Iowa History Project

Volume 12, No. 3 July, 1914


     Two English Friends, Benjamin Seebohm and Robert Lindsey, made a visit among the Quaker communities in Iowa during the early months of the year 1850, as a part of a five-years' tour in North America. Scarcely had they returned to their native land, however, when Lindsey again felt what he believed to be a new call to "service in a fardistant land"; and he recorded his conviction that "the time draws on apace when resignation on my part must be yielded to the Divine requiring, if peace be my portion''.
     Permission in the form of a "release for service" was granted by the Brighouse Monthly Meeting, and in July, 1852, Robert Lindsey, accompanied by Frederic Mackie, set sail for Australia. Before he returned to England after an absence of a year and a half he had traveled over the greater part of that continent, as well as in Tasmania, New Zealand, and the southern part of Africa.
     After about eighteen months spent at home, in the summer of 1857 Lindsey once more set out on a religious journey which extended around the world. This time he was accompanied by his wife, Sarah, who bravely shared with him all of the hardships of the journey, and a portion of whose journal is printed below. Landing at Boston about the last of August, 1857,4 by the following April the two travelers were visiting among the scattered Quaker settlements in Kansas, then the scene of crime and bloodshed. From this point the story of their wanderings can best be told in the words of the journal written from day to day by Sarah Lindsey.
     This journal should be read in connection with the portion of the diary of Robert Lindsey (1850) which was printed in THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS for April, 1914, pp. 262-286. A comparison of these two journals reveals the growth and spread of Quaker communities in Iowa during the eight years from 1850 to 1858. Moreover, in the journal printed below there will be found many interesting glimpses of the difficulties and hardships of travel in the trans-Mississippi region during the late fifties and of social and economic conditions in different parts of the State of Iowa. The journal has been printed verbatim except that the method of indicating the dates of the daily entries has been changed for the sake of securing uniformity.


     16th, 4 mo, 1858.—Kansas. Jonathan Wheeler's house was scantily furnished; round the sides of the house several trunks of trees enclosed loose hay, which with cross timber, without bed stocks, formed several sleeping places for the night. A large box was used as a table, two or three chairs, & smaller boxes served for seats; a few open shelves held the crockery ware, and a small cupboard contained their stock of books. But in the midst of this humble abode contentment seemed to dwell, and a smile played upon many of the happy faces around us. This family have taken up 160 acres of land & seem likely to do well. We had a meeting with them to satisfaction: many of us would think their lot a hard one, but we had cause to believe that the Son of Peace had taken up His abode in some of their hearts.
      Dined with our young friends A. Henshaw & wife, then had a cold windy ride to Duck Creek where we lodged. Next morning the ground was covered with snow, and we had a stormy drive over the open prairie, 15 miles of our route being through the Sac & Fox Indian reservation where we did not see a single house, & only crossed two creeks. Dined at Burlingham, and lodged at Henry Hyatt's, at Twin Mounds, the place taking its name from two oblong natural elevations which are seen from a distance & appear as if they had been cast in a mold. H. Hyatt was once a member of our society. Here we met with a person named William Denton who is a noted infidel, and the individual who attended the meeting which my R L had at Bloomington. He removed to this country from Darlington about nine years ago; he was acquainted with the Pease's family. We could agree with a remark he made: that this country suited persons holding views similar to his own better than England.
     On leaving the house H. Hyatt refused to take money for our accommodations. Rode to Lawrence next morning where we parted from our truly kind friend Benajah Hyatt, who has been our driver & faithful companion for nearly 3 weeks, during which time he has given us much information upon subjects relating to the recent disturbances in Kansas, some of which were of a most tragical nature, being cold blooded murders & atrocities, such as are seldom heard of in this age of the world amongst civilized nations. We were intending to proceed to the Friends Mission by public stage but all the seats were engaged. A note had been sent to the hotel for my R L from L. W. Wood, an entire stranger to us, but a descendant of friends, who having heard of our arrival invited us to his house to remain either a day, or a month, as suited our convenience; so we spent the afternoon & lodged there, and his wife, a well educated & sensible woman, treated us kindly. L. N. Wood is a lawyer by profession & seems to be in easy circumstances. The family are living in a temporary house, but a little snug bed was prepared for us in the loft, the ascent of which was by irregular boards some of which bent as we trod upon them. Took leave of our kind friends the following morning and went to the Mission, a distance of 35 miles by a public stage. For nearly two weeks there has been a cloudy atmosphere but now the sun shines in the clear blue sky.
     Within the last week we have seen abundance of wild plum & gooseberry trees in full blossom. The prairie chickens are like a little speckled pullet, and very numerous; if we come near they take wing & fly a short distance. The larks build their nests upon the ground, & sing a short sweet plaintive note; but in other respects are unlike our English birds bearing that name. Spent fifth day with our friends at the Mission: the mid-week meeting was an interesting season wherein my dear Husband had some service. A friend named James Stanley who had just arrived in the State along with wife & 3 children called in the evening. J. S. is a joiner by trade and has come here with the prospects of stationing himself among one of the Indian tribes to instruct them in manual labor & to endeavour to raise their condition in other respects. The poor Indians have been driven from one place to another, until some of the Shawnese & other civilized tribes are intending to become citizens of the United States. Some of the natives have married white persons. In riding along we do not see many Indians & but seldom pass their habitations. They are generally shy & retiring; we saw two squaws in Lawrence, one of whom was clad in a scarlet, & the other in a yellow dress, & blankets were thrown over their shoulders like a cloak.
     This morning—the 16th, 4 mo., we arose very early and taking a final leave of our friends at the Mission, were accompanied by C. Harvey who drove us to Kansas City in a waggon. The road was thronged with emigrants who were just entering the State: some in covered wagons had been camping for the night, and having kindled a fire were preparing breakfast. Others were walking with their bags & bundles. On approaching the river we had the mortification to see the steam boat by which we expected to proceed, start from the shore & sail without us; not knowing when another of that class might be passing, we went to an Inn where I spent some hours in posting up my journal, but being on the tiptoe of expectation we had an uncomfortable day. We retired to rest and got a few hours sleep; and at an early hour the following morning we heard the steam whistle, & before 6 a. m. were on board the "Meteor". Much rain fell during the night accompanied by thunder & lightning. Our boat is rather small but a fast sailer; we have not many fellow passengers. On first day morning we held our meeting in our cabin, rather a dull heavy season to myself: wherein I felt my own weakness & inability to help myself. It is not usual for the boats on the Missouri to run thro' the dark nights, but our Captain being desirous of reaching Jefferson City, ran until morning 8 a. m. when we struck upon a sand bank, and notwithstanding all the skill & ingenuity which this accident called forth we were not afloat until daylight next morning. Reached Jefferson City about 7 a. m. just in time to take the train to St. Louis where we arrived in 6 hours.
     20th, 4 mo.—St. Louis. State of Missouri. On arriving here yesterday we were gratified in finding two sets of letters from home with dates to the 18th of last month. The weather is now much warmer, & spring flowers deck the fields & hedges: and the forest trees are putting on their green robes.
     21st, 4 mo.—Have been to the Tract Depository this afternoon but do not find as much choice of books as at New Orleans. St. Louis is a busy & increasing city, but by no means as pleasant one, & we find most things very dear. Here at New Orleans, and other towns in the Southern States, there is no copper currency in use except at the post-office, & the smallest silver coin in use is the five cent piece. Have been much engaged in writing & sorting books. Our dear children are remembered by me oftener than the day, & desires are raised in my heart for their preservation from the snares of our unwearied adversary: from the undue influence of the spirit of the world which keeps the mind afloat: and from fleshly lusts which war against the soul. Many of friends & relations are also brought before my mind with desires for their encouragement.      23rd, 4 mo.—Still at St. Louis. Made up & posted letters for England. Yesterday there was an account in the newspaper of an explosion on board the Steamboat " Falls City", by the bursting of the boiler as she was about to sail from New Orleans to this City: by which accident several persons lost their lives. And this morning there is the report of the loss of a steamboat by fire. She sailed up the river last evening in company with another boat, with which she commenced racing: after proceeding about 5 miles the other boat got ahead of her, when the crew used great efforts to increase their speed. After supplying the engine fires with rosin, the mate ordered a barrel of turpentine, one end of which was burst open, and pieces of firewood were dipped into the spirits, and then thrown into the furnace. Some hot embers fell upon the floor already sprinkled with turpentine; some firewood lying near ignited, & whilst throwing it overboard, the barrel was upset, the spirits flowed around, and instantly the boat was enveloped in flames. Consternation seized the passengers & crew, some of whom threw themselves into the water, others tried to leap on shore towards which the head of the boat had been turned. One woman was observed to throw her infant on shore; but on endeavouring to save another it proved too heavy and fell into the water, a third fared the same fate but eventually the mother & her children were rescued. Another female was seen lingering near one of the paddle boxes on the upper deck, but being encouraged to spring from the deck & endeavour to save herself, she made an effort to do so, but her dress caught upon something & she swung under the deck & fell into the burning mass below. We heard the fire bell tolling at which time the hull of the burning vessel was floating down the river towards the vessels at the Levee, but by sending out a boat with suitable men & implements, the flames were extinguished, & she was driven out of the way, & further danger prevented, tho' during the conflagration another boat was set on fire. By this occurrence about 10 persons lost their lives. Circumstances of this kind are not infrequent, & it is fearful to contemplate the little value which seems to be set upon human life.
