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Civil War Diaries of
Dr. Eugene A. Goodwin

1861  |  1862  |  1863  |  1864

The year 1861 finds Eugene A. Goodwin teaching school near Pond Run in Niles Township, Scioto Co., Ohio. As you can see from the Ohio map, this is on the Ohio River and across from Kentucky. The Scioto River runs into the Ohio at Portsmouth, Ohio.

Eugene traveled around the area and several times went to his brother's home across the river (Ohio) to Kentucky. One time he used a "skiff" and tells how long it took him to get home [at this point he is rowing against the current of the river.] His brother probably lived across the river from Buena Vista, Ohio as he crossed the river there to visit. He then returned via Quincy, Kentucky. Use the maps to follow Eugenes travels around the area.

Eugene wants to get to Washington, D.C. by March 4th [the date of Abraham Lincoln's inagural]. He travels up the Ohio river on a boat, but must change to a train because the river stops at confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers at Pittsburgh.

Read the diary to find out:

  • How close he stood to Abraham Lincoln during his inaugrual address.
  • What relics he took from Mount Vernon.
  • How long he thought it would take him to thoroughly tour the Smithsonian

Eugene has lots of friends and acquaintances as he eats and stays overnight with them throughout the spring, finally volunteering in the New York Coast Guard for the civil war.

He spends the rest of the year at Fort Monroe, Point Comfort, Virginia.

Map sources:
Civil War maps, including Fort Monroe, VA.,

Cover of 1861 Diary

front page


Counting House Calendar, Banking Table, a Blank Space for Memoranda for every day in the year, Cash Account for each Month, Annual Summary of Cash Account, Bills Payable and Receivable.
1861 Calendar

January, Tuesday, 1. 1861.

Very cold last night but the sun shines out very warm and brightly today. Considerable ice running on the river. A very small school today. Some are sick and some are taking a New Year holiday. I have never before been so unsettled about the future as I am at the commencement of this new year.

Wednesday, 2.

Not quite so cold last night as the night before. Very nice and pleasant in the forenoon. Cloudy in the afternoon. Toward night it rained also in the evening, with some hail. Whether to remain here or to return to Jersey. I cannot as yet tell. I hope that the Lord will direct my footsteps.

Thursday, 3.

Quite moderate last night. This morning cloudy till about ten o'clock. The the sun shone out warm and bright. I am determined by God's help to be more humble, less proud, and more prudent. My prayer is that I may become much better. Lord help me! Saw a great lot of pigeons yesterday. I should think that there were 2 or 3000. Wrote a letter to Bro. H.A. Buttz.

January, Friday, 4. 1861.

Cloudy in the morning but from ten till two o'clock quite pleasant and warm. Cloudy the rest of the day. The President appointed this day a one of public fasting, humiliation and prayer for the country. I abstained from my dinner, although I had school.

Saturday, 5.

Attend a fast day prayer meeting last night. Quite cool and cloudy till about 11 o'clock. Then the sun shone out bright and warm. Attend a Magistrate election at the Leatherwood School house. I went there to get names to petition for a post office at Pond Run. Got 47 names. Legal voters. 45 homeholders. Gave it to Bro. Steele to send on.

Sunday, 6

Quite cloudy. Rained a little toward night and in the eve. Attended class and prayer meeting in the morning. In the afternoon went with J.B. Moore to see a sick scholar. .... Lewis. He was very sick. Went to a prayer meeting in the eve.

January, Monday, 7. 1861.

Quite moderate indeed but cloudy. Samuel Finley Lewis, one of my pupils died today. Aged 13 yrs. His father is a very wicked man. The boy was a good boy but had never been taught to pray. Yet before he died he said he knew how to pray and did so. Trust that he is better off.

Tuesday, 8.

Very moderate today. Cloudy. Last Saturday the river raised a few feet. Today it is falling. The boy F. Lewis was buried today. I talked to my scholars this morning about the uncertainty of life. That they should take heed of this warning.

Wednesday, 9.

It rained considerable last night and some during the day. Had a very small school. Very bad travelling. Went out to the church but there was no meeting. The river commenced to raise again a little today.

January, Thursday, 10. 1861

Quite cloudy today. A few scattering snow flakes fell. It grew a little colder toward night. Nothing unusual occured today. I heard the other day that Georgia and Alabama had seceded as well S. Carolina.

Friday, 11

Quite cloudy today. toward night it snowed. The river raised considerable yesterday and today. Helped Mr. Moore pick up a skiff that was afloat. Toward night it grew a little colder.

Saturday, 12.

Cloudy all the forenoon. Quite pleasant after dinner. It froze quite hard last night. Mr. Moore set me across the river to Seaffold Lick Creek nearly opposite his house. Found my brother's wife quite unwell when I got there at 10 1/2 o'clock.

January, Sunday, 13. 1861

A warm bright and lovely day. Quite cold last night. My sister in law had been confined about Christmas and delivered of a fine boy after about 20 hours labor. The babe died when 10 days old. At ten o'clock started for Mr. Moore's. Got to the mouth of Seaffold Lick at one o'clock.

Monday, 14.

Began to rain sometime in the night and rained the most part of the day. Very small school. Yesterday afternoon I attended a class and prayer meeting. The preacher was not there for some cause not known.

Tuesday, 15.

Foggy, moderate muddy and rainy. The river has been falling since Saturday. On last Saturday I heard that Maj. Anderson had fired Bombshell into the city of Charleston, SC and burnt it. The people of that city had fired shots into a vessel which had been sent to collect the revenue.

January, Wednesday, 16, 1861.

saw about a million of pigeons flying on Saturday. I also saw bluebirds. It rained quite hard a good part of last night. The creek is up very high. Very cloudy and windy today. A little rain and snow. The river began to rise again last night.

Thursday, 17.

Quite moderate today but cloudy since Tuesday night. The river has risen about 7 ft. The report about Charleston SC being burnt is all a hoax so I have heard, but that a ship of war collected the revenue.

Friday, 18.

It rained quite hard toward morning till about 11 o'clock. Cloudy and a little foggy. Then the sun came out warm and pleasantly. The river raised three feet last night and 8 inches this forenoon.

January, Saturday, 19. 1861.

The wind blowed quite hard today. A very lovely day. river raised a little this forenoon and last night but began to fall this afternoon. Mr. F. Moore started for Portsmouth but could not get over as the water was over the low The back water was nearly up the lane that goes to Moore's.

Sunday, 20.

Another lovely day. Went to prayer and class meeting the forenoon and prayer meeting this evening. Got a statement from Washington DC to be filled out in relation to the proposed Post Office at Pond Run. Froze a little night.

Monday, 21.

Another lovely day. It froze quite hard last night with white frost. A large school in comparison to what I been having. The young folks of the district met at the school house this evening to make arrangements about exhibition.

January, Tuesday, 22. 1861

Another lovely day. It froze quite hard last night. 25 scholars today. Sent my watch to Portsmouth by Furman Moore to get a crystal in it.

Wednesday, 23.

Quite cold last night, it froze a little. It is cloudy and toward night it began to rain and in the evening. Too rainy to go to prayer meeting.

Thursday, 24.

Quite cloudy all day with a little rain. Nothing particular occurred today. It cleared off about sunset quite pleasantly. Sent a letter to J. M. Banghart Belvidere N.J. B.F. Royse took it to Portsmouth to mail it.

January, Friday, 25, 1861

Cloudy and rather cold. I don't know of anything very particular that has occurred today. Senator Crittenden of NY offered a resolution in the Senate to have the Missouri compromise annexed to the Constitution as an amendment. But it was rejected. I am sorry. I would like to have most any concession made rather that to have civil war.

Saturday, 26.

It began to snow quite early this morning an snowed all the forenoon a little in the afternoon. Took Mr. J.B. Moore's skiff and went down to my brother's. The sun shone out quite pleasant and warm a part of the afternoon.

Sunday, 27.

Very cold last night. After the sun got up it was warm till about three o'clock. Then I started to row the skiff back to J.C. Moore's. It blowed very hard and for half of the way the river was very rough but after I got above Quincy, behind the point it was smooth. Came up in 2 hours.

January, Monday, 28, 1861.

Very clear and cold last night. Quite pleasant today a very little cloudy part of the day. Felt very stiff and sore from rowing the skiff yesterday. I expected to be 3 hours but came up in 2.

Tuesday, 29

Not very cold last night, it did not freeze. Very pleasant today like a spring day; quite warm. It grew a little cloudy toward night. A man shot off the foot off a 3 pronged buck last Sunday morning. Today some men and dogs chased it into J.B. Moore's lane and Mr. Moore killed it. Yet as it was not well he let the men take it away and they were so mean as not to send him a bit.

Wednesday, 30

It blowed hard last night and was quite cold. Quite pleasant today. The air is little sharp. The young folk met last night and recited their pieces. They did well. Also last Friday night went to prayer meeting.

January, Thursday, 31, 1861.

Quite cold last night and froze hard. Very pleasant today. The sun shines pleasantly but the air quite keen. Quite cloudy at night when a man gets married, the young folks make a scarecrow which they call a paddy. They make it look as bad as possible and hid it along the road where the company must pass.

February, Friday, 1.

It snowed a very little last night. It rained a part of the forenoon and a part of the afternoon. A very small school. Sometimes they put it in the door yard. One was put in a mans yard he got terrible mad and burnt it up. The another one was put there that had powder in it that was put on a fire. It exploded and brightened the old ...

Saturday, 2.

A little rainy this forenoon and cloudy all day. About three o'clock took a skiff and went to Quincy with Furman Moore and his wife. Took tea at Mr. McKinneys. I stayed all night at Rev. Mr. Lastbrook's with Mr. Merrill the P. Eddes. He preached in the eve. Text. 2nd Cor. chap. 4, 3 & 4th verses.

February, Sunday, 3. 1861.

