BABB, ISAIAH M., farmer, P. O. Red Oak; lives on section 13; born in Clinton County, Ohio, May 28, 1821; his parents moved to Fountain County, Indiana, when he was three years of age;
there he grew to manhood, following farming principally, but worked at carpenter work a part of the time for three years. In the spring of 1846 he moved to Monroe County, Iowa, and bought a
piece of land, improved it, and in the spring of 1867 he sold out and bought the farm where he now resides; he owns eighty-five acres of land and is engaged to some extent in raising the Italian
bee. He was married in 1845 to Miss Hester Ricketts, a native of Indiana, and a member of the Christian church; they have eight children living, three sons and five daughters: Elizabeth, Rachel,
Mary Jane, Amanda C., Eli C., Levi F., James M. and Caroline.
BAXTER, SAMUEL, farmer, P. O. Red Oak, lives on section 18; born in North Wales, in 1810; his father being a miller, he learned the milling trade when quite young; he followed the milling
business until he was twenty-five years of age; he came to this country in 1835 and settled in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, where he followed working at carpenter work for forty years or more.
In January, 1878, he came to Iowa and settled on the farm where he now resides; he has eighty acres of farming land with fine running stream of water; he was married in 1845 to Miss Elizabeth
Williams, a native of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. They have five children, four sons and one daughter: William S., Hattie, George W., John S., and Sammy. Mr. Baxter, his wife and daughter are
members of the Congregational church.
BEATY, JOHN, farmer, P. O. Red Oak, lives on section 25; was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, July 10, 1821; when twenty years of age he commenced to work at the carpenter trade, and has
followed that to a considerable extent all his life since, although while in Ohio, after he became a man, he conducted a farm and devoted a great deal of attention to sheep-raising. In November,
1865, he moved to Monmouth, Illinois, where he remained about three years working at his trade. In September, 1868, he moved to Henderson County, Illinois, and followed milling for about
three and a half years, and farmed one year in the same county. In the fall of 1872 he moved to Kirkwood, Warren County, and in June, 1873 came to Red Oak, and in 1874 located on a farm of
eighty acres where he now resides. He was married April 9, 1850, to Miss Mary A. Porter, a native of Pennsylvania. They are both members of the U. P. church; they have four children living, two
boys and two girls: Hannah, William G., Elmer E. and Anna May.
BOND, ELLIS, farmer, section 27, P. O. Red Oak; born in Hamilton County, Indiana, June 18, 1842. When he was fourteen years of age his parents moved to Frankfort, Montgomery County,
Iowa. His father, Dr. Bond, died in the fall of 1857, and Ellis helped to carry on his mother's farm until the
out break of the war. He enlisted early in the war, in company F, 5th Missouri
cavalry; was engaged in a number of lively skirmishes, and after serving about sixteen months was discharged June 22, 1863. He returned home and worked on a farm until March, 1864; then
enlisted in company D, 29th Ia. infantry; was in the battles of Saline River, Arkansas, Mobile and others, and was discharged August 20, 1865. He received one flesh wound while in the cavalry
service; the ball producing the wound has never been extracted. Mr. Bond's early life in this county was that of a pioneer. His father hauled lumber to floor his house, a distance of sixty miles.
General Jim Lane at one time fed sixty-five or seventy men at Dr. Bond's house. Mr. Bond is a member of Red Oak lodge, No. 162, A. F. and A. M. He owns a farm of 80 acres. He was married
April 27, 1869, to Miss Octavia Moore, a native of Indiana. They have four children - two sons and two daughters: Emery W., Herbert E., Gracie E. and Nellie Floss.
BROWNLEE, SCOTT, farmer, section 25, P. O. Red Oak; was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, in April, 1831. His parents moved to Warren County, Illinois, in the fall of 1834. His
father died when Scott was quite young. He, with his mother's family, moved to Mercer County, Illinois, in the spring of 1848, and he followed farming there until the commencement of the war.
He enlisted in company C, 36th Illinois volunteers, July 14, 1861. Was in all the principal battles in which his regiment was engaged, among which were Pea Ridge, Arkansas, Perryville,
Kentucky, Stone River, Chickamauga and Mission Ridge. He was in General Sheridan's division for about two years, and was with General Sherman about Atlanta, Georgia. Mr. Brownlee's
command at one time was cut off from all supplies for about two months, and they had to subsist on green apples and parched corn. During that time and at the battle of Pea Ridge, they were
almost destitute of clothing, he particularly, and as they were returning to camp after the close of the battle, a captain in passing along the line, paused in front of him a moment, and said:
"Sergeant Brownlee, you are a hard looking sight, but your rags are honorable." He was discharged at Atlanta, Georgia, September 22, 1864, and returned to his old home in Mercer County,
Illinois. One of the first things that he did was to vote for Abraham Lincoln for president. He was present at the Lincoln & Douglas joint discussion, at Galesburg, Illinois, and at Rock Island on
the day that the first train of cars ever struck the Mississippi river. In the fall of 1874 he went to Nebraska but soon returned to Illinois. April 9, 1875, he came to Red Oak, Iowa; bought property
there, and remained a year. In the spring of 1876 he moved to his present location. He owns an excellent farm of 240 acres, beside some valuable coal lands in Wayne County, Iowa. He was
married September 10, 1867, to Miss Ellen P. Brakey, a native of Pennsylvania. Both are members of the U. P. church. They have three children - one son and two daughters: Robertie S., John H.
and Sylva L.
BURSON, CLEMENT C., miller, section 32, P. O. Red Oak; born in Iroquois County, Illinois, October 14, 1841; left there with his parents when he was twelve years of age; came to Indianola,
Iowa, in 1853; followed farming near that place until the commencement of the war. Enlisted in company K, Tenth Iowa volunteers, in September, 1861; served with that regiment about eight
months, and was discharged March 8, 1862. He then lived on the farm until September 20, 1864, when he enlisted in company D, First Iowa cavalry, and took part in all
the engagements in which
his regiment was engaged until the close of the war. He was discharged at Austin, Texas, about the 20th of March, 1866; then went to the farm near Indianola, remained there a short time, then
went to Bryson, Hurch & Pritchard's, at Indianola, to learn the milling trade. Stayed
with that firm about four years, completing his trade; he then worked for them by the month for two years. In
March, 1872, he went to Atchison, Kansas, and worked at the milling business with Gilbreth, Blair & Auld for a few months. In July, 1872, he went to Winterset, Iowa, engaged with J. F. Heimer
for a short time, when the mill was sold to W. H. H. Hursh, and he remained in his employ in the same mill until February, 1879. He then went to Fremont County, Iowa, worked a short time for
Jacob R. Lewis, then came to Red Oak, worked a short time for Lewis & Lane (millers). On July 1, he leased the mill south of Red Oak, and has controlled it since. He was married to Miss
Elizabeth J. Fleming, March 1, 1864. They have six children, four boys and two girls: Benjamin P., Fannie F., Leon Arto, Asa F., Freddie and Carrie Belle.
