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Harlan, Edgar Rubey.
A Narrative History of the People of Iowa.
 Vol IV. Chicago: American Historical Society,  1931



GEORGE H. RAMSAY, president of the Economy Coal Company, which has its general offices in Des Moines and the business of which is of both wholesale and retail order, finds satisfaction in giving his active attention to business affairs, though in December, 1928 he celebrated his eighty-fourth birthday anniversary. Vital and alert in both mental and physical powers, Mr. Ramsay is consistently to be designated as one of the grand old men of the business circles of Iowa's capital city.

Mr. Ramsay was born in the County of Durham, England, December 29, 1844, and is a son of William and Ann (Heckels) Ramsay, he being now the only surviving member of a family of nine children. William Ramsay passed his entire life in England, and was forty-five years of age at the time of his death, he having been manager of one of the Durham mines of the Cowen Coal Company. In 1863 Mrs. Ann (Heckels) Ramsay came with her children to the United States and made settlement at Morris, Illinois, the closing years of her life having been passed at Streator, that state, and she having been a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. William Ramsay, Sr., grandfather of the subject of this review, was born in Scotland and was a farmer in England at the time of his death. The maternal grandfather, William Heckels, passed his entire life in England and was there identified with the coal-mining industry during a long period of years. Thus it may be said that, along both paternal and maternal lines, George H. Ramsay had inherent predilection for the coal business, of which he is now a prominent representative in Iowa. He began work in the coal mines of his native county when he was a lad of ten years, and in the schools of England he gained his youthful education at night school, but his education was somewhat limited. He was eighteen years of age when he accompanied his widowed mother and other members of the family to the United States, and among his early experiences in Illinois was that of assisting in the laying of tracks on the line of railroad between Perkin and Peoria. Thereafter he worked in the coal mines of that state and finally was made mine foreman at Braidwood, Will County. Upon coming to Iowa he became superintendent of coal mines at Albia, and thereafter he was superintendent of the Oskaloosa mines of the Excelsior Coal Company. He finally became independently interested in coal-mining operations in the vicinity of Oskaloosa and Des Moines, and the company of which he is now the president owns and operates mines in the vicinity of Knoxville, Marion County, these mines supplying much of the product used in the wholesale and retail trade of the company. Mr. Ramsay, as previously noted, is president of the Economy Coal Company, and his son John H. is its vice president and manager.

The political convictions of Mr. Ramsay place him in the ranks of the Republican party, and his religious faith is that of the Nazarene Church, of which his wife likewise was a devoted member. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity.

Mr. Ramsay is indebted to his own ability and efforts for the success he has achieved, as he became virtually dependent upon his own resources when he was ten years old and found employment in coal mines in his native land. In 1906 he made a month's visit to England, where he enjoyed the surveying of the scenes of his boyhood and the meeting with old family friends, but he states that he was more than glad to come back to the land of his adoption and to his home state. He has made twenty trips to California, but has never faltered in his loyalty to Iowa.

In the year 1869 Mr. Ramsay was united in marriage to Miss Mary A. Caswell, who was born at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, but reared and educated in Illinois. The devoted companionship of Mr. and Mrs. Ramsay continued nearly sixty years, and the gracious bonds were severed by the death of Mrs. Ramsay in June, 1927. Of the twelve children nine survive the loved mother: John H., who celebrated in 1928 his fifty-eight birthday anniversary, is now vice president of the Economy Coal Company, as previously noted. He married Miss Myrtle Phinney, who was born at Iowa Falls, and they have three children: Bertha, John C. and Charles D. Miss Bertha remains at the parental home; John C., who was reared and educated in Des Moines and Oskaloosa, married, in 1919, Miss Lella Stevens, and they have one child, Dorothy May; and Charles D., who received the advantages of the University of Iowa, is now foreman of the mines operated by the Economy Coal Company, five miles east of Des Moines. Ann, second of the surviving children of the subject of this review, is the wife of Frank Ewing, of Des Moines, who is bookkeeper for the mines of the Economy Coal Company, their children being Wilma and John. Clara, next younger daughter, is the wife of John Nowles, who is engaged in mercantile business in Des Moines. Stella is the wife of Dr. George W. Miser, a physician and surgeon engaged in practice in Des Moines. Robert C. is engaged in the machinery business in Oakland, California. Roy resides in Des Moines and is weighmaster at the mines in his father's company, his one child being a son, Roy, Jr. Dora is the wife of Carl Mayer, who is identified with banking enterprise in the City of Oskaloosa. Margaret is the wife of Thomas Beal, and they maintain their home in Des Moines, Mr. Beal being a commercial traveling salesman.

HON. JOHN MCDONALD RAMSEY is an Iowa newspaper man with a continuous record of forty years' association with one paper, the Clarksville Star. These years have been rich in other service to his community and state, especially noteworthy having been the eight years he spent in the Legislature at Des Moines.

Mr. Ramsey was born on a farm a mile north of Clarksville in Butler County. February 25, 1870. He is Scotch ancestry and through his mother is classified with that stock known as Scotch-Irish, due to the fact that a family long seated in Scotland moved across the channel to Northern Ireland, whence representatives came to America. Mr. Ramsey is a son of Charles and Margaret Jane (Gabby) Ramsey. His grandfather, Adam Ramsey, came from Edinburgh, Scotland. He was a cabinet maker by trade and was a young man when he sought home and fortune in the new world. Charles Ramsey was born at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1836, and as a young man located at West Union, Ohio, where in 1861 he married Margaret Jane Gabby. Her father, Alexander Gabby, was born in Londonderry, Ireland, was also a cabinet maker, and on coming from Ireland to America settled in Washington County in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Adam Ramsey and Alexander Gabby were both members of the Masonic fraternity and very devout United Presbyterians, maintaining their religious activities strictly according to the rites of that substantial old church. Both served as superintendents of their Sunday School. Charles Ramsey after his marriage tried to get accepted for service in the Union army, but for some reason was rejected. However, he was with the Ohio Home Guard and was called out for active duty at the time of the Morgan raid through the southern part of the state. Morgan made one of his camps on the Gabby farm.

In 1865 Charles Ramsey brought his family to Iowa, acquiring a tract of land a short distance northeast of Clarksville. Later he moved to the property of M. B. Wamsley, one mile northwest of Clarksville, and two years later he bought a farm four miles southeast of Greene. He had acquired the skill of a cabinet maker from his father and was always an adept with tools and machinery. The furniture and other equipment for his Iowa home were made by his own hands during his hours of leisure. He developed a fine farm and in later years was a representative of the International Harvester Company. He died in 1906, at Sioux City, Iowa. His wife was born in 1840 and died in 1887. Charles Ramsey took an active part in local affairs, serving as trustee, treasurer and clerk of his township and as a school director. He was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows at Greene and voted Democrat, though two of his sons became very staunch Republicans. There were eight children in all, only two of whom are now living. Arthur died in infancy. George passed away in 1878, when a small boy. Ida Ellen died in early girlhood. Agnes Euphemia became the wife of W. W. Moss and died at Osage, Minnesota. William M., a farmer and carpenter, died at Clarksville in 1905. Charles met an accidental death at Sioux City in 1921. The only surviving child besides John M., is Mrs. J. L. Caskey, of Akron, Iowa.

Farm life during the years when John McDonald Ramsey was a boy was not a series of prosperous years. There were crop failures, and with a large household to provide for Charles Ramsey had need to economize and there was little money to provide the children with advantages outside of those of the community church and school. Consequently John M. from early boyhood buckled down to a routine of hard work, and his earnings paid for all his education beyond the limited advantages of the neighborhood school. Part of the time he carried water for a gang of section hands at fifty cents a day. It was more or less of a struggle for him to complete the work of the Greene High School. Borrowing money, he enrolled as a student in the Cedar Rapids Business College. His training there made him a good penman and a capable accountant, and for several years he was employed in the clerical department of the Chicago Great Western and Rock Island Railroads.

His political career began before he reached his majority, when he was elected township clerk. Following that he was made recorder of Clarksville, for ten years was township assessor and five years township trustee, and for five years was assistant state game warden.

In 1920 Mr. Ramsey went to the Legislature. He represented Butler County four years in the Lower House and for four years was in the Senate from the district comprising Butler and Bremer counties He proved himself one of the most valuable members of both Houses, being hard working, taking an intelligent attitude toward all public questions and was given important committee assignments, being a member of the judiciary, ways and means, text books, cities and towns, and was chairman of the committee on education. He was in the Legislature during the code session, and he read proof on the revised laws. His legislative experience gave him a wide acquaintance with prominent men all over the state.

His first lessons in the printing trade were acquired in the office of a Waterloo newspaper. For twenty years he was an employee of Edward Madigan, owner of the Clarksville Star, and in 1909 he bought the paper, so that for fully forty years he has been associated with that live publication. His newspaper files are mines of historic interest for this section of the state. Mr. Ramsey is a master of a forcible newspaper style and his editorials and comments on public questions have been widely quoted in the press of the state. He has for twenty-five years been attending state Republican conventions and twenty-two years of that time has been a delegate. He is a member of the Iowa Press Association and National Editorial Association, is a past chancellor commander of the Knights of Pythias Lodge at Clarksville, and has taken all the degrees of Odd Fellows.

The record of his life shows that he has been a very busy man, but he has hobbies, one in particular being geology. He has gone about with an observing eye examining the rocks and soils of Iowa, and in collecting specimens illustrating geologic history he has been naturally drawn to the kindred investigations in local archaeology and has gathered up many interesting specimens and curios.

Mr. Ramsey married Miss Della Shafer on September 30, 1893, daughter of the late W. W. R. Shafer, who passed away in 1929. Mrs. Ramsey was born in Butler County. They have two daughters, Georgia Edna and Alice Lavon. Georgia is the wife of Gay Jackson, and they have three children: Robert G., Barbara A. and Billy Joe. Both daughters graduated from the local high school and attended the State Teachers College at Cedar Falls, and Alice Lavon is also a graduate of the Ingram School of Expression.

RICHARD ROEMER RAMSELL. Aside from any distinction that may be his because of his connection with two of the foremost pioneer families of Iowa, of that sturdy stock so closely identified with the progress and development of the Hawkeye State, Richard Roemer Ramsell, of Ottumwa, has gained recognition as being one of the leading members of the Iowa bar. During his career he has been associated with some of the most important litigation that has been brought before the state and federal courts, and from 1917 until 1926 was the incumbent of the highly important position of chairman of the committee on appeals and review of the United States Treasury Department at Washington, D. C.

Mr. Ramsell was born in Wapello County, Iowa, November 7, 1881, and is a son of William B. and Caroline A. (Roemer) Ramsell. His paternal grandfather, Moses Ramsell, was born at Bangor, Maine, and became an early pioneer of Iowa in the '40s. During the war between the states he served four years as a member of Company C. Seventh Iowa Cavalry, in which he won a sergeant's stripes. Gustavus Adolphus Roemer, the maternal grandfather of Mr. Ramsell, was born in Switzerland, where he married Anna Fritag, and served his term of service in the Swiss army. In 1847 he came to the United States and settled as a pioneer in Wapello County. He was then a man of small means, but possessed his military overcoat, and this he traded for forty acres of land possessed by a former settler. All of this land is now within the city limits of Ottumwa and is the site of the Franklin School. He also secured land from the Government and other land by purchase and became one of the leading and substantial citizens of his community. The old house, greatly remodeled and enlarged, still stands, and is now the home of the fourth generation of the Roemer family in Iowa.

Richard Roemer Ramsell attended Willis Academy at Iowa City, and in 1906 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of laws from the law department of the State University of Iowa. In the same year he was admitted to practice in the state and federal courts, and established himself at Ottumwa, where he soon was recognized as a talented and reliable attorney. From 1917 until 1926, inclusive, he was chairman of the committee on appeals and review of the United States Treasury Department at Washington, D. C., and then resigned to return to the home state and resume his law practice. During the Quartermaster's Department, and still holds that commission as a member of the Officer's Reserve Corps. He is allied with the Republican party and actively interested in all public and political affairs, and has served two terms as police judge of Ottumwa, and in December, 1929, was appointed police judge for the third term. Mr. Ramsell is an out-door enthusiast, and in particularly fond of hunting and fishing.

On September 11, 1912, at Ottumwa, Iowa, Mr. Ramsell was united in marriage with Miss Alma Ethel Glew, who was born at Creston, Iowa, a daughter of Henry G. and Lucy (Hawcock) Glew, of Washington, D. C. natives of England, who came to the United States in 1880 and located in Iowa. Mrs. Ramsell graduated from the Ottumwa High School and for a time taught in the Ottumwas public schools. As a loyal Republican she is actively interested in politics, takes a constructive part in the work of the Presbyterian Church, is a past president of the Parent-Teachers Association, and is active and popular in club circles. Mr. and Mrs. Ramsell are the parents of two sons: Richard Roemer and William Henry, both of whom are attending the Ottumwas High School. The attractive family home is situated at 2223 Roemer Avenue.

VERON C. RAMSEYER, manager of the Ramseyer Hatchery, is one of the aggressive young business men of Oskaloosa, and ne whose public spirit in proverbial. A veteran of the World war, he not only did his duty during the war, he not only did his duty during the war period, but upon his return to civilian life took up the burdens of reconstruction, and has achieved a prosperity that is all the more to his credit, in that he has made his own way in life. He was born at Pulaski, Iowa, August 15, 1894, a son of John H. and Elizabeth (Brenneman) Ramseyer.

The birth of John H. Ramseyer occurred in Switzerland, and in the early seventies he came to the United States, locating in Davis County, Iowa. The Ramseyer family is a well known one in Iowa, and his brother, Hon. C. W. Ramseyer, is representing the Sixth Congressional District of Iowa in the National Assembly. Mrs. Ramseyer was born in Davis County, Iowa.

Growing to vigorous young manhood amid healthful surroundings, Vernon C. Ramseyer attended local schools and later Bluffton, Ohio, College, from which he was graduated in 1919 with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. He was a student of the law department of the University of Michigan, and also of the University of Chicago. In the meanwhile, however, he gave his country a military service, in 1918 being inducted into the army for the World war, and was a member of Company E, Three Hundred and Fifty-first Infantry, of which he was ranking sergeant. Sent overseas to France, he saw service at the front, and was honorable discharged after his return to the United States at Camp Dodge, Iowa. While in France he was given intensive training in the Officers Training School La Valbonne. Following his discharge in 1919 Mr. Ramseyer went to college and continued his education as already stated.

From 1919 to 1922 Mr. Ramseyer was superintendent of Bureau Township schools, Princeton, Illinois, and during 1923 to 1924 he was superintendent of the schools of Pulaski, Iowa. In 1923 he, his father and two brothers, Harry W. and Obern B., the latter of whom has since died, launched the Ramseyer Hatcheries, Incorporated, thus entering the baby chick industry at Pulaski, Iowa. This enterprise has proven a great success, and expanded to such an extent that in 1925 a branch was established at Washington, Iowa; and in 1926 a fine plant was opened at Oskaloosa, and since then the home office has been at Oskaloosa, but all three plants are operated. Each year approximately 1,000,000 chicks are hatched the output in season averaging 50,000 per week. These chicks are sent to every state in the Union. There are fifteen varieties produced, known as the Ramseyer Master-Mated chickens, and they took grand champion award at Iowa State Chick Show at Ames in 1928-1929, and 1930, besides winning sweepstakes in Kansas and Michigan. For several years Mr. Ramseyer of this review has been general manager of the corporation, and is devoting himself to the further expansion of the business.