Quite cloudy all day. It spit a little snow. Attended love feast at the Quincy school house. A good time. Bro. L.M. Merrill preached. Text St. Mark chap. 9 verses 45-48. The sermon last night & this morning were deep and splendid. Took dinner at N. Moore's. It took about two hours to come home.

Monday, 4.

A splendid spring like day. Bro. Merril said that the word hell was derived from 4 Greek words which were not similar. But 3, Sheol, Hades and Tartarus might be made to signify one thing, the tomb or prison house of the spirits. But Gehimon (the valley of Nimmon south of Jerusalem) was the word used to represent hell in the book. That valley was where the son of Nimmon worshipped Murdock by offering their children in his sins. King Josiah polluted it. The hell at the text will not be established till the day of resurrection. Quite pleasant today but a little cloudy. It froze a little last night.

February, Wednesday, 6. 1861.

Monday night last went to Turkey crk. to church Bro. Foster preached Psalm 49 ver. 8. Very pleasant today little windy. The young folks met at the school house practiced their pieces last night.

Thursday, 7.

It blowed very hard last night. Went to prayer meeting evening. It blowed hard all day. In the forenoon it rained, hailed, sleeted and snowed. In the afternoon sun shone out brightly. Very cold last night.

Friday, 8.

A little more moderate last night. Quite pleasant today a little windy.

February, Saturday, 9. 1861

Very warm today and pleasant. Like a spring day. Went to the Post Office at Turkey Crk. The young folks met this evening at the school house to recite their pieces. Had a good time.

Sunday, 10.

Very mild today. A little cloudy some of the time. Heard Bro. Foster preach in the afternoon. Text Acts chap. 9 ver. 17. Have had a cold for most a week. Appearance of rain at night.

Monday, 11.

Wind from the south. A few warm showers in the forenoon. The sun shone out a part of the day. Out a pair of half soles on my boot this evening.

February, Tuesday, 12, 1861

Very pleasant today only a strong wind from the west. Nothing unusual occurred. The young folks met again the school house this eve. Several new pieces were performed.

Wednesday, 13.

A little cloudy but quite pleasant and moderate. Started prayer meeting but there was none.

Thursday, 14.

Quite mild and nice. A little rain in the forenoon. In the afternoon it rained quite hard. Lightened quite sharply thundered heavily.

February, Friday 15. 1861.

Cloudy all day. In the forenoon a little rain. In the afternoon it rained a little and snowed. Closed my school at Pond Run (Nile Twns'p Scioto Co. Ohio) today. School of 6 months. 22 scholars present.

Saturday, 16.

It snowed about all day. Wind from the east by north. Last Thursday the river began to raise and has now risen 15 or 17 feet. I picked up some drift wood.

Sunday, 17.

It snowed a very little today. There was no meeting at the church. The day appeared very long to me.

February, Monday, 18, 1861.

Quite cloudy all day. Got my certificate for pay from the directors and started for Buena Vista. Called at J.L. Moores and got an order on the treasurer for my money. Went to Irish bottom and staid all night at Mrs. McCalls.

Tuesday, 19.

Snowed last night and this morning. A little rain during the day. In the afternoon called at the school of Mr. Busbage. Went to singing school with and staid all night with him at R.L. Murphy's.

Wednesday, 20.

This morning pleasant but cool. Started for my brother's. Crossed the river at Buena Vista. Arrived at my brother at one o'clock. Staid here all night. Last Monday night heard Mr. Adams the Presbyterian preacher preach at the M.E. Church at Irish Bottom. Text Psalm 119 ver. 49.

February, Thursday, 21. 1861.

Another very pleasant day. Left my brother's this morning and crossed the river at Quincy and arrived at J.B. Moore's at one o'clock. Did not do much the remainder of the day. Attended the exhibition rehearsal at the school house.

Friday, 22.

Another lovely day. Did nothing of any account.

Saturday, 23.

It rained a part of the day. Went to the office in the forenoon. Got a letter from G.W. Banghart. Sold my order of $133.33 to J. Nolder for $123.33. It made me grin to hear such a discount but it was the best I could do. I want to get the Washington on the 4th of March.

February, Sunday, 24. 1861.

Quite cold today. Went to Turkey Crk. to love feast and preaching. Bro. Foster preached text 1st John chap. 3 ver. 3. Was about my boarding house the rest of the day.

Monday, 25.

A very warm and lovely day. Started for my brother's. Got a skiff and crossed at Mr. Parr's. Had my picture taken by Jonas Aumiller who had a boat at Quincy. Gave it to my sister-in-law. Got there at two o'clock. Took dinner at Dr. Ellis.

Tuesday, 26.

Another lovely day. Bid farewell to my brother and his wife. He sent me up to above Quincy on a horse. Arrived at Mr. Moore's at 12 o'clock. This evening attended a rehearsal of the exhibition at the church. It went very nicely. The church was trimmed very tastefully. Quite pleasant today only a little cool.

February, Wednesday, 27, 1861.

Went to bed last night at about 11 1/2 o'clock. This morning was up at 6 1/2 o'clock. Took the Steamer Liberty at Furman Moore's Landing at 20 minutes of ten o'clock Arrived at Portsmouth at 11 o'clock. Laid there two hours. Toon 309 hogs. 300 barrels of whiskey.

Thursday, 28.

Quite a pleasant day. The boat goes quite slowly. Did not sleep much last night. The hogs made so much noise and my room was very warm. They set a first rate table on the boat. Arrived at Parkersburg [West Virginia] at 8 o'clock. But that was to leave at 9 o'clock did not go out. Because a bridge had been broken down at Bridgeport.

March, Friday, 1.

Left Parkersburg this morning at ten o'clock. Changed cars at the broken bridge. Tossed about the broken bridge, 17 freight cars smashed and an engine. We passed through a town called Oakland Alleghany Co. MD. Quite a village nearby all the houses had the Stars & Stripes hoisted on them. We gave them three cheers. A very pleasant day. Passed through a great many tunnels.

March, Saturday, 2. 1861.

Very pleasant today. Arrived at Washington at 6 o'clock. Felt quite unwell. Put up at the Richmond House Cor. ... & 8th Sts. Went to bed from ten all till 3 PM. Took a dose of Rhubarb & Soda at 7 o'clock. Felt very sick to my stomach. Back felt very lame. Urine of a very high red color. Visited the capitol. Heard part of Andrew Johnsons speech. He whipped Joe Lane terribly with his tongue. He was cheered and so the galleries were cleared. Then went to the House but there was so much confusion that I would not stay long.

Sunday, 3.

Sunday very pleasant. Attended a M.E. S. School. Opened it by invitation. Then stopped a few minutes at the Catholic Cathedral. Then heard Dr. Smith of the N.S. Presbyterian Text 2nd Cor. chap. 10 ver. 4; Our weapons. In afternoon visited the monument and Presidents house. In the eve. went to Trinity Church. Dr. Butler preached Text Prov. 29 part 23.

Monday, 4.

It cleared up warm. Cloudy & appearance of rain. About 11 o'clock. Stood on the city Hall steps and saw the procession form. About 1000 District Columbia volunteers. They looked nice. There were no regulars present. Then went to the West front of the capital. After standing in front of the steps about 1 1/2 hours, Mr. Lincoln, the president elect, appeared. He looked well and spoke loud and distinct. I was pleased with his inaugural. He spoke with decision.

March, Tuesday, 5. 1861.

Cloudy and windy. At ten o'clock took the steamer T. Collyer for Mt. Vernon. Got there at 12 o'clock. Got a hasty view of the old and new tomb. Walked over the grounds. Cut a hickory cane in the woods outside the enclosure and obtained a few other relics. Took a drink from the spring house. Got a few acorns from the old tomb. Saw Fort Washington. Yesterday was only about 100 feet from Mr. Lincoln when he delivered his inaugural. About 550 persons visited Mt. Vernon today.

Wednesday, 6.

Not quite so cold today. Visited the U.S. Conservatory. Saw a great variety of tropical plants. Then went to the Smithsonian Ins't. Spent 2 1/2 hours there; could spend a week probably there. After dinner went to the U.S. Patent office. Saw vest pants worn by Washington. At three o'clock took the cars for Baltimore. Staid all night at the Sherwood house cor. Fayette & Harrison St.

Thursday, 7.

Pleasant this morn but a little cool. Walked about town a little. Took the cars at ten o'clock for Philadelphia. Arrived there at 3 1/2 o'clock. Then went out the Germantown. Staid all night at W.L. Fortescue. Yesterday saw the writing case that Washington had in the revolution. The vest & breaches were worn when he resigned his commission at Annapolis, MD, 1783.

March, Friday, 8. 1861.

It rained quite hard. Quite pleasant today. About two o'clock took the cars at Kensington for Phillipsburg. Before I left Germantown called on J.H. Withington. At the patent office also saw Washington's sleeping tent that he had in the revolution. Also saw his table, chairs, saddle and camp chest. Got to Phillipsburg at 7 o'clock. Staid all night at J.C. Bennets.

Saturday, 9.

It rained all the forenoon with a little snow. Took dinner at H.D. Swayzey's Staid all night there. Made a few calls about town. Took tea at Tritts'. Also saw at the patent office the press that Franklin worked at in London and his cane that he willed to Gen. Washington.

Sunday, 10.

A little cloudy called at Dr. Paul's S. School, opened it with prayer. Then went to the morning prayer meeting at the M.E. Church, lead in prayer and made a few remarks. Heard Bro. G. Dorg preach text Rom. chap. 5 ver. 8. Then opened Bro. Dickinson's class. Took dinner with him. Then went and opened the S. School and spoke to the infant class. After school opened Bro. Laurence class. Then led the Union prayer meeting at the O.S. Presbyterian.

March, Monday, 11. 1861.

Quite pleasant today. Made a good many calls. Called at Mr. Hoag's & Woodward's schools. Last eve. heard a Mr. Welch preach a converted Irish Roman Catholic text 2nd Cor. chap. 4 - 3 & 4 verses. He was a methodist; was saving money for the board of the American & Foreign Protestant Union. Called at Bro. Lawrence's.