CHAMBERLAIN, JAMES S., farmer, section 4, P. O. Red Oak; born in Delaware County, New York, in 1823. He grew up on a farm, but followed lumbering to some extent, while at home
with his parents. In 1850 he engaged in farming and lumbering on his own account, and eventually established a dairy, and in the spring of 1869, he sold his farm and dairy for $10,000, moved to
Deposit, New York, and leased a hotel for a term of five years, but after remaining one year became dissatisfied and sold out. During the next year he and his wife took an extended tour through
the west, then returned to New York. In February, 1871, he, with his family, came to Red Oak, bought 182 acres of raw prairie land, built a barn and moved in that until he could build a house. He
now has a well improved farm, with a running stream of water passing through it, has good buildings, and a good sized young orchard commencing to bear. Mr. Chamberlain was married January
20, 1848, to Miss Araminta D. Hood, a native of New York. Both are members of the Presbyterian Church. They are the parents of seven children, five of whom, three sons and two daughters, are
living: Andrew J., Emma, Theodore S., Lizzie D. and Ward B.
COVERSTON, L. F., P. O. Red Oak; he was born in Scotland County, Missouri, May 6, 1844. Left Missouri when eight years old and went to Ohio, remaining there until he was eleven years
old. Then to Memphis, Missouri, and from there to Wapello County, Iowa; then to Mahaska County, and there lived until he was eighteen years old, when he went into the army in company H,
Third Iowa infantry; he enlisted at Oskaloosa. He was at the battles of Holly Springs, Oxford, Memphis, Vicksburg, Meridien, Atlanta, Savannah, Goldsboro, Richmond, Tunnel Hill, Black River,
and Jackson. His brothers, George and Allen, were both taken prisoners. He then went to Washington City and was there mustered out and went to Agency City, then to Davenport, and then to
Oskaloosa.; lived there one year and there engaged in the grocery business. Was married to Mary E. Ryan, and farmed there for three years, then returned to Agency City, and bought a fifteen acre
lot and engaged in the nursery business; then to Corning, then back to Agency City, engaging in the restaurant and confectionery business, the lightning rod business, and carriage painting. Then
moved to Shenandoah and clerked in a hardware store one season, and then painting again. Then to Red Oak, working at painting, and engaged in a billiard hall. He was educated in the common
schools of Agency City. His wife was born January 13, 1845, and they have three children: Lora F., born August 3, 1866; Clara M., born February 8, 1868; Euphemia, born March 10, 1870. His
mother is living at Agency City, Iowa.
DODD, WILLIAM W., farmer, section 22, P. O. Red Oak; born in Marion County, Ohio, December 12, 1825. His father came overland to Iowa territory in 1841, and settled in Marion, Linn
County. Lived there and followed farming until the fall of 1865. Mr. Dodd then moved to Poweshick County, remaining there until the spring of 1868, and then moved to Jefferson, Green County,
and in the spring of 1870 he moved to Red Oak, and located in June of the same year on the farm where he now resides. He owns a farm of 160 acres. He was married June 5, 1856, to Miss Rhoda
Robb, a native of Georgetown, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. Both are members of the Presbyterian church. They have four children living, two sons and two daughters: William C., born October
15, 1857; Rufus E., born April 16, 1859; Elva H., born April 8, 1864; and Nettie J., born May 6, 1867.
GAFF, ELIJAH, farmer, section 12, P. O. Red Oak; born in Norfolk, England, March, 1847. He grew up on a farm and has been engaged in farming all his life. In the spring of 1871, he came to
America, landing at New York after a voyage of fourteen days. Located at Troy, New York, and remained there about four years. In March, 1875, he came to Montgomery County, Iowa, and
settled at his present location. He was married March 21, 1879, to Miss Sarah A. Oliver, a native of England, and a daughter of William and Jane Oliver. They emigrated to America when Mrs.
Gaff was quite young, and were on the water about eight weeks. Mrs. Gaff is a member of the Presbyterian church.
HALL, CYRUS F., farmer, section 19, P. O. Red Oak; born in Albany County, New York, April 25, 1831. His mother died when he was four years old. He then lived with an aunt in Jefferson
County, New York, until November, 1843; then lived with Orrin N. Smith until he was twenty-one years of age; then took Horace Greeley's advice and came west to grow up with the country. He
stopped a few months in Ohio; then started to Iowa and landed at McGregor, on the 9th of October, 1853; remained near McGregor until September 22, 1874, when he
came to Red Oak, and
settled where he now resides. He has followed farming principally, all his life, and owns a fine, well improved farm of 310 acres. He now makes something of a specialty of breeding short-horn
cattle, and with his son is conducting an elegant green-house, where they have almost every variety of plant and flower. Mr. Hall is a member of Red Oak Lodge, No. 162, A. F. and A. M.,
Montgomery Chapter No. 57, and Bruce Commandery, No. 34. He was married to Miss Lucina M. Rawson, of Clayton County, Iowa, on May 26, 1859. They have six children living; Adna P.,
Mary L., Orrin, Minnie, Mattie and Freddie.
HOLCOMB, JEDEDIAH L., millwright, section 2, P. O. Red Oak; born in Lorain County, Ohio, July 10, 1822; lived there until fourteen years of age; when he moved to Warren County,
Illinois, and lived there until 1850, when he moved to Scott County, Iowa. In 1869 he moved to Red Oak. At the age of sixteen he learned the carpenter and joiners' trade. In 1853 engaged in the
millwrights', which he has followed ever since; has built and started five mills of his own design. He has also built and repaired mills in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois and Nebraska. He also put in new
machinery in Manker's mill and overhauled the celebrated Buffalo mill at Winterset, which was afterward destroyed by a cyclone. Was married in Warren County, Illinois, in March, 1846, to Miss
Jane McMillan, of Alabama. They have had eight children, three living: John W., Millard F. and Ida. John W. is in Montana, Millard is in Kansas and Ida at home. Mr. Holcomb is a member of
the I. O. O. F.