In August, 1920, Mr. Ramseyer married at Berne, Indiana, Miss Florence Lehman, born in Indiana, a daughter of J. F. and Elizabeth (Neuenschwander) Lehman, of Swiss parentage, but both born in the same state as their daughter. Mr. Lehman is a banker and poultryman. Mr. and Mrs. Ranseyer have a daughter, Janqueline Rose. Both Mr. Ramseyer and his wife are Mennonites, but there being no church of their faith at Oskaloosa they are associated with the First Presbyterian Church of this city, and he is superintendent of the Sunday School. He belongs to the Kiwanis Club, Gamma Eta Ganna of the University of Chicago; is president of the Iowa Poultry Improvement Association, also chairman of the Iowa Poultry Council; president of the Mahaska County Red Cross; and is a member of the Iowa State Sunday School Executive Council. Mr. Reamseyer is regarded among his associates and fellow citizens as a man of high moral and business character, and the few years he has resided at Oskaloosa have been a period of constant and honorable advancement in the business and social relations of life.

HARRY E. RANSOM, M. D., has been engaged in the practice of his profession in Iowa since 1915, save for the interval of his overseas service in the World war, and he is now one of the representative physicians and surgeons in the City of Des Moines, with office headquarters in the Iowa Building.

Doctor Ransom was born on the parental home farm near Avalon, Rock County, Wisconsin, October 16, 1884, and is a son of Ensign H. and Nellie Marie (Verbach) Ransom, who still maintains their home in the Badger State, where both were born and reared. Ensign H. Ransom having been born near Avalon, Rick County, and his wife at Johnstown Center. Hubbell Ranson and George Verbach, respective paternal and maternal grandfathers of Doctor Ransom, were numbered among the sterling pioneer and substantial farmers of Wisconsin. The active career of Ensign H. Ransom has been one of close and successful alliance with farm industry in Rock County, Wisconsin, where he is still the owner of a valuable farm estate and where he is an influential and progressive citizen who commands unqualified popular esteem. He is a stalwart in the local ranks of the Republican party, and in addition to having served as a member of the Board of Commissioners of his native county he gave two terms of service as county sheriff. He is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and both he and his wife are zealous members of the Congregational Church. Dr. Harry E., of this review having been the first born of their five children.

After completing his studies in the high school at Clinton Junction, in his native county, Dr. Harry E. Ransom followed the dictates of his youthful ambition by entering the medical department of Marquette University in the City of Milwaukee, and in this institution he was graduated as a member of the class of 1914. After receiving his degree of Doctor of Medicine he further fortified himself in the valuable clinical experience he gained while serving as interne in the hospital maintained by the Illinois Steel Company at Gary, Indiana, and in the Englewood Hospital, Chicago. In November, 1915, he engaged in the private practice of his profession at Valley Junction, Polk County, Iowa, where he continued his practice until the nation became involved in the World war, when he subordinated all personal interests to the call of patriotism and enlisted for service in the Medical Corps of the United States Army. He was thereafter stationed at Camp Grant, Illinois, and, with the rank of first lieutenant, he accompanied his unit overseas, where he continued in active service thirteen months and was advanced to the grade of captain, which rank he retains as a member of the Reserve Medical Corps of the United States Army. After the close of the war and the reception of his honorable discharge Doctor Ranson returned to Polk County, Iowa, where he has since continued in active general practice in the City of Des Moines and where he has made such record of success as to mark him as one of the representative physicians and surgeons of Iowa's capital city. In his practice he gives major attention to internal medicine. The Doctor has membership in the Des Moines Academy of Medicine and the local Medicine Study Club, of which latter he was president in 1928. He gave three years of service as secretary of the Polk County Medical Society, and in addition to his membership in this organization he is a member of the Iowa State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. He has held since 1923 the office of assistant health commissioner of Des Moines.

Doctor Ransom is found loyally arrayed in the ranks of the Republican party, and he is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Phi Beta Pi college fraternity and the American Legion.

In January, 1926, Doctor Ransom was united in marriage with Miss Gladys Marie McMurray, of Iowa Falls, where her father, J. H. McMurray, is engaged in the shoe business and where she was reared and educated. Doctor and Mrs. Ransom have a son, Ensign, who was born November 20, 1927, and who was named in honor of his paternal grandfather. Doctor and Mrs. Ransom are members of the Methodist Church.

REV. CLIFTON E. RASH has a prominent place among the ministers of the gospel of the capital city of Des Moines, where he is in charge of the First Federated Church, with a large congregation, and a splendid organization for social and religious service.

Rev. Mr. Rash was born in Salina, Kansas, March 23, 1885, son of Howard C. and Ella M. (Underwood) Rash. His grandfather, John C. Rash, was born in Tennessee, and shortly after the Civil war moved to Dallas County, Missouri, and in 1870 went to Salina, Kansas, where he was a merchant, continuing active in business until his death in 1891. The maternal grandfather, Charles R. Underwood, was a noted pioneer of Salina, Kansas, where he built the grist mill on the Smokey Hill River in 1867. This mill is still in operation, owned by the Western Star Milling Company. Howard C. Rash and wife are living at Salina. He was born in Tennessee and his wife in Ohio. Howard C. Rash became associated with his father in merchandising at Salina, and later built up an important business of his own, known as the Natural Body Brace Company, of which he has been president for thirty years. He is also vice president of the Farmers National Bank. He has been one of the most active members of the Christian Church at Salina, and has taught in Sunday School and for many years has been a member of the International Sunday School Association. He established the first graded Sunday School in this part of Kansas. Howard C. Rash is a Knight Templar and Scottish Rite Mason, having attained the thirty-third supreme honorary degree in the Scottish Rite, and is a Republican in politics, though not a seeker for political honors. He and his wife had five children. The two now living are: Leon C., associated with his father in business; and Clifton E. Clifton had a twin brother, Carlton H. Rash, who died when twenty-one years old.

Clifton E. Rash was educated at Salina, in the grade and high schools there, and in 1904 received the Bachelor of Science degree from the Salina Normal University. He then spent two years in Drake University at Des Moines, pursuing theological work, and after being ordained a minister of the Christian Church spent six months in a pastorate at Chase, Kansas, for two and a quarter years was located at Plainville, and five and a half years at Lyons, Kansas. His next calls was to the Central Park Christian Church at Topeka, where he remained three and a half years and for two years, while recovering his health, did pastoral and missionary work in Stone County in Southern Missouri.

Rev. Mr. Rash came to Des Moines in 1922 and took charge of The Urbandale Federated Church, now known as The First Federated Church. The church has a membership of 1,250, with an average attendance at Sunday School of 650. The church is non-denominational, and its members represent approximately thirty-two different denominations. Under the direction of Rev. Mr. Rash it is doing a splendid work and developing into an efficient instrument of religious service. Rev. Mr. Rash is a very able speaker, and outside of his regular pulpit services he averages about ten addresses and speeches in and out of the city every month.

He married, in 1908, Miss Alice Young, of Salina, Kansas, daughter of John A. and Alvine (Henry) Young. Her father was born in Pennsylvania and her mother in Belgium. Her father was in the transfer and merchandise business at Salina. Her grandfather Young was a pioneer Lutheran minister in Kansas. Her grandfather Joseph Henry was an old-timer of Kansas, operated a truck garden and was widely known for his scientific knowledge of botany and related sciences, and frequently wrote articles on these subjects. Rev. Mr. and Mrs. Rash have had two children: Paul Reaville, who was born at Lyons, Kansas, September 28, 1912; and Wayne Clifton, born at Lyons April 28, 1916. Rev. Mr. Rash is a York and Scottish Rite Mason.

CARL RAUSCHER. Ottumwa banker, was born in that city October 25, 1879, and during his career has cultivated a number of active interests that have brought him a considerable degree of prominence outside banking circles.

Mr. Rauscher's parents, Gottlieb and Margaret (Sonntag) Rauscher, were natives of Germany. His father came to the United States at the age of eighteen, and for a business followed his trade as potter. Carl Rauscher graduated from the Ottumwa. High School in 1898. For thirty years he has been identified with the Iowa National Bank of Ottumwa, of which he is now cashier.

Mr. Rauscher has long been a golf enthusiast, and was secretary and during 1913-14 president of the Iowa State Golf Association. He has been secretary and treasurer of the Wapello Club, secretary and treasurer of the Ottumwa Country Club, and was one of the organizers and charter members and is a past president of the Ottumwa Kiwanis Club. He is a thoroughly well qualified business man, and at all times has responded to the call for participation in the important civic movements in his city and county. He and his family are identified with the various departments of activities of the Trinity Episcopal Church, in which he has held the office of senior warden for several years.

Mr. Rauscher married at Ottumwa, April 15, 1903, Miss Elizabeth Martin. She was born in Ottumwa, daughter of Richard and Mary Martin. Her parents came from Wales to Iowa. Her mother was of the same family as Ivor Novello, the celebrated Welsh singer. Mr. and Mrs. Rauscher have a son, Richard, now attending Ottumwa High School.

HARRY D. RAWSON is a native son of Des Moines and for over thirty years has practiced his profession as an architect. He is a member of a firm that in the individual and aggregate of attainments of its members and in the work accomplished of its members easily stands in the front ranks of architecture in the Middle West.

Mr. Rawson was born at Des Moines, September 1, 1872, member of an old and well known family of this city. His parents were A. Y. and Mary (Scott) Rawson, both of whom were born at North Craftsbury, Vermont. A. Y. Rawson came to Iowa in the early 1850s and founded what has been known for many years as the Iowa Pipe and Tile Company. He was active in that business until his death. He was also a coal operator and in other lines of enterprise. He died in 1895 and his wife in 1900. They were members of the Plymouth Congregational Church and in politics the father was a Republican. There were four sons: Charles A., of Des Moines; J. Scott, in the insurance business at Des Moines; Hollis A., with the Iowa Pipe and Tile Company; and Harry D. Harry D. Rawson attended public schools in Des Moines, Grinnell College and was graduated in 1896 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For two years he had practical training with a firm of architects in Chicago and in 1898 started practice at Des Moines as member of the firm Hallett & Rawson. He has been in practice continuously, has had a number of different associates, and is now of the firm Proudfoot, Rawson, Powers and Thomas. His professional skill has been employed in a great variety of architectural work, but chiefly public buildings, including schools and office buildings. He was architect for the Polk County Courthouse, the Equitable Life Insurance Building, the Liberty Building and Valley National Bank Building at Des Moines and has handled a great deal of the work for the State Board of Education, including building groups at Ames, Iowa City and Cedar Falls. The Memorial Union, Home Economics and Dairy Buildings on the campus of the Iowa State College at Ames, the University Hospital and medical group at the State University at Iowa City.

Mr. Rawson married, in 1902, Miss Louise Gilmore, who was reared in Des Moines, and was educated in that city and in Bradford Academy in Massachusetts. Her father, Charles Gilmore, was with the Rock Island Railway for many years. Mr. and Mrs. Rawson have two children: Charles Gilmore, who was educated in the Boston Institute of Technology and the School of Applied Fine Arts in Paris and is now practicing interior architecture in New York; and Mary Scott, wife of Richard R. Rollins, connected with the Bankers Trust Company of Des Moines.

Mrs. Rawson is a member of Saint Paul's Episcopal Church. Mr. Rawson is a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity, the Wakonda Country Club, Des Moines Club and the American Institute of Architects. He is acting as the first president of the Board of Architectural Examiners for Iowa.

FRANK GUY RAY has been a resident of Vinton Fifty-eight years. His activities have made Vinton a better place commercially and otherwise, and the community has come to look upon him not only as a landmark in business affairs, but as a sterling citizen whose support and helpfulness can always be relied upon when cooperative effort is needed.

Mr. Ray for many years was an active merchant. In 1891 he was one of the organizers of the State Bank of Vinton, becoming a member of the first board of directors, and since the death of Paul Carrell, Mr. Ray has served as president of the bank. Recently the State Bank completed a new banking home, architecturally in keeping with the spirit of the times and also in keeping with forty years of splendid financial service the bank has rendered. This new building was opened for business, July 5, 1930.

Mr. Ray is a native of Illinois. He was born in Portland Township, Whiteside County, three miles southwest of Prophetstown, and the time of his birth as subsequently told him by his parents has always been fixed in his memory. It was just four hours before the advent of the new year, on December 31, 1851. His parents were Guy and Louise (Pomeroy) Ray. His father came from Massachusetts and in 1835 made a trip of investigation through Illinois, discovering a tract of land that suited him, and in 1836 he came out to effect a permanent settlement. He became one of the prosperous farmers of Whiteside County, took an active part in local affairs, serving in township offices, and was one of the early voters of the Republican ticket. He was a Presbyterian. Guy Ray died in 1881. By his first marriage he had two daughters, Mrs. Emma R. Sleight, of Moline, Illinois, and Mrs. Camilla Frazelle, of South Charleston, West Virginia. Louise Pomeroy was his second wife. She was born in Ohio.

Frank Guy Ray as a boy on a farm attended the district schools regularly each winter until he was eleven. Then, after a lapse of four years, he resumed his schooling, three winters at Geneseo, Illinois, later as a student at Mount Morris, and his educational opportunities were rounded out with a year in Oberlin College of Ohio. In the meantime he had taught school one term in his old home district.

It was in 1873 that Mr. Ray came to Vinton, and being impressed by the appearance of prosperity and the character of the people and the opportunities of the outlying trade territory, he decided that this way the place to anchor himself permanently. He found employment in a local implement house, at a monthly salary, but two years later, in 1875, set up in business for himself. He and his partner conducted two implement stores, one at Vinton, and the other at Spencer, Mr. Ray in charge of the Vinton establishment and his partner at Spencer. After a few years they found it to their advantage in dissolve the partnership and each one take over entire responsibility for his local territory. Mr. Ray was in business for over thirty years. The steady enlargement of the volume of his annual sales was a source of great satisfaction to him, and also he found satisfaction in the commercial contacts he made with the farmers not only of the immediate locality, but those at a considerable distance as well. His dealings were such as to inspire confidence, and many of his steadiest customers were the Germans in the neighborhood. As an aid to doing business with them to better advantage he acquired a considerable familiarity with the German language.

Mr. Ray finally retired from the implement business, in 1909, and since then has devoted most of his time to banking, and the Portland Cement business and other interests. For a number of years he was a director of the Northwestern Portland Cement Company at Mason City, in which connection he was associated with Charles H. MacNider, father of Hanford MacNider, former national commander of the American Legion, and Mr. Ray counted the senior MacNider as one of his closest friends. About 1914 Mr. Ray became one of the organizers and directors of the Trinity Portland Cement Company, with headquarters at Dallas, Texas, and branch factories at Houston and Fort Worth, and still remains on this board, of which he holds the title of secretary. He is also one of the organizers and now president of the Iowa Canning Company, with headquarters at Vinton and six other branches in Iowa.