Tuesday, 12.

Very pleasant today. Started on foot for Townsbury. Took dinner at J.J. Pace's. Staid all night at W.T. Henry's. Also called at T. Hoagland's, Mr. Curlis, A.Ketcham's, and A.D. Corswin's. All appeared glad to see me.

Wednesday, 13.

Some appearance of a storm a little rain in the forenoon. Called at the school taught by Miss Selina Fleming, one of my old scholars. Took dinner at A.L. Flemmings. Then started for Hackettstown. Called at Wm. Osmun's and Alexander Horvell's. Got to David Park's at about seven o'clock.

March, Thursday, 14, 1861.

It snowed quite hard all day. Went over to Cat Swamp to see about a school. But the present teacher wanted to stay. So I could not get it. Called and saw John L. Davis. Staid all night at Charles Park's.

Friday, 15.

A little pleasanter today. Took a sleigh ride down to town with C. Parks. Called to D.W.C. Crate and W.L. & G.W. Johnson's. Then went to Mr. John I. Labar's. He said that the school at Beattystown was taken up. He gave me a note of introduction to Charles Stewart. Got a ride there. Staid with him all night.

Saturday, 16.

Quite pleasant today. Called on the trustees and engaged the school. Called at the school and saw Mr. Proctor. Then took dinner at Rushing White's and walked back to Hackettstown. And staid all night at David Park's.

March, Sunday, 17, 1861.

Pleasant but quite cold. Went to church and Bro. R. VanHorn preach. Text Rev. chap. 3 ver. 5; a good sermon. Took dinner at J. Baldwin's and attended class there. 30 present. Had a glorious time. A good many new converts that I never expected to see converted. Some old men.

Monday, 18.

Rather cold today. Staid at Mr. D. Park's and mended my boots. After dinner went to Vienna and staid all night at Alexander Howell's. Had a pleasant time. It snowed a little last night.

Tuesday, 19.

Another pleasant day. Went to Townsbury. Took dinner at J.B. Ingersoll's. Was at the store part of the afternoon. Staid all night John Deans. Saw Bro. Manning Force. 72 yrs. old. He commenced preaching at 22 yrs. of age. Been an effective preacher about all the time.

March, Wednesday, 20, 1861.

Quite a pleasant day but the air was quite sharp. Went Hackettstown with John Dean for company. Spent a part of the afternoon with Mr. R. Gibbs and took tea there. Then went H. Hopler's and staid all night.

Thursday, 21.

Very snowy all day, it commence last night at about nine o'clock. About dark this eve. it quit. Snow about 10 inches deep. Took dinner and staid all night at Nelson Vliets.

Friday, 22.

Quite pleasant today. the snow melted considerable. Took dinner at Henry's. Took tea at A. Ketcham's. Staid all night at A.D. Corwin's.

March, Saturday, 23. 1861.

Quite pleasant again today. Snow disappears slowly. Took dinner at A. Meyer's. Toward night went to Daniel Hull's and staid all night. Enjoyed well there and other places that I have visited.

Sunday, 24.

Quite windy and cool today. Staid all the forenoon at Mr. Hull's. I went to the chapel in afternoon. Bro. Daily preach. Text James chap. 5 ver. 7. Staid all night at Bro. Hull's.

Monday, 25.

Another pleasant day. Took dinner at Robert Vansyckle's and tea at Mayberry Whitesell's. Then went to Wm. Osmun's and staid all night there.

March, Tuesday, 26, 1861.

Quite moderate today. A little rain. Took dinner at Tommy Frome's. Staid all night at John Whitesell's.

Wednesday, 27.

Quite rainy today. After dinner went to Townsbury and staid all night at Wm. T. Henry's.

Thursday, 28.

A little pleasanter, the sun shone pleasantly. Took dinner at James Fleming's and staid all night there. Enjoyed myself very well there.

March, Friday, 29, 1861.

A little cooler today. Went up to George Marlatts and took dinner at Jacob Marlatts, had some snapping turtle. It was very good. Staid all night at John Ingersoll's.

Saturday, 30.

Looked much like rain. Got a ride to Vienna. Stopped a while and took dinner at Alexander Howell's. Got a little acquainted with a nice young lady. Staid all night at David Parks. It cleared away toward noon and was pleasant the rest of the day.

Sunday, 31.

Pleasant today only quite cool. Heard Bro. VanHorn preach. Text 1st Cor. chap. 15 verses 20, 21, 22. In the afternoon attended Sacrament of the Lords Supper. In the went to church. Bro. Vanhorn text 1st Sam. chap. 7 ver. 12. Staid all night at D. Park's.

April, Monday, 1, 1861.

Quite cool and cloudy. Snowed quite hard in the afternoon and evening. Was at David Park's all day.

Tuesday, 2.

A little more pleasant today. After dinner went to Rockport to see about the school. Staid all night at Mr. Ciphers.

Wednesday, 3.

A very pleasant day. Took dinner at William White's. Got back to David Parks about dark.

April, Thursday, 4, 1861.

Another very pleasant day. In the afternoon went down town. Air a little cool.

Friday, 5.

Another pleasant day. Went down town in the forenoon. A little cool air.

Saturday, 6.

Another lovely day. Went down town in the forenoon. Towards night went over to Obidiah Allen's. There was a stone frolic there, did not go out in the field. Help eat the supper. Felt unwell all day.

April, Sunday, 7. 1861.

Quite pleasant today. Heard Garret Vanhorn preach, text Phillipians chap. 2 ver. 12 & 13. In the afternoon attended general class. Staid at home in the eve.

Monday, 8.

Quite cold today. Went to Morris Weis, then down town. Was John Titus' James Price's adjourned the suit that D. Parks commenced against him.

Tuesday, 9.

A little pleasanter today. Went down town toward night. Did not do much today. Did not feel very well.

April, Wednesday, 10, 1861.

I am 28 yrs. old this day. Very pleasant today. Went down to Rockport in the forenoon. Took dinner at William Stewart's. In the afternoon went around to make up a school and took the enumeration. Staid all night at Rusling White's.

Thursday, 11.

Another very pleasant day. Finished taking the enumeration. Took a dose of calomel oaferaleratea at one o'clock.

Friday, 12.

Another pleasant day. Calomel made me sick. Laid abed most all day. Went down town toward night. Got a letter from my sister Hannah.

April, Saturday, 13, 1861.

Rained about all last night and this forenoon and evening. Went down town toward night. The report is that Fort Sumter has been fired into and surrendered. A heavy thunder shower this evening.

Sunday, 14.

Quite pleasant day. Heard Bro. J.C. Crane preach at Hackettstown. Text Rev. chap. 2 last chance ver. 10. "Be thou faithful & c". Attended class meeting at Mr. Titus'. In the eve. heard Bro. R. Vanhorn. Text 1st John chap. 2nd ver. 1. A good sermon.

Monday, 15.

Rather cool today. commenced school at Rockport. 19 scholars present. Taken board at A.F. Cregor's. A telegram was rec'd yesterday that a body of secessionists of Delaware and Southern part of Pennsylvania had arisen and were marching to take Fort Delaware. The President has issued orders to have it defended, it can't be taken if the officers are not treacherous.

April, Tuesday, 16, 1861.

It began to rain last evening. Very rainy cold and windy all the forenoon. Didn't rain much in the afternoon. Only five scholars out. Heard today that the President had issued a call for 75000 volunteers. An extra session of congress on the 4th of July.

Wednesday, 17.

Quite cold. Snowed all the forenoon. Only two scholars out, no school in the afternoon. Went to town. Staid all night at D. Parks. Major Anderson of Fort Sumter had two men killed. The wood work of the fort inside got on fire, and as he had but 100 men he could not man the guns and keep the fire down.

Thursday, 18.

He killed 30 men at Fort Moultare and probably more. Silenced some of their batteries. He made a noble fight. Quite a pleasant day. 29 scholars present.

April, Friday, 19, 1861.

It froze a little last night. Quite pleasant today. 31 scholars present. Virginia seceded this day. The Union men of the convention. Those from Western, VA went home to arm their section to maintain the union.

Saturday, 20.

It froze a little last night. Very pleasant today. 31 scholars. As the Massachusetts troops were going through Baltimore to Washington, they had to march through the city, as the secessionists had torn up the rails. They were stopped by a mob. The troops said that they must go through, were obliged to fire on them and killed ten. The sixth of 7th regiment of Philadelphia, lost 2 men, 8 wounded, but went through.

Sunday, 21.

Staid at D. Parks last night. A lovely day. Saw swallows for the first time this season. Heard Bro. R. Vanhorn text 2nd Peter chap. 1 verses 5-6-7-8. Attended S. School & class. In the heard Bro. V again text Exodus chap. 17, verses 8-16. The 7th regiment of NY got into Washington this eve. in three days or for it will be safe.

April, Monday, 22. 1861.

Another lovely day, very warm. Had no school. Attended a trial between D. Parks plntiff. & J. Price deft. I was a witness. A.L. Fleming counsel for Parks. Pownall for Price. Justice took a week to decide. Got to Rockport about 7 o'clock.

Tuesday, 23.

A very warm day. Nothing unusual going on. Work in the garden morning and nights.

Wednesday, 24.

Another lovely and warm day. A splendid warm shower toward night.

April, Thursday, 25, 1861.

Another lovely day. A little cool.

Friday, 26.

A very pleasant day, little cool. Two hickory poles & two flags were raised at Hackettstown yesterday. They had a union demonstration. Speeches, band music, songs & c. I did not attend, a good deal of enthusiasm was manifested. About 25 volunteers enlisted under the State.

Saturday, 27.

A very warm and pleasant day. Had school. After school went to Hackettstown. Attended a union meeting at union hall. The hall was full; 8 volunteers enlisted, making 23 in all. C.H. Valentine made short union stirring speech. I was also called on and made a few remarks. But I could not think of all that I wanted to say. Staid at D. Parks last night.