     24th, 4 mo.—Last evening we spent a few hours in a social & more solemn manner, & took tea at Wm Alderson's. Called upon the widow Lucy Ann Kyle, whose maiden name was Whinstone: she was married to a non- member in early life by which act she lost her membership in our society but her principles seem to accord with our own. She resides with her son-in-law, Robert Campbell, whose wife is her daughter. R C has lived here many years & is a successful merchant. After some conversation Lucy Ann accompanied us in their carriage to town, and introduced us to a widow named Sarah Williams of the same class as herself. This person had private lodgings in the hotel where we were staying. We were in hopes of leaving here yesterday but could not meet with a suitable boat. My husband has taken places for us in the "Laclede" to Muscatine in Iowa, a distance of 300 miles. This vessel is adver[ti]sed to sail this evening, but on going on board we find that she is not likely to leave the wharf until second day evening the 26th. This being the case my dear R L has felt his mind drawn to gospel love towards our friends here, and he has gone on shore to make arrangements for a meeting on first day.
     26th, 4 mo.—On seventh day night we lodged on board the "Laclede", and the following morning attended the meeting which was held at the house of Robert Stagg; 30 persons were present, & thro' the Lord's helping hand we had a good & solemn meeting wherein my husband had good service and I was constrained to supplicate at the holy footstool: our hearts were contrited & drawn together is some of us rejoiced under a feeling of the great love of God thro' Christ Jesus.
     Dined with our friends, the Staggs, & Charlotte Davis, & her Niece from Cincinnati who are relatives. Spent the evening & lodged at R Campbell's, where we met with every comfort & convenience that we could desire. They have a large house & furnished in English style. At one time they held a few slaves but Virginia Campbell not liking the system, nor the care of young negroes, they were set free. Their servants at the present time are Swiss, German & Irish.
     This morning we took leave of our kind friends and called at the residence of John How, who is largely engaged in the tanning, & currying business: he is a man greatly beloved & respected, and is so much inclined to benefit his neighbours that he is called "the poor man's friend". He appears to have been successful in business; & at one time he held the office of Mayor of the City.
     Went on board the steamboat before noon, and took the opportunity of writing while all was quiet.
     27th, 4mo.—Third day. We did not sail until 1/2 past six last evening when we took a final leave of St. Louis which is a fine & flourishing City containing about 140 thousand inhabitants. Near the river, and in the business part of the City the streets are ill paved & dirty but the suburbs behind the town contain many good & well built houses chiefly of brick which are painted. The roads are clean, wide, & well paved, & trees planted at intervals. Some of the best houses have gardens attached, in one of which I noticed a bed of tulips in full bloom. Beds of coal & stone are in the neighbourhood.
     The Mississippi is dotted with islands of various form & size, and covered with trees. A large timber raft is floating down the river under the care of several men. There are not many passengers; we have 2 women who are of the lower class of Germans with whom we are unable to converse. At one of the stopping places we noticed two neatly dressed fair looking young women come on board, but not seeing them at the cabin table where we take our meals, I enquired where they were & was informed that they were of the mixed negro class, & took their meals below with the stewardess & colored waiters.

     28th, 4 mo.—Have just passed the town of Keokuk and we are now going thro' the rapids which extend about 18 miles; when the river is low they cannot be sailed over by big boats on account of the projecting rocks. A railway has recently been constructed from this place to Montrose, a distance of 20 miles, by which this inconvenience is in some degree met. On the opposite side of the river lies Nauvoo, formerly a head station of the Mormons. We see the remains of the temple built upon rising ground at the head of the town; the walls are still standing but the roof & windows are gone, and it remains as the wreck of a monument of the folly of man. Every ten or 15 miles we pass a small town; Burlington & Otquoke are some of the largest which we have seen this morning.
     29th, 4 mo.—Landed at Muscatine in Iowa at 1/2 past 2 o'clock this morning, and went to an hotel where we got a little sleep, & after breakfast by enquiries made our way to the house of Samuel Adams.
     Thermometer 80° in the shade.
     2nd, 5 mo.—First day. On 6th day we took tea & spent the evening at the house of Brinton & Amelia Darlington. The latter a sweet spirited friend in the station of a minister. Yesterday we had a cold wet & windy ride to Bloomington where the Monthly Meeting was held. There are many friends scattered around, and they have a good frame meeting house which on this occasion was pretty well filled. The wing of our heavenly Father's love & solemnizing presence was felt to spread over us, under the feeling of which we were constrained to labor according to the measure of grace bestowed. The women's meeting for discipline was an interesting occasion & toward the close a man friend entered the meeting & informed us that he had a prospect of religious service in New England Yearly Meeting; also to attend New York, Ohio, & Indiana, Y.M., and to hold some meetings within their limits which he was united with. The friend who acted as clerk and who was in the station of an elder afterwards informed us that she felt it to be her duty to accompany her husband, which being approved of she went to inform the men who liberated her for the service. The friends of this meeting emigrated chiefly from New York & New England, & appear to be in a lively condition, three men are acknowledged ministers, & several women occasionally speak in their meetings.
     Dined with Olny & Lydia Thompson, the friends who claimed our attention in meeting. Returned to Muscatine with our truly kind & interesting friends Samuel & M. J. Adams. In the evening we had to wait some time for the arrival of a steam boat, but about 9 o'clock, took our departure for Davenport. The distance is about 30 miles and we were informed that we would arrive there about midnight, instead of which the boat steered to Rock Island on the other side of the river. We had an uncomfortable night, & very broken sleep, and the weather was so cold that we could scarcely keep warm. Arose at 5 a. m. expecting to be taken across the river, which after much delay & consequent mortification was accomplished; & Robert Steer met & took us to his house: his Father-in-law, Peleg Wilbur, came with us from Muscatine. There are only two families in Davenport & one young man who are members of our society. A meeting is held at R Steers on first day morning; and at this time we sat down, 15 in number. Having had such a disturbed night I was greatly oppressed with heaviness, but thro' the Lord's wonder working power, the spirit of prayer came over me and access was granted to the holy foot stool. My dear husband ministered unto us. Spent the rest of the day with our friends. This town contains about 17,000 persons.
     Rose early the next morning &; came by train to West Liberty, 35 miles, where we were met by Elliot, the only son of Thomas & Annabelle Winn; who took us to his Father's house at Red Cedar, 6 miles distant, where we met with a cordial reception. In the afternoon Ann Morrow, formerly Abbott, came to see us, & having been members of the same meeting in younger days, it was mutually pleasant to meet: she is much affected with the rheumatism but lodges with a family where she is nicely cared for. Next day we dined at Greenberry Wood's who was one of the first settlers here: he has a wife & four children. They are in the nursery business. In the afternoon attended the select meeting at Red Cedar, which held long, but it was a time of suffering to my own mind. The friends seem to be preserved in love, but I thought a little deepening in the root of true religion would be beneficial to many.