JOHNSON, J. V., farmer and stock raiser, section 3, P. O. Red Oak; born in West Virginia, in 1832; came to Iowa when twenty years of age; settled near Albia, Monroe County; then in
September, 1869, came to Montgomery County, and located where he now resides. He at one time during the war enlisted in the army of the United States; but was not mustered into service. Mr.
Johnson has an elegant farm of 300 acres, with good buildings and a splendid young orchard just commencing to bear; has two excellent springs on his farm, one of which will afford water for at
least 1,000 head of cattle. This spring throws a large stream and does not freeze in the coldest of weather. Mr. Johnson has been a feeder and shipper of cattle for a number of years, and has now a
herd of over 200 head. He has been twice elected county treasurer over a strong opposition ticket. He has one year yet of his second term to serve. He is a member of the order of Odd Fellows.
Was married September 27, 1857, to Miss Caroline Funkhouser, a native of Ohio. They are both members of the Methodist Protestant church. They have eight children living, five sons and three
daughters: Ida Virginia, Robert L., William B., Edward L., Mabel, Margaret C., John V. jr., and Ray.
KERRIHARD, THOMAS F., farmer and miller, section 1, P. O. Red Oak, born in Davenport, Iowa, August 10, 1856. His father, W. H. Kerrihard, moved to Montgomery County, Iowa, in
1857, and settled near where Wayne Stennett now lives, building a small mill and it is believed manufactured the first flour ever manufactured in
Montgomery County; he afterward lived a year at
what is known as Manker's Mill. In 1860 he located in Red Oak and built the steam flouring mills. Thomas commenced to learn the milling trade when he was quite young and took charge of the
engine when he was fifteen years old. In February, 1876, he with his brother took the entire
control of the mill, their father retiring; they yet control the mills. Thomas moved to his present location
in March, 1880, where he owns an improved farm of eighty-five acres, containing a small young orchard; he also owns city property in Red Oak. Mr. K. was married October 30, 1874, to Miss
Eva Baker, a native of Iowa. They have three children, one son and two daughters: Emma, Willie and Coozie.
KNAPP, JOHN W., farmer, section 10, P. O. Red Oak; born in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 10, 1827; his parents moved to Muscatine, Iowa, when he was three years old; move to Moscow in
1846, remained there a number of years. In 1848 he learned the milling trade, worked three years for Burrows & Prettyman;
then farmed for about four years, and in the fall of 1855 came to Red
Oak. In the spring of 1856 he commenced to work for Mr. Kerrihard in the Keys mill, afterward in the Silkett mill, then worked in the steam mill at Red Oak; he worked for Mr. Kerrihard in all
perhaps about twelve years or more. In 1868 he moved on the farm where he now resides; owns forty acres of land. Mr. Knapp was married November 1, 1860, to Phoebe Ann Burris, a native of
Indiana. They are both members of the Methodist Protestant church; Mr. K. is also a member of the Masonic order. They have one son: Andy B.
LEACH, EDWIN F., stock dealer and shipper, P. O. Red Oak; was
born in Niagara County, New York, October 24, 1835, and at the age of fifteen years came to Lee County, Illinois; was
engaged in farming and dealing in stock. In 1862 moved to Hardin County, Iowa; in 1864 went to Boone County, Illinois, where he engaged in the livery business; sold out and went to Texas in
1865, and in 1866 went to Canada and then to the oil regions; built hotel; came back to Boone County, Illinois, in 1867, moved to Marshall, Iowa, went to farming in 1868, and in 1871 came to
Montgomery County, Iowa, where he engaged in farming; owns three hundred and twenty acres, with a fine orchard of two hundred and fifty trees, bearing; is one of the leading stock-dealers of
the county; in 1879 he shipped one hundred and forty-seven car-loads of cattle, and ten car-loads of hogs; in 1880 shipped over one hundred car-loads of cattle and hogs; will have five hundred
head of cattle to graze this summer. In the summer of 1879 he paid to the farmers of the vicinity over seventy thousand dollars. Has bought cattle in the western states and territories, and sold to
feeders in this vicinity. Was married to Miss Eliza Whitmore, of Boone County, Illinois, in 1859. She was born in Ohio in 1836. They have one child: Carrie L., born November 6, 1860.
LEACH, MATTHIAS, farmer, section 11, P. O. Red Oak; born in Niagara County, New York, January 26, 1849; his parents moved to Lee County, Illinois, in 1851; his father died when Mat.
was about six years old and he remained on the farm with his mother until he was fifteen years of age; he then enlisted, boy as he was, in May, 1864, in company E, one hundred and fortieth
Illinois infantry, and served with that regiment about six months and was discharged in November; he re-enlisted January 18, 1865, in company L, Seventh Illinois cavalry, and was in all the
engagements in which his regiment participated until the close of the war; was taken prisoner near the close of the war, but was released in a very short time, and was discharged about the 1st of
November, 1865. After his discharge he returned to Illinois and remained until in the spring of 1866, then came to Hardin County, Iowa, where he remained about a year and a half, farming and
working at the carpenter's trade. In the fall of 1867 he returned to Illinois where he followed farming one year, then came again to Hardin County, Iowa, where he worked at his trade until
December, 1869, then went to Marshall County where he engaged in handling stock until in the spring of 1871; in May of that year he bought the farm where he now resides. He makes a specialty
of stock-raising and feeding; his farm consists of two hundred acres of well watered and well improved land, and contains an orchard of nearly two hundred apple trees now bearing. Mr. Leach
was married April 10, 1876, to Miss Hannah Beaty, born in Guernsey County, Ohio, and a member of U. P. church; they have three children living, all boys: Earl C., J. Boyd and Fred F. Mr.
Leach's mother, Mrs. Maria Leach, is passing her declining years with her son; she is a member of the Presbyterian church.