April, Sunday, 28. 1861.

Quite rainy all day. It rained very hard by spells all day. Attended church in the forenoon. Bro. Vanhorn. Text 2nd Tim 4-7 "I have kept the faith". I came very near volunteering last night. As it was I said that I would when the company lacked but one.

Monday, 29.

Another lovely day. A little cool this morn. But quite warm the rest of the day. Saw John Whitesell, he told me that Mary E. Hoagland, now Mrs. Craig gave birth to a daughter last Tuesday. How happy I could have been and now be if I was only her husband. I believe that she would have been happier too. I have suffered a great deal for not being a little more determined. I think it is also the same with her, if she had been a little more independent it might have been all well with us.

Tuesday, 30.

Quite warm and pleasant till 2 o'clock then it rained a while and cleared off a little cooler.

May, Wednesday, 1. 1861.

Quite cool today. It rained a little this morning and a little in the afternoon. A little hail this afternoon, the clouds looked like snow.

Thursday, 2.

Very cold this morning. The ground froze nearly an inch thick. A little more made rate today, yet it is quite cool. A good fire feels comfortable. Went to town this eve. got some muslin to make a flag.

Friday, 3.

Quite cold this morning. The ground froze a little. Went to town again this forenoon to get more stuff for a flag. Had no school on account of the funeral of John Osmun's wife. In the afternoon went to church to the funeral. Mr. Lane preached. Psalm 90 ver. 12.

May, Saturday, 4, 1861.

Quite pleasant and moderate. It snowed yesterday afternoon. This forenoon dug a hole for the flag pole. And with M. White's team and hand got a pole 75 ft. long to the school house. In the afternoon got a few men (15) and raised it. The ladies got the flag done. 9x4 1/2. After the pole was raised, a meeting was organized. Mr. Skinner chairman, E.A. Goodwin Sec'ty. Dr. L Cook and myself made a few remarks by request.

Sunday, 5.

A lovely day, went north Rusling. White to Townsbury. Took dinner at W.T. Henry. Heard Bro. DeCamp preach. Text St. John chap. 3 ver. 14. took tea at John Whitesell's and got back to Rockport.

Monday, 6.

It rained quite hard all day. In the evening a heavy thundershower.

May, Tuesday 7, 1861.

Very lovely and pleasant this morning. Had 4 short and heavy showers this afternoon. It blowed hard from SW. Went to town after school and back.

Wednesday, 8.

Another lovely day. A little hail toward night.

Thursday, 9.

Another fine day. A little cool. About 20 volunteers left Hackettstown this morning.

May, Friday, 10. 1861.

A very fine day. About four o'clock it began to rain. An attempt was made to burn Washington city. It was fired in four different places. But was soon put out. It rained quite hard in the evening.

Saturday, 11.

Cloudy this forenoon, a little foggy. In the afternoon quite fair and pleasant. People planted corn. Went to town after school. The volunteers have come back for some reason or another.

Sunday, 12.

Took dinner at D. Parks, they were well. Very warm and pleasant today. Went to town to meeting. Got there in time to attend the S. School rehearsal. Bro. Lippincott preached. Text Titus 2-14: 28 years ago he formed the first class in Hackettstown and made the first regular appointment. When he traveled Warren Co., 1400 joined the church.

May, Monday, 13. 1861.

Quite cloudy today, no rain. Corn planting going on busily. Yesterday attended S. School and class meeting in town. In the eve. attended and led prayer meeting in my school house. Had thundershower late in the evening.

Tuesday, 14.

Cloudy and a little foggy in the morning. About noon it cleared off quite warm. Went to town after school and back again.

Wednesday, 15.

A very lovely day, clear and quite warm. Nothing unusual occurred.

May, Thursday, 16. 1861.

Another very pleasant day. A very little cool. Got a ride to Hackettstown and back. No news of much account. Rec'd a letter from my sister L.L. Goodwin. A little cool in the eve.

Friday, 17.

A very pleasant day but rather cool. My back feels very badly and has ever since I got back from Ohio.

Saturday, 18.

Quite a pleasant day a little windy & cool. After working a while in the garden. Cut across lots to Townsbury. Took dinner at Wm. Henry's. Then went to Vienna. To a Union demonstration and flag raising. Feeling quite well I volunteered to go in the Warren Brigade.

May, Sunday, 19. 1861.

Last night staid at David Parks. Another lovely day. Heard Bro. Vanhorn. Text Isaiah 28-7. A first rate temperance sermon. It was much needed. In the afternoon went to the Sunday School and class meeting. In the evening attended church.

Monday, 20.

Quite rainy today. Had school. Gave notice that I should quit. This movement of mine is a matter of conscience with me. If I am not accepted or the company does not go I shall feel satisfied.

Tuesday, 21.

A very lovely day. My employers are lothe to have me go, but under the circumstances they feel like making a little sacrifice. Went to Harrsville and was examined. Collect my money without any trouble.

May, Wednesday, 22. 1861.

Another warm and lovely day. Finished collecting my money, got every cent. Sold my watch for $7.00 it was less than its worth, but I thought that I could use the money to better advantage than the watch. Staid at Park's.

Thursday, 23.

Expected to leave for Trenton today. But the Brigade was not full. So wait another day. Went to Vienna. Very warm day. Staid at Park's.

Friday, 24.

Took the train for New York; I shall try to get on a Man of War. That Warren Company is so uncertain about being filled. Arrived in NY at 10 1/2 AM. Put up at L.H. Crooks 74 Chatham St. Went to West 47 St. and saw my brother Charles & his wife.

May, Saturday, 25, 1861.

Had considerable rain with thunder & lightning. Enlisted as a volunteer in the Naval Brigade. Sent letters to my sister, H.L. Stimson and other friends. Sent three dollars to G. Widener Belvidere, one dollar to Wm. Henry. Went to the barracks at Old Quarantine station, Staten Island. Slept in the officers quarters; did not sleep much for the men had had liberty and a great many were drunk.

Sunday, 26.

A very fine day. Apart of our company were kept on guard. But I and another man got out before it was set and took a walk on the Island. Had good fare today. The chaplain preached today. Text Psalm 137, verses 5 & 6. Slept in the quarters.

Monday, 27.

Another pleasant day. Went with a man to the hospital Seaman's Retreat. On Saturday night some of the Irishmen stole a barrel of whiskey and were very drunk and noisy.

May, Tuesday, 28, 1861.

Another pleasant day, had no chance to get out. About four o'clock went on board the W.S. Steamer transport Coalzatcoalcos for Fort Monroe. The steamer was a good deal crowded. I made out to get a mattress on the floor.

Wednesday, 29.

Got under way this morning. Very pleasant all day; A heavy swell on. Felt a very little sea sick. After we were about 25 miles out meet a U. States Steamer with a prize in tow. The men gave three hearty cheers.

Thursday, 30.

Another pleasant day. All quiet last night. Sea smooth. Arrived off Fort Monroe, Point Comfort, VA. about six o'clock. About 8 o'clock another steamer (& crew) came in with a prize schooner from the South hard, very deeply loaded, apparently loaded with wood, but very deep. I think she must have had something in the hold. About ten o'clock the Quaker City U.S. Steamer came in with another prize schooner.

May, Friday, 31. 1861.

A very pleasant day. About noon left the ship for our encampment. Our Colonel told us that we were accepted. Went out about a mile inside Co. Duryee's picket guard. We had no canvass tents but made tents of rails covered with brush. I with a Lieutenant and 7 men went in search of water about dark. We passed all of Co. Allen's sentries, and were showed by them through his camp. When we got to the well, we found a sentry with a countersign. We had none and were obliged to wait till the sergeant of the relief guard came along. Then we were all marched to the guard house and kept all night. In the morning we were taken before the Colonel (Allen), he would not listen to our story, but ordered us to the fort on fatigue duty. Making a false report to General Butler. When we got there, Gen. Butler came out and said we must go on duty without breakfast; and supper too for we had not taken any the night before. But as it pleased Gen. B. to let our Lieutenant speak and explain how we were after water, he ordered us to the guard house.

Sunday, 2.

Pleasant yesterday, also most of today, a shower towards night.

June, Monday, 3. 1861.

Quite showery today. We are not far from the enemy. We have no arms as yet or uniforms. We have some fear of that matters are not right about our acceptance. Toward night the Col. (Bartlett) came up to the camp then our captains called us up and told us all about how deceived we were. The col. wanted to smooth the matter over with promises, but we would hear nothing from him. He had told us too many lies. Stood guard last night (Sunday) between 10 & 12 at the officers tent. Monday night was on guard again out at the edge of some woods. I was in a dangerous place. Stood 2 hours between 10 & 12. Had an old musket and bayonet, but not loaded. There were advance picket guards of other company's outside, so that we would know of the enemy's advance and give warning and retreat behind the other regiments. Yesterday it was warm but rainy: went down to the fort to help unload a transport ship, so that Gen. Butler could legally provide quarters and rations for us: at night as we had not enough tents. I with others slept under a wagon with boards set up against one end. Many of the men had to sleep on the damp ground.

June, Thursday, 6. 1861.

Yesterday cloudy. I did not do much as I was to lame from Tuesday's work carrying boards. I got acquainted with a man who works in the fort and now I stay about his house (Mr. Oldfield). I slept on the floor in his house last night. The Brigade has been grossly deceived. Quite cloudy today but little rain.

Friday, 7.

Quite cloudy again today. We are waiting anxiously to be recognized by the government. The men are very anxious to have their uniforms and if they had them we would be quite well contented. Staid in my tent this night.

Saturday, 8.

Still quite cloudy and cool. No rain. Nights very cool. The men have a fine time getting clams, oysters and bathing. have not eaten any as I am afraid that I shall be made sick. Today I have an attack of the diarrhea. Have easy times. Gen. Butler has permission to do as he pleases with us. He has given us in charge of Col. Wardrup of Mass. who has surrounded our camp with sentries so as to keep us from doing mischief.