Mr. Ray is also president of the Virginia Gay Memorial Hospital, which is a credit to the City of Vinton. It was endowed with a gift of $100,000 by Doctor Griffin and a $50,000 gift from Mrs. Virginia Gay.

He married Miss Emma Whiteside, who came from Pomeroy, Ohio. They were married September 13, 1876, at the bride's parental home. Mrs. Ray has been a life-long member and an active worker in the Presbyterian Church. They have two children. Their son, Earl K., first gained several years' banking experience and then took advantage of an opportunity to become an officer in the Corona Typewriter Company, which at that time was a comparatively new venture, and his ability and energy contributed largely to the success of the Corona Typewriter until it was merged with the L. C. Smith Company. His home is in New York City. He married Miss Mary Latham, of Vinton, and they have one daughter, Emma Janet, who married Leland E. Roseman, of Boston, Massachusetts, and they have one son, Leland Ray Roseman, who is the joy and pride of his great-grandparents. Mrs. Roseman is an accomplished musician. The daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ray is Belle, who married Dr. J. M. Knapp, of Boone.

Mr. Ray's chief hobby and diversion is Masonry. He is a past master of his lodge, a past eminent commander of the Knights Templar and a member of the Clinton Consistory. The thirty-third, supreme honorary, degree in the Scottish Rite was conferred on him at his home by Ex-Governor B. R. Sherman, who was a member of the Supreme Council of Washington, D. C. In politics Mr. Ray is a Republican.

He is also known as the father of the Country Club at Vinton. It is a tribute to his youthful spirit that when the younger folks of Vinton need help in carrying through a project they turn to Mr. Ray for counsel. Thus they came to him with their need for a country club, and he devoted a large amount of his time for several years in personally supervising the actual construction of the club and in helping to work out the numerous problems involved, with the results that today Vinton is the recreational center of a considerable area, members coming from many miles around to use the facilities of the club.

Mr. and Mrs. Ray will soon celebrate their fifty-fifth wedding anniversary, and it is worthy of note that the contribution they have made to the development of our great State of Iowa and the heritage of honor they are thus able to pass on to their children and grandchildren and great-grandchildren is a source of pride and satisfaction to all who know them.

JOHN E. RAY, who is general agent for the Equitable Life Insurance Company of Iowa, with executive headquarters in the City of Waterloo and with office in the Pioneer Building, is a native son of the Hawkeye State and a representative, in the third generation, of one of its sterling pioneer families.

Mr. Ray was born on the parental home farm three miles southeast of Shellsburg, Benton County, Iowa, on the 4th of January, 1872, and is a son of John H. Ray, Jr., who was born in New York City, he having been a son of John H. Ray, who was born in Sweden and who became an orphan when he was but a child. He was a lad of nine years when he initiated his seafaring career, and he continued a sailor on ocean ships during a period of twenty years and having voyaged far and wide. After retiring from the sea he maintained a Sailor's Home in New York City for a time and then removed to Indiana, from which state he came with his family to Iowa and became a pioneer settler in Linn County. There he owned and developed a productive farm, and he passed the closing period of his life in the village of Palo, that county, where he died November 13, 1902, at the venerable age of eighty-one years. He was a man of strong mentality, was well fortified in his political convictions and was an ardent supporter of the cause of the Republican party, as a representative of which he voted for Abraham Lincoln for the presidency of the United States. He was long and actively affiliated with the Masonic fraternity and received in the same the thirty-second degree of Scottish Rite. His wife, who was of German ancestry, preceded him to the life eternal.

John H. Ray, Jr., father of the subject of this review, was a boy at the time of the family removal to Linn County, Iowa, where he was reared on the pioneer farm and received the advantages of the public schools of the period. His youth was one of industry, as he early began to assist in the work of the home farm, and he started his independent career as a farmer by renting land from his father. He thus continued his operations three years and then, in 1874, removed to Sioux County, where he entered claim to a homestead of eighty acres. Like many of the other pioneers, he went through the three year grasshopper scourge soon after his arrival. He reclaimed this land to cultivation, erected good buildings and made other improvements, and there the family home was maintained until 1884, when removal was made to Hull, that county, in order to give the children the advantages of the public schools of the village. He continued to supervise the affairs of his old home farm and also of a farm adjoining Hull. There he remained until 1894, when he removed to Riceville, Iowa, where he died April 5, 1896, at the age of forty-seven years. His wife, whose maiden name was Lucinda Miller, survived him many years and was within a week of eighty-three years of age at the time of her death, October, 3, 1928. She was born in Ohio and was a daughter of Paul and Catherine Miller, who were residents of Iowa at the time of their death. John H. and Lucinda (Miller) Ray became the parents of four children: Paul M., vice president and superintendent of agents of the Provident Life Insurance Company at Chattanooga, Tennessee; John E.; Daniel G., manager of the Farmers Cooperative Association at McGregor, Iowa; and Martha Gertrude, who lives at Blackwell, Oklahoma.

John E. Ray supplemented the discipline of the rural district school by attending the public school at Hull, including the high school. That he profited by the advantages thus afforded him is shown by the success that attended his service as a teacher in the public schools, he having been principal of schools at different places and after continuing his pedagogic service several years he was a traveling salesman twenty years, during the period of 1898-1918. In the latter year he assumed his present position of general agent for the Equitable Life Insurance Company of Iowa, and he has marked the passing years with successful administration in this position. His political support is given to the Republican party and he takes loyal interest in all that concerns the welfare of his home city and native state.

In the year 1892 Mr. Ray was united in marriage to Miss Etta M. Sanborn, who was born at Columbus, Wisconsin, a daughter of George E. and Mary (Tompkins) Sanborn, representatives of families that came from England to America in an early period of the nation's history. Mr. and Mrs. Ray have five children: Elfa married John L. Thorson, a grocer at Waterloo, and they have one daughter, Patricia Darleen, born November 19, 1922; Lula E. married Blaine W. Gilda, a bank cashier at Grimes, Iowa; Mary E. married Frederick Thorne, inspector for the Viking Pump Company at Cedar Falls, Iowa, and they have one son, Ray F., born September 22, 1924; John H. III is a soloist and choir director and music teacher; and Paul E. is traveling in several Southern States for the Florsheim Shoe Company.

THOMAS JOHN REEVES, clerk of the District Court at Orange City, has spent a long and active life in Northwestern Iowa, and enjoys a place of special regard in Sioux County, the people of which have chosen him five successive times to his present office.

Mr. Reeves was born at Kaneville in Kane County, Illinois, December 5, 1856, a son of Stephen and Abigail (Snell) Reeves, his father a native of England and his mother of New York State. Thomas John Reeves was twelve years old when his parents moved to Iowa, in 1868. He had attended Illinois schools and finished his education after coming to Iowa.

When he was about sixteen years of age he went to work as clerk in a drug store, studied pharmacy largely by practical experience, and in 1878 was registered as a pharmacist. In the same year he opened a business of his own at Seney, Iowa, and was the local druggist of that community for ten years. He was also appointed postmaster in 1878, and held this office all the ten years he was in the general mercantile and drug business there. On selling his interest at Seney Mr. Reeves moved, in 1888, to Earlville, Iowa, where he was in the drug business one year, in 1888 located at Racine, Wisconsin, and soon afterward took up a Government homestead in Northwestern Nebraska, but in 1891 returned to Iowa and settled on a farm at Westfield. In the spring of 1892 he bought a farm in South Dakota and was a part of the rural community and the agricultural life of the state for thirteen years.

On returning to Iowa Mr. Reeves settled at Hawarden in Sioux County, and in 1904 he and his nephew, S. W. Harker, engaged in the drug business. Their partnership continued for ten years, and when Mr. Reeves sold out, in November, 1914, he retired from business except for the supervision of his private interests and has had time to devote to the duties of public office. Mr. Harker still continues in business, with G. F. Burket.

Mr. Reeves was city clerk of Hawarden from 1907 to 1923. On January 1, 1923, he took up his duties as clerk of the District Court at Orange City and is now serving in his fifth term. While living in South Dakota he was for twelve years, 1893-1904, a justice of the peace. He is a Republican in politics, is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having attained the thirty-second degree and being a life member of the Grand Lodge, and a member of the Mystic Shrine. He is a past junior grand warden of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, and district lecturer of the Grand Lodge. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Lions Club and of the American Reformed Church. He has the honor, too, of being president of the County Clerks Association of Iowa.

Mr. Reeves married at Seney, Iowa, September 5, 1878, Miss Jennie L. March, daughter of John March. Mr. and Mrs. Reeves lived together for nearly half a century, until the death of his wife on May 14, 1926. She was the mother of three daughters. Pearl B., the oldest, was born June, 1879, and died in November, 1882. Maude, born in July, 1881, is the wife of A. L. Bennett, of Hawarden, Iowa, and has two children, Marian, born in 1911, graduated from high school in 1929 and is now a stenographer at Hawarden, and Duane K., born in 1913, graduated from high school in 1930. The other daughter is Miss Mae, born in 1895, now deputy clerk of the District Court under her father. She married, May 2, 1930, Arthur Z. Kubicek, of Tama, Iowa, now an electrician at Orange City.

O. N. REFSELL, attorney and banker of Emmet County, is a resident of Esterville and descended from one of the sturdy early Norwegian families in this section of Iowa.

His grandparents, Ole and Mary (Paulson) Refsell came from Norway shortly after the close of the Civil war, and arrived in Emmet County just in time to secure the last tract of land still available from the public lands owned by the Government. This land had been filed on, but the first claimant had not completed the necessary improvements and it was a relinquishment when the Refsells secured it. Ole Refsell adapted himself to the circumstances of a new country, made a good record as an industrious farmer, and he and his wife enjoyed the respect and esteem of a large circle of acquaintances in Emmet County. He died March 2, 1895, and his wife in October, 1900. They were Lutherans in Iowa, as they had been in Norway. Their four children were: O. O., of Emmet County; Peter O., who died on Easter Sunday, April 20, 1930; James; and I. S., who died in Emmet County in March, 1930.

James Refsell, father of the Esterville attorney, was six years of age when brought to America. He was born in Norway July 31, 1860. He was sixty-six years old when he died, April 19, 1926, and no citizen of Emmet County left behind him a record showing more enterprise in a business way, and more hearty public spirit and generosity in his relationships as a citizen and community builder. He grew up in Emmet County, had the advantages of the common schools, and for a number of years devoted all his personal attention to his farming. When he left the farm, in 1915, he moved to the Village of Wallingford in Emmet County, where he helped organize and became the first president of the Farmers Savings Bank. He was president of the bank when he died, and also president of the Farmers Elevator Company, was a director in the creamery company and telephone company. When he moved to town he did not dispose of his farming property and at his death he owned one farm of 280 acres, another of 188 acres and also the twenty acres in the home place at Wallingford. His bank was the only one in that section of Iowa which did not close during the epidemic of bank failures. The integrity of the bank was in keeping with the integrity of its president. Mrs. James Refsell lives at Wallingford and the only daughter, Miss Emma, is also a member of the household there. James Refsell married, in 1886, Annie Osher. She was born in Dane County, Wisconsin, daughter of Neis and Ingeborg (Nordheim) Osher. Her parents came from Norway and settled in Wisconsin in 1850 and in 1870 moved to Emmet County, Iowa.

O. N. Refsell, only son of his parents, was born and reared in Emmet County, graduated form the Lutheran College at Red Wing, Minnesota, and later attended the University of Wisconsin and the University of Chicago. For a time he was an instructor in the Lutheran College at Jewell, Iowa. Leaving school work, he took up the study of law at the University of Wisconsin and University of Iowa and was admitted to the bar while with the colors during the World war. He enlisted April 29, 1918, was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Nineteenth Division and was stationed at Camp Dodge until discharged, November 30, 1918. Mr. Refsell for a few months worked in the office of E. A. Morling, of Emmetsburg, now chief justice of the Iowa Supreme Court, and then established himself at Estherville, where he has enjoyed a successful general law practice. Since the death of his father he has also been president of the bank at Wallingford and since the organization of the Iowa Trust & Savings Bank at Estherville, in 1926, he has been its vice president. Mr. Refsell is a Republican and a member of the Lutheran Church, the American Legion, Chamber of Commerce. He was county attorney from January 1, 1925, to January 1, 1929, and in 1930 was candidate for representative in the State Legislature.

He married, April 29, 1919, just one year after his enlistment, Miss Josephine Peterson who attended the University of Nebraska and the University of Minnesota. She was born in Nebraska. They have two daughters, Helen Ann, born July 25, 1922; and Eunice, born February 3, 1927.

JAMES RUTHERFORD RHODES, publisher of the Newton Daily News, is a native of Iowa, and of Jasper County, and has been interested in journalism and newspaper work since his college career.

He was born on a farm near Newton December 31, 1882. His father, James W. Rhodes, was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, April 9, 1849, and was brought out to Iowa in 1852 by his parents, who settled near Monroe. His active lifetime was given to farming and stock raising, and he died in January, 1923. His wife, Maria Hill, was born March 26, 1828, and died April 17, 1917. Of their six children four are living: Mrs. Winifred Wright, of Traer, Iowa; Hugh M., of Salt Lake City; George W., of Indianapolis; and James R.

James R. Rhodes attended rural schools while a boy on the farm in Jasper County, graduated from high school in 1901, and had some experience as a teacher in his native county. In 1902 he entered Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois, pursuing the four year liberal arts course and taking his A. B. degree in 1906. He was president of the student body in his senior year, was awarded a college letter for participation in baseball, and was active in college journalism in connection with the college papers and college annuals. It was at Monmouth, Illinois, that he gained his first regular experience as a reporter for the Daily Review. Mr. Rhodes in 1907 entered Princeton University in New Jersey, specializing in economics, and received his Master's degree in 1909. After about a year of travel he bought the Daily News of Newton in March, 1910, and has been the responsible editor and manager of that successful journal for more than twenty years. He has been a director of the Iowa Press Association and the Inland Press Association. Mr. Rhodes has been president of the Newton Chamber of Commerce. At Princeton he was a Sigma Delta Chi and member of the Friars Club. He is a Knight Templar Mason and member of the Mystic Shrine at Des Moines, the B. P. O. Elks, Rotary Club, and is a Republican and a United Presbyterian.

He married, September 11, 1926, Mrs. Helen A. Smith, of Des Moines, Iowa. He has a stepdaughter, Marian Smith, at Minneapolis.

WILLIAM H. RICE, of the firm Mitchell & Rice, owners of a dental laboratory at Fort Dodge, is a native of Iowa, born on a farm near Mount Ayr, February 11, 1882. His parents were John and Sarah Rice. His father came to Iowa at an early date, spent his active life as a farmer and is now living retired at Mount Ayr.

Dr. William H. Rice attended school at Mount Ayr and then completed a course in mechanical dentistry and is an expert in the technical work done in dental laboratories, including the making of bridges and the other delicate and marvelous work which has become one of the most important departments of the modern science of dentistry. Doctor Rice is a member of the Dental Study Club. He is a Republican in politics and has been a member of the vestry of the Episcopal Church at Fort Dodge.