LEVIN, JOHN A., farmer, section 2, P. O. Red Oak; born in Sweden, February 1, 1848; was raised on a farm and lived in the old country until he was twenty-one years of age. After receiving a
good Swedish education, he concluded to come to free America; came over in the spring of 1869, to Quebec, Canada, then came direct to Burlington, Iowa, where he remained until October 13,
1871, then came to Red Oak; while in Burlington and for about five years after he came to Red Oak, he worked constantly and faithfully at any employment that he could find, making and laying
up money for the purpose of securing a future home; in the spring of 1876 he had enough accumulated to buy a piece of land; he bought where he now lives, and in October, 1876, moved there,
and since then has added more acres, until now he has a splendid farm of two hundred acres, with fine young orchard just beginning to bear. He was married June 29, 1880, to Lena Carlston, a
native of Sweden, but came to America when quite young; both are members of the Lutheran church.
LOSEY, EBENEZER T., farmer, section 34, P. O. Red Oak; born in Honesdale, Wayne County, Pennsylvania, June 26, 1846; lived with his father, Dr. E. T. Losey, until the commencement of
the war. In August, 1862, he enlisted in company M, Seventh Pennsylvania cavalry; was with the army of the Potomac and was engaged in a number of the principal battles of the war. He was in
the siege of Fredericksburg, battles of Chancellorville, Antietam and others. Fought two days in the Wilderness, then marched in the rear of Lee's army, destroying railroads, supplies, etc. In the
Chickahominy Swamps they were surrounded, surprised and had to cut their way out; then fought at Coal Harbor, Gettysburg and Boonesville, Maryland; and at Winchester in Sheridan's grand
charge; afterward served as body guard for General Sheridan; and was at the wind-up of the war in front of Richmond. He was discharged June, 1865; went to his old home in Pennsylvania;
remaining there until September, 1865, he started for the great west, traveling through Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin,
locating in La Crosse for a short time. In the spring of
1866, he went to Minnesota and engaged in farming there until the fall of 1875. He then moved to Shenandoah, Page County, then to Fremont County, and farmed there during the summer of
1876. In September, 1876, he bought, and in the spring, moved on the farm where he now resides. Mr. Losey was married to Mrs. H. A. Mosher, a native of Ohio, September 14, 1866. Mrs. Losey
is a member of the M. E. Church. They have three children, all boys: George E., Anson W. and Henry B.
LLOYD, NOAH R., farmer, section 36, P. O. Red Oak; born in Fleming County, Kentucky, August 20, 1815. His mother died when he was six months old. His father, Simeon Lloyd, who had
been a soldier in the war of 1812, died with cholera in 1832, and he (Noah), was left to battle with the world as best he could. When about twenty years old he commenced business for himself,
farming, peddling, carrying mail, etc. His father, at the time of his death, had a mail contract from Poplar Plains, Fleming County, to Owensville, Bath County, Kentucky, and Noah completed the
contract; he made the trip and return - forty-two miles - one very cold day, said to be the coldest ever known in that part of Kentucky. At one time in Mr. Lloyd's life he attempted to learn the
carpenter's trade, but found that it was injuring his health and gave it up in a short time. He then traveled a short time with a concert troupe and was doorkeeper for Sam Stickney's circus for a
short time; soon became tired of that kind of life and settled in Grant County, Kentucky, and engaged in farming. In the fall of 1853 he moved to McDonough County, Illinois, and in the fall of
1864 he moved to his farm of one hundred and forty acres where he now resides. He was married May 28, 1838, to Miss Diana J. Daniel, a native of Kentucky. They are the parents of fifteen
children, eight of whom are now living, three sons and five daughters: Mary F., Nancy A., Travis T. M., Alson M., Clendorah T., Louisa A., Corilla D. and Noah R., jr.
LYON, JOSEPH N., farmer, section 9, P. O. Red Oak; born in Kinsman, Trumbull County, Ohio, November 15, 1833. In 1845 his parents moved to Lee County, Iowa. He remained in that
county on a farm until he was about nineteen years old. In 1852 he commenced to work in a saw-mill, and engaged in that business in Henry, Keokuk and Washington Counties, for about five
years. He then traveled during 1858 and 1859, through the western country, and in the fall of 1860 moved to Page County, Iowa, where he remained until the commencement of the war. He
enlisted June 24, 1861, in company F, First Nebraska infantry. In September, 1861, he was transferred to company I, Eighth Iowa infantry, and was engaged in the battles of Pittsburg Landing,
Corinth, and others. Owing to exposure while in the army he lost his health to such an extent that he is now a constant sufferer from asthma. He was discharged March 10, 1863, and went to the
St. Louis eye infirmary, having nearly lost the use of one eye while in the army. After remaining in St. Louis for a few months and receiving no benefit, he came to Red Oak. In the fall of 1863 he
started a portable saw-mill in the southern part of Montgomery County, remaining there one year. Moved it to Mills County and remained there about two years, and then went to Nebraska and
remained there one year. In the fall of 1867 he moved on a farm near Red Oak. In the meantime his health had failed rapidly, and in the spring of 1873 he went to Colorado, received no benefit,
and returned in the spring of 1874. In the fall of 1874 he went to California, bought a ranch and engaged in grain and stock-raising. The climate there did not agree with him, so in the summer of
1876 he went to the mountains, and in the fall of the same year sold out, came to Red Oak and moved to his present location, where he owns 240 acres of good farming and pasture land. Has a
fine young orchard of about 150 trees, including apples, pears, plums, etc. Has four good wells of water and two inexhaustible springs. He is a member of the Masonic order. He was married
October 27, 1866, to Miss Sophia Barber, a native of Indiana. They have five children, three sons and two daughters: Daniel, Abbie, Charles, Ann and Jesse.