June, Sunday, 9. 1861.

A warm and pleasant day. It doesn't appear much like Sunday. I don't get outside very often: only when I go to burn and grind coffee: or go after water. Most of the men are very much afraid of doing their duty, or a little extra work. Even since I have been here I have done much more than my share yet I rather do it than grumble.

Monday, 10.

Last night 120 of the Brigade manned 6 boats and carried troops across Hampton Crk. The enemy had entrenched themselves about 10 miles from the fort in order to run off niggers & white men. They had masked batteries and ditches outside them. Therefore our troops failed for want of ammunition and field pieces. The Brigade did not get back till about midnight.

Tuesday, 11.

Another warm day. Went to the fort and was inspected yesterday. Had to strip naked. The examination was very slight. The rest of the company and Brigade went inside to be inspected today. Feel quite sick and no better of the diarrhea. The officer's cook is sick so I am cooking for them.

June, Wednesday, 12. 1861.

A very warm day. The sun is very hot yet the heat is alleviated by a cool breeze: making the tents quite comfortable when the bottoms are raised. We have had very pool brackish water to drink: and as it is near an old gas establishment, the water tastes of the coal gas: which makes it very disagreeable. But thirsty men will drink most anything in the shape of water.

Thursday, 13.

Another very warm and pleasant day, nothing unusual occurred. The news of our defeat at Big Bethel pleased the rebels highly. They magnified our loss very largely. We, the federal troops had only about 30 killed. It was only through the incompetency of the General (Pierce) that it was a defeat.

Friday, 14.

Very warm, cool breeze: our company was marched into the fort to be sworn in. I with 10 others took the oath to serve three years unless sooner discharged. The rest wished to wait to hear Gen. Butler's report. In the afternoon he rode into the camp and made the necessary and satisfactory explanations. At night stripped, bathed & put on a fatigue dress uniform. Vy. Blue flannel shirt & duck pants.

June, Saturday, 15. 1861.

Another pleasant day, last night was next into company F. and went into a new camp. Took our tent & mess traps but had to leave our old blankets as they were so lousy. So we had to sleep on the floor without any blankets. But my India rubber blanket was enough. Co. F. changed us into Co. A for some of their own men so we had to move our tent again.

Sunday, 16.

Another very warm day. Like my new tent, camp & men first rate. Quite a heavy wind & showers about five o'clock with thunder & lightning. Another heavy squall about 12 o'clock. Two boats' crews (20 men each) at two o'clock in the night went to Hampton to ferry over two company of Zouaves. They were towed up there and back by a screw propeller: returned about daylight, bringing about $1000 worth of books from an Academy. This morning they were taken to a Seminary nearby and put in charge of our troops. Our men have made frequent trips by squads into the country, getting many useful articles. Quite cool and a little rainy all day. Some more boats crews went out tonight 6 or 7 of them. Felt quite sick tonight.

June, Tuesday, 18, 1861.

Quite nice and cool today. Had an election for officers. Changed back into Co. D yesterday. Felt better today. Three companies of the National Zouaves* came to the hospital to take away and bury one of their privates, he was one of a picket guard and was shot by another on last Sunday morning. The other guard saw him and challenged him three times, but receiving no answer shot him. He lived a short time. Major Winthrop who was wounded at the battle of Big Bethel on the 10th unit. His remains were escorted to the boat for Baltimore by about 200 regulars. The brass band playing a solemn tune.

Wednesday, 19.

Very warm today. The Minnesota Harriet Lane and Jamestown are in Hampton Roads. A Southern privateer was taken the other day.

Thursday, 20.

Another very warm and pleasant day. Six boats manned by 120 men of the brigade went to Hampton today and came back toward night. I have been quite unwell all day: diarrhea no better. Have no appetite. Sent a letter to my brother Charles in New York and one to G.S. Palmer of Gardiner asking them to lend me a little money. Now I will soon be able to tell whether they care anything for me. A little money would come very acceptable just now.

June, Friday, 21. 1861.

Feel no better today. Still very warm. Went to the Hospital. Dr. gave me some Castor Oil & Calomel. The hospital accommodations for the Brigade are very poor: no one to wait upon us. No chance to have our clothes washed. Some days salt fat pork & beef is served out to the sick men.

Saturday, 22.

Still very warm, but a nice cool breeze. Feel a little better today. For breakfast we have soft bread & coffee with a little cold salt meat. Sometimes fried ham. Today for dinner we had vegetable soup (preserved), fresh beef (boiled), bread & rice. Dinner today good enough. For supper soft bread & butter, a little cold fresh meat & tea.

Sunday, 23.

A shower and heavy wind last night. A very pleasant day. Don't feel so well today. A great many mariners from the man of war ships are ashore today. They managed to find some whiskey somewhere and some of them got a little drunk. It does not appear much like Sunday. Sent a letter to Dr. Paul desiring to borrow a little money. I can now prove his philanthropy.

June, Monday, 24. 1861.

Quite cool today which makes it very pleasant. Went into the fort and put my name to another descriptive roll. Took some Rhubarb & calomel as I did not feel so well today. Eat bread & coffee for breakfast. Although nice ham and potatoes were served up, lest I could not eat them. Eat no dinner.

Tuesday, 25.

A very pleasant day. Felt quite well. Good appetite. Had good meals. Slept in camp to night rather than to change into the new ward. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Wednesday, 26.

Another fine day. Went back to the hospital and got my discharge and a good breakfast. Rec'd two dollars from my brother Charles with a promise of more. A very heavy thunder shower with a heavy wind after dark.

June, Thursday, 27. 1861.

Nothing unusual occurred today. I cooked for the men. Got a letter from Dr. J. Marshall Paul from Belvidere with five dollars in it. Helped pull some ambulances from the wharf to the fort. Drilled a little while today.

Friday, 28.

Nothing unusual occurred today. Rain toward night I believe.

Saturday, 29.

Quite rainy this morning. Put all the fires out. Our messes were arranged differently today so I cooked again as I was first on the list. Got a little damp.

June, Sunday, 30. 1861.

Quite cloudy and a little rain. Struck our tents and put them and our luggage on board of boats to be taken to Hampton for us. After breakfast marched into the Fort and after waiting about four hours received a Harper's Ferry musket apiece. But no ammunition. Then marched to Hampton. Got a little wet. yet it was quite warm.

July, Monday 1.

Another warm day but cloudy. A little rain last night but we got along quite comfortable. The 3rd Mass. volunteers came up today and took quarters in the empty houses. Hampton contained before the war 1800 people, now all are gone but a very few white people and niggers.

Tuesday, 2.

Very pleasant today. Was in Hampton yesterday and through a part of the town. It looked dreary and desolate. Today our company stood guard and did boat service. A double duty. A wrong calculation somewhere. The Captain got tight. So did the 2nd Sergeant and made a row, was put in the guard house. I was sentry part of the time. He was drunk and ugly. It took four or five to put and keep him in the guard house.

July, Wednesday, 3. 1861.

This afternoon struck tents and crossed over to Hampton. We first took up quarters with Company C, then moved into the next house and took supper. In the evening we got a 1000 round of cartridge and and moved near the outer edge of town into a fine large two story white house. Plenty of wood and good chances to cook. A flag staff was also raised at night.

Thursday, 4.

A very lovely day, had a good nights rest. The day was ushered in by the ringing of bells, firing of cannons. The companies & regiments had dress parades. There are now about 4000 troops in town. for dinner today we had string beans, new potatoes, cabbage, beets & corn with salt beef. The captain & 1st Lieut. drunk again, they with others had a regular blow out. Whiskey here is cheap. Three or four companies were out scouting last night.

Friday, 5.

Another pleasant day. All the regiments in the vicinity of this place and the Fort were reviewed to by L. Cameron Sec. of War and by Gen. Butler with other Hon. Gentlemen. Ten regiments. Our company went out scouting with others: I did not go as I am unwell.

July, Saturday, 6. 1861.

A little cloudy today and a little rain, am much pleased with our new quarters. Four rebel officers came into the picket guard yesterday afternoon with a flag of truce. I did not ascertain their business. Our arms were loaded Wednesday night and tonight we discharged them.

Sunday, 7. 1861.

A very heavy rain and thunder this morning. Nothing unusual occurred today. A good deal of bustle in the camp. Rec'd a letter from A.R. Howell Friday and one today.

Monday, 8.

A very lovely day: very hot. At daylight went and got a barrel of new potatoes. Walked to the fort and got a box from A.C. Howell, Vienna NJ containing crackers, liniment & c.

July, Tuesday, 9. 1861.

Another warm day, a little cooler than yesterday. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Wednesday, 10, 1861.

Another very lovely day. Quite warm. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Thursday, 11.

Very pleasant today. Sent a long letter to my sister H.L. Stinson, Hallowell, ME. Got my bayonet scabbard, cartridge & cap box. Went on drill tonight, the first time for more than a week. A slight shower. The colored persons are engaged in digging entrenchments, about 60 men.

July, Friday, 12, 1861.

Nothing unusual occurred today, matters as usual.

Saturday, 13.

Very fine weather. Colored men keep coming into camp and are set to work on the entrenchments.

Sunday, 14.

A very pleasant day. No divine services that I know of. It did not appear much like Sunday. The officers had a grand dinner. Turkey, pigs, chickens & c. The brass band of the German Turners (encamped the other side of the creek) were there and discoursed fine music.

July, Monday, 15. 1861.

Matters and affairs go on as usual. Quite warm today.

Tuesday, 16.

A little cloudy with a little rain in the afternoon and night. Last night the company took up their quarters in the old church (Episcopal) & we are on the look out. This afternoon the Cap't. & 6 men went out five miles to Gen. Lee's Brother's house, brought in a nigger whose wife lives near our house and a lot of ham & bacon. Gen. Lee is in the rebel army.

Wednesday, 17.

