of the city renders it most available as a lumber-manufacturing point, and also enhances its importance in many other branches of trade. As there has been, within a year or two, a very good report of the business made in the form of a county directory, it is deemed unnecessary to here reproduce the items in detail, especially as this work does not partake in any sense of the nature of a gazetteer. Those who seek information for specific purposes, in the line of trade, are referred to the Journal, and to the several directories, issued from time to time, for reliable data.

The city bears upon its face the stamp of enterprise, as evinced in its macadamized streets, its well-kept sidewalks and its splendid business blocks. There is here a fine opportunity for the introduction of other and more varied manufacturing, however, and such investments will in time be made. Muscatine is young in years, and has before it a future of increasing prosperity. The class of men who form its business circle are among the foremost in the State in point of progressiveness; and with such a class to rely upon, there can be no doubt as to the ultimate result. The healthfulness of the region, the fertility and beauty of the outlying country, the intelligence of the settlers, the railroad and river advantages and the large-mindedness of the people in regard to schools and churches, all combine to make a solid foundation upon which to base calculations for the future destiny of the place. Surely these indications cannot be mistaken. There can be for such a community but one outcome, and that is prosperity.

The principal business street of Muscatine would do credit to a city of 30,000 inhabitants. There are few finer blocks of buildings to be found in Iowa than those which give solidity and beauty to Second street. The capitalists have exercised excellent taste as well as a most commendable public spirit in the erection of the edifices referred to. The business of the city is not entirely confined to Second street, however, but is scattered over a large area. The residence portions of town are such as to claim the eye of strangers. Many very fine houses adorn the higher elevations, overlooking the majestic river in the valley below. The society of the city is pronounced most enjoyable by those who are favored with entree thereto. The schools, the churches and the institutions of the city all combine to make Muscatine a desirable place of residence.

The County Poor Farm is located about six miles from Muscatine, on what is known as the "Bluff Road," in Seventy-six Township. There are ninety- six acres of land and the necessary buildings. S. H. Goldsbury is Superintendent.


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