MANKER, J. J. & SONS, millers, P. O. Red Oak; John J. Manker was born January 30, 1818, in Clinton County, Ohio; in 1847 he took charge of Clear Creek mill, in Highland County, Ohio,
and remained there five years, then took charge of Sugar Creek mill in Montgomery County, Indiana; next bought an interest in the Franklin mills; but at the end of two years sold out and run a
farm for seven years; then sold that and bought back the Franklin mill again and run it eight years. Sold this and moved to Fremont County, Iowa; bought a four hundred and forty-acre farm and
worked it five years. Then in 1877, bought the mill near Red Oak, since known as Manker's mill. This mill is forty feet square, three stories high and stands on a solid ledge of rock; it is two miles
north of Red Oak, on the north branch of the C. B. & Q. railroad, and on one of the most traveled roads leading into Red Oak. It has all the latest improved machinery, and three run of burrs, with
water power for double its present work. Mr. Manker was married, November 4, 1841, at Hillsboro, Ohio, to Miss T. S. Wright, who was born, in October 1821, in Highland County, Ohio. They
have six children: Henry E., James S., Charles W., John W., George F. and Carry A. Mr. Manker's father, Jacob Manker, was born in 1792, in West Virginia, but moved with his father to Ohio
when he was eighteen years old. He was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was discharged at Fort Washington, now Cincinnati. He was at the surrender of General Hull to the British at Detroit, in
1812. Mr. J. J. Manker is a member of the M. E. Church at Red Oak, and has been a local preacher for twenty-five years past; he is also a member of Shenandoah lodge, No. 261, I. O. O. F. Henry
E. Manker, oldest son of J. J. was born in Highland County, Ohio, August 12, 1842; moved to Indiana in 1862 and enlisted in company B, seventy-ninth Indiana volunteers; was with General
Buell's army on the march toward Cumberland Gap until General Rosencrans took command, then with him in the battles of Stone river and Chickamauga. In this last engagement he was shot in
the hip with a musket ball and was taken to the field hospital; went home on furlough until able for duty, then returned to his regiment and was detailed as postmaster until discharged at Nashville,
Tennessee, June 7, 1865. Was engaged with his father in the Sugar creek mill at Darlington, Montgomery County, Indiana, until 1872, when they moved to Fremont County, Iowa, on a farm; then
in 1877 they bought their present mill near Red Oak. He is a member of the M. E. Church at Red Oak, and also of the Glen lodge, No. 142, I. O. O. F. at Darlington, Indiana. Was married to Sarah
E. Winters, March 12, 1867, at Darlington; they have three children: Mary T., born December 26, 1867; Fanny S., born December 19, 1870; Grace,
born June 27, 1878. Mrs. Manker was born
May 26, 1850, in Montgomery County, Indiana. Her father died March 21, 1878; her mother still lives in Indiana, aged 61 years.
MANNING, JOHN W., farmer, section 6, P. O. Red Oak; born in Indiana, 1849. His parents moved to Muscatine County, Iowa, in the fall of 1855, where they remained until
when his father moved his family to Linn County; John's mother having died in 1864. He remained in Linn County until March, 1871, and returned to Muscatine County, there he remained a little
over one year. In May, 1872, he came to Red Oak, broke prairie that summer, and during the winter of 1872-3 worked for Mr. Otto; and the following summer for Mr. Mason, in the same
neighborhood. In July, 1873, he moved to Nebraska, remained one year and returned to Montgomery County; lived on Mr. Otto's farm about three years, then lived in Boone County, Iowa, one
year. In 1878 he returned to Montgomery County, and soon settled where he now resides. He was married, July 1873, to Miss Mary F. Otto, a native of Iowa. They are members of the Baptist
MCMULLIN, ROBERT, farmer, section 6, P. O. Red Oak; born in Antrim County, Ireland, March 17, 1828; came to America in 1848 and settled in Philadelphia; engaged in the lime business
for three years. In the spring of 1851 he came to Peoria County, Illinois, where he engaged in farming and lime burning for about twenty-five years. In March, 1876, he moved to this county and
located on his present farm of two hundred and eighty-eight acres, about thirty-five acres of which is a forest grove. He has good fences, good wells, and good springs, and a fine young orchard.
He was married, April 4, 1852, to Margaret E. Harkness, a native of Illinois. They are the parents of six children living, three sons and three daughters: John A., Lida A., Emma J., Frederic D.,
William P. and Nora May. Mr. McMullin is a member of the Masonic order. Himself, wife, two daughters and one son, are members of the M. E. Church.
MCLEAN, JAMES ARNOTT, superintendent of public instruction, Montgomery County, Red Oak, Iowa. Was born April 6, 1852, in Ashland County, Ohio; when four years of age moved with
his parents to Chesterville, Ohio, where he remained five years. In 1861 he moved to Monmouth, Illinois, where after completing the course in the high school of that city, he entered the classical
course of Monmouth College in the class of 1873. After completing his education he taught school until 1871, when he with his brother's family moved to Red Oak; here he and his brother, J. D.
McLean, opened and improved a beautiful farm of 320 acres, one and a half miles northeast of Red Oak. The subject of this sketch taught school each winter in his own school district from 1871
until April, 1877, when he was elected principal of the schools of Emerson, Mills County, where he was actively engaged in teaching until
the day he entered upon the duties of his office as
superintendent of public instruction of Montgomery County, January 1, 1880, which position he holds at this time. Mr. McLean is a member of the U. P. Church of Red Oak.
MILNER, ARMSTED, farmer, section 24, P. O. Red Oak; born in Highland County, Ohio, August 19, 1829; lived at home on the farm until he was twenty-one years old. Taught school four or
five winters; then in the spring of 1853 came to Iowa; remained but a short time and returned to Ohio. In Marhc, 1854, he went to Illinois, and from there to Kansas, and took a claim near Topeka.
While there he voted at the first election ever held in the state. In the spring of 1855 he returned to Ohio and found his father at the point of death. After his father's death he returned in the fall of
1855 to Kansas; but the state of affairs there were so unsettled that he did not remain long. He rode on horseback form there to Pilot Grove, Montgomery County, Iowa; entered a piece of land and
remained there until the spring of 1856; then went to Frankfort, and in May, 1856, he went back to Ohio, and returned to Iowa in August, 1856, and made his home with Dr. Bond, at Frankfort,
until the winter of 1858-9. In January, 1859, he moved to his present location, where he has a large and well improved farm of 480 acres. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity. He was
married in December, 1858, to Miss Phoebe Bond, a native of Indiana, and a daughter of Dr. Amasa Bond. They are the parents of nine children living; Nellie L., May and Anna, twins; Oliver,
Alice, Sadie, Ellis, Emma and Quinetta.