Another pleasant day, went to the fort and back. C & D Co. went scouting last night within 1 mile of Big Bethel, brought in sheep, fowls and cattle. Had an alarm today. Maj. Whittimore had sent a party outside the picket to canvas the woods. The picket or officer of the day did not know it, so about noon we all turned out and went out to see. We were ready for a fight.

July, Thursday, 18, 1861.

Nothing unusual occurred today. A fine day. Our company and the rest of the Brigade were on picket guard today.

Friday, 19.

It rained during the night and this morning. Warm and pleasant in the afternoon. Some of the officers of the Brigade (6 men) went out scouting last night, got fired on. Three men killed and wounded. Cap't Jenkins reported wounded and taken prisoner. About 11 o'clock two companies A & B went after the dead bodies. Found one, Maj. Rollins, he was not of the Brigade. Tracks of a carriage were seen where the rebels had taken the dead away. Two men of Co. A were left behind as the company were ordered to look about in the woods for the other body. 8 men were sent after them, but Maj. Whittimore would not allow of further search although they were heard to give a signal. The two men came back last night. They went away with the Mass. B companies.

July, Sunday, 21. 1861.

Yesterday quite rainy, Ten of each company were detailed to attend the funeral of the man shot by the rebels on Friday. I was one of the number. Coffin shrouded in the flag. The German Turners (NY 20th) headed the escort, arms reversed, vollies fired & c. Today inspection of arms in the morning: dress parade in the eve.

Monday, 22.

A fine day. Attended a prayer meeting led by one of our Brigade. Prayers & remarks by himself, myself, another soldier and a Colored man. Got a good many heart shake of the hand by the colored brothers. Quite pleasant today. Drill from 5 1/2 o'clock to 7 1/2 o'clock. In the eve. from 6 1/2 till sunset. Rainy in the eve.

Tuesday, 23.

Quite rainy all night and this morn. Drill from 8 1/2 till 10. In the eve from 5 1/2 till sunset. The men got a lot of corn. Gen. Butler was in town today. Nothing else unusual occurred today.

July, Wednesday, 24. 1861.

At eleven o'clock our company & company F started on an expedition to Back River. We took four large boats with one rifled cannon. five launches & 100 men from the navy accompanied us with 5/2 lb. howitzers. We were towed by the propellers Tarny & Adriatic. We also had 2 co.'s of the 10 Reg. NY V.M. At the mouth of the Back River a body of men fired on us but the gun of the Tarny deterred them. We arrived there about five o'clock. We rowed about till two o'clock in the morning; burnt about ten schooners and sloops. Took one schooner in tow. Near the shore we were fired on, but the balls fell short. We arrived at the fort about daylight; the night was cold and we suffered from cold as we had no blankets and very little to eat. At six o'clock we were taken up to Hampton in the steamer Tarny which took us to the fort yesterday.

Friday, 26.

Yesterday we were ordered to be ready to march at ten o'clock. But we instead remained ready all day. Got but little sleep. Another warm day. At noon I and others had to go out a mile on picket guard. Nothing unusual occurred; although at nine o'clock all the picket was called in near to the town as it was rumored that an attack would be made. We staid inside the breastwork till one o'clock. Then we went out again and extended the picket. Another warm day.

July, Saturday, 27. 1861.

The picket guard got to the Fort about two o'clock. I made out to find a few cakes of hard bread in our quarters before I left Hampton. When the town was evacuated last night, all the stores that were there were broke open and robbed or the property destroyed by our own soldiers, property of our own citizens. A shameful thing. When I got to the fort I went to the bakery and a friend gave me a loaf of warm bread. We then went to camp at camp Hamilton near the Chespeak Seminary .... I had to cook after coming off guard. We had no tents till Lieut. Miller of Dureyee's Reg. our drill master complained to Gen. Butler, he came over and censured the Maj. (Whittimore) and placed Capt. Holliday in command & Lieut. Noges Quartermaster in place of J.O. Whittimore. We got our tents fixed about dark. Yesterday another warm day. I had to go on guard again. 2 hrs. on and six off. Got a little sleep in the night on the ground in the open air. Another warm day. Rec'd. 5 dollars from H.C. David of Rockport NJ. Went into the fort; saw two acquaintances from Hackettstown.

July, Tuesday, 30. 1861.

Another warm day. Had to move our tents three times. Nothing very important going on today. Had a short company drill.

Wednesday, 31.

Today we had to move our tents to another ground a short distance off between the Troy 2nd & NY 20. Dutch Turners. It was night before we got settled. Our officers know but very little about their duty. We get humbugged more than any other regiment. Very hot today.

August, Thursday, 1.

Another warm day, but a little rainy toward night. Went into the fort again today.

August, Friday, 2. 1861.

A very warm day. Stood guard today. It was very fatiguing in the hot sun. And instead of being relieved so as to only stand 8 hrs. I had to stand about 10 hours (ten hours). We went on at 8 o'clock and was not dismissed till the next morn at 10 o'clock.

Saturday, 3.

Another warm day. Sent a letter to my brother Thomas in Kentucky and one to the Belvidere Intelligencer, NJ. Saw La Mountain ascend in his balloon and was towed by a steamer near Lewallspoint so that he could examine that point and Pig point. He ascended about 1000 ft. It still continues very hot. Had an inspection of arms and acoutrements this morning. Went to the Seminary to take dinner and supper to some men on guard. Dress parade in the evening.

August, Monday, 5. 1861.

Another very warm day. Cool nights and evenings. At ten o'clock the regiment mustered on the parade ground to answer to the payroll. The paymaster was present. The articles of war were read to us last night and this evening.

Tuesday, 6.

Nothing unusual occurred today. Very warm.

Wednesday, 7.

Very pleasant today. I and another took the job of cooking for the company. I would not think of doing it but in this regiment there is no chance for a man to get promoted unless he dies, swears, cheats or steals. Then again I can cook quite well and food well cooked is very necessary for soldiers.

August, Thursday, 8. 1861.

Another fine day. Last night all hands were turned out for the secessionists came into Hampton and set fire to all the houses. All were burned to the ground. An Episcopal, two Methodist and one Baptist. [Drawing of one of the churches in Hampton that was burned.] They fired on the Dutch picket but rifled no one, but we think the Dutch shot some.

Friday, 9.

Another fine day. 200 of our men went out on picket today. I had to boil meat for them last night. A steamer from Lewellspoint came out with a flag of truce. The Adriatic went to meet her.

Saturday, 10.

Another fine day. A fine thunder shower this afternoon. The balloon went up yesterday.

August, Sunday, 11. 1861.

A very warm day. Nothing unusual occurred today. Another ballon ascension. A very fine day.

Monday, 12.

A pleasant but hot day. Nothing unusual occurred. It began to rain and blow very hard in the evening.

Tuesday, 13.

It rained and blowed hard this evening. The men began to growl at us about cooking so I and my assistant stopped right off. No man can possibly please them. It is the worst company in the Union Coast Guard I believe.

August, Wednesday, 14. 1861.

It rained most all night. It is very cool today.

Thursday, 15.

Another pleasant day but a little cloudy. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Friday, 16.

Quite rainy today. 20 of our Co. & 90 of Co. D. went to Hampton to guard 20 of the Mass. men in repairing the telegraph wires to Newport News. It rained a little all day. We had to humbug around some. We marched to the fort. I waited awhile then went to Hampton. Our Captains mistake as it rained we came back in the afternoon.

August, Saturday, 17. 1861.

Very rainy in the afternoon. Yesterday we stopped at a widow woman's house. She gave us a dinner of boiled corn, bacon, corn bread and potatoes. It went first rate. Although we had provision with. Went to the fort and got a letter from Henry C. Davis, Mansfield, NJ. Inclosing $5.00.

Sunday, 18.

Another pleasant and hot day. Stood guard. Gen. Wool arrived at the fort yesterday.

Monday, 19.

It rained quite hard all day. Nothing unusual occurred today.

August, Tuesday, 20. 1861.

Another rainy day. Matters the same as usual.

Wednesday, 21.

A pleasant day but quite cool. Went and wrote some letters, was some distance from the camp and getting deeply engaged, the hour for drill passed by & when I went in I was put into the guard house. It was very unfair, I think, as I never gave any cause of offense in that way or any other; while some others have repeatedly missed the drill and done worse things and they were let pass.

Thursday, 22

. Another pleasant day. Was set to work with some others, but we did but very little although we had a guard.

August, Friday, 23.

A fine day. Our company was out on picket guard today. So by being put in the guard house I escaped that duty. Gen. Wool reviewed out regiment and the 20th (German Turners). I procured a piece of the bell of the Episcopal church of Hampton. It was about 200 years old, presented by Queen Elizabeth. The church was next to the oldest in America. The oldest is at Jamestown, VA. It stood through two wars. It is a great shame for the rebels to burn it. Was on guard today.

Sunday, 25.

Another very pleasant day. Would have been glad if I could have heard some preaching. Wrote a letter to my brother Thomas in Kentucky. Nothing unusual occurred today. Only there are preparations going on for an expedition to someplace.

August, Monday, 26. 1861.

I went on picket guard today with the company. My post was under a nice shady tree. Very comfortable. I and another man went outside the lines to a man's house and got a few apples, he gave them to us.

Tuesday, 27.

Another pleasant day, a little cloudy and appearance of rain, but no rain. Had to stand guard last night every two hours so that I did not get more than two hours sleep. Felt very unwell last night and all day today.

Wednesday, 28.

Our company went out on picket again today but as I was unwell I did not go. Set for my photograph today in full uniform with my musket.

August, Thursday, 29. 1861.

A little rainy today. Was on guard today at the bridge. My eyes are getting sore. Nothing unusual occurred today. My post was on the bridge leading to the fort.

Friday, 30.

Very warm today. A little shower during the day. Fished a little but had little luck. A false alarm about one o'clock.

Saturday, 31.

Another fine day. Was on home guard again. Felt very unwell today. So I had a supernumerary put on at night and got a good nights sleep.