On October 15, 1908, Doctor Rice and Miss Florence Gretchen Clark were united in marriage. Mrs. Rice was born in Iowa City, July 9, 1882, and is a great-granddaughter of Gov. Robert Lucas, the first territorial governor of Iowa, who came to Iowa from Ohio, where he had been conspicuous as a public official. Mrs. Rice is a daughter of Augustus L. and Florence (Lucas) Clark. Her father was born at Rahway, New Jersey and her mother at Piketon, Ohio, in the old Governor Lucas home. Augustus L. Clark came to Iowa in 1849 and soon moved to California, spending five years in the gold mines of that state and on returning to Iowa he invested his fortune in this state. He lived at Iowa City and for many years carried on a business as a building contractor. Mr. and Mrs. Clark had five children and the three now living are: Miss Caroline, who lives with her sister, Mrs. Rice; Dr. George Warfield Clark, a dentist at Fort Dodge; and Mrs. Rice.

Mrs. Rice attended public school at Iowa City and St. Catherine's Episcopal School at Davenport. She is an active member of St. Margaret's Guild in the Episcopal Church.

Doctor and Mrs. Rice have three children, John Clark, William Rice and Barbara. The two youngest children are twins, born in 1917, and are attending junior high school. John Clark Rice, who was born in 1910, is a student in the School of Commerce in the University of Iowa, is a member of the Delta Tau Delta and has won five letters in athletics.

EMMETT E. RICHARDS, M. D. The medical profession of Fremont County numbered among its members no more capable or learned physician and surgeon than Dr. Emmett E. Richards, who had been engaged in practice at Hamburg for more than two decades, and died August 10, 1929. During the time he spent in practice at Hamburg he not only built up a reputation for splendid talent along professional lines, but also as a citizen of public spirit, who accepted and discharged official responsibilities in a highly capable and commendable manner.

Doctor Richards was born on a farm in Atchison County, Missouri, December 11, 1870, and was a son of John and Elizabeth (Hayes) Richards. John Richards was born in Ohio, where he secured an excellent education for his day, and became a pioneer of Missouri in 1856, arriving in that state with only seventy-five cents in cash. He soon found employment as a teacher in the primitive rural schools, and was thus engaged for several years, then turned his attention to farming. During the war between the states he espoused the cause of the Union and served as a member of the Home Guard, and at the close of the struggle laid down the arms of war to take up again the implements of peace. For many years he was leading agriculturist of Atchison County, where he developed a highly cultivated farm and raised grain and cattle, at his death leaving an estate of about 100,000, including the old home place, which is owned by four of his children. Mr. Richards was not only prominent as an agriculturist, but as a man who was active and capable in public affairs. For nearly a quarter of a century he was president of the local board of supervisors, and in addition served as chairman of the Democratic county committee for a long term. He married in Atchison County Miss Elizabeth Hayes, who was born in Indiana and was one year old when taken by her parents to Missouri. She was a member of the Christian Church, and, like her husband, passed away in Atchison County, greatly honored and respected by all who knew their many sterling qualities of mind and heart. Of their ten children nine are living, and Emmett E. was the fourth child in order of birth. As an example of the progressive spirit of John Richards it may be noted that in 1874 he brought into Missouri the first alfalfa seed that ever came over the Rocky Mountains.

Emmett E. Richards attended the local schools of his native community, the Western Normal School at Shenandoah and Dixon (Illinois) College, and then entered Washington University, of Saint Louis, Missouri, from which he was graduated with the degree of Doctor of Medicine as a member of the class of 1898. He served his internship in the City Hospital at Saint Louis, and commenced the practice of his profession at Tarkio, Atchison County, Missouri, remaining ten years. In March, 1909, he took up his residence at Hamburg, Iowa, where he built up an extensive and remunerative practice. Doctor Richards won a substantial position in his profession through hard work, close application and steady development of accumulative knowledge and talent. He was a close student of his profession, and his offices contained a large and comprehensive medical library and all of the implements known to modern medical and surgical science. He was a specialist in no one line, as he was familiar with all departments of his science, and was a member of the Fremont Medical Society, the Iowa State Medical Society and the American Medical Association. A Democrat in politics, he bore his full share of the duties of citizenship, and served as mayor of Hamburg for three terms and as a member of the school board for twelve years. He was always interested in farming, and was the owner of a valuable and highly-improved property located in Union County, Iowa. He was a York Rite Mason and Shriner and with his family belonged to the Christian Church.

On June 28, 1899, Doctor Richards was united in marriage with Miss Bessie Carpenter, who was born in Atchison County, Missouri, and educated at Peru, Nebraska, and was a teacher in the public schools prior to her marriage. To this union there have been born two children: Mary Elizabeth, who has been well educated; and Charlotte Louise, who graduated from the Hamburg High School as valedictorian of the class of 1929.

FRANCIS G. RICHARDSON, Doctor of Dental Surgery, in the First National Bank Building at Mason City, grew up as a boy on a farm in Cerro Gordo County, and the family have lived in this section of Northern Iowa for over half a century.

Doctor Richardson is a native of Minnesota, born on a farm in Fillmore County, December 15, 1866, son of John A. and Nellie M. (Stevens) Richardson. His father was born in New York State and his mother at Concord, New Hampshire. The Richardsons came from England to America in Colonial times, and the Stevens family were also of English ancestry. The grandfather of Nellie M. Stevens was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. John A. Richardson came to Cerro Gordo County, Iowa, in February, 1874, and homesteaded just north of Mason City. The old home is still owned by the family. He always took a deep interest in local affairs, was a Republican, and died in 1907, and his wife in 1909. Doctor Richardson was the oldest of four children. The sister Grace died in 1880. Ralph, an industrial engineer, lives at Saint Paul. Mrs. Gladys Yelland, a widow, is a resident of Mason City.

Francis G. Richardson is a graduate of the Mason City High School, also attended the University of Iowa, and was graduated from the dental school of Northwestern University at Chicago in 1896. He has spent over thirty years in the practice of his profession at Mason City. For a short time he was associated with Doctor Beemer, but since then has conducted an office alone. He is a member of the State, District and National Dental Associations.

Doctor Richardson joined other patriotic citizens at Mason City in carrying out the local program for the winning of the World war. He is a Democrat, a member of the Masonic fraternity, Knights of Pythias, B. P. O. Elks and the Chamber of Commerce. He enjoys occasional diversions in hunting and fishing. His family are members of the Baptist Church.

Doctor Richardson married, August 15, 1904, Miss Alice Thee, of Mason City, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Herman Thee. Her parents moved out to California in 1909, and her mother died there in 1926. Their children were Anna, Clara, Alice, Martha, Hulda, Lillian, wife of Dr. Earl B. Lloyd. All are residents of Pasadena and Los Angeles except Mrs. Richardson.

The oldest of the children of Doctor and Mrs. Richardson is Donald F., born October 1`5, 1905, who is married and lives at Pasadena, California. The younger children are: Douglas, born September 17, 1908; Robert, born May 8, 1917, and died August 10, 1917; Mary, born October 18, 1918; and Curtis A., born May 16, 1922.

EDWIN CLAY ROACH is the dean of the bar of Lyon County. He has practiced law at Rock Rapids for over forty-five years, and his work as a lawyer has been accompanied by a varied service of a public nature and a constant participation in the work of the community.

Mr. Roach was born in Knox County, Illinois, December 31, 1850, son of James P. and Jane (Castle) Roach. His father was a captain in the Twenty-third Iowa Regiment in the Civil war. Edwin Clay Roach attended school at Oskaloosa, receiving part of his education in Oskaloosa College, now a part of Drake University, and in 1875 was graduated from the law department of the University of Iowa. During the following seven years he practiced in Jasper County and in 1882 moved to Rock Rapids, which was then a small town in a comparatively sparsely populated section of the state. Mr. Roach has practiced law ever since coming to Rock Rapids.

He was elected and served as a member of the Twenty-first and Twenty-second General Assemblies in 1886-88 and was a delegate to the National Republican convention at Saint Louis in 1896. He is affiliated with Lodge No. 406, A. F. and A. M., is a Knight Templar Mason and Shriner and attends the Congregational Church.

He married, December 31, 1875, Miss Mary A. Ramsey, of Jasper County, Iowa, daughter of John and Catherine (Humphrey) Ramsey. They have four children: Loran J., born in March, 1878, served in the Fifty-first Iowa Regiment during the Spanish-American war and in the Philippine Island, being discharged in 1900. He graduated from the Iowa State University and took his law course at Columbia University, New York, and is now in the employ of the Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He married Georgine Reed, of Texarkana, Texas, and they have three children: Edwin R., George L. and Lillian. Lena, born in 1880, is a teacher at Rock Rapids. Rollin E., born in 1885, died in 1911. Paul R., born March 1, 1893, graduated from the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, and served in the World war, in Battery E. One Hundred and Tenth Field Artillery, and later in the Aviation Service and is now in the life insurance business at Rock Rapids. He married in 1921 Miss Doris Kline, of Saint Paul, and they have two boys, James and Frederick.

ROBERT L. ROACH, head of Roach Investment Company, is one of the active and prominent younger business men of Muscatine, which is his native city and the Iowa locality with which the Roach family have been identified for three generations.

Mr. Roach is a son of William LeRoy and Margaret (McCarthy) Roach and was born at Muscatine February 27, 1894. More extended reference is made to his father in the preceding sketch. His father died December 18, 1916 and his mother in 1909.

Robert L. Roach attended parochial schools, for three years was a student in St. Mary's College in Kansas, and completed a four years' liberal education in Notre Dame University of Indiana in 1915, being president of the senior class in that year. Throughout the years since he left college he has been interested in the lumber business. In 1916 he went to Live Oak, Florida, to enter the employ of the Standard Lumber Company and in 1917 was elected secretary. On returning to Muscatine in 1922 Mr. Roach became associated with the Roach & Musser Sash & Door Company and the Roach Timber Company. He is still secretary of the Roach Timber Company and director of the Roach & Musser Sash & Door Company. However, since 1927 he has given most of his time to the investment business as head of the Roach Investment Company, with offices in the Laurel Building. Mr. Roach is a very popular member of the business and social community of Muscatine. For one year he was president of the Lions Club, and for three years was president of the Geneva Golf and Country Club and is a member of the Knights of Columbus and St. Mathias Catholic Church. He has been chairman of the finance committee of the Muscatine Welfare Association for the past three years and chairman of the joint committee of the Muscatine Service Club for the past two years.

He married, December 27, 1915, Miss Julia S. Schneider, of Iowa City, daughter of A. J. and Mary (Hanley) Schneider. Her father is a member of Schneider Brothers, furniture dealers and undertakers of Iowa City. Mr. and Mrs. Roach have one son, William LeRoy, born in 1922.

WILLIAM LEROY ROACH. Many of the important facts of Muscatine's industrial and commercial history revolve around the name Roach. The Roach family has been in Muscatine since 1862.

The founder of the family there was William Martin Roach, who was born in Canada, his father being a Canadian, of Irish descent, and hi smother of French parentage. William Martin Roach was born in Canada, learned the trade of tanner and furrier, and on moving to Muscatine, in 1862, engaged in the boot and shoe and wholesale leather business with Andrew Davidson, his father-in-law. Later he became connected with the hide and fur business, and was an active figure in Muscatine's commercial circles until his death in 1898, at the age of seventy-seven. William Martin Roach married Sarah Mary Davidson, whose father, Andrew Davidson, came to Iowa from Ohio. Her mother was Elizabeth (Meek) Davidson. William Martin Roach reared a family of six children, Elizabeth D., William LeRoy, Lillian M., Ada, Ellen V. and Grace E.

William LeRoy Roach, of the second generation of the family at Muscatine, became conspicuous in the lumber industry, one of the men who made Muscatine of the leading centers of lumber manufacture in the Middle West. He was born at Muscatine, October 10, 1862, was educated in grade and high schools in his native city, and form an early age established his habits at thrift and industry by working on holidays and in vacations. When he was eighteen years old he was bookkeeper and clerk for the Davidson & Roach Boot & Shoe Store. After two and a half years he became bookkeeper for M. S. Ritchey, with whom he remained two years. Out of his earnings he saved $600 which he gave to his father, and then started to accumulate for himself, working steadily until he had an initial capital of $1000. It was in June, 1881, that he left Muscatine and became bookkeeper and clerk for the Muscatine Coal Company at What Cheer in Keokuk County, but the real opening of the doors of opportunity began in January, 1883, when he went to work for the Huttig Sash & Door Company at Kansas City. After he had accumulated $1000 he invested in stock in the Huttig Company. In 1885 he established the Roach & Wilker Manufacturing Company, manufacturing sash, doors and mill work, at Kansas City. Still later he concentrated his interests in the Western Sash & Door Company. He was also a stockholder in and was made vice president of the Huttig Sash & Door Company of St. Louis. Selling out his interests in these two organizations, in June, 1888, he organized the Roach & River Manufacturing Company of Kansas City.

Mr. Roach in June, 1889, returning to Muscatine, organized the Muscatine Sash & Door Company, and for several years shipped finished products all over the United States from the plants at Muscatine and Kansas City. Later he concentrated his interests in Muscatine, in the industry known as the Roach & Musser Sash & Door Company, of which he was president and general manager until his death on December 18, 1916. This business at that time was one of the largest of its kind in the United States and was instrumental in bringing a large share of substantial prosperity to the city. Mr. Roach also had large holdings in timber lands in different parts of the country. He is recalled as a man of not only superior business judgment but always generous in the spirit of helpfulness to his fellow men and public spirited wherever any cause for general benefit was concerned.

He married, February 21, 1887, Miss Margaret E. McCarthy, of Kansas City, daughter of Michael McCarthy. She died in 1909, leaving four children: John William, James, Edward Andrew and Robert Leonard.

PHILIP F. ROAN, an Iowa attorney practicing law at Fort Madison, grew up in that town, was a salesman and business man until after the World war, in which he saw service overseas, and has made an excellent record in his profession.

He was born at Marceline, Missouri, December 9, 1892, son of Peter F. and Mary (Fagan) Roan, both of whom were born in Iowa, his mother at Burlington. The parents live in Fort Madison. His father has spent all his active life as a railroad man, an engineer with the Santa Fe Company, and was living t Marceline on that road when his son Philip F. was born. The other children are: Leo, of Fort Worth, Texas; Mrs. Cecilia Riley, of Marceline; Mrs. Rosana Freesmeier, of Detroit, Michigan; Miss Margaret, of Fort Madison; and Peter F. Jr., of Ontario.

Philip F. Roan grew up at Fort Madison, and attended public schools there, graduating from high school in 1914. For two years he was a salesman for the Moon Motor Car Company at Saint Louis, and during 1916 was a timekeeper for the Sante Fe Railway Company.

Mr. Roan in December, 1916, enlisted with an ambulance corps for service in the French army, had training at Fountainpieau, near Paris, and was in active service eight months, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. After being released from this service he returned to America and joined the Tank Corps, being trained at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, with Company A of the Three Hundred Second Battalion, with the rank of sergeant. He again went overseas, was stationed at Langres, and for six months after the armistice was in Germany.