MYERS, ANGELO A., farmer, section 2, P. O. Red Oak; born in Washington County, Indiana, November 19, 1834. Received a liberal education and remained on the farm of his birth until he
became a man. Taught one term of school when about nineteen years of age. In 1854 he moved to Tama County, Iowa. Remained there until the commencement of the war. He enlisted July 31,
1861, in the Tenth Iowa infantry. Was with that regiment one year. Was engaged in the battles of Charlestown, Missouri; New Madrid; Island No. 10; Tiptonville; in the siege of Boonville, where
he was taken sick and was discharged July 25, 1862. Was slightly wounded at the battle of Charlestown, Missouri. After being
discharged he went to Toledo, Iowa, and on September 15, 1862,
he enlisted in the Sixth Iowa cavalry, company F. Was with that regiment fighting Indians for about two years. Was orderly sergeant of his company and was engaged in
the fight called the Band
Lands at the foot hills of the Black Hills. Was discharged July 26, 1864. Mr. Myers very unfortunately almost lost his eye-sight while in the cavalry service. After his discharge he went to Chicago
for treatment for his eyes, and after a stay of nine months and an expense of about $1,000, he returned home with his eyesight only partially restored. In the spring of 1873 he moved to Nebraska,
took a soldier's homestead, then in the fall of 1876 moved to Fort Scott, Kansas, and in the spring of 1877 moved to the farm where he now resides. He was married May 25, 1855, to Miss Nancy
Ross, a native of Ohio. They have six children living, five sons and one daughter: William T., John W., Manuel D., Frank E., Ara Belle and Charlie W. One daughter dead, Lora Belle.
PETERSON, HENRY, farmer, section 5, P. O. Red Oak; born in Sweden, December 10, 1844. His father, one brother and himself came to this country in 1854. His mother and sister followed in
1858. He lived a short time in Geneseo, Illinois, then went to Galesburg, where he remained until the summer of 1858, when they moved to Kossuth County, Iowa. His father's family moved back
to Andover, Henry County, Illinois, in 1859, and in the spring of 1860 moved to Genesco, where he remained until the spring of 1872. He then came to Montgomery County, Iowa, where he now
resides. He owns an excellent farm of 450 acres of well improved land, with good buildings, young orchard, five good wells and a number of living springs, and about three miles of hedge fence.
Mr. Peterson is now engaged in raising and feeding cattle. He is wintering about two hundred head. He was married in October, 1865 to Miss Hannah Peterson, a native of Sweden. They have five
children living, three sons and two daughters: Ellen, Carrie J., Albert, Charles E., and Burnett.
ROBINSON, WILLIAM R., farmer, section 20, P. O. Red Oak; born October 14, 1820, near Chillicothe, Ohio, and lived there until he was twenty-two years of age, then moved to Henry
County, Iowa, in 1842; went to California in the fall of 1875 and remained there about ten months, then returned to Henry County, Iowa, and remained there during the winter of 1876-7, when he
removed to Montgomery County, Iowa, where he now resides; he has been a member of the Presbyterian church for about forty-five years. In March, 1848, he was married to Miss Elizabeth
Ingersoll, a native of Butler County, Ohio. Mr. R. is a son of Judge Joshua Robinson, of Chillicothe, Ohio, who was born in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, June 10, 1795. Mr. Robinson owns a
farm of one hundred and twenty-five acres; has four children, two boys and two girls: Joshua I., Mary Jane, Francis E. and Flora I.
SEAMAN, JONATHAN, farmer, section 5, P. O. Red Oak; born in Huntington County, New Jersey, September 18, 1815; his father was a carpenter and joiner, and the boy learned the trade
when he was sixteen years old. In September, 1836, he went to Marshall County, Illinois, where he remained thirty-five years, farming and working at his trade. In May, 1871, he went to Lincoln,
Nebraska, but did not like the country, so he came to Red Oak, bought and moved on the farm where he now resides;
his farm consists of two hundred and thirty-three and one-third acres of good
farming land, with good buildings, a fine young orchard, and two springs of water that cannot well be excelled; has over three thousand maple trees grown from the seed. He was married in 1838
to Miss Elizabeth Harris, a native of Licking County, Ohio; she, after lingering along in poor health for a number of years, died, March 15, 1879. She was a member of the M. E. church. Mr.
Seaman has seven children living, four sons and three daughters: David W., Mary E., Edward H., James F., Daniel C., Jennie B. and Alice E.
SHANK, Z.M. PIKE, farmer, section 34, P.O., Red Oak; born in Franklin County, Indiana, January 8, 1829. His parents moved to Shelby County, Indiana, when he was four years old, and in the
spring of 1844 they moved to Howard County, then an Indian reservation. He remained at home until twenty years of age, then was employed in Alto, by R. L. Cobb, (merchant). His employer
went to Marion County, Indiana, Mr. Shank going with him, and remaining with him for about a year and a half. In the spring of 1851 he engaged in the mercantile business in Alto on his own
account, which business he continued to follow until in the winter of 1855-56. In the spring of 1856 he came to Iowa with a team and wagon; crossed the Mississippi at Burlington on the ice,
and traveled over a continuous sea of ice from that point to where he now resides. He stopped with his father, (who had preceded him) until he built a cabin,
then moved into it. That same cabin yet
stands, and forms a very important part of his residence. When Mr. Shank came to Iowa there were but few families in the western part of Montgomery County, and they had to go to the southern
part of Fremont County, and even into Missouri to do their trading, for a long time; and if they had anything to sell, it had to be taken to Council Bluffs. He now owns a good farm. Mr. Shank is a
member of the Red Oak lodge, No. 162, A. F. and A. M; Montgomery chapter No. 57, and Bruce commandery No. 34. He was married December 6, 1848, to Miss Polly Ann Jones, a native of
Kentucky. They have seven children living: Frank P., James B., Martha, Rosetta, Alonzo, and Theodore and Theodosia, (twins). They have lost two children: William L. and Lucy. Mr. Shank, his
wife and four children are members of the Baptist church.
SIMONS, B. E. A., lawyer and real estate dealer, section 27, P. O., Red Oak; lives about one and a half miles east of Red Oak; was born in Erie County, Pennsylvania. Held various commissions
during the war. Located in Red Oak in 1865, and afterward held a clerkship in the U. S. quartermaster's department for about two years. Owns several small tracts of land and has a fine residence
and a fine location. He was married July, 1878, to Miss Dora J. Gunn. They are both members of the Presbyterian church. They have one daughter, Ethel F.
STCLAIR, BENJAMIN A., farmer, section 3, P. O. Red Oak; born in Jackson County, Ohio,
October 25, 1852. His parents moved to Iowa in 1854, locating in Montgomery County. His father
lived but a few years after coming to this county, and he remained at home helping to improve his mother's farm until about the year 1870. About that time or soon after he commenced business
for himself, and has remained altogether in this county. In 1875, he moved to Sherman township, where he remained two years. In the spring of 1877, he moved to his present location, and owns a
farm of fifty-three acres. He was married February 22, 1875, to Miss Mary F. Weatherly, a native of Illinois. They have three children, two daughters and one son: Clara M., Mary, and Arthur D.