     5th, 5 mo.—Iowa. Fourth day. This morning we attended the Mo. Meeting at Red Cedar where we met a large body of friends. The Great Head of the church was not unmindful of us, but was strength in weakness & a very present helper in time of need. Many of the women shew an interest in meetings for discipline & stand upon an equality with the men. There were two applications for membership. Samuel Lloyd, a minister, accompanied by another man entered our meeting and opened his prospect of visiting the different meetings in Iowa, & holding some public meetings; he had previously been liberated by the men's meeting, and the women uniting therewith, the way was open for his procedure.
     Dined with Lauri & M. A. Tatham, who were amongst the first settlers here, and they are still living in the log cabin which was put up on their arrival, tho' some needful additions have been made to it.
     The settlement of friends extends about 6 miles: many of them have good frame houses, furnished in simple style. They have just erected a large frame meeting house, and on seventh day a Quarterly Meeting is to be opened in it for the first time. The floor being laid with unplaned boards has rather a rough appearance, but as they will not often undergo the process of washing it may answer well. After some days of cold wet weather we have had an agreeable change and the roads which were almost impassible are drying up a little. There being no foot paths, and the roads in some places being ankle deep in mud, we feel quite deprived of the benefit of walking, and have to ride if we call upon a friend. Some of the sloughs are difficult to get through, even in a carriage.
     On fifth day dined with Henry Rowntree and wife: he came here from England in early life has had many reverses of fortune and is now engaged in farming, he has 5 sons & 2 daughters: E R & his wife are persons of talent. Henry has a gift in the ministry & if favoured to keep in the low valley of humility seems likely to be very useful amongst his friends. Called to see James Hodgson & wife, formerly of Manchester; he is a cabinet maker, appears very industrious & gets plenty of work: they have put up a neat frame house, and if favoured with health, seem likely to do well.
     On sixth day morning attended the select Q. M., a favored season wherein we were fed with the crumbs which fell from the Master's table. Dined at Samuel Pearson's whose house & farm buildings are the best which we have seen in this part of the State. His wife & 4 daughters seem very industrious, and attend to their own domestic work.
     8th, 5 mo.—Iowa. Seventh day. Closed letters for England and at 11 a. m. attended the first sitting of Red Cedar Quarterly Meeting, Iowa. The house, calculated to hold 400 persons, was well filled, and thro' the Lord's continued goodness we had a favoured meeting wherein divers testimonies were borne inciting to diligence in the great & all important work of true religion. The meetings for discipline were interesting seasons, and the business was transacted with much harmony. After our Certificates were read, there was such an expression of sympathy & unity, that I felt deeply humbled: many hearts were contrited, and tears shed, under a feeling of the Lord's goodness and protecting care over two strangers who were journeying far from home. We had breakfast at 7 a. m: the meeting held until 1/2 past four and at 6 p. m, we dined with Isreal & Ruth Negus where Ann Morrow resides. Eleven hours seemed a long time between meals, but it is not the custom here to have a recess between meetings. The weather for the most part has been cloudy, cold, &; wet, but this morning is fine & sunny.
     9th, 5 mo.—First day. There was a full meeting in the morning and the solemnizing presence of the Lord was felt to spread over us. Several testimonies were borne, mostly of an awakening character: and prayers were offered for our preservation. In the afternoon attended the Scripture School: it is open to others besides members children, & seems likely to be useful here where infidelity is striving to erect its head and to undermine the great truths of the gospel. Some friends came to our lodgings in the evening, and after the usual scripture reading, my R L addressed several states present, and our hearts were warmed with the love of God.
     Next morning took leave of our truly kind friends, Thomas & Annabella Winn; the latter has a superior & refined mind and has latterly spoken in meetings for worship. She was brought up & married in Philadelphia, but her husband being unsuccessful in business, they have had many trials and during our sojourn of a week under their roof I have many times thought she seemed more redeemed from the world than any person that I have previously known: like Mary of old she seemed to sit at the feet of her Savior.
     Dilworth Schooly drove us 6 miles to Honey Grove where a meeting had been appointed at 11 a. m. About 13 families have an indulged meeting on first day morning which is held in a dwelling house. On this occasion it was much crowded, but we had a solid & good meeting wherein gospel truths were opened, I trust to the edification of some present. After dining at John Hacock's where the meeting was held, rode 12 miles to Centre where another indulged meeting is kept.
     11th, 5 mo.—Lodged at Absolum Raley's, and at 10 a. m. attended their meeting held at Isaiah Stanley's; 8 families attend this meeting, but 45 persons were present this morning when the Lord was our helper, and we had fresh cause to set up an Ebenezar to his praise. After dinner rode 13 miles to Iowa City, which is laid out upon a large scale but the houses are far apart: it is pleasantly situated upon rising ground; good wide streets laid out, but as they are not yet paved, it is difficult to walk along in wet weather.
     13th, 5 mo.—Iowa City. Lodged at a comfortable hotel & set out early the following morning. Crossing the Iowa River we rode over some large prairies, and entered a level country at the Old Man's Creek, which is bordered with a thick belt of timber, along side of which we traveled some miles thro' a settled district. Recrossing the creek we rode alongside or between groves of wild plum, apple, crab, raspberry, & hazel bushes, all growing in wild luxuriance. Birds of various note & plumage were enjoying the sunshine: the blackbird is large & the male has red feathers at the root of its wings which has a pretty appearance when extended. The robin is much larger than our English bird bearing that name; its head & tail are black, and its breast a muddy brown.
     Crossed a fork of the English River & arrived at Millersburg about 6 p. m. and lodged at Isaac McBrides, a friend of our driver. Set out early this morning, crossed one fork of the English River & forded another somewhat deep. The various sloughs at the foot of the ridges in riding over the pra[i]ries are a great discomfort to us. We noticed some pra[i]rie chickens today. Many sweet & varied flowers adorn the grass, we notice the buttercup but miss the daisy. At the close of our days journey, when entering a lane leading to a friend's house at Gilead, our horses were not able to draw the carriage thro' a slough: one of them fell down in it, and they had to be released from the vehicle and a pair of oxen yoked to draw it out. It took us 6 hours to travel about 18 miles. After our arrival there was a violent tempest of rain & wind accompanied by thunder & lightning which for about 15 minutes seemed as if it would sweep everything before it. Some of the houses shook & the wooden fences were torn assunder, & left upon heaps: we esteemed it a great favor to have a shelter at such a time. Lodged at Cyrenius Emmon's, & next morning attended an appointed meeting in the school house belonging to friends at the small settlement called Gilead, where about 13 families reside within a few miles of each other. Some other persons were present, & ability was given to preach Christ crucified. There are a few separatists who have absented themselves from the body, or from meeting for worship with their brethren. These were invited & came to the meeting where the drawing cord of our heavenly Father's love was felt uniting us to the Great Head of the church who seemed to be waiting to unite all (out of scisms & divisions) under his seamless garment.
     Here we parted from our young friend, Dilworth Schooly, & in the afternoon had a drive of 23 miles. Owing to the late rains the roads were in bad condition, & in passing thro' the numerous sloughs, it was distressing to see our poor horses up to the knees in mud, and we greatly feared that they would not be able to get along. Fortunately we reached the house of John & Susannah Hichiner at Sharon soon after sunset where we met with a kind welcome. They have 8 children, all at home: the 3 eldest are sons, fine healthy looking young men, the youngest of them is 17 years of age & stands 6 ft, 3 inches high. On seventh day morning had a meeting in the school house wherein my R L had good service and I silently bore my burden, there seeming no necessity to cast it upon my friends.
     Nine families compose this meeting. In the afternoon rode 10 miles to Centre Grove: being well acquainted with the country, J. Hichiner drove us over the high pra[i]ries where the road was much better, and we crossed the Skunk River in a flat. Weather very cold with slight showers of hail. Slept at David Wilsons and on first day morning the 16th attended a meeting held as usual in their school house, a good building two stories high: we had a good meeting. My dear husband spoke to us from the text: " If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth to all men liberally, & uptraideth not &c. &c." Prayer was offered & it was an open & favored time. Returned to Sharon in the afternoon, & set out again next morning to Sugar Creek, but found that the water in the Creek had overflowed the bridge, and a meeting having been appointed on the other side we knew not what to do. At length it was agreed for the meeting to be held in a house near where we were as some of the friends lived on this side: but so great was the desire of some of those across the water to attend the meeting that they took the bed of a waggon off the wheels and by means of a rope which was thrown across the stream about 12 persons were drawn across in the waggon, a few at a time.