After his honorable discharge in September, 1919, entered the Detroit College of Law, which he attended three years, getting his LL. B. degree in 1924. During the summer vacations he carried on his studies at the University of Michigan, and after graduating he spent a year in the University of Detroit, where he won his Master's degree in 1925. For one year he was connected with the legal department of the Michigan Bell Telephone Company, and in 1927 returned to Fort Madison to engage in a general law practice, and has accumulated a very promising business in his profession.

He is a member of the Sigma Nu Phi fraternity, the B. P. O. Elks, and was active on the school debating teams the three years he was in law college. He has served several years as chairman of the Lee County central Republican committee.

Mr. Roan married, June 23, 1923, Miss Elinor Smith, of Scranton, Pennsylvania.

CHARLES BURTON ROBBINS is a native of Iowa who has packed into a life of a little more than fifty years a heaping measure of experience, service and achievements, representing not only an exceedingly busy but a most useful career.

He was born on a farm near Hastings in Mills County, Iowa, November 6, 1877, son of Lewis and Harriett E. (Benson) Robbins. The earlier generations of the Robbins family were found in New England, and members of the family were soldiers in the Revolutionary war. His grandfather, Joseph Robbins, was a miller at Nelsonville, Ohio, and Lewis Robbins also followed that occupation in Ohio until his marriage with Harriett E. Benson. She was born at Buffalo, New York, but before her marriage had taught school in Nelsonville. Her father, James Benson, was a native of England.

On coming out to Iowa Lewis Robbins took up a homestead in Mills County, and made a good farm out of it. He remained in Mills County until March, 1893, when he moved to Lincoln, Nebraska, and died in that city in October, 1893. The mother passed away in May, 1896.

Charles Burton Robbins spent his early years on an Iowa farm, attended country schools in Mills County, was a student in a private school at Hempstead on Long Island, and in 1898 took his A. B. degree at the University of Nebraska. Shortly before graduating from that school America declared war on Spain, and on April 27, 1898, he enlisted as a private in Company B, First Nebraska Infantry. On May 10, 1898, he was promoted to first sergeant, and on June 17th left San Francisco for the Philippines. The regiment participated in the battle of Manila on August 13, 1898, and was engaged in duty during the Philippine insurrection from its outbreak until June 18, 1899. All told, the regiment participated in twenty-eight battles, more than any other regiment in the Philippines. Colonel Robbins was cited for gallantry on February 5, 1899, and was wounded in the head at the battle of Marilao, March 27, 1899. He was commissioned a second lieutenant April 24, 1899, in Company I of the First Nebraska Infantry. He accompanied the regiment in June, 1899, and the regiment was formally disbanded in August of that year. After leaving the army Colonel Robbins did some post-graduate work in the University of Nebraska and in April, 1900, started on a trip around the world, revisiting the Philippines, and at the close of the trip entered Columbia University at New York, where he won his Master of Arts degree in June, 1903. While in New York he was a member of Company C, Seventh Regiment, New York National Guard, from 1901 to 1903.

He studied law while in Columbia and after returning to Iowa entered the law offices of Grimm, Trewin & Moffitt, at Cedar Rapids. He was admitted to the bar in October, 1904, and then became junior partner of Grimm, Trewin & Robbins. His time and abilities were taken up by private practice until July 16, 1909, when Governor Carroll appointed him judge of the Superior Court, and he was on the bench until 1919. His service on the bench was distinguished by something more than the able conduct of the routine of office. It was he who instituted juvenile court work at Cedar Rapids, and he was in large measure responsible for getting through the Legislature the contributing dependency act, the Perkins law and widow's pension act, all important pieces of legislation in Iowa social welfare.

Judge Robbins for many years has been known as an authority on insurance law, and since 1905 has been associated with the Cedar Rapids Life Insurance Company, being general counsel and chairman of the executive committee of the board of directors until 1914, and since that year president and general counsel of the company. He is also a director of the Cedar Rapids National Bank and the Cedar Rapids Candy Company.

His military record did not close with his service in the Philippines. He was captain of Company D of the First Infantry of the Iowa National Guard from 1914 to 1916. On November 2, 1916, he was commissioned major in the adjutant general's department of Iowa, while on duty on the Mexican border. From August, 1917, until May, 1919, he was major and adjutant of the Sixty-seventh and later the Sixty-ninth Infantry Brigade, with the United States Army, and was with the American Expeditionary Forces during 1918-19. In 1921 he was commissioned a major in the United States Reserves, lieutenant-colonel in 1923, and colonel in 1926, and is now colonel and commanding officer of the Three Hundred Forty-ninth Infantry. Colonel Robbins was chosen commander of the Iowa Department of the American Legion in 1922, and in 1924 was civilian aide to the secretary of war for the Citizens Military Training Camps.

In 1928 he was called to Washington as an assistant secretary of war, and served in that capacity until March 5, 1929. When he left his post in Washington, after a year of service, the department employees voted him the most popular man who had ever held an assistant secretaryship, and subsequently the seven major general in charge of the Army Supply Department presented him with an American flag in appreciation of his work. In commenting on this signal recognition of one of Cedar Rapids' citizens, a local newspaper editorially said: "In other ways Colonel Robbins achieved a remarkable record during his short term of service in Washington. Hanford MacNider had set an enviable record, but Colonel Robbins kept well abreast of it. He could see no reason why the Government should be victimized just because it is supported by taxpayers. On one occasion the department was to sell one and a quarter million uniforms. The assistant secretary discovered that all of the bidders had gotten together on their bids. The plan was to split the profits. The uniforms were promptly withdrawn from sale and later were disposed of at an increase of several hundreds of thousands of dollars above the former high bid.

"Col. Robbins' skillful maneuvering also is responsible for the appropriation of $250,000 annually for three years to furnish tanks for the army, and mechanize it in other ways. His own experience in war taught him the importance of tanks and motor trucks. Doubtless his keen appreciation of army needs contributed to the high esteem in which he is held by the generals. He brought to his post a rare combination of business ability and first-hand knowledge of military affairs. Add to this his knack of making friends and getting things done and you have the secret to his brilliant record as assistant secretary of war."

Like many other very busy men Colonel Robbins has a hobby. He is collecting old coins. He is a Republican in politics, a member of the Universalist Church, a member of the Iowa State Bar Association, Iowa Historical Society, Delta Tau Delta fraternity, and is a thirty-second degree Scottish Rite Mason, also belongs to the York Rite bodies, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and is past exalted ruler of the B. P. O. Elks. He is a member of the Sojourners Club of Washington and was twice president of the Cedar Rapids Commercial Club. While with the organization he was chairman of the committee that started the movement, later became chairman of the election committee, for the bond issue to provide for the Memorial Building. The result is the million dollar building that is one of the finest war memorials in the country, serving a great utilitarian purpose as a community center of Cedar Rapids, being used as city hall, Chamber of Commerce quarters, armory for the National Guard, club rooms for the Grand Army of the Republic and Spanish War Veterans, and also as a civic auditorium. Colonel Robbins is president of the American Life Convention.

He married, September 19, 1903, Miss Helen Larrabee of Clermont, Iowa, who died August 9, 1919. Her father, the late William Larrabee was the distinguished Iowan, educator, author, manufacturer, farmer and banker, member of the State Senate, and with a career culminating as the twelfth governor of Iowa. He was also the first president of the Iowa state board of control. Colonel Robbins has two daughters, Anna Marcella and Julia Larrabee, both at home, and one son, Lewis Frederic, a student in the State University of Iowa.


MANFORD A. ROBINSON, Doctor of Dental Surgery, has for many years occupied an honored place in his profession and in the citizenship of Maquoketa. He is a native of Iowa, and his people were pioneers in Clinton County.

Doctor Robinson was born in Clinton County, Iowa, August 3, 1868, son of James M. and Cynthia (Ross) Robinson. His parents came from Indiana, his father settling in Clinton County in 1852. In 1854 he bought forty acres in Welton Township, later added 300 acres by purchase, and was one of the well-to-do and prosperous farmers of that locality. He has lived a long and useful life, passing away in February, 1917, at the age of ninety-four. His wife died in 1907, when eighty-three. Seven children were born to their marriage: Eliza, who became the wife of Lorenzo Hastings; Sarah, who married J. W. Knight; James W., deceased; John Q., a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church; Frank S., deceased; Olive, who died in infancy; and Manford A.

Dr. Manford A. Robinson was reared on a farm, attended the district schools of Clinton County and attended Cornell College at Mount Vernon, Iowa. In 1891 he was graduated from the dental department of the University of Iowa. Doctor Robinson has kept in touch with the great advance made in the methods and technique of dental surgery during the forty years since he was in dental school. He completed a special course in the University of Iowa, later had other special training and attended a special clinic with the Mayo Brothers Hospital at Rochester, Minnesota. Doctor Robinson after graduating, in 1891, practiced for five years at Dewitt, Iowa. In April, 1896, he established his home and office at Maquoketa, where he has enjoyed general recognition of his talents and skill. Doctor Robinson is a Republican in politics, is a Knight Templar Mason and a member of the Congregational Church.

He married, September 10, 1890, Miss Emma C. Everhart, daughter of Miller A. and Emma (Clark) Everhart. Both parents are now deceased. Her father was a veteran railroad man, being in the service fifty-two years, and for forty-five years was with the bridge department of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul System, at first at Wheatland and later at Oxford Junction, Iowa. Doctor and Mrs. Robinson have a family of six children: Manford E., a farmer in Jackson County; Millard M., a merchant at Hurstville; James E., a Maquoketa pharmacist; John Q., associated with his brother in business at Hurstville; Lucile, now the wife of O. H. Cuddy, cashier of the First National Bank of Maquoketa; and Ruth, the wife of Russell D. Baker, sales manager of the Redwood Lumber Company of San Francisco, California.

MARIA M. ROBERTS, dean of Iowa State College at Ames, has distinguished herself by rare gifts as an administrator and educator. She is also a scientist, and it was her attainments as a mathematical scholar that brought her to the Iowa State College faculty.

Miss Roberts is a native of Ohio, born at Dunlap, and represents a family of culture that left its impress on the early traditions of the state. She is a daughter of Benjamin F. Roberts, who came from Connecticut to Iowa in 1857, traveling by train as far as Iowa City and then walked, guiding the ox teams that hauled wagons containing household goods, women and children. He and seven brothers settled on adjacent farms in Harrison County, Iowa. He was engaged in farming there until 1908, when he removed to Ames and spent his last years in the college community, where he died in 1921. He was a Union soldier; in Company C of the Twenty-ninth Iowa Infantry. It was shortly after his discharge at the close of the war that he married Ellen Rogers, who had come to Iowa from Michigan in 1860. She was one of the early school teachers of Harrison County. The father and mother of Benjamin F. Roberts established in Harrison County in 1861 the Farmers Wives Society, which was probably the first woman's club in the state. Dean Roberts has one brother, O. W. Roberts, who was born in Harrison County, attended high school at Dunlap, and graduated from Iowa State College, and is now head of the weather bureau at Bismarck, North Dakota.

Maria M. Roberts attended the common and high schools of Dunlap, Iowa, graduated from high school in 1884, and in 1890 took the Bachelor of Science degree from Iowa State College at Ames. The following year she taught at Des Moines and in 1891 returned to Ames as an instructor in mathematics in the State College. Besides her many years of work as teacher of mathematics Dean Roberts is known among mathematicians for her contributions as joint author with Julia T. Colbert on the text book on Analytic Geometry, published in 1918 by John Wiley & Son, and now used as a text book by many of the leading institutions of the country, including the state universities of Iowa, Wisconsin and Nebraska. Miss Roberts is a member of the American Mathematical Society and Mathematical Association of America.

Her special gifts in work of administration caused Miss Roberts a number of years ago to be appointed vice dean, and on the death of Dean Stanton, in 1920, she was made acting dean, and a year later was given her present title as dean of Junior College at Iowa State College. She now has fifteen faculty assistants besides several secretaries and stenographers, and has full charge of all the scholastic work of the freshman and sophomore years, with a more or less general supervision of the activities of 2,500 students. Dean Roberts has done graduate work in Columbia, Cornell and Chicago universities, and is a member of many learned and civic organizations. She is a member of Chapter 99 of P. E. O., also of Pi Beta Phi Sorority and a member of the Congregational Church.

ORRIN ROBERTSON, originator and founder of the Vita-O-Pathic Non-Surgical Sanitarium of Clariton, who enjoys a large following of patients and friends, is a man of intellectual gifts, and life long habits of study have brought him in contact with the deepest sources of philosophy, religion and the science of medicine. He was born in Cass County, Missouri, May 28, 1858, son of Jefferson and Martha Robertson. Doctor Robertson has received thirty-one diplomas from various institutions of learning both in America and in Europe. He holds degrees in law and medicine from the University of Iowa. He studied and qualified for the ministry and spent two years in missionary work in old Mexico. For four years he was an instructor in the New York College of Megnetics, holds a diploma in osteopathy, is a fellow of the Eastern Section of Theosophy, is a Doctor of Spiritual Science, Doctor of Philosophy, and in the ministry was identified with the Chirothesian Church of Faith at Los Angeles. He is a member of the Society of Oriental Mystics.

For some years he was on the lecture platform, devoting most of his attention to topics along new thought lines. He has conducted several sanitaria similar to the one he established at Chariton. He has written extensively on medical and health subjects, and in his practice has held to the central ideas expressed in the slogan "Eat right - Breathe right - Think right."

ABRAHAM H. ROGERS, who is living retired in the City of Oskaloosa, judicial center of Mahaska County, was born and reared in this county, is a representative of one of its very early pioneer families, and here he so ordered his course during his many years of identification with farm industry as to gain the substantial success and prosperity that enable him to pass the gracious evening of his life in well earned retirement and under conditions that are in every way benignant. The family name has been honorably and prominently linked with the annals of Iowa history during a period of more than eighty years.

Abraham H. Rodgers was born on the pioneer home farm of his parents in Spring Creek Township, Mahaska County, October 11, 1846, and is a son of Daniel and Sarah E. (Comstock) Rodgers, who here reclaimed from the virgin prairie the productive farm that was their place of abode until their death, they having contributed their quota to civic and industrial progress in Mahaska County and their names merit enduring place on the roster of the honored pioneers of the Hawkeye State.

Abraham H. Rodgers was reared to the sturdy discipline of the pioneer farm, and in the meanwhile profited by the advantages of the common schools of the locality and period. It is interesting to record that in the rural school he attended in his youth his two sons later prosecuted their studies under the preceptorship of the same teacher who had there been the instructor of their father many years previously.

Mr. Rodgers was a lad of about fifteen years at the inception of the Civil war, and before its close he was able to give expression to his youthful patriotism by enlisting for service in defense of the nation's integrity. In 1864 he enlisted as a member of Company I, Forty-seventh Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and with this command he continued in active service until the close of the war, he having been with his regiment in Arkansas when he received his honorable discharge in the early summer of 1865. He has ever retained deep interest in his old comrades, whose ranks grow less day by day and year by year, and has signalized this by his appreciative affiliation with Phil Kearney Post No. 40, Grand Army of the Republic, at Oskaloosa, where also he maintains affiliation with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.