September, Sunday 1. 1861.

Another lovely day, got along very well although I did not sleep any. Last nights sleep did me a great deal of good. I would like to hear some preaching today, but it is not possible today.

Monday, 2.

My good luck favored me today so that I got clear of guard duty. We got paid today from May 28th to July 1st $12.46. Many of the men got quite drunk on Lager Beer & c. immediately. But the shops were soon shut up.

Tuesday, 3.

Had to go on picket guard today. A great number of the men were sick and managed to get off. We had the 3rd Division quite pleasant posts. The mosquitoes were awful bad. When I was off post I could not sleep. If I covered up my head I would be smothered. If it was not covered the mosquitoes would eat me.

September, Wednesday, 4. 1861.

Quite warm today. The Mass. 16th relieved us and it was 11 o'clock before we got in. Did not do much or sleep any either.

Thursday, 5.

A little cloudy today. I am on police duty. Sent a letter and two photographs to my sister. One letter & photograph to my brother in KY. Letter & photograph to A.H. Howell, Vienna, NJ. Also sent NY Herald to Thomas.

Friday, 6.

Was on guard today at the Hospital. It rained quite hard from 8 to 10 PM. Nothing unusual occurred today. The streets and tents were changed today; by order of Col. Wysnan of the 16th Mass. Volunteers. The Germans had to change to. It made us all very angry.

September, Saturday, 7. 1861

. Very unpleasant today, considerable rain. Had nothing to do today. Our streets as well as the Germans were all fixed so nice. We all thought it very foolish to change them just for a little appearance.

Sunday, 8.

A pleasant day. Had no meeting to got to. Would be very glad to go to a prayer meeting or hear some preaching. Our officers did not attend to the moving of our tents on Friday so we had to move them again today and at last got them right. A little rain toward night.

Monday, 9.

Another fine day. Was detailed for the home guard. Was put in as acting corporal. Only had to post three reliefs. And had nothing else to do. Had a very easy time. Only had six posts.

September, Tuesday, 10. 1861.

Another very pleasant day, yesterday had some more photographs take; just the bust. My friends will think more of them than the money if I never return. As we are liable to be called on to the battlefields at any moment and life is so uncertain. I think it is useless to hoard up my money. Slept a little today. Had another day of rest, nothing unusual occurred today.

Thursday, 12.

Was detailed for picket guard today; it rained a little this morning. Had quite an easy time today. Everything quiet. A negro came in from near Fox Hill for protection.

September, Friday, 13. 1861.

Another warm day. My eyes are bad again, with a bad head ache. About dark we had orders to get ready for a march with 24 hrs. provision. As I was so unwell I did not get ready to go. But had to help cook some bacon for the men; I heard that they were going to Newport News.

Saturday, 14.

A very warm day. The men did not go last night, but slept on their arms.

Sunday, 15.

One company of our corps (100 men) went into the fort this afternoon to take the place of some regulars who had been sent to Washington, DC. I had to take the place of one of them on the home guard.

September, Monday, 16. 1861.

Another pleasant day. Nothing unusual occurred. A heavy rain this evening.

Tuesday, 17.

A heavy wind this evening. Matters go on as usual. About 60 recruits have just arrived. Felt very unwell today.

Wednesday, 18.

Felt very unwell today. Went to the Doctors. Very feverish last night. Caught cold, tonsils swelled.

September, Thursday, 19. 1861.

Another warm day. Went to the Doctors this morning.

Friday, 20.

It still continues warm and pleasant. Went to the Doctors again, am relieved of duty.

Saturday, 21.

Another lovely day, went to the Doctors. Some prospect of being paid.

September, Sunday, 22. 1861.

A little rainy this forenoon. Could not go to the fort as I was unwell, sore throat. A fine afternoon.

Monday, 23.

A pleasant day; throat sore, on the sick list excused from duty.

Tuesday, 24.

Another pleasant day. Off the sick list.

September, Wednesday, 25. 1861.

A pleasant day. Went on guard. Was put as orderly for the Colonel. Had but little to do. Staid in my tent all night. The paymaster began to pay off this evening.

Thursday, 26.

Another pleasant day. Got paid from July 1st to Sept. 1st $23.66. Sent a ten dollar treasury note to my sister by Adams Ene. Went to the fort.

Friday, 27. 1861.

A very stormy day, a terrible easterly wind. I was afraid that it would blow the tents down but they stood it well. Two of my mess mates were drunk so I staid out of camp to be out of their noise.

September, Saturday, 28.

A very pleasant day. Nothing unusual occurred.

Sunday, 29.

Still very pleasant. Had to stand guard.

Monday, 30.

Another lovely day. Nothing unusual occurred.

October, Tuesday, 1. 1861.

Still very pleasant. Went to the fort. Rec'd a box from A.C. Howell, Vienna, NJ containing 1 qt. liniment, 1 bottle of blackberry wine, some cigars and cakes. Had a good time talking with some of my old friends.

Wednesday, 2.

Rather cloudy today and rainy in the evening. Wrote a number of letters.

Thursday, 3.

It rained very hard most all night. the street was nearly flooded. One tent blew down and had to be fixed in the rain. Today it is very pleasant.

October, Friday, 4. 1861.

Very pleasant today. Went on guard again today, got along quite well. Was on the post at the guard house. Had a number of prisoners; some very drunk and troublesome. But got along very well with them.

Saturday, 5.

Another lovely day. Had a good rest today. Nothing unusual occurred.

Sunday, 6.

A lovely day. Got a chance to go to church at the fort. Went to the Episcopal church inside the fort. Heard a good sermon. "God be merciful to me a sinner." Also partook of the Lord's supper. This is the first time I have been to church since I left New Jersey.

October, Monday, 7. 1861.

Another quite a pleasant day. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Tuesday, 8.

Quite cloudy and cool. Went to the fort again on business. Got back in time for drill. The Col. told us all to put on our overcoats with equipments outside and to lie down as we were, as we were to be called at two o'clock in the morning.

Wednesday, 9.

Was turned out at two o'clock. Formed into a line then in close columns; waited awhile and then were marched off to our tents, being cautioned to be ready to turn out at a moments notice. But we were not disturbed. Mounted guard again today. Quite stormy, wind N.E.

October, Thursday, 10, 1861.

Another cool disagreeable day. Only got my feet wet last night as I had an india rubber blanket & cap on.

Friday, 11.

Quite damp and disagreeable day. Sent a letter to Sellers of the Belvidere Intelligencer. Nothing unusual occurred.

Saturday, 12.

Cloudy in the morning; towards noon it cleared off beautifully. Had to go on guard again today. Got along very well.

October, Sunday, 13. 1861.

A very pleasant day. Quite cold last night. Got but little sleep last night. Slept quite a good deal today.

Monday, 14.

A very pleasant day nothing unusual occurred today.

Tuesday, 15.

Was on guard today. A very pleasant time. Matters are as usual.

October, Wednesday, 16. 1861.

Very pleasant moonlight night last night. Got about three hours sleep. Very unpleasant today. Nothing unusual occurred today. Quite rainy toward night. 

Thursday, 17.

Another unpleasant day. Matters the same as usual.

Friday, 18.

Pleasant today. Was on police duty today. Had a great deal to do.

October, Saturday, 19. 1861.

Mounted guard today. Quite rainy toward night. But it did not rain while I was on post. Was at the Colonel's tent, a good chance to sit down at night.

Sunday, 20.

No rain but cloudy, wind N.E. Got no sleep last night, but little today.

Monday, 21.

Had a good nights sleep last night. Wind N.E.

October, Tuesday, 22. 1861.

Quite stormy today. Mounted guard today. Got along quite well.

Wednesday, 23.

Quite pleasant today. Matters the same as usual. A large fleet of steamers war vessels & c. in the harbor with troops for an expedition.

Thursday, 24.

A little cloudy today. Wind N.E.

October, Friday, 25, 1861.

Mounted guard again. A pleasant day. I got word that one of my brothers was 1st mate of the propeller Matanzas, a store ship of the fleet.

Saturday, 26.

Went to the fort today but could not get off to the vessel as the vessel was a great way out in the harbor. Gen. Wool reviewed the troops today. I staid at the fort all day. A pleasant day.

Sunday, 27.

Went to the fort again but met with no better success in getting off to see my brother. A fine day.

October, Monday, 28, 1861.

Another pleasant day. Had a seven hour drill. It went quite hard, but just what the men deserved as they have been so careless.

Tuesday, 29.

Very pleasant. The whole regiment went over to Hampton, one company gathered lumber the others stood picket and went scouting. I was sentry with another on a road through a woods. I went out in the woods a little ways and shot a pig. Others fired their guns so I tried mine. Had another review by Gen. Wool & Brig. Gen. Mansfield. It was well done. The fleet sailed yesterday.

October, Thursday, 31. 1861.

All Hallands eve or Hollie eve, Hallow eve. today was mustered in again for pay. Mounted guard again. Our streets were trimmed with bushes and bonfires in the streets in the eve and the Col. treated us to apples, raisins, nuts and lager beer. Some of the men got a little tipsy.

November, Friday, 1. 1861.

Quite an unpleasant day. It blowed very hard.

Saturday, 2.

It blowed still harder this morning. It is bad for the fleet.

November, Sunday, 3. 1861.

On guard again today. Wanted to go to the fort but had to mount guard.

Monday, 4.

Nothing unusual occurred today.

Tuesday, 5.

Had to work with a fatigue party today; but got clear in the afternoon and got a ride to the fort and got a box that was sent to me by David Parks. It had three pair of nice stockings in it.

November, Wednesday, 6. 1861.

Another pleasant day. On guard again.

Thursday, 7.

A pleasant day till about dark a little rain.

Friday, 8.

Part of our company went to Hampton and got boards to build small houses for themselves. I and another man got an old ten plate stove, it will do well for us. We got a lot of good boards.

November, Saturday, 9. 1861.

We went to work today and built a small house; we built it right around the tent and got it all enclosed before night. It rained a little about dark but our house did not leak any.