     We were seated in the cottage about 4 p. m. which was much crowded, & what with the heat, the crying of infants, and great exercise of mind into which I was drawn, it was a distressing time to myself. My dear husband had an open time in preaching the gospel, and I trust some things which were said would be as a nail fastened in a sure place. The parties who offered their house for the meeting belonged to a body called Hicksites. After meeting we hastened back to recross the river, at some distance, fearing it might rise higher, and prevent our procedure. A guide led the way across the bayou which is formed by the overflowing water breaking down the banks of the river. It was deep in some places but we got safely thro', & thus got onto the bridge. The exercise of riding thro' the sloughs & wet land is very exhausting both to body & mind, but a good nights rest generally restores us. Lodged at Jesse Arnold's at Lynnville.
     19th, 5 mo.—Fourth day. Rode to China yesterday morning, and had a meeting at Samuel Butler's, composed of 6 families, 3 of which consisted of 10 children each & their parents. The calming influence of our heavenly Father's love spread over us, & my R L spoke from the text: "The well is deep & thou hast nothing to draw with". An unusual number of youths were present. Proceeded to Pleasant View in the afternoon, distant 18 miles. Lodged at Ambrose Osbornes. Yesterday morning was fine & sunny, rain fell in the afternoon, & this morning is cloudy & dull. The farmers are discouraged with the continued cold weather, which has lasted longer than usual this year.
     Pleasant View 18, 5 mo. A meeting house has recently been erected here which is seated with rude forms, without backs. The meeting this morning was a season when judgment was laid to the line, & righteousness to the plum line; and an alarm sounded on the Lord's holy mountain to the careless sons & daughters, whilst encouragement flowed to the sincere hearted mourners. In the afternoon rode 4 miles to Centre. Slept at Evan Henshaw's, whose wife was truly kind to us.
     21st, 5 mo.—Iowa. Sixth day. At 9 a m. yesterday we had a meeting at Centre, which was a searching & awakening time to the careless & lukewarm, but comfort flowed to the Lord's tribulated children. The meeting house was in an unfinished state, & temporary boards had been put down which were very wet & caused our feet to become cold. Delicate persons should not come into newly settled places, as there are not the comforts to be found which they require. The soil here is of a ruddy brown, and the boys not wearing shoes or stockings, their feet look like those of colored people. It is the custom in these parts for all classes to sit down together at meal times, and if there are any workmen, however ragged or dirty they may be, they are treated with marked attention & sometimes take the lead in conversation.
     Dined with Matilda White, an interesting widow who resides in a log cabin; her husband died about 5 years ago leaving her with 7 children. She has a farm, & works upon the land, assisted by her son, a youth of 15, & two younger daughters. In the afternoon proceeded to Hopewell, a distance of 25 miles.
     On approaching the south Skunk River, we found the water had formed a bayou on the flat land adjoining, in crossing which the water entered our carriage & made it uncomfortable, rather increasing a cold & hoarsness which I have had for some days. After considerable difficulty in finding our way over the pra[i]ries, & plunging at unawares into a deep slough which for a moment took one of our horses off his feet, we reached our place of destination about 8 p. m. and were glad to find a shelter for ourselves & horses under the roof of Wm Hibbs. Our friend John Michiner is still with us. Here we found a small company with whom we had a satisfactory meeting this morning in Wm Hibb's house.
     23rd, 5 mo.—Indianola; Iowa. First day. On sixth day afternoon accompanied by Samuel Chambers & wife as guides, we rode over the pra[i]ries to the 4 mile Creek, and took up our quarters at J. J's whose wife has been blind 11 years. Two daughters about 15 & 17 years of age had charge of the house, but we had painfully to see & feel their need of more efficient care & inspection in domestic concerns.
     No regular meeting is kept up here, but the few families professing with us, met in a school house on seventh day morning. Many other persons joined us, and we had a satisfactory meeting, at the close of which my dear husband desired our friends to remain a little longer, and expressed his desire that they should meet together for the purpose of divine worship. Some of them seemed to see & feel the need of it, but did not like to take upon themselves the responsibility. As generally the case my R L distributed tracts at the close of the meeting.
     Dined at the widow Adamson's who has an interesting family of grown up sons & Daughters.
     Rode 8 miles to Fort Desmoines, a considerable town at the foot of the Desmoine & Racoon Rivers; and the capitol of the State.
     A peculiar illusion meets the eye in passing over these pra[i]ries. We observe what appears to be a large white frame house upon which we look with interest; but after travelling some miles we find it dwindles to a cottage, one story high: and the same thing applies to groves of trees. Last evening rain & hail, accompanied by thunder & lightning came on and continued until sun rise this morning: when we set out early and rode 20 miles to Indianola where there is a settled meeting. One of our kind friend John Michiner's horses requiring rest, he returned home, and Mahlon Haworth drove us 14 miles to Calvin Haworth's, but owing to the bad roads, it was after 9 p. m. when we arrived, & most of the family had retired to rest.
     Our guide has lived 12 years in Iowa but never saw such continued rain as there has been for the last few weeks. We have to go many miles round to avoid creeks & sloughs which are impassible: and on the best roads our horses do not generally make more than 3 miles an hour. Dined at Ellwood Haworths at Hickory Grove, where a small indulged meeting is held. At 2 p. m. we sat down with the friends & their neighbours: the house was much crowded, and my dear Husband had considerable service in the ministry: but I do not remember ever sitting a more painful meeting as regards both body & mind. I had a very uncomfortable seat, and feeling much exhausted from plunging thro' the mud, day after day, I was ready to faint away. We afterwards rode some miles and lodged at Isaac Haworth's; felt his mind drawn to visit some other friends residing at a distance, but as there seemed to be no chance at present, on account of bad roads & swollen creeks, we returned to Indianola; but finding it difficult to obtain either a guide or horses, but at last we borrowed an old carriage, & hired horses from an hotel; the landlord drove us but the roads were worse than ever. We had not proceeded half way, before we plunged into a deep slough where the horses broke their swingletrees, and we had to borrow harness from a farmer who lived near. After we had gone a few miles, a like accident befell us, but fortunately being near a house we obtained assistance & went on our way. In one fearful place we alighted to relieve the horses, and altho' trying to choose the best part of the road, I got up to the ankle in mud & lost one of my over shoes. Before reaching the town, our carriage pole nearly broke in two, but with repairing we reached the Racoon River which lay between us & the town, about 8 p. m., but on looking for the bridge it was not to be seen. The river had risen several feet & spread over the land. The carriage & horses had to remain behind, but we were taken across in a skiff: and had to wait some time standing on the damp ground until a man went to the Inn for a waggon to take us & our baggage. We were weary in body but felt thankful that no serious accident had befallen us. It is almost in vain to attempt a description of the country at this time. Some nice smooth looking places on the road are like dough in which the horses sink up to their knees, and much of the low flat land is covered with water. Finding that the roads are impassible for hacks, we feel like prisoners, but are staying at a comfortable hotel. There is some change in the weather this morning, & the day is fine & sunny.
     28th, 5 mo.—Yesterday the heat was oppressive. The frame houses soon get heated, & we could not find a cool place. The best of the three bridges over the Des-Moines River is a handsome wooden one, built at a cost of 27,000 dollars, & supported by stone pillars, one of  which has given way within the last few days. The others are floating wooden ones supported by boats, but have been useless owing to the increased width of the stream, so are drawn aside to prevent their being washed away. Took a short walk this afternoon, and observed the ground that we crossed in a carriage on 3rd day, now covered with water, & persons were travelling in boats.
     Called at the livery stables, and were informed that the roads were still impassible. The usual stage coach has been delayed much beyond the usual time of its arrival, and the passengers report that they had frequently to alight & walk, it being enough for the horses to drag the empty carriage thro' the mud. Such being the case I have been attending to needful repairs; & as the waters have not risen today, we hope soon to proceed to Marietta where we expect to find letters from home.
     30th, 5 mo.—During our tarrience of 5 days at the Fort we have heard of several persons who are connected with friends. Called with my husband upon 2 of this class yesterday, & dined with C. Dawson and wife.