STOCKSLEGER, A. F. & ISAAC, farmers, section
24, P. O. Red Oak; twin brothers, born in Adams County, Pennsylvania, March 14, 1837, and lived at home with their parents until the
commencement of the civil war. Isaac enlisted in June, 1863, remained in the service
about eight months and was discharged. He enlisted again September 1, 1864, in company I, Ninth
Pennsylvania cavalry, and was with Sherman on his march to the sea. Was in the battles of Macon, Georgia; Milledgeville, Savanna, and other hard fought battles. He was discharged May 28,
1865, at Lexington, North Carolina, and returned home. During General Stewart's raid through Pennsylvania, Abram F. was made a prisoner of war, and was taken to Libby prison, and from there
to one of those noted castles in Richmond, and was held a prisoner for five months. While confined in prison he was drafted for nine months. After his release he served out the remainder of his
time and then enlisted January, 1864, in company B, Twenty-first Pennsylvania cavalry. Was engaged in the battle of Coal Harbor and before Petersburg, at the Mine explosion, and in a number
of other battles, and followed Lee until his surrender. Was discharged at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, returned home, and the brothers were together again. There they remained farming until the
spring of 1875. They then moved to Frederick County, Maryland, remaining there for two years. In June, 1877, they came to Red Oak and settled on the farm where they now reside. Their farm
consists of 240 acres of good land. Isaac was married January 23, 1868, to Miss Mary E. Black, a native of Pennsylvania. Both are members of the Presbyterian church. They have three children,
two boys and one girl: Corrinna J., John M., and David M.
STOVER, JACOB, farmer, section 35, P. O. Red Oak; born in York County, Pennsylvania, July, 1826. He was raised on a farm until at the age of sixteen his father bought a mill and Jacob
learned the trade; followed that until 1847. He then visited Philadelphia, New York, Albany, Buffalo, and other places, and after traveling about a year and a half returned to the same old place
and engaged in milling until 1853. In 1854 he came west and located near Chicago; followed farming for one year; then went to Missouri, and from there to Washington and Henry Counties,
Iowa, assisted to build a steam mill and conducted it until 1864. He came to Red Oak in June, 1864; built the Keystone Mills south of town; was a long time completing it; when completed he ran
it until May, 1872. He then sold the mill and moved to his present location, where he owns a farm of 200 acres; when
he first came to Red Oak, he could have loaded the town on a wagon and
hauled it away. He has seen it grow from that to a thriving city of several thousand inhabitants. Mr. Stover is a member of Red Oak Lodge No. 162, A. F. and A. M., Montgomery Chapter, No. 57,
and Bruce Commandery No. 34. He has held offices in both the Blue Lodge and Chapter. He was married in July, 1857, to Miss Sarah A. Tucker, a
native of Iowa, and a member of the Christian
church. They have six children living: Thomas M., John J., Annie E., Ella J., Charlie E. and William C.
THOMPSON, I. G., farmer, section 36, P. O. Red Oak; born in Logan County, Ohio, June 1, 1843. His mother died when he was about two years old. He enlisted in the Thirteenth infantry,
regular army, March 8, 1862, and was engaged in many hard fought battles: Haines' Bluff, Arkansas Post, Champion Hill, Black River, Vicksburg, Jackson, Mississippi; Collierville, Tennessee;
Mission Ridge, and others; was discharged March 8, 1865. After the close of the war he lived in Hardin and Champaign Counties, Ohio; engaged in farming until in the spring of 1867, when he
came to Frankfort, Montgomery County, Iowa. He remained there until March, 1870, when he removed to Red Oak township, and in October, 1875, he settled on the farm where he now resides.
He was married January 26, 1868, to Miss Clara M. Horton, a native of Ohio, and daughter of Judge James R. Horton. Mr. T. has two children, a daughter and a son: Eva B., born February 14,
1871, and Raymond, born June 7, 1876.
TOBIN, JAMES J., farmer, section 17, P. O. Red Oak; born in East Troy, New York, February 22, 1843, his parents moving to Peoria, Illinois, when he was fifteen years of age; he learned the
painter's trade when quite young, but never followed it; he worked in a livery barn in Peoria for about seven and a half years, then followed farming for a number of years in that county. In 1873
he went to Champaign County, Illinois, and remained there one year, then in the spring of 1874 came to Red Oak and followed railroading until
the spring of 1880, when he moved to the farm
where he now resides. He enlisted in the Seventeenth Illinois infantry during the summer of 1862, but served only a short time. He was
married in November, 1868, to Miss Hannah A. Fuller, a
native of Illinois; they have six children: Katie Ann, Charles E., Nellie May, Alice Winness, Ida Estella and Frank H.
TRACY, PERRY F., farmer, section 32, P. O. Red Oak; born in Westfield, Chautauqua County, New York, May 7, 1842. His father died when Perry was about eight years old; he then lived with
his mother at Barcelona, until he was seventeen years old, and in April, 1860, came to Chariton, Iowa; remained there a short time and came to Red Oak and went into the employ of the Western
Stage Company, his uncle, P. B. Tracy, being superintendent and general manager of the company. He remained in the employ of that company for four years. In the spring of 1864, he, with a
small party, went overland to Montana, remained about four months, then went to Salt Lake City and was in the employ of the Overland Stage Company for a short time. He enlisted in company
M, Second California cavalry, November 2, 1864. Was on the Powder River expedition, and was in different engagements with the Sioux, Cheyenne and
Arapahoe Indians. At one time, owing
to bad management on the part of the commander, probably, they were surprised by a party of Sioux Indians and suffered great loss. He was discharged at Leavenworth, Kansas, November 30,
1865; remained there a short time; came to Red Oak in December, 1865, but soon went to Omaha, Nebraska; followed freighting a short time, then went to Fort Laramie with a party of Indian
commissioners. He returned to Omaha in August, 1866, and then to Red Oak in the same
year. During the year 1867, he lived one and a half miles north of Red Oak, and in the spring of 1868 he
located on the farm where he now resides. Mr. Tracy owns eighty acres of excellent land, and is making some splendid permanent improvements. Has one of the best arranged and most
convenient barns in this part of the state, and has a pair of the most perfect general-purpose horses that it has been our good fortune to look upon for many a day. Mr. Tracy was married February
14, 1871, to Miss Clara A. Weston. They are the parents of three children, one son and two daughters: Clinton D., Viola May and Martha.