Sunday, 10.

Had to mount guard again today, it seems to be my luck to be on guard on Sunday.

Monday, 11.

Another pleasant day. Went to Hampton and took a lot of crackers to a poor white woman, 80 yrs. old. I also bought 1/4 lb. green tea, 1/2 lb. butter, 1 lb. sugar and some tobacco for her. She thanked me a thousand times and seemed very glad, Attended the funeral of one of the privates of our regiment.

November, Tuesday, 12, 1861.

Drilled about four hours today. A lovely day. Our house is very comfortable.

Wednesday, 13.

Another pleasant day. Detailed again to help level the color line, but got clear in the afternoon.

Thursday, 14.

Rather unpleasant today, a little rain toward night. Was on guard again today. Got along very well. Rec'd. a letter from my sister, enclosing my brother George's little girl's likeness. It looks very nice. I have not seen her for most seven years and she is now most nine.

November, Friday, 15. 1861.

A little rain in the morning, but pleasant the rest of the day; quite cold at night.

Saturday, 16.

A pleasant day but quite cold. It makes us shiver a good deal: But I am very thankful for the nice little house that we have with the stove we kept a fire all last night and slept very comfortable.

Sunday, 17.

Quite cold this morning. We all turned out for inspection this morning with our new clothes and looked nice, we marched awhile and did well. After ten o'clock it was quite warm. Went to the fort to go to church, but went to the express office and found a box sent by W.J. Henry, Townsbury, NJ.

November, Monday, 18. 1861.

Another pleasant day but quite cold. Got a letter yesterday from Mr. Henry but as it was not directed properly, it was advertised at the fort. The box contained 1/2 pk. apples, pres. cake jumbles, cheese, butter, honey, chestnuts, tea, new cider, 1 bottle 5 yr. old, 1 bottle apple jack 5 yr old from Nelson Vliet, the other articles were sent by my other friends.

Tuesday, 19.

Quite cold last night and this morning. Was on guard yesterday but had the toothache so bad last night the officer of the guard let me off. I got it stopped about 12 o'clock.

Wednesday, 20.

Pleasant day, nothing unusual occurred. I am getting along quite well.

November, Thursday, 21. 1861.

Another pleasant day. Went to Hampton to help get some boards for Lieut. Cawley. Did not get much. Staid there all day.

Friday, 22.

Another fine day. Went on guard. Got along first rate. Nothing unusual occurred.

Saturday. 23.

A pleasant day. It rained about three o'clock this morning. I happened to be at the Colonel's tent and Cap't Dyer Ass't. Adjt. General came for an orderly. I was detailed. I had enough to do. I had to go with orders to every camp twice, about ten. I had enough to do. Not very pleasant.

November, Sunday, 24, 1861.

Another fine day. Inspection this morning. Our band came out this morning. They done well considering all things. I got rid of inspection. But as Gen'l Mansfield had been ordered to take command of Newport News so I was not needed as orderly any longer. I was not sorry.

Monday, 25.

On guard today. Quite pleasant.

Tuesday, 26.

Quite cold last night. I left the guard house and went to my house, thereby the guard was detained a few minutes at three o'clock. The officer put me on for four hours extra and another many more. But I stood it well enough.

November, Wednesday, 27. 1861.

Another fine day. Went out to help get logs to build Lieut. Cawley a house. When I came in the paymaster was paying the reg't, my company had been paid.

Thursday, 28.

Another fine day. Was on guard again today. Got my pay, sent 5 dollars home.

Friday, 29.

Another fine day.

November, Saturday, 30. 1861.

Another pleasant day. Nothing unusual occurred. I get along very well, but I would enjoy myself a great deal better if there were more sober and pious men in my company. There are but two or three in the company but will get drunk as often as they can.

December, Sunday, 1.

A very pleasant morning, but quite cool toward night and cloudy. Was on guard. Our inspection was prolonged quite a while. We had to march around the parade ground four times. We did not get on guard till eleven o'clock.

Monday, 2.

Cold and cloudy today. Heavy firing at Newport News for about two hours, commencing at day break. The steamer Yorktown tried to get out of the James River but did not succeed. A little snow this evening. Very disagreeable. Our house is very comfortable. I pity those who are in tents.

December, Tuesday, 3. 1861.

Quite cold indeed this morning but the sun shone warm. Wind N. West.

Wednesday, 4.

Very pleasant today, but very cold last night. The coldest night yet. Ice made 1/4 inch thick.

Thursday, 5.

Very pleasant today. Not so cold last night. A southerly wind today.

December, Friday, 6. 1861.

A very lovely day indeed. I never saw such fine weather in December. On guard today. Sent $8.00 to Charles F. Clark, 32 Harrison Ave., Boston, Mass.

Saturday, 7.

Still very fine weather. Nothing unusual today.

Sunday, 8.

Still very nice weather. Had quite a battalion drill this morning before the inspection. Went to the fort after dinner but it was too late for church.

December, Monday, 9. 1861.

A most lovely day. On guard today. All the reg't turned out to the funeral services of the Physician. They all had epulettes and made a fine appearance with the band. A good many of the Germans went.

Tuesday, 10.

Another most lovely day. Matters the same as usual.

Wednesday, 11.

A very pleasant morning, but about noon it clouded up and blew quite hard. Went with a party to get logs to build a house for the Colonel.

December, Thursday, 12. 1861.

Fair weather but very cold. Very cold last night. Was on police duty today. Nothing unusual occurred today.

Friday, 13.

Very pleasant today, but not so cold as yesterday. On guard again today. Sent another letter to C.F. Clark, 32 Harrison Av. Boston.

Saturday, 14.

A very pleasant day. Nothing unusual happened. Still have good health indeed. Better than I ever had before I believe.

December, Sunday, 15. 1861.

A little cool but otherwise quite pleasant. Staid in camp all day.

Monday, 16.

Another pleasant day. Nothing unusual occurred. Matters remain quiet in this department.

Tuesday, 17.

Another lovely day. Was on guard again today. Had a good time.

December, Wednesday, 18. 1861.

Another lovely day. Most of our company went on picket guard. Had no drill today.

Thursday, 19.

Still another pleasant day. Had no drill. Everything went well.

Friday. 20.

On guard again today. Quite cold at night. Rec'd a box from my sister containing various articles. Grey woolen shirts, cap comfort & c.

December, Saturday, 21. 1861.

Quite cold today. Had nothing today. Was very comfortable.

Sunday, 22.

Another pleasant day. The Germans (NY 20) at Newport News went out on a scout and were attacked. The rest of the 20th who were here went out in the forenoon. Our regiment went to Hampton Bridge in the afternoon and waited for orders but the rebels fled, so we had to come back.

Monday, 23.

Quite cold today. Had to go on guard again today. Got along very well. Nothing unusual occurred.

December, Tuesday, 24, 1861.

Quite cold today. When we were on battalion drill this afternoon we saw the Germans go toward Hampton. So we started after them. We only got part way when we saw them coming back as they had got a false alarm.

Wednesday, 25.

A very pleasant day, quite warm. Nothing to do today. The first time I ever spent Christmas in such a way. It is not a very merry Christmas to me. I hope it will soon be different.

Thursday, 26.

Quite cool today. Got a pass and went to the fort. Could ascertain nothing about the box that Miss Ella Carhart of Belvidere NJ sent me about three weeks ago. I did not get back in time for drill. Was out on dress parade.

December, Friday, 27. 1861.

Went on guard again today. Quite cold today. McDougal of Hackettstown, NJ now in the 10th reg't of NJ quartered in the fort came up to see me. He told me of a friend of mine in Belvidere, NJ who was in the reg't of Cavalry, Harlan's, Penn. We went over and took dinner with him. Doc Angle, & I was extremely glad to see him.

Saturday, 28.

A pleasant day, but quite cold, had nothing today. Wrote an order to Charles F. Clark, Boston, Mass. Also wrote a letter to Miss Sarah Crate Hackettstown, NJ and also sent a few sprigs of holly to her.

Sunday, 29.

Quite cool today. Went out for inspection and had to march around the large parade ground seven times without stopping. And then went to our quarters without inspection. It was so late that I did not go to the fort for church.

December, Monday, 30. 1861.

Quite cold today and windy today; did not drill much today. Nothing of much account occurred today.

Tuesday, 31.

A very pleasant day indeed. Were mustered in today for another two months pay. I suppose we shall not get the money for three weeks. I have seen a good many places and passed through a good many scenes the past year. I feel very grateful to a kind God who has so kindly preserved my unworthy life. I have not improved the time the past year as I ought to have. But one thing I have done which I hope will prove to be of good account. That is I have offered my services to my country. If need be my life. I did it through a sense of duty and devotion to my country. I did not enlist for honor or pay. I want to help sustain the honor and integrity of our glorious stars & stripes. I hope that I may do good and that my country may speedily be restored to its former state of peace & prosperity. If I am called into action I hope to be able to do credit to my name and family as well as to the honor of my country. Let what may happen. I wish to leave this my record at the end of the year. I feel that I belong to my country that money or honor would not tempt me to undergo what the privations of various kinds which a soldier has to undergo. I hope that at the close of another year I can look back if I am allowed to live with greater pleasure and know that I have done something of some account.

Rec'd of the Government

1 straw hat, 1 blue flannel shirt, 1 pr. duck pants, two pr. cotton socks and one pr. pegged shoes (cheap ones). One jacket, one grey shirt, 1 pair blue woolen pants, one cap.

One pair served shoes.

Two pair cotton flannel draws.

Three flannel shirts (white).

One pair cotton & wool socks.

One frock coat and one pair of pants.

One blue cap.

One woolen blouse.

* Etymology: French, from Berber ZwAwa, Berber tribe

1 : a member of a French infantry unit orig. composed of Algerians wearing a brilliant uniform and conducting a quick spirited drill.

2 : a member of a military unit adopting the dress and drill of the Zouaves.

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