     My R L feeling it to be in the line of duty to hold a public meeting with the inhabitants, notices have been printed & circulated and at 3 o'clock this afternoon we met a large company in a public room engaged for the purpose, when my dear husband was strengthened to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ. The open sinners were warned to flee from the wrath to come, & shown from various passages in Scripture that the wages of sin is eternal death. The self righteous were reminded of their dangerous condition in trusting to their own good works, and encouragement flowed to the Lord's true born children. Altho' few present knew but little of our simple mode of worship, great quietitude prevailed, & it was a solemn season.
     I cannot describe the cross it is to self, & the conflict of mind into which I am introduced at public meetings in having to sit upon a raised seat beside my husband, without one female friend to bear me company, particularly as I do not often venture to speak on such occasions, except it be to bow the knee in prayer, for the Lord's blessing. But however trying at the time, I can bear testimony that when there is a willing mind, hard things are made easy, & bitter things sweet; and on returning from this meeting, I think we could unitedly adopt the language: "Return unto thy rest, Oh my soul! for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee."
     31st, 5 mo.—Second day. Left Fort Des-Moines about 1/2 past 3 o'clock this morning by mail stage. The roads were in bad condition, & before crossing the river Skunk, the stage was changed for an open waggon. The water was spread over the adjacent land for the breadth of 1/2 a mile, thro' which we had to ride; I think we never had a rougher journey; we were jerked & tossed from side to side, I was many times raised from my seat & had to hold by the seat before me to prevent being hurt. On arriving at Newton at 2 p. m. were sufficiently tired to make a change agreeable. We were in hopes of proceeding to Marietta this afternoon, but the driver is not willing to proceed until tomorrow morning. Were it not for the bad roads we should have much pleasure in admiring the country: there being many beautiful undulating pra[i]ries, also level ones covered with green grass, interspersed with blue, pink, red, yellow & orange flowers. Hundreds of acres lie unoccupied, chiefly in the hands of speculators, but all the unfenced land is common stock as regards grazing. The cattle roam at large, the cows generally having a string tied round their necks to which a bell is hung, and I suppose the owners can distinguish the sound of the bells. This morning we met a string of 18 waggons in which were women, children, & domestic goods, fowls, &c., &c. Some of the vehicles were drawn by six, & others by four oxen. The men drove the loose cattle. Truly the Americans are a moving & unsettled people. A few days since we were in company with a man who said that he came to Iowa from the State of New York, at a time when he had such an over plus of money that he did not know how to invest it: and now he was so poor that he was glad to get a job of any kind whereby to earn a living.
     2nd, 6 mo.—Marietta, Marshall Co. Iowa. Set out at an early hour yesterday morning and passed over the ridges of many fine sloping pra[i]ries, but our driver was not familiar with the road. On being directed into an Indian trail, it led us to a public road, but we travelled 4 miles without passing a dwelling house: we had to alight several times & walk, picking our way round the sloughs and creeks, it being enough for the horses to draw the empty carriage. About mid day we came to a few houses called the Kentucky settlement, where the horses were baited, and we partook of some good rich milk and bread. Four families own 7,000 acres of land, 260 of which are under cultivation, but being 18 miles from any market, & wheat being worth only about 25 cents per bushel this year, & the store keepers having little money, and only being able to pay in goods, the settlers were discouraged; they lived in rude log cabins, and only seemed able to procure the common necessities of life. The day was very fine, the sun shining in the clear blue sky, and had it not been for the continual fear of either missing our way or getting into the sloughs, we should have more fully enjoyed the beauties surrounding us. Our driver, an interesting young man, had five fingers & a thumb upon each hand.
     Took up our quarters at a house of accommodation, and found that the family were connected with our society. Found letters from our dear children &c. at the Post Office, and an Annual Monitor for the present year.
     With the exception of our youngest daughter E being still delicate, our family were in unusual health, and we trust under the care of Him who sleepeth not by day, nor slumbereth by night. What shall we render unto the Lord for all His benefits? Shall we not take the cup of salvation, calling upon Him to enable us to drink it even to the dregs, seeing that He is too wise to err, too good to be unkind?
     Whilst riding over the pra[i]ries yesterday, and admiring the beauties of the outward creation, given us richly to enjoy, I thought how fleeting, short-lived, and uncertain are all earthly things: "And that he builds too low, who builds .beneath the skies." A circumstance was related to me a few days ago which took place during a tempest which we witnessed a few days since. On that fatal afternoon, a man who had retired from business, and was comfortably married, anticipating much domestic enjoyment with his family, had taken a pleasure boat and they were sailing down the river, when suddenly the storm arose, and before they reached the shore, the boat capsized; the wife and children were drowned, and the unfortunate father had an hairbreadth escape from losing his life. Surely such things should deeply impress our minds with the injunction, "Be ye also ready, for at such a time as ye think not, the Son of Man cometh."
     This little town like many others in Iowa appears to be laid out on a large scale, but the buildings are far apart, many of them having plots of land & gardens around. Our lodgings are on one side of a large square in a central situation, having a view of the broad belt of timber bordering the Iowa River. This stream has overflowed its banks and spread over the adjoining land, and I felt much afraid yesterday on hearing that on approaching the town, the waters were so deep that the horses had to swim, but fortunately we entered on the other side. On awakening early this morning I heard the tinkling of the cow bell, & the peculiar sound of the pra[i]rie chickens.
     Rain has fallen during the night, & the sky is cloudy.
     3rd, 6 mo.—Marietta. Last night was a stormy one, with hail, rain, thunder & lighting, flashes of the latter being very vivid, and almost continuous until daybreak. A friend took us in a waggon to Hartland, where 7 families keep up a meeting in a school house. A stranger had some service. My dear husband addressed us, and it seemed to be my place to bow the knee in prayer. Dined at Ira Cook's, who afterwards drove us 8 miles to Bangor where a new Quarterly Meeting is to be opened on seventh day called Western Plains. Lodged at the house of a highly gifted minister James Owen, where we met our worthy & honored friend Asenath Clark.
     7th, 6 mo.—Bangor, Second day. Attended the Select meeting on sixth day morning which was an interesting time. Dined in company with Lindly Murray Hoag and his lovely young wife, the former is looking well but thinner than when I last saw him in England.
     On seventh day morning the Q. M. opened at 11 a. m. A new meeting house is now in course of erection, but was blown down a few weeks since, and they have not been able to finish it for this interesting occasion. The old meeting house is a rude log building, in addition to which a temporary shed was erected, calculated to hold 300 persons, and the day being fine there was a full attendance. We had the company of Rebecca Updegraph from Ohio, who is a woman of good natural talent, & largely gifted as a minister. She was the only daughter of Jonathan Taylor who died in Ireland whilst on a visit to the British Isles. She had considerable service in this meeting, and several other friends preached to us: prayers were offered and it was a favored time.
     The discipline was conducted in good feeling; James Owen, was liberated for service in Indiana. It was with much difficulty, and at the hazard of their lives that some parties got there. Three men had to swim across one stream, and to walk thro' another where the water reached up to the waist. They carried their clothes upon their heads; and altho' undergoing such hardships, they did not appear to have suffered materially, and I heard one of the party say that he felt well rewarded for his trouble in attending the meetings. Three others who had minutes for religious service only got here on 7th day evening. We had a very full meeting yesterday, wherein the Lord was mercifully pleased to own us by the breaking of bread. Rebecca Updegraph & Asenath Clark took a prominent part in the service of the meeting. Several other friends were engaged in the ministry, & we had a short address from James Owen, who is pretty much self taught as to outward learning: but his mind seems to have been cast in a superior mold. He is eloquent & has a fine gift as a minister.
     Took leave of our friends after dinner, & rode 10 miles to Providence, where about 20 families hold a meeting in a school house. Lodged at Eleazer Andrews & this morning attended an appointed meeting where we met John & Daniel Barker, on similar service. The Lord was our helper, & I trust a little seed was sown which under his blessing may bring forth fruit to his praise. Being furnished with a carriage & horses, accompanied by John Kinsey, we came to Dab Creek this morning. Had the river been fordable the distance was only 8 miles but going round to a bridge made it 13.