After the close of his military career Mr. Rodgers resumed his active association with farm industry in his native county. He became the owner of a fine farm estate of 200 acres five miles northeast of Oskaloosa, and there he staged his activities as a progressive representative of general farm enterprise until he retired and established his home in the City of Oskaloosa, where he owns and occupies an attractive residence at 328 North D Street, he still retaining possession of his farm property. The political allegiance of Mr. Rodgers is given to the Republican party, and he has ever been loyal and public-spirited in his civic attitude. While on the farm he served as a member of the school board of his district and also held various township offices. He and his wife are zealous members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, as was also his first wife.

In 1874 was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Rodgers and Miss Mary Josephine Millice, of Warsaw, Indiana, and at their home in Oskaloosa her death occurred January 31, 1922, after their companionship had covered a period of nearly half a century. Of the children of this union the eldest is Deuward, who is one of the representative farmers of Mahaska County, the maiden name of his wife having been Maude Glasscock and their children being Bernice, Blance and Floyd. Harry Wilkins Rodgers, the second son, is likewise a progressive farmer in his native county. He married Miss Annis Buckner, and they have three daughters, Beulah, Wilmer and Lorena, the eldest daughter, Miss Beulah, having won in 1928 the Iowa State prize in canning and this having gained to her a free trip to Europe, James D., youngest of the sons and a successful farmer in Mahaska County, married Miss Lena Melchur, and their three children are sons, Harry, Roy and James D., Jr. As loyal and progressive citizens all three sons are well upholding the honors of the family name and are representatives of the third generation of the family in Mahaska County.

The second marriage of Mr. Rodgers occurred June 7, 1923, when he wedded Mrs. Mary (Roenspiess) Moore, widow of J. C. Moore, she having had by her first marriage one son, Leo Moore, who is deceased and whose widow, Mrs. Mary (Griffin) Moore, and their one child, Leo, Jr., reside in the City of Fort Dodge. Mrs. Rodgers is the popular chatelaine of the attractive home in Oskaloosa.

THOMAS J. ROGERS, a retired citizen of Moulton, has lived a long and interesting career. One fact that makes him distinguished among the present generation is that he is a surviving veteran of the Union army of the Civil war. His home has been in Appanoose County for over three-quarters of a century.

He was nine years of age when his parents moved to Appanoose County in 1850. Mr. Rogers was born in Pike County, Illinois, September 26, 1841, son of Thomas J. and Phoebe (Shinn) Rogers. Thomas J. Rogers, Sr., who was born in North Carolina, in 1810 moved across the Mississippi River and bought land in Appanoose County in 1850. He was for a number of years a merchant, and helped organize one of the first Methodist churches in Appanoose County. His wife, Phoebe Shinn, was born in Ohio, in 1817.

Thomas J. Rogers grew up on an Iowa farm, had the advantages of the schools of that day, which were still of a pioneer character, and in 1861, when he was twenty years of age, he went across the state line and enlisted in Company H. of the Second Missouri Cavalry. He ranked as a master sergeant. His regiment was employed in general scouting duty over Northern Missouri and he participated in the fight at Kirksville and in several other engagements. He received his honorable discharge at Saint Louis in 1865 and soon returned to Appanoose County. Mr. Rogers' business career was devoted to farming and stock raising. For over sixty years, a record for continuous service seldom equaled, he was engaged in farming and the raising of blooded sheep and cattle. Since 1919 he has had his home in the town of Moulton. All who know him respect him for his integrity of character and his worth and standing as a citizen. He has for many years been a member of W. A. Clarke Post No. 434 of the the Republic and has been on the pension rolls of the Government for his army service. His family are active in the Methodist Episcopal Church.

Mr. Rogers married, in June, 1865, Sarah M. Willet. She lived only a few months after her marriage. In 1869 Mr. Rogers married Lovena Miller, who was born in Unionville, Iowa, and as a young woman taught school in that state. She passed away October 19, 1929, after they had been married for sixty years. Twelve children were born to them, and ten of them are still living. There are also forty-five grandchildren and forty-eight great-grandchildren. The oldest of the children is Mrs. Clementine Ransom, and her four children are Lou, Thomas, Velta, and Roland. The son James G., now deceased, left five children, Garret A., Thomas A., Vera, Grace and Esther. Mrs. Ann Blosser, who lives at Moulton, has two children, Roger and Claudia. Mrs. Martha Murdy, of Albia, Iowa, is the mother of seven children, Lester, Theodore, Louemma, Mildred, Ellen, Wendle and Enid. Mrs. Alda Richardson, whose home is at Saint Cloud, Florida, also has seven children, Thane, Charles, Eva, Victor, Lou, Theodore and Alda. Mrs. Laura Cox, of Orlando, Florida, has seven children, named Rolla, Hobart, Madaline, Geneva, Justice, Wilma and Carlos. Frank M., who occupies the old farm homestead in Appanoose County, is the father of five children, Thomas, Georgia and Virginia, twins, Hazel and James. Mrs. Mina Swartz, who lives at Moulton, has three children, Mary Elizabeth, William F. and Margaret. Georgia and Virginia are twin daughters. Georgia is the wife of Dr. Earl Frank, of Shelbyville, Tennessee, and their children are Stuart and Rogers M. Virginia married Earl French and lives at Alhambra, California, her two children being William and Robert. Chester Rogers, the youngest of the family, lives at Ontario, Canada, and has a daughter, Isabel.

WILLIAM AMOS ROHLF, distinguished Iowa surgeon, has attained many honors in the course of his labors and one of the most gratifying to him personally came when he was elected president of the Iowa State Medical Association for the year beginning May, 1930. It was a well deserved professional compliment paid to a man who for thirty-three years has practiced at Waverly and during that time has given a reputation to this Iowa city as a surgical center out of all proportion to its population.

Doctor Rohlf was born in Davenport, Iowa, January 5, 1867, son of Amos and Doris (Schroeder) Rohlf. His parents were natives of Germany, and his father was eleven and his mother nine when they were brought to America, their respective families leaving the old country and seeking the new to be rid of some of the oppressive laws and customs there. Amos Rohlf was a shoemaker by trade, but in 1872 located on a farm in Scott County, and after retiring lived at Sheldon, Iowa. He and his wife were devout Lutherans.

Doctor Rohlf was one of a family of seven sons and two daughters. His early life was spent on a farm. He had the advantages of the common schools but after that had to work and earn every step of his advancement. He taught school, and the funds that enabled him to go on through high school and college were earned by washing dishes, selling books and for a time he sold surgical instruments to physicians. In 1891 he was graduated M. D. from the University of Iowa, and he began his practice at Hampton, having only thirty-five dollars when he went to the town. He paid a month's board and bought the furniture for his office on credit. He remained at Hampton six years and in 1897 moved to Waverly. He has always been a hard worker, noted for his skill as a surgeon, has been interested in all phases of medical and surgical progress, and his research studies have brought him in contact with renowned surgeons throughout the world. In 1923 he went to South American, under the auspices of the American College of Surgeons. During 1924 he was in Europe. He has visited famous clinics all over the country. During his early years he took special surgical work under Dr. D. W. Middleton, of Davenport, and Dr. W. F. Peck, of Davenport. For twenty-five years his time and abilities have been largely taken up with his work as a surgeon. He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and has frequently read papers before professional organizations.

Doctor Rohlf had much to do with the building of the Mercy Hospital in Waverly. His associate in practice for a number of years has been Dr. H. W. Rathe. It has been the custom of Doctor Rohlf for many years to celebrate his birthday with what is known as a birthday clinic. The most notable of these came in January, 1930, when about 110 physicians and surgeons gathered at Waverly to attend the Rohlf clinic and birthday celebration. It was an interesting event from many standpoints. The presence of so many able physicians and surgeons not only from Iowa but other states and cities, including Chicago and Rochester, Minnesota, gave to this district of Iowa the benefit of examination and attention from the ablest men in the country and many major operations were successfully performed in the course of the two days. Members of the profession also participated in interesting discussions and the social feature was climaxed by a banquet in the Fortner Hotel. Among other distinguished guests present was Dr. J. H. Peck, whom Doctor Rohlf succeeded as president of the Iowa State Medical Association in May, 1930.

Doctor Rohlf during the World war was a member of the local exemption board. He is a Knight Templar Mason and Shriner, member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Knights of Phthias and B. P. O. Elks. Doctor Rohlf married Miss Lottie P. Beed, daughter of James and Charlotte Beed, of Hampton, Iowa.

RT. REV. HENRY P. ROHLMAN, bishop of the Davenport Diocese, was brought to Iowa when two years of age, and in some measure, at least, the value of his services has been due to his long and intimate knowledge of the people of the Mississippi River Valley.

Bishop Rohlman was born in Germany, March 17, 1876, and was but two years of age when his parents came to America and settled in Carroll County, Iowa. He was educated in the high school department of St. Lawrence College, at Mount Calvary, Wisconsin, attended Columbia College at Dubuque, graduating in 1898, and pursued his theological course in the Grand Seminary at Montreal, Canada. He was ordained to the priesthood December 21, 1901, at Montreal, and at once returned to Iowa and became assistant to St. Mary's Church in Dubuque. His labors in Dubuque made him one of the best loved priests of that community. After four years he was sent to the Catholic University of America at Washington, pursuing special sociological studies with a view to entering the missionary field. Then followed the years of his work in the Apostolate, an organization fostered by the Most Rev. James J. Keane, archbishop of Dubuque, for conducting missions in the churches of his diocese.

Father Rohlman in 1911 was appointed pastor of St. Mary's Church at Waterloo, remaining there six years. In 1917 he was selected by Archbishop Keane as chairman of the Columbia College endowment drive and was head of the committee which raised more than a million dollars for that Iowa educational institution. He continued for some time as business manager of the college and in 1923 was chosen to organize a new parish in the City of Dubuque. As a result of his great zeal and energy the parish of the Church of Nativity came to be one of the most important in that city within three years after its organization. Then came still greater honors when, on July 25, 1927, he was consecrated the fourth bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Davenport. He was consecrated on the forty-sixth anniversary of the consecration of Bishop John McMullen, who was the first bishop of Davenport. The consecrator in the impressive service was Archbishop Keane, of Dubuque, and there were many churchmen and laymen from Dubuque who joined in the tributes to the former priest who had labored so long and unselfishly in that Iowa city.

DILLON L. ROSS is an accomplished lawyer, member of the bar of Council Bluffs for many years, and his own work as a lawyer supplements the professional record of his father, also an early member of the Council Bluffs bar.

Mr. Ross was born at Council Bluffs, December 1, 1869. The family were among the earliest settlers on the eastern side of the Missouri River, coming here before the building of the first railroads. His grandfather was Amos Ross, a native of New Jersey, who moved to Ohio and spent his life as a farmer. Lewis W. Ross was born in Ohio, finished his education in Miami University and began the practice of law. He came out to Iowa and practiced for two years at Lewis and in 1861 settled at Council Bluffs and for over forty years was an honored member of the profession in the southwestern corner of the state. He was a great scholar and from 1881 to 1887 was a law teacher at the University of Iowa. He also served in the State Senate, was a leader in the Republican party and a member of the Congregational Church. He died in 1902. His wife Zoe M. Brown, who died in 1914, was also born in Ohio, daughter of Simeon Brown, a native of the same state and a minister of the Presbyterian and later of the Congregational Church. Lewis W. Ross and wife had a family of five children, four now living: Mrs. Hester R. Moon, a widow at Council Bluffs; Miss Edith W., of Council Bluffs; Miss Anna Z., who taught in the city schools for a number of years; and Dillon L.

Dillon L. Ross was educated at Council Bluffs, spent two and a half years in the University of Iowa and studied law with his father. He was admitted to the bar in 1891, and has been successfully engaged in the varied routine of the work of his profession for nearly forty years. During the first eleven years he was with his father, was alone in practice from 1902 to 1913, and then became associated with another eminent member of the Iowa bar, Emmet Tinley, in a firm that is reputed to have some of the most valuable law practice in the state, representing a number of railroads and other corporations. Mr. Ross for many years has specialized as an authority on real estate law.

He is a member of the Pottawattamie County and Iowa State Bar Associations. He is a past exalted ruler of Lodge No 531, B. P. O. Elks, is a member of the Country Club and enjoys the game of golf. His wife is a Congregationalist.

He married in 1894 Reta M. Miller, who was born in Missouri, grew up in Illinois, her father, Robert D. Miller, being a minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. Mr. and Mrs. Ross have four children: Harold M., in the real estate and farm loan business at Council Bluffs; Lewis W., connected with a bank at Oakland, Iowa; Dillon L., in the real estate business at Park Ridge, Illinois; and Miss Doris, at home. The sons Harold and Lewis were overseas during the World war, Harold being in the Hospital Corps and reaching France in December, 1917, while Lewis went overseas in September, 1917.

LEWIS W. ROSS, banker, is a native of Pottawattamie County, and since the close of the World war, in which he was enrolled with the colors, his home has been in Oakland.

He was born in Council Bluffs, son of a prominent citizen of that locality, D. L. Ross. Lewis Ross was born November 6, 1897, and attended schools in his native city. During the World war he was with the air service and was overseas in France seventeen months. He received his honorable discharge in April, 1919.

On locating at Oakland, Mr. Ross bought an interest in the Citizens State Bank, and has since been in active control of that institution, holding the office of cashier. He is also a stockholder in the Oakland Savings Bank.

Mr. Ross married, in 1922, Miss Muriel C. Smith, who was born at Oakland and attended school there and the Westlake School for Girls at Los Angeles. Her father, Dr. Ralph G. Smith, was a native of Perth, Ontario, Canada, and for many years was the outstanding physician in Oakland, where he died in June, 1921. Mrs. Ross' grandfather, W. H. Freeman, was an early settler at Oakland, a farmer and stock man, and was the founder of the State Bank. Mr. and Mrs. Ross have one daughter, Elizabeth Ann, born in 1925.

Mrs. Ross is a member of the Christian Church, while he is affiliated with the Congregational denomination. For two years he held the office of worshipful master in the local lodge of Masons and is a Republican in politics. In addition to his interests as a banker Mr. Ross owns 1200 acres of land and has some investments in lands in Colorado and Mexico.

LEWIS W. ROSS, a pioneer member of the Pottawattamie County bar and former chancellor of the law department of the University of Iowa, was born October 15, 1827, in Hanover Township, Butler County, Ohio, a son of Amos Ross and a grandson of Ezekiel Ross, both of whom were natives of Essex County, New Jersey, whence they moved to Butler County, Ohio, in 1814.