WATKINS, JOHN M., farmer, section 33, P. O. Red Oak; born in Steuben County, New York, February 4, 1822. His mother died when he was quite young, and he was thrown out on the cold
charities of the world; lived with a family named Warren; had to endure many hardships, but was comparatively well treated for one in his situation. When twenty-one years of age, he thought to
better his condition, he would go west; he went to Madison, Wisconsin, in September, 1843; wages were very low, but he engaged in any and every business that he could make an honest dollar at
until eventually he succeeded in gathering together an amount sufficient to buy an unimproved farm; then the work of fencing, breaking and improving generally began; he remained there until
1858, in the meantime by frugality, industry, and economy, he had added another good farm and was getting comfortably situated, but had to haul all his grain and other produce to Milwaukee, a
distance of nearly a hundred miles, and would frequently be twelve or thirteen days making the round trip, and occasionally would take a load of forty bushels of wheat to market and would go
home in debt, the load not paying the expenses. In 1858 he sold out and came to Iowa Falls;
his speculations there were very unsuccessful; in 1868 he moved to Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, in order to give
his children the benefit of the schools there; in the spring of 1869, he came to Red Oak and located where he now resides; he is comfortably situated, has a good farm and thinks that he will
remain here the remainder of his life. Mr. Watkins is a member of Red Oak Lodge No. 162, A. F. and A. M., and Montgomery Chapter No. 57. He was married to Miss Matilda J. Hawes, a native
of Ohio, on December 9, 1851. They are the parents of three children, all girls: Ada E., wife of W. M. Treloar; Eva A., wife of D. W. Jefters, and Inez M.
WATKINS, RANDOLPH, farmer, section 1, P. O. Red Oak; born in Knox County, Ohio, December 8, 1844; his parents moved to Illinois in the fall of 1850, where he made his home until in
1866; in the spring of 1866 he came to Red Oak, Iowa, remained about nine months and returned to Illinois; in the spring of 1867 came to Red Oak again; crossed the state back and forth seven or
eight times; located in Red Oak in the fall of 1867; followed teaming two years; then followed farming for three years. In 1873 he went to Nebraska with a load of farming implements, located a
claim in Webster County, moved his family there and remained just long enough for the grasshoppers to eat them out, and returned to Iowa; in 1874 he went back to his Nebraska farm, planted a
crop, but soon sold out and returned to Iowa for good; followed farming for four years, near Red Oak. In the spring of 1880 he moved to his present location where he has eighty acres of land, and
is comfortably situated. He is a member of the order of Odd Fellows, belongs to Red Oak lodge, No. 176. He was married on Christmas eve, 1868, at the M. E. church, under the first Christmas
tree ever prepared in Red Oak, to Miss Matilda C. Kerrihard, a native of Pennsylvania, and a member of the M. E. church. They have two children, both daughters: Annie May and Alma I.
WENBURG, PETER, farmer, section 7, P. O. Red Oak; born in Halland, Sweden, February 18, 1832; he came to America in the fall of 1868; his wife followed in 1869; he settled in Henry
County, and followed farming and railroading alternately for about three years; in the spring of 1872 they moved to Montgomery County, Iowa, and bought eighty acres of land where he now
resides. He married Miss Nellie Leander, a native of Sweden, March 28, 1860. They are the parents of eight children, living, five sons and three daughters: Albertina, Peter, Charlie L., Minne,
John Henry, Otto B., Emma A. and Gustve L. They have two children buried in the old cemetery; the family are members of the Lutheran church.
WERTHNER, CHRISTIAN, farmer, section 10, P. O. Red Oak; born in Wurtemburg, Germany, 1827; came to this country in 1854, and landed at New York in June; stopped a short time at
Buffalo, then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and remained there until in the spring of 1855 he went to Indiana, and worked two years for L. N. Harding, then came to Red Oak with him, and remained
with him until in the spring of 1860; then worked for Mr. Tracy in the western stage company for about two years; in the spring of 1862 he went to Union County, Iowa, and farmed one year, then
lived one year in Clarke County, Iowa, and in 1864 moved to Montgomery County, and in 1866 moved to his present location where he owns one hundred acres of good land, with splendid young
orchard commencing to bear. He was in the regular service in the old country for six years; was married in 1860 to Rachael Nun, a native of Indiana; they have six children living, one son and five
daughters: Mary E., Christian L., Rachel E., Sarah C., Silva C. and Minerva T. Mrs. Werthner's mother lives with them; she is almost eighty-five years old and is as spry almost as a young lady;
she is one of the oldest settlers in Montgomery County, and one of the pioneers of the state.
YALE, CHARLES, farmer, section 14, P. O. Red Oak; born at Franklin Grove, Lee County, Illinois, in 1846; there he remained until the commencement of the war; he enlisted in the spring of
1862, in company H, Sixty-ninth Illinois volunteer infantry, served a few months, and was discharged in the fall of the same year; he then returned to his old home in Lee County, Illinois, and in
the early part of 1863 he entered the Lombard university, where he remained during that year and the next; in the winter of 1864-5 he entered Bryant & Stratton's commercial college, Chicago,
graduating near the close of 1865; went back to Franklin and engaged in the lumber
business for about one year; then in 1867 he opened a broker's office, which business he engaged in until 1870,
and then engaged in the dry goods business for about two years and was handling grain also at the same time. In the spring of 1873 he commenced to speculate in Iowa lands, and from the fall of
1873 to the fall of 1875 he was engaged in the live stock commission business, in Chicago. In the fall of 1875 he came to Guthrie County, Iowa, where he and his brothers and their father
improved a farm of over one thousand acres, expending over $14,000, making it almost exclusively a stock farm. During the year 1879 he traveled extensively through the south, in Kentucky,
Tennessee, Arkansas, and Texas. In the spring of 1880 he located where he now resides. Mr. Yale has two hundred acres of well improved farming land; has about fifteen acres of fruit and
ornamental trees, besides a cotton plantation in Texas and some silver claims in Arkansas.