     10th, 6 mo.—Fifth day. On third day we had a meeting in a school house which was much crowded, & there seemed no means of ventilation. My R L had considerable service, but it was a suffering time to me both in body & mind. Lodged at Edmund Kinsey's and at 6 p. m. set out on a journey of 160 miles. The first 15 was over the unfenced pra[i]ries where we did not see a dwelling house, and only one grove of trees. Came thro' the country town of Grundy which is in an infantile state only containing 8 houses, and a newly erected court house. Want of timber seems to prevent this section of Iowa from being much settled: stone is also very scarce. We often see bad places in the roads mended with branches of trees & sticks, & the interstices filled up with straw. Lodged at a comfortable farm house; and this morning rode thro' Waterloo, the County seat of Black Hawk, to Jane[s]ville where we dined, & crossed the Red Cedar River. Slept at Syracuse.
     12th, 6 mo.—Seventh day. Recrossed the river at Nashua over a high bridge, but were informed that we could not get over the bayous & forks beyond, without considerable risk, but our driver using needful precautions we ventured and got safely through. After passing through the small towns of Bradford & Chickasaw, we came to a district which was a continuation of the sloughs & wet land for about two miles. After plunging for some time our horses got into a deep place & one of them fell down. We alighted & walked some distance to a house, while the friend, our driver, sought a better path for the horses.
     After dinner our kind host accompanied us to the Wapsipinicon River with the intention of rendering us some assistance in crossing, but we found the water overflowing the banks, and a rapid bayou had formed which we could not cross except at the hazard of our lives, so we concluded to return to the house & wait until next morning. But finding the stream still impassible & my husband feeling his mind drawn in gospel love towards the people in this thinly settled district where there is no regular place of worship, notice has been given of a meeting to be held in a school house tomorrow morning.
     14th, 6 mo.—About 20 persons attended the meeting and ability was afforded to discharge apprehended duty—To the Lord be all the praise! In the afternoon accompanied by our host, Charles Daman, & 3 youths we again went to the river side & found the water had fallen a little, so with about an hour's hard labor, during which our host was sometimes up to the waist in water, we were helped thro' the bayou & over the bridge. But fresh difficulties arose on finding the main road impassible, and we had to get a guide to lead us round into a road where the horses could travel. Took up our quarters for the night at a country hotel called "Pettibones" where we found comfortable quarters. After setting out this morning we found some bad sloughs in one of which our horses fell down, and had to be released from the carriage. Fortunately help was near, and a couple of oxen were borrowed to extricate our carriage. Such circumstances are extremely harassing & discouraging at the time, but He without whose notice not even a sparrow falleth to the ground " out of seeming evil still educeth good". And in this case our catastrophe was the means of introducing us to a very interesting family who removed here from Canada some time ago, but were under much discouragement on account of their bad location, want of religious society, and schools for the education of their children. The district is very broken & much covered with hazel bushes. Some of the cleared ground is of such a loose & rotten texture that it will not bear the weight of the cattle without their sinking up to the knees.
     When within about 2 miles of the first settlement of friends in Winneshiek, the face of the country changed and we again entered fine smooth pra[i]rie land.
     Reached the house of Enos George at Fairview about 4 p. m. truly glad once more to get amongst our own class of friends, tho' many of them seem to have but few of the comforts and conveniences of life: but they gave us a welcome and did their best to accommodate us.
     15th, 6 mo.—Third day. At Decorah, the County town of Winneshiek, situated on the upper Iowa River. This morning we had a meeting at Fairview where about 7 families hold a regular indulged meeting. Best help being near, we had a satisfactory opportunity. After dinner drove 20 miles to this place which is beautifully situated in the centre of limestone bluffs, in a wooded district. We are the guests of Joseph Gibbons & wife, refined & agreeable friends. In concluding this packet of letters I may say, that tho' often feeling faint hearted, we are mercifully enabled to pursue the path of duty, day by day, so far as we are enabled to discern it, & have an abundant reason once more to set up an Ebenezar to the Lord's praise.
     18th, 6 mo.—Left Decorah on fourth day morning & rode 6 miles to Spring Water where a meeting was held in a newly erected meeting house. The Lord was our helper, and close doctrine was applied to such as might be in a lukewarm state, and have lost the dew of their youth.
     Dined at L. Blackman's, and rode 10 miles to attend a meeting called Winneshiek: lodged at Tristrem Allen's, and found the meeting house in an unfinished state. The Lord was mercifully pleased to own us, & my dear husband had good service in unison with the exercise of my own mind. "If anything be revealed to another that sitteth by, let the first hold his peace" is a text which is consistent with gospel order: my own mind often being exercised upon subjects which my R L gives expression to, & I esteem it a favor to be a silent burden bearer.
     The weather has been fine for some days: yesterday the thermometer stood at 90° in the shade, and the heat was almost overpowering. We are now at Thomas Painter's at Pleasant Valley where an indulged meeting is kept up which we attended, and were enabled to discharge ourselves of apprehended duty. Left the place the same afternoon and proceeded towards the next meeting, distant 50 miles, in an open waggon upon springs: a young man called William Proud is our guide & driver.
     Called by the way to see L. Jones & family who removed here from Ohio after being unsuccessful in business. Their change of circumstances appears to be deeply felt by his wife towards whom the language of encouragement was felt & expressed.
     20th, 6 mo.—First day. On sixth day night we lodged at a small hotel which we were recommended as a good house. The inmates seemed clean & tidy persons, but the travelers bed room contained 6 beds, of which we had the choice, but were much disappointed with our ordinary accommodations. The scenery by which we are now surrounded is a contrast to the green grassy plains over which we have lately passed. Here we find the unfenced pra[i]rie dotted over with a small growth of timber, or covered with oak & hazel bushes. We see many stony bluffs, & travel thro' passes between the hills, from some of which issue fine springs of water. Yesterday afternoon we arrived at Elk Horn in Minnesota, & lodged with our worthy friends, David & Phebe Steers: but the night was one which we shall long remember from the prevalence of the mosquitoes which were so numerous, so noisy, & tormenting, that with all our ingenuity it seemed in vain to court sleep, & scarcely got any: consequently we feel languid this morning.
     There are a number of friends families around here who hold an indulged meeting in one of their houses: but this morning we met in a school house which was filled well by friends & others. God gave the word which his feeble instruments were enabled to publish, I trust to the relief & peace of their own minds. Here we found George Moor who emigrated from Darlington about 7 years ago. Great is the loss which many sustain from coming into newly formed settlements in this country. Several of G. Moor's sons & his only daughter have married & left our society, and the Father was said to be remiss in the attendance of meetings. Persons upon the frontiers can raise food for their household pretty readily, by the cultivation of their land, but in general if there is not a good market at a reasonable distance very little money passes through their hands. Their dress & furniture are of the simplest kind, and we often see home made bed stocks, tables, &c., &c. Cleanliness which is said to be next to Godliness, I regret to say is too seldom seen, & order, heaven's first law, too much neglected, but there are exceptions.
     22nd, 6 mo.—Third day. Parted from our worthy friends D & P Steers, on first day afternoon in an open waggon, the best vehicle which our friends possessed. Our driver not knowing the road, we made the distance longer than need be, & did not arrive at Rochester until late in the evening. Finding the exposure of the sun very oppressive and in addition to the inflammation caused by the bites of the mosquitoes, a painful eruption having broken out upon my limbs, we concluded to dismiss the waggon and go forward by a public stage to Lake City where we arrived about 4 p. m. wearied in body, the stage being much crowded.
     This town is beautifully situated upon the banks of Lake Pepin, which is formed by the spreading out of the River Mississippi. As the time seemed uncertain when a steam boat would arrive by which we would proceed to St. Pauls, the capitol of Minnesota, we retired early and at 6 o'clock next morning were on board the Metropolitan steam boat. The scenery on this part of the river is very beautiful. We passed a range of high rocks of a cheese like form, the tops of which were smooth grassy plains, and the sides perpendicular down to the banks of the river. Every few miles we pass small towns, or villages, and we make frequent calls to take in freight or passengers. After jolting in an open waggon under a scorching sun, I have much enjoyed the change, & this has been a day of rest where in I could look with pleasure upon the varied natural beauties around and in something of filial confidence say: " My Father made them all." Arrived at St. Paul's the same afternoon, having made 100 miles. Took up our quarters at a comfortable inn called Fullers House, where we found ourselves much at home, having a bed & sitting room to ourselves. Few but the weary traveller can tell how grateful it is to meet with a comfortable inn where he can have a little quiet & retirement. Within the last few days the thermometer has been 80 in the shade.