Upon the home farm Lewis W. Ross was reared, and there remained until his twentieth year. He was educated in the country schools and in 1848 entered Farmer's College, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was a student until 1850. He then matriculated in Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, where he was graduated in June, 1852. After leaving college he took up the study of law in Hamilton, Ohio, reading for two years under Joseph Scott and N. C. McFarland, the former of whom was afterward for many years one of the Supreme judges of the State of Ohio, while the latter served under President Arthur as commissioner of the general land office. Mr. Ross was admitted to the bar in 1854 and entered upon active practice in Hamilton, Ohio, where he remained until August, 1856. He then came to Iowa, settling in Cass County, an din January, 1861, he removed to Council Bluffs, where he continued to reside until his death, save for the period when he was a member of the faculty of the State University at Iowa City. He immediately rose to the front rank in the legal profession of the city and state and also became active in public life. For many years he was master in chancery. He was elected to the State Senate as a member of the Tenth and Eleventh General Assemblies, and during that period was a member of the judiciary and public land committees. His record as a senator was one which established his public spirit, his patriotism and his unfaltering devotion to the general welfare, while his legal knowledge and ability as a member of the bar were much in demand, not only as a member of the judiciary committee but in other connections, his counsel being frequently sought by contemporary members of the Senate. In 1861 he was elected a trustee of the Iowa State University for a term of four years and was reelected in 1868. For many years he was closely associated with advanced educational interests, of which he was ever a stalwart champion. In 1874 he was elected a regent of the State University for a term, of six years and in 1880 was made resident professor of the law department of the university and removed to Iowa City. In 1881 he became chancellor of the law department of the University and continued in that capacity until 1887, when he returned to Council Bluffs, and once more entered upon the private practice of his profession. During all the years of his association with the State University he labored untiringly to elevate its standards, and his influence was far-reaching and beneficial in that connection. He believed that the training should give a practical working basis for success in after life and that no labor or expense should be spared that would contribute to this end. While his ideals were high, his efforts were at all times practical and resultant. As trustee and regent he worked hard for the development of the university and was largely instrumental in organizing the law, medical and homeopathic-medical departments. During his seven years as professor and chancellor he taught, with other subjects, equity, real property, torts, common law and code pleading. He was very capable and successful as an instructor and was greatly beloved by his students. He not only had the ability to impart clearly and readily to others the knowledge he had acquired but he also had the faculty of winning the confidence of his students, who recognized his sympathetic understanding and profited by his ever-ready word of encouragement and counsel. As chancellor of the law department he was the responsible head of the faculty, composed of men eminent as jurists, lawyers and teachers, and it is worthy of note that the most perfect harmony prevailed between him and the other members of the faculty at all times. He had in his make-up the qualities of a diplomat, yet never deviated from a course which he believed to be right, nor did he fail to express himself clearly upon any vital subject.

After his return to Council Bluffs Mr. Ross resumed practice in partnership with his son, Dillon Ross, under the firm name of Ross & Ross, which association continued until his death. He made a specialty of equity and real estate law, and was recognized as one of the foremost authorities in those branches of practice in the state.

In 1855 Mr. Ross was united in marriage to Miss Zoe M. Brown, of Lebanon, Ohio, and to them were born five children, Charles, Hester, Edith, Anna and Dillon. Mrs. Ross died February 9, 1914. Mr. Ross was a man of noble character who was loved and respected not only by the members of his own family, but by a legion of friends. The young man and especially the young law student always knew that his friendship could be counted upon. He was looked upon as one in whom the young man could confide, ask for advice and receive wise counsel, encouragement and inspiration. He was ever ready to extend a helping hand to the younger members of the profession, and many a one has reason to hold him in grateful remembrance because of kindly assistance in word and deed.

He was ever a stanch Republican but not a politician. He look upon politics not as a game to be played but as a exercise of the divine right of franchise. He labored untiringly for purity in politics, for he was a lover of his country and a patriot in all that the word implies. He was in the truest sense of the term a scholar and a man of literary tastes. His home and his church were dominant interests in his life, and aside, too, from his political affairs, he devoted considerable time to the Council Bluffs Club, of which he was the founder and president. He was a pioneer member of the Pottawattamie County Bar Association and one of its foremost representatives. A life long member of the Congregational Church, during the forty years of his residence in Council Bluffs he was one of the leading workers and supporters of the First Congregational Church of this city, serving on its various boards having to do with its business management, and was an active factor in the promotion of its spiritual life. His personal life was spotless and his influence for good and for morality was felt by all with whom he came in contact. His home life was ideal. Culture in its highest sense was there manifest and there was radiated an atmosphere of refinement. Death called him November 22, 1902, and the regret felt at his passing was state-wide. Of him his many friends have said:

"He was a man. Take him for all in all.

I shall not look upon his like again."

HON. MILLARD FILLMORE ROHRER, president of the Rohrer Park Improvement Company, district agent of the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia, president of the board of park commissioners of Council Bluffs, former mayor of the city, is a man whose kindly sympathy and cheerfulness under all circumstances have won for him the title of the "City's Sunshine Man." He was born on the old family farm at Rohrersville, Washington County, Maryland, August 30, 1850. This homestead lies near the battlefield of Antietam, where one of the bitterest conflicts of the war between the states was waged, September 17, 1862, when he was twelve years old. However, he had come into contact with public events through the exciting incidents relative to the visit of John Brown to Harper's Ferry, and the subsequent capture and execution of that unwisely advised resident of Kansas. The little nine-year-old lad knew more of the matter than would have been likely because of the fact that his home was only eight miles away from Harper's Ferry, then in Virginia, now West Virginia. In fact the location was such as to bring the family into much of the contested ground over which the great armies of the North and South fought their way during the more than four years of conflict, and in a way these momentous events developed the boy named for one of the presidents of the United States. They developed his mental faculties, but they did not overshadow them, for he has ever moved through life a man who never speaks ill of anyone, and who looks at life through his own cherry interpretation of it. The atmosphere of his childhood home was such as to lead him to adopt such a policy, for he has said of himself:

"Whatever reputation I may have established thus far by looking only on the bright side of everything in the work and thinking only of the best in every man, woman and child, is due to my father and mother, who taught me the philosophy of sunshine." A beautiful recollection for a man to carry through life of those who gave him being!

As the battle of Antietam was raging stretcher bearers began to carry the wounded and dying from the field of carnage, and the Rohrer house, barn, woodshed, and even grounds were utilized for hospital purposes, and little twelve-year-old Millard Fillmore began his work for humanity by ministering to the soldiers, no difference being made to the color of the uniform they wore.

While the lad was taught cheerfulness and kindness to others, he was also instructed in the necessity of being useful, and the first money ever earned by him was gained by selling the daily newspapers and pictorials to the wounded soldiers and attendants of the two large army hospitals known as the Smoketown and Locust Spring ones.

Remaining at home until he was twenty years old, as the '70s began their decade, he felt that he must seek a broader field for his expanding abilities, and so went on the road as a commercial traveler, but in that occupation did not find the calling he could enjoy. Therefore, in the fall of 1870, he went to Avalon, Livingston County, Missouri, and that winter taught school. In the spring he established what later became the family homestead for his family, a tract of 280 acres, which he helped to plant for the summer season. It was not his intention to become a farmer, simply to found a substantial home, and in 1871 he began representing the milling company of Snively & Hedges at Wathena, Kansas, the first railway station west of Saint Joseph, Missouri. The atmosphere of the then rapidly growing town and the enterprise of its people led him to resign his position, settle permanently in their midst, and become clerk of the Biggs House. Later he held positions with the post-office and bookstore of Brackett & Goulden, and still later he was deputy sheriff under Sheriff George Doughty.

Still later, when J. M. Palmer opened the first frame hotel and depot on the present site of the assistant, and the manner in which he discharged his duties and his diligent ways and unfailing courtesy attracted the attention of railroad officials and he was appointed agent for the Burlington & Missouri Railroad in Nebraska, and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad's bill clerk in Council Bluffs, and in his dual capacity his time was fully occupied until 1875, when he and former Congressman Thomas Bowman established a fire insurance agency.

During the period he was connected with the railroad service he acted for The Nonpareil as railroad reporter, and because of his work and the high regard in which he was held, in 1888 he was elected an honorary member of the Council Bluffs Press Club, and highly prizes his card, which he still holds.

So interested did he become in the insurance business that after January 1, 1878, he was the sole proprietor, and in 1881 he branched out and became a member of the commercial storage and agricultural implement firm of Bowman, Rohrer & Company, and continued with it until the business was sold January 1, 1885. About that time Mr. Rohrer accepted the general agency for the Mutual life Insurance Company of New York, and later became district agent for the Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company of Philadelphia. He is also one of the leading realtors of Council Bluffs, and a stockholder and director of the Council Bluffs Savings Bank. In 1908 he laid out the residential district known as Rohrer Park, and about the same time Council Bluffs received a magnificent gift from Mrs. Rohrer, who bestowed upon the city and it's people Lincoln Park.

When Hon. William Groneweg was elected state senator Mr. Rohrer was elected to fill out his unexpired term as mayor of Council Bluffs; and in March, 1888, he was reelected for a full term on the Democratic ticket, and held that office until March 17, 1890. While in office the steamer M. F. Rohrer was launched at Lake Manawa, July 11, 1888; another incident of note was the opening of the wagon and street railway bridge between Council Bluffs and Omaha, in October, 1888, both Iowa and Nebraska participating in the ceremonies. The Iowa delegation led by Mayor and Mrs. Rohrer and Governor and Mrs. Larrabee, met that from Nebraska, led by Mayor and Mrs. W. J. Broatch of Omaha, and General and Mrs. Thayer, in the middle of the bridge, where appropriate and impressive ceremonies were held in honor of the occasion. In keeping with the time of that day two bottles of wine, furnished by a prominent citizen of Mills County, Iowa, were used at the celebration in commemorating the now historic event, a bottle being broken by each of the mayors' wives (Mrs. Rohrer and Mrs. Broatch). As the ladies broke the bottles the wines slowly trickled over the bridge and into the Missouri River. When Mayor Rohrer made his last address to the council he urged the improvement of what is now East Omaha, a part of Council Bluffs, and his advice, acted upon, has resulted in a prosperous community. Three streets of Council Bluffs, Millard Street, Fillmore Avenue and Rohrer Avenue, have been named after him, and he is the only resident of Council Bluffs to be so honored.

Mr. Rohrer is a Mason, an Odd Fellow, Elk and Rotarian, and he also is a member of the Council Bluffs Real Estate Board, which recently voted him its most popular member, of the Omaha Club, to which he has belonged since 1899, and a first year member of the Knights of AK-Sar-Ben in Omaha. In addition to the above he is a member of the American Institute of Park Executives, and attends all of the national and international meetings. The institute has a society known as "Yellow Dog," and at all of the conventions Mr. Rohrer is official musician as well as at all of the annual initiations, playing on his "magic flute."

On September 11, 1877, Mr. Rohrer was married to Miss Sarah Beach Beers, who died December 23, 1925. They had three children: John Beach Beers Rohrer, born December 31, 1878, died February 8, 1880, at Council Bluffs, Iowa; Isaac Beers Rohrer, born in August, 1881, at Council Bluffs; and Caroline Test Rohrer Theinhardt, born April 4, 1884, at Council Bluffs. There are two grandchildren, Caroline Rohrer Theinhardt and Pauline Mears Rohrer.

Since Mr. Rohrer was elected a member of the Council Bluffs park board many improvements have been made, as well as scenic drives and boulevard systems, and the more than 1,000 acres owned by the board are well improved, and many acres beautifully laid out. The parks comprise Baylis, Cochran, Cook, Fairmount, Graham, Greenwood, Graham Avenue Parkway, Houston, Island, Illinois Central Railroad, Kimball, Lake View, Lincoln, Nathan P. Dodge Memorial Park, Susanna Lockwood Dodge Memorial Park, Prospect Park, Park Circle; and Sarah Beech Beers Rohrer Memorial Point, Rainbow Memorial, Rotary Point, Riverside, South Side, Sunset and Sloan parks.

When asked how he preserves his health and strength Mr. Rohrer declares that the following are his rules:

"Be yourself.

"Speak ill of no person. If you cannot speak well of him, speak not at all.

"Avoid worry and anger as you would pestilence. They bring wrinkles and shorten life.

"Strive to do right and see the bright side of things. Be cheerful and radiate sunshine. A kind word turneth away wrath. It leaves a good impression. It may mean your fortune.

"Avoid argument. Express your opinion and let that suffice. An argument has lost many a friendship.

"Live right. It means happiness and longevity.

"Always keep your word.

"Live by the Golden Rule. That is the whole groundwork of Christianity."

On October 23, 1928, at the seventy-fifth anniversary banquet and program of Council Bluffs Lodge No. 49, I. O. O. F., Mr. Rohrer made a memorable address, extracts from which are quoted below:

"This lodge was established by the pioneers of Kanesville-later named Council Bluffs and hence is the pioneer fraternal order established in this city.

"In order that our members may grasp the lapse of time, a few short years before the lodge was founded this state was occupied by the tribe of Pottawattamie Indians, from which tribe our county takes its name. By a treaty dated June 5, 1846, the Pottawattamies were required to move to a new reservation in Kansas, and during that year and the following their removal took place.

"The following month - July, 1846, about 5,000 Mormons, headed by Brigham Young, from Nauvoo, Illinois, arrived here en route to Salt Lake City, Utah. The Mormons named this locality Kanesville in honor of Thomas L. Kane, a friend of Brigham Young. Thomas L. Kane was a younger brother of the great arctic navigator, Elisha Kent Kane.

"Now, after a short lapse of seven years, an act of General Assembly of Iowa, on January 19, 1853, changed the name of the town from Kanesville to Council Bluffs, being the name selected for this locality, recorded in the diary of Lewis and Clark, who explored the Missouri River in 1804 and camped in the vicinity of Mynster Springs and held council with the Indians in the vicinity of Rainbow Point. For the information of our members I will state that in the year 1804 the main channel of the Missouri River was undoubtedly what is now known as Big Lake, and Mynster Springs emptied into the river, making it an ideal place for the Lewis and Clark expedition to camp.

"Now you see, Council Bluffs Lodge No. 49 was founded only nine short months after our beloved city was christened its present name Council Bluffs, or on October 26, 1853.

"The men who petitioned to establish this lodge were: Hadley D. Johnson, John T. Baldwin, J. P. Cassady, H. R. Hall, B. R. Pegram and Anson Belden. Hadley D. Johnson came here from Indiana. He was admitted to the bar of his district on the first day of the first term the district court convened in this county. He subsequently became the first senator from this district in the Legislature, and was largely instrumental in securing the passage of the special charter of this city on January 24, 1853.

"John T. Balwin was always a prominent and conspicuous citizen. He was city alderman in 1856 and 1857, and mayor during the year 1877. In the year 1856 he and Gen. G. M. Dodge established the banking firm of Baldwin & Dodge, which was succeeded by our present Council Bluffs Savings Bank. He was half owner of the City Flouring Mills, which was on the site now occupied by our city auditorium.

"In 1867 the Ogden House, at a cost of $85,000, was erected on the southeast corner of Broadway and Park Avenue. This was the finest hotel at that time west of Chicago, and at once took a commanding position with the traveling public. A misfortune occurred by its being burned in October, 1874. John T. Balwin was the only citizen with money and enterprise to rebuild the same, which he did in the year 1876, and for many years it was the principal hotel in Iowa and Nebraska."

Later on in his speech he said: "Judge J. P. Cassady was of sturdy Scotch-Irish stock. He came to Iowa from Indiana, was admitted to the bar at Des Moines, came here and formed a partnership with Sen. Hadley T. Johnson. In 1858 he was, as an independent, elected county judge. In 1861 he was chosen a director of the Council Bluffs & Saint Joseph Railroad, and was afterward elected its president. In 1867 he was elected to the State Senate and secured the first appropriation for the erection of buildings for what was then known as the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and now known as the Iowa School for the Deaf.