     24th, 6 mo.—Left St. Pauls yesterday afternoon by public stage & rode 12 miles to St. Anthony, thro' a beautifully wooded country, and the land well cultivated. The Indian corn is much forwarder here than in Iowa, and the soil being sandy, the roads are much better. The navigation here is obstructed by the Falls, which are rocky projections stretching across the Mississippi, at no great elevation, down which the waters fall, and are made use of for some extensive saw mills. The stream narrows above, and a chain bridge has been thrown across over which we crossed to Minneapolis which is a considerable town. These towns have sprung up within the last four years, & contain together about 10,000 inhabitants of a superior class chiefly from the New England States, and great improvements have been made.
     We are the guests of Joseph H. Canney & Ursula, his wife, who reside in a wooded district about a mile from the town where they have a beautiful cottage containing several rooms both up & down stairs which are kept in nice order altho they keep no domestic servant. Their only offspring is a little son. These friends removed here about 4 years ago, before the Indians left the territory, & their house was the third erected in the neighbourhood.
     This morning J. H. Canney drove us 30 miles to Simone where a few friends reside. Yesterday & today we have met droves of the 1/2 breed Indians from the Red River settlement about 600 miles distant. They are in the habit of coming down to St. Pauls once a year bringing various kinds of skins which they exchange for clothing and other small things which they require. They have small carts railed round the sides: the wheels are large but made without iron hoops, and they are drawn by an ox or a pony. We passed the place where a large company of them had encamped for the night, during which heavy rain had fallen, & the squaws had spread bedding, clothing, &c upon the bushes to dry. They seem quiet & harmless, and we were informed that they sometimes remain for months in the neighbourhood, being very cautious in disposing of their cattle, wares, &c.
     We have seen many fine lakes this morning; & we dined at a lonely house in the bush where we saw a beautiful young fawn, which had been caught a few days before. These lovely creatures soon become very tame and domestic & follow the children around the house. In riding along we nearly ran over a tortoise; its body was about a 1/2 a yard long: we understand they are numerous in swampy ground. On the way we met Rice Price who returned & took us to his house where we lodged.
     28th, 6 mo.—Second day. We had an appointed meeting at Rice Prices on sixth day morning, when some of the neighbours were present, and we sat down about 40 persons. My dear husband addressed us from the text: This is a faithful saying & worthy of all acceptation: that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners &c. There are three families of friends here who reside within two miles of each other, but they are not in the habit of holding meetings for worship together. Our worthy friend, Sarah M. Hiatt, resides here who is an acknowledged minister. My R. L. found it to be his duty to encourage them to keep up a meeting.
     This is the most northerly point where friends are located in Minnesota.
     We returned to Minneapolis on seventh day, and yesterday had an appointed meeting with friends & their connections, in a public room, when my dear husband was largely engaged in pleading with sinners to flee from the wrath to come, & strewing the inefficacy of good works to secure our eternal salvation. But encouragement was given to the tender hearted followers of Christ. The members of our society being requested to remain at the close of the meeting, the necessity of upholding our testimonies before the world was pressed upon them. Spent the afternoon at our lodgings in company with some other friends.
     Accompanied by our host we rode about 20 miles this morning to Perkinsville; nearly half the distance lay thro a wood which extended for about 40 miles in a westerly direction. The road thro' the wood was bad and we found the mosquitoes very troublesome. Several families of friends settled here a few years since, but we only found two remaining. A visitation of grasshoppers injured their crops for two years which, together with other things, caused some of them to remove.
     John Perkins resides at the head of Independence Lake, which is two miles long and contains fish of various kinds.
     30th, 6 mo.—Yesterday we had an appointed meeting in a school house for our friends & their neighbours, when my R L had good service in the ministry, & was also engaged in prayer. I felt much oppressed with the heat, and unfit to attend such a meeting but the Lord was strength in weakness & a very present helper in the needful times.
     "I will not let thee go until thou bless me" is a resolution which seldom fails to draw down the divine blessing, altho' our faith may only seem as a grain of mustard seed, yet under the animating influence of holy anointing it may be increased like the loaves & small fishes which not only satisfied the multitude, but left many baskets full of fragments.
     After partaking of refreshment we returned to Minneapolis, and as my dear husband felt it to be his duty to appoint a public meeting with the inhabitants of this place & St. Anthony this evening, we remain here until fifth day morning. During our sojourn here we have been much oppressed with the heat.
     1st, 7 mo.—On board the steam boat Milwaukie, sailing down the Mississippi River. Made up my journal for England yesterday, and in the evening went to the public meeting, but the room was not near filled with people: my dear Husband had good service in preaching the unsearchable riches of Christ, and I was made willing to bow the knee in prayer. Took a final leave of our very kind friends J. Canney & wife this morning, and came to St. Pauls by stage where we took the boat to La Crosse in Wisconsin, a distance of 208 miles. Last night there was a heavy storm of rain & wind accompanied by thunder & lightning, which shattered the steeple of a church which had been recently built, and other damages were done. The rain has cooled the air, which is an agreeable change: the hot weather has affected our health so much that we feared its continuance.
     The lodging rooms are generally very small & low, and the upper rooms being sometimes open to the roof: the shingles which cover the roof get heated in the day time, and at night the apartments feel like a dry house.
     Amongst the farmers in the country we get no fresh meat, and seldom any kind but fried bacon, or dried beef, shaved. The bread is generally only half baked & sometimes we have no vegetables, which has been rather injurious to me: but we can generally make a meal of something, and often find good milk.
     3rd, 7 mo.—Seventh day. We made the voyage to La Crosse in 14 hours, from whence we proceeded to Veroqua, the county seat of Bad Ax, in which vicinity we expected to find some friends. Our route was thro' a romantic district with ranges of hills varied in form from that of a sugar loaf to bold rocky topped projections like ruined castles. Between the ranges lay rich valleys & deep ravines, which are chiefly settled by Clermans, or Norwegians of the lower class, some of whom have not made many improvements. The roads are bad and so often varied & turned by new settlers that our driver who had often passed that way got perplexed, and night closing upon us, at a time when we could not see a single house we felt in a tried situation, thinking it unsafe to proceed; but at last we were cheered by the sight of a light at a distance and were favored to reach our place of destination in safety about 10 p. m.
     5th, 7 mo.—Second day. On making enquiry for the friends settlement, we could only hear of one family about 5 miles distant who had any connection with us.
     On arriving at the house of Isaac Williams we found he had a wife and 14 children, 3 of whom lived under his roof, & 5 others were married and settled around him. It appeared that I.W. had not a birthright in our society, but his parents joined friends afterwards. His wife lost her membership by marriage, but both herself & husband seemed to be friends in principle: the former still wore a plain & simple dress. They had a number of friends' books, upon which they set great value.
     The family came here from Ohio about 4 years ago and they have now a farm of 900 acres. Notice having been given to the neighbours, a meeting was held yesterday morning in a large unfinished barn belonging to our host, which was attended by about 40 persons. My dear husband spoke at some length, commencing with the text: "It is appointed unto all men once to die, and after that the judgment." After taking his seat, one of the company arose and expressed his unity with what had been said, its accordance with scripture, & his desire that the company might lay these things to heart.
     Having been at extra expence, & traveled some distance in search of a settlement of friends that we had been told of, but all to no purpose, my R L felt easy to proceed & leave them. So W Williams drove us the same afternoon to Bad Ax City, which consisted of about 8 dwellings on the banks of the River Mississippi, where we lodged. Arose at 1/2 past 4 o'clock this morning and waited until 6 a. m. when a steam boat arrived which, being signalled by our host, drew near to land, and we went on board the "Northern Bell."
     Having had some hard rough traveling in an open farm waggon under a burning sun, this was a day of rest, and I much enjoyed the morning breeze, and admired the varied rocky cliffs, the highest of which is said to be 400 feet. But whilst my mind involuntarily turned and dwelt upon the many hardships and inconveniences which we sometimes meet with in passing along, I was comforted by remembering the scripture declaration: " These light afflictions which are but for a moment, work for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory whilst we look not at the things that are seen, but at those which are unseen, for the things that are seen are temporal, but the things which are unseen are eternal. "
     After sailing 60 miles we landed at the busy little town of Pra[i]rie-du-Chien at 11 a. m. and dined at a comfortable Inn: and at 1/2 past five the same evening took the railway cars to Milwaukie, a distance of 196 miles, to Lake Michigan quite across the State of Wisconsin.