"B. R. Pegram was an extensive merchant on the north side of Broadway, west of First Street. He was also a banker. He was at one time a partner of Gen. G. M. Dodge in the flour milling and freighting business, and they delivered the first train load of flour in the city of Denver. He went from here to Saint Louis and was later captain of the first steamer running between Saint Louis and New Orleans. He was city treasurer in 1855.

"J. B. Stutsman was a prominent merchant, member of the first city council in the year 1853 and served with the first mayor of the city, Cornelius Voorhis. He was also a member of the city council in 1854. He was foreman of the first grand jury ever convened in this county. He was the first white gentile settler in this entire settlement. In later years he removed to Harlan, Iowa, continued to the retail dry goods business, and became one of the most respected citizens, and died full of years and honor.

"One month after the lodge was organized Col. J. D. Test was elected secretary, and was long one of the most active members. He was city alderman in 1856. He was a partner of Judge J. P. Cassady, forming the real estate and law firm of Cassady & Test. He was an able lawyer, and when he died, with one or two exceptions, received the largest testimonial of respect at his funeral of any of our citizens.

"Cornelius Voorhis, the second white gentile settler, was a merchant and was the first mayor of Council Bluffs in 1853 and lived to a ripe old age, always prominent and always respected.

"Rev. Moses F. Shinn, a Methodist minister, joined the lodge. He was a good man, but he knew he was living in a somewhat wild and new country and deemed it best to be friendly where he could not convert. He collected money from all sources to maintain the Gospel in the great western wilds, and Judge Walter I. Smith said in his address at the sixtieth anniversary that a prominent citizen told him that a prominent citizen told him that he was present at the Ocean Wave, the leading gambling house and saloon which occupied the present site of the First Methodist Church, and heard the proprietor say: 'Here comes Elder Shinn, I suppose I must give him something.'

"N. T. Spoor was the first city marshal in 1853, fourth postmaster of this city and captain of a battery of artillery in the Civil war, commonly known as Dodge's Battery, to which Judge J. R. Reed belonged as first lieutenant. In 1872 to say 1880, he was general agent of the Union Pacific Railroad at the freight transfer.

"Dr. J. D. Honn was a well-known physician and early druggist.

"George Doughty was a pioneer furniture dealer. He was mayor in 1859 and sheriff in the early '70s. I was well acquainted with him, having served under him as deputy sheriff, during which time I rode on horseback over the entire county serving papers on jurors and court witnesses. At the time, in the year 1872, none of the few farms were enclosed with fences and on defined north and south roads in the country through the high prairie grass. Farm lands were selling at $5 to $10 per acre which now command $150 to $250 per acre.

"In the year following the institution of this lodge of during the year 1854, the majority of the founders or first inhabitants of what is now known as the metropolitan City of Omaha went over from Council Bluffs, where they had resided one, two, or three or more years. Many of the citizens of Council Bluffs afterwards went to Omaha and permanently remained there.

"A substantial ferry boat, the General Marion, was purchased in Alton, Illinois, by Doctor Lowe, and it reached Council Bluffs in September, 1853, but did not begin running regularly across the Missouri River from Council Bluffs until May, 1854.

"In reading The Story of Omaha, written by my esteemed friend, Alfred Sorenson, who settled in Omaha the same year that I did in Council Bluffs, 1871 - I learn that in November, 1853, A. D. Jones, a member of this lodge, in company with Thomas Allen and William Allen, all of Council Bluffs, borrowed a leaky scow of Mr. Brown. One rowed, one steered and the other had all he could do to bail out the water as it came in. They landed a short distance below the place where the Union Pacific Railroad bridge now stands. There they staked out their claims, the north line of A. D. Jones' claim being marked out on the north side of the former residence of the late Herman Kountze, which was converted some years ago into Saint Catherine's Hospital. A. D. Jones maintained that this was the first claim, and that he was entitled to the honor of being called the pioneer squatter and first settler in Omaha.

"The Indians, however, became uneasy over the encroachments being made by A. D. Jones and others, and they accordingly requested Mr. Hepner, the Indian agent, to order him to vacate "Park Wild," as he called his claim. Other claimants were served with the same notice and the command was obeyed.

"A. D. Jones then applied for the establishment of a post-office, a piece of strategy to enable him to hold his claim. The application was made through Col. J. D. Test, of Council Bluffs, the secretary of this lodge, which resulted in A. D. Jones being appointed first postmaster of Omaha on May 6, 1854, and he also, the same year, surveyed and laid out 320 blocks of Omaha with streets 100 feet wide, which in turn made him the first surveyor - Jones Street bearing his name.

"F. T. C. Johnson was a brother-in-law of Col. Lysander W. Babbitt and a member of the contracting firm of Johnson and Orr, who built the brick courthouse on the site of the present stone one. He was a member of the city council during the years 1866, 1867 and 1868, and for many years afterwards a prominent farmer. I know him well.

"Milton Rogers was a prominent hardware merchant, who moved to Omaha and became the largest retail dealer in the same line in that city. He was city alderman in 1856 and from 1858 to 1861. He has been dead for many years. However, his family still continues the business under the firm name of Milton Rogers and Sons Company, Omaha.

"Judge W. C. Janes, 'Old Blackhawk,' the handsomest man the city ever produced, was a lawyer, county judge, mayor in 1874 and city alderman several terms. He built many of the largest buildings in the city to this day.

"J. Smith Hooton was mayor in 1857 and 1858, and a conspicuous citizen.

"Squire W. L. Biggs was proprietor of one of the leading hotels of the city - The Biggs House - in which many of our prominent citizens lived. I enjoyed the pleasure of serving him as his hotel clerk in 1871. He was an active Odd Fellow and every rarely missed attending meetings. He was city alderman in 1859, 1861 and 1862, an din later years was justice of the peace.

"Dexter C. Bloomer, LL. D., was a newspaper man and a lawyer. He was the first receiver for the United States land office here. He was mayor in 1869 and 1871, and city alderman in 1856. He was trustee in 1867 of the Young Men's Library Association, a trustee of the public school library, 1871 to 1876, and a trustee of the Council Bluffs Library Association, 1878 to 1882. The Free Public Library was organized in 1882 and he was a trustee continuously from the organization to the time of his death, February 24, 1900. I served with him as trustee continuously from 1888 and succeeded him as president of the board of trustees by election on March 12, 1900. For eleven years he was a member of the board of education.

"Bloomer School was named in his honor. He was editor of the Northwest Odd Fellow, a publication issued in this city abut 1872 to 1876. When nearly four score years of age he spent his time in preparing a life of his his wife, Amelia Bloomer, which was published in book form. His wife was the designer of the famous 'bloomer costume,' and bought it to public notice throughout the United States by wearing it herself.

"Thomas H. Benton was a banker, colonel of the Twenty-ninth Iowa Regiment, brevet brigadier general, a state officer and, next to General Dodge, the most conspicuous soldier from south-west Iowa.

"Louden Mullen was a large landowner and platted Mullen's subdivision to this city.

"Seth H. Craig, a soldier of the Mexican war and captain of Company A, of the Twenty-ninth Iowa Regiment, was sheriff of this county and warden of the state penitentiary at Fort Madison.

"With the names of the very early members of this lodge, last, but not least, I record the name of our most distinguished citizen, Gen. Grenville M. Dodge, who spent his early life chiefly in building railroads. He was a member of the city council in 1859 and 1860, and elected a member of Congress in 1866. He was made a member of this lodge on Christmas Eve, 1855.

"It was fortunate for Council Bluffs and Omaha that Abraham Lincoln paid a visit to Council Bluffs sixty-nine years ago, or in August, 1859, at which time history says he was being favorably mentioned as a candidate for President of the United States and elected the following year to said office.

"It did not take Mr. Lincoln very long to learn after his arrival in Council Bluffs that Grenville M. Dodge had been making explorations and surveys west of the Missouri River for the Union Pacific Railroad. Mr. Lincoln stated that there was nothing more important before the nation at that time than the building of the railroad to the Pacific Coast.

"General Dodge in his published Recollections of President Abraham Lincoln says that while Lincoln was in Council Bluffs he and the citizens took him up what is now Oakland Avenue, to the point where the road turns into Rohrer Park, and he was greatly impressed with the beauty of the landscape.

"The exact spot on which Lincoln and Dodge stood has been made beautiful by the erection of the Lincoln memorial by the Lincoln Memorial Association, of which General Dodge was president, and the Daughters of the American Revolution.

"In view of the competition on the north and on the south for the location of the eastern terminus of the Union Pacific Railroad, it was fortunate, indeed, for the cities of Council Bluffs and Omaha that Lincoln and Dodge met in Council Bluffs in August, 1859, which resulted in making Council Bluffs and Omaha a metropolitan center of the United States today; otherwise, they might not be on the map.

"I was personally acquainted with General Dodge about forty-four years previous to his death. January 3, 1916. General Dodge was a civil and military engineer, a soldier and builder of the Union Pacific Railroad and many other railroads. He presented the city with what is known as the Nathan P. Dodge Memorial Park. He was far the greatest man ever produced in Iowa, and did more to make the city famous than any man who ever dwelt in it."

The oldest member of the lodge is R. W. Ball, of San Francisco, California, former city circulator of The Nonpareil, who left the city fifty years ago. Mr. Rohrer is the oldest resident member. He became a member December 27, 1872.

On the occasion of his eightieth birthday he was honored with a dinner, at the Chieftain Hotel in Council Bluffs, by forty of his closest friends. For years he had been in the habit of entertaining his friends, but this time they turned the tables on him, and gave him the honor of being guest. Lauded by the toastmaster, Emmet Tinley, as a constructive citizen who had spoken "not one unkind word in sixty years." Mr. Rohrer was presented with a gold wrist watch with the expressed hope that he would be able to enjoy it for the next twenty-five or thirty years. There were several other prominent speakers present, and in response Mr. Rohrer recalled high lights in his long career of public service and expressed appreciation of the honor conferred upon him at the dinner.


BURTON RUSSELL was born and reared in Dallas County, Iowa, is a representative of a family that was settled in this county somewhat more than three-quarters of a century ago, and here he has gained and retained a secure vantage ground as one of the prominent members of the bar of his native county. Mr. Russell has been engaged in the active practice of his profession at Adel, the county seat, for over twenty-five years and here controls a substantial and representative general law business.

Burton Russell was born on the parental home farm in Dallas County and the date of his nativity was February 6, 1873. He is a son of William S. and Ada (Greene) Russell, the former of whom was born March 28, 1843, and the latter on February 3, 1849. William S. Russell was about ten years of age when he accompanied his parents from his native State of Indiana to Iowa, in 1853, and the family home was established in Dallas County, where he was reared on the pioneer farm and where he eventually gained success and prestige in his independent association with the great basic industries of agriculture and stock-growing, besides which he was engaged in mercantile business a number of years. He was an honored and influential citizen of the county and represented the county two terms in the State Legislature. He passed the closing days of his life in the City of Perry, this county, where his death occurred April 13, 1909, his widow being now a resident of Adel and being one of the venerable and revered pioneer women of Dallas County.

In the Dallas County public schools Burton Russell continued his studies until he was graduated in the high school at Perry, and thereafter he was a student in Valparaiso University, at Valparaiso, Indiana, until he was there graduated in 1896, with the degree of Bachelor of Science. In preparing for his chosen profession he availed himself of the advantages of the law department of the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, and there he was graduated as a member of the class of 1901, his reception of the degree of Bachelor of Laws having been followed by his admission to the Michigan bar. Prior to that Mr. Russell had made a record of successful service as a teacher in the public schools of his native county, he having served as superintendent of schools at Linden and also at Woodward. After receiving his degree of Bachelor of Laws he taught one year at Woodward, and in 1902 he was admitted to the Iowa bar and engaged in the active practice of his profession at Adel, where he has centered his professional activities during the intervening years.

Mr. Russell is a Republican in politics, is affiliated with the Masonic fraternity, he and his wife hold membership in the Christian Church in their home community, and he is a member of the Dallas County Bar Association and the Iowa State Bar Association.

June 14, 1906, recorded the marriage of Mr. Russell to Miss Nellie Burton, who likewise was born and reared in Dallas County. Mrs. Russell was graduated in the West High school in the City of Des Moines and there studied also in Drake University. Prior to her marriage she was a teacher three years in the high school at Adel, and her interest in educational work remains vital and helpful, as she has since continued to serve as a valued member of the local board of education. Gordon B., eldest of the three children of Mr. and Mrs. Russell, was born May 1, 1908, is a graduate of the Adel High School, and is a graduate of the class of 1930 in the college of liberal arts at the University of Iowa, where he has affiliation with the Delta Chi fraternity. He is now attending the law school at the State University of Iowa, where he is a Phi Alpha Delta. Marguerite A., who was born January 8, 1910, likewise was graduated in the Adel High School and is a graduate of the class of 1931 in the University of Iowa, where, like her brother, she has been a student in the college of liberal arts, and where she is a member of the national sorority Delta Zeta. Christine M., youngest of the children, was born May 8, 1913, and is a member of the class of 1931 in the high school at Adel.


JAMES B. RYAN, of Des Moines law firm of Ryan & Ryan, was born at Winthrop, Iowa, May 7, 1894. His people have been in Iowa for three generations.

He is a son of James B. and May (Farrell) Ryan. His parents were born in rural districts in Buchanan County, Iowa. His grandfathers, Malachi Ryan and Thomas Ferrell, were natives of Ireland and were brought to this country in early childhood. James B. Ryan, Sr., is an honored citizen and substantial business man of Winthrop, where he has been in the drug business since 1887 and for nearly forty years has been president of the Winthrop State Bank. His wife died February 4, 1925. James B. Ryan of Des Moines is the oldest of six children. His sister Mary is teacher in an Indian school in South Dakota; his brother Ronald is claim agent for the United States Fidelity & Liability Company of Des Moines; L. T. Ryan is junior member of the Des Moines law firm of Ryan & Ryan; Miss Marjorie lives at Des Moines; and Miss Dorothy is a graduate of the University of North Dakota.

James B. Ryan, after finishing the work of the Winthrop High School, attended St. Joseph Academy at Dubuque and was a student in the University of Iowa until the war. Joining the colors, he want overseas with the Thirty-ninth Engineers, served as first sergeant, and on getting his discharge, in August, 1919, had to his credit twenty-seven months of service. Mr. Ryan in June, 1920, graduated from the law department of Drake University, and since that date has been engaged in practice at Des Moines. The firm of Ryan & Ryan is the legal representative of all the credit insurance companies in the capital city.

He was president of the Drake Law Club in 1924, first vice president of the International Cooperative Club in 1927, is secretary of the Commercial Law League of America, member of the Polk County, Iowa State and American Bar Associations. His college fraternities are Phi Kappa and Delta Theta Phi. Mr. Ryan has been a member of the Democratic district committee. He is a Catholic, member of the Knights of Columbus and B. P. O. Elks.

He married, July 12, 1926, Miss Florence Carlson. She was born in Sweden but was reared and educated in Des Moines.


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