     8th, 7 mo.—It was a great discomfort to us to travel thro' the night, and we were much annoyed by some of the passengers being worse for liquor.
     Reached Milwaukie, a flourishing and well built town containing 50,000 inhabitants, on second day morning and were gratified to find that a boat sailed daily up the Lake to Sheboygan, distant 50 miles. Took an early breakfast at an Inn & soon after 7 a. m. we were sailing up the beautiful lake with its light green waters: but I was too much tried & exhausted to enjoy the trip, & glad to lie down and rest. Dined on board, & reached Sheboygan about 1 p. m. where we hired a carriage and drove 20 miles to Glen Beulah, the residence of Joseph Swift who removed here from Massachusetts about a year since. He has a wife & two married daughters who with their husbands reside under the same roof. The young men are engaged in business with their Father-in- law who has a flour mill and keeps a general store. Their house is a good sized frame building, and it added much to our comfort to find that they kept up the customs & manners of the eastern States: their house being a picture of cleanliness, neatness, and order. J. S. was captain of a vessel for some years & has crossed the Atlantic many times.
     Yesterday morning we had an appointed meeting with them and their neighbours in a school house which was well filled & owned by Him who remains to be the crown & diadem of all rightly exercised assemblies.
     After dinner we had a private interview with the family, and were enabled to enter into sympathy with them in their isolated situation. Returned to Sheboygan from whence we went to Milwaukie where we came by train to Lyonsdale, 30 miles, but were disappointed to find the family that we wished to see had removed and as there was no train by which we could go forward that evening, & no hotel in the place, we were at a loss what to do. There are no authorized meetings in the State of Wisconsin, and we did not know of any persons connected with our society being near. But in course of conversation we heard of a family who lived within 1/2 a mile, so we got a guide to conduct us to the house of uncle David Lyon, as he was called, who gave us a kind reception. The family have lived in this neighbourhood about 16 years: the wife keeps to her plain dress, & both parents & children appear to be members of our society, tho' several of the children have married non members. Arrangements having been made, a meeting was held in a school house this afternoon to which the neighbours were invited, when thro' the Lord's help, I trust the gospel was preached, and we had renewed cause to set up an Ebenezar to his praise. We learn that there are some friends settled at a place called Honey Creek, 10 miles distant, who occasionally come here & sit down with the Lyons for the purpose of divine worship, and at other times David Lyons family go to Honey Creek.
     11th, 7 mo.—First day. At Honey Creek where we arrived yesterday accompanied by David Lyon & one of his daughters, and lodged at John Cregars who has lived here 12 years. We find two families who are members of our society, and a number of others who are more or less connected.
     At my dear husbands request, a chapter was read in the Testament after breakfast this morning, and he called the attention of our friends to the benefit likely to result from the performance of this reasonable duty. At 11 a. m. we attended a meeting which had been appointed in the village school to which the public were invited, when my R L had good service in setting forth the simple nature of true religion: "Believe & obey, & your souls shall live." The friends were invited to meet us at the place where we dined, when the canopy of divine love spread over us, our hearts were contrited under a feeling of the Lords goodness, and ability was given to address the people.
     13th, 7 mo.—State of Illinois. Third day. Yesterday morning took rail and came 55 miles to Durant [Durand] in Illinois; and as the railway is not completed, we had to hire a carriage to proceed 23 miles further to Freeport, passing thro' a well cultivated & timbered district, enjoying a cool evening ride. At 4 o'clock this morning we were seated in a railway ear & traveled 50 miles to Galena, a fair sized town on the banks of the Mississippi. having been informed that there were friends in this locality, I staid at an hotel while my husband went into the town to make enquiries but he could only hear of such as were connected with the Hicksites, but finding some of these very friendly and their hearts open to receive us, a meeting is appointed to be held this evening.
     Got tea at T Frazers, and at 7 p. m. met a small company at the house of D. S. Harris when the great and leading truths of vital christianity were bro't to view, based upon the one sinless offering of our Lord & Saviour Jesus Christ, for the sins of the whole world.
     15th, 7 mo.—Fifth day. Lodged at friend Harris' last night, he was from home following his calling, that of captain of a steam boat. But his wife whose maiden name was Sarah Coates from Pennsylvania, we found to be a superior woman & of talented mind, with whom it was a treat to mingle in social converse. Their house compared to many is like a mansion, and the gardens tastefully laid out, and all things seeming in good order. We should have liked a longer tarrience in the company of this interesting woman but sterner duties called us to depart, and a steam boat being about to sail down the river, we had to take leave and tear ourselves away; going on board at noon.
     After considerable detention, we reached Muscatine about 4 p. m. yesterday, having sailed 154 miles. The weather has been agreeable the last few days, with slight showers. Thermometer 67. Having ordered letters to meet us here, we found 3 from home, containing favorable accounts from our dear family.
     A meeting is appointed to be held here tomorrow. On first day we expect to be at a small meeting 12 miles distant, & then to bid farewell to Iowa, and after visiting a few meetings in Illinois to proceed into Michigan. We are in usual health and can bear testimony to the unfailing goodness of Him whom we desire to serve.
     19th, 7 mo.—Muscatine, Iowa. Where I am penciling notes in a room on the second story of an hotel where we are waiting for a steamboat to convey us to Burlington, 60 miles distant. Very heavy rain has been falling for some time, and there is quite a thunder storm, & I have just heard an explosion close by, like the firing of a cannon: two young people who were sitting in the same room rose to their feet as if they had been shot. My dear R L was sitting in the passage of the hotel beside our luggage and on hearing the noise, turned his head towards the door, and saw a ball of fire about 9 inches in diameter which immediately burst, & exploded about a yard from the ground and within a few yards from the door of the hotel. Fortunately no harm was done. I posted my home journal on seventh day & in the afternoon we had a meeting with the friends here, held for the first time in an unfinished meeting house. Best help was near to our comfort & encouragement, & I trust to the revival of best things in the hearts of some of the little flock. Took tea at Brinton Darlington's. Yesterday morning Samuel Adams drove us 13 miles to Atalissa where a few friends reside, but do not keep up a meeting. We had to cross several bayous before reaching Cedar River, some of which were so deep that the water came up to the bottom of our carriage.
     Public notice having been given of a meeting for worship to be held in a large warehouse at the railway depot, there was a full & respectable attendance, to whom my dear husband was strengthened to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ; and Samuel Adams united in the service.
     Thomas & Annabella Winn & Son, and other friends met us here from Spring Dale, 13 miles distant, with whom we had a parting opportunity after dinner, commending one another unto God, & to the word of his grace, &c. This morning we had a favored season with S Adams & family, whose comfortable house has been a home for us during the last few days. S Adams is a man of noble exterior and has a fine & cultivated mind. A gift in the ministry has been conferred upon him, but having experienced a reverse of fortune, on a dark & cloudy day he resigned his membership in our society, nevertheless the cause of truth seems increasingly dear to him, & he was much drawn out in prayer & praise this morning, to our comfort: our dear children were interceded for & our hearts were contrited before the Lord.
     21st, 7 mo.—Lodged at Burlington on second day night & next morning came 95 miles by rail to Peoria, a wide spread country town on the Illinois. The unusual amount of rain which has fallen during the last few months has proved injurious to the crops; and the wheat & oats are much injured. This afternoon we reached the town of Brimfield, and proceeded to the house of James Abbatt where we met a kind reception. He has a comfortable house which we approach thro' an avenue of trees of his own planting, but the country is very flat. The town has much increased of late, & property has become more valuable: but money is scarce or our friend would like to sell his farm & live more retired. Since returning from a recent trip to England he has felt rather discouraged, having found out the great advantages which Britain's children enjoy in various ways. The inordinate love of money and land in this country too often break down the noble principles of honesty and fair dealing, down from the statesman to the peasant. Bribery is carried on in political matters to a fearful extent, & the executive government appears to be very corrupt. The feeling of independence runs thro' all classes, few of the poorer girls will go out to service, and those who do go out want 11/2 dollars a week for imperfect work, and are apt to leave at unawares; consequently many families prefer doing their own work. Many of the women servants are either German, Swiss, or Irish. A farmers wife has to work hard to keep things clean & tidy but they are too often content to drag on from day to day without much concern about these things.


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