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The writer had proposed sending this little matter forth to the public without any preliminary remarks whatever; but being prevailed upon by the publishers and other friends to accompany it with a few preliminary remarks, expressive of the opportunities which he has had of obtaining correct information on the subject upon which he treats, he begs leave to premise that he had been an actual resident in the regions hereinafter described for the last fourteen years, and more than forty years a resident north-west of the Ohio river.  Aware that many publications, having in view, as it would seem, the same object, have already appeared before the public, it might be supposed superfluous to tax the reading community with anything further on the subject.  But when it is recollected, that most of those productions which have appeared in the characters of "sketches," "notes," and newspaper paragraphs, are misrepresentations both of the country and the people who inhabit it, the country being generally over-rated, and the progress of improvements greatly extolled, should be deemed a sufficient apology for this work.  It is true that there are many convenient, comfortable and even capacious edifices in both town and country; but the "splendid Cathedrals," the "lofty steeples" and "towering edifices," etc., spoken of by travellers and writers have yet to be erected before they can be seen.  It is of vastly inferior interest to those who wish to emigrate to a new county, to learn in what manner a few wealthy nabobs have already contrived to expend their thousands of dollars, in papering their pride; than to be made acquainted with the natural advantages of the country.  "Can a poor man get a comfortable living there?"  "Can he do better there than to remain in the old settlements on rented lands?"  "Is it probable that a poor man with a large family, could in a few years obtain lands for all his children?"  Such would seem to be the most rational questions, to be proposed by the greatest part of emigrants.  These inquiries are continually being answered in the affirmative, by the improved circumstances of hundreds who are locating themselves in Iowa Territory.  It should also be borne in mind, that where the earth is successfully cultivated and plentiful harvests reward the labors of the field, there also will the mechanic, the artizan, the merchant and the learned professor find an ample field for the exercise of their industry, skill, enterprise and science. The privations attendant on settling a new country, are, to many persons, an insurmountable obstacle.  To abandon the place of their nativity, and to forsake forever the society of those with whom they have been associated from infancy to manhood; to exchange the shrill tone of the city bell, for the howling of the wolf or the melancholy hooting of the owl; the busy  hum of men and domesticated animals, for the distant murmur of the prairie hen, or the silent beauties of an undulating plain, oranmented with wild flowers of every tint; to be as it were exiled from society and deprived of many of those social enjoyments to which they have become attached by habit, are circumstances calculated to cool the ardor of enterprize in many bosoms.  But had our fathers shrunk from privations such as these, or even from dangers and toils of infinitely greater magnitude, than any which now await the new settler in Iowa, the Ohio Valley would still have remained a wilderness.  Still, whatever may be the inconveniences attending a frontier life, there are, at least, some advantages resulting from it.  The important changes which are continually occurring, both in the moral and physical condition of things, seem to mark so many different periods of time at an imaginary distance from each other, so as to double as it were the retrospect of life.  While those who have always resided in cities or in the older settlements, pass their dreaming lives away without a striking event to mark the progress of their years.
When I attempt to call to mind the events which have transpired within the last thirty years of my life, if their definite number did not teach me otherwise, I should be disposed to think, at least a hundred years had passed away.
The scenery of uncultivated nature, either of hills or valleys, woodland or prairie, unchanged by human art, is certainly one of the most sublime, terrestial objects which the Creator ever presented to the view of man.  Equally deserving of our admiration, is the simple, unostentatious manners of the children of the forest.  Let any one compare the easy, social, unassuming deportment of the western pioneer, with the stiff, reserved, haughty and domineering manners of a southern black leg, or a northern coxcomb, with all their boasted refinements; - the yelling of our wolves is not more offensive to Christian ears, then the shrieks of tortured slaves in the civilized cities of the south; and our wild roses yield as rich perfumes, as the pomatumed whiskers of a northern dandy.  In what point then, will the western people suffer by a comparison with any other section of the Union?  If they have better laws in the older divisions of the country, they do not obey them better; if they have better schools, they have no better scholars; and if they make more ado about religion, they have no more piety or virtue, than the people of the west.  The city refinements of the western country, are the only matters which would make a savage blush; such, for example, as the burning of McIntosh in the polished city of St. Louis; and the murder of Elijah P. Lovejoy, in the church building of Alton.  If these, together with your mobs at Baltimore, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, &c., are specimens of your christianity and civilization, then, may heaven grant, that the native American savages may never be contaminated by such improvements as you are laboring in afford them.
Among the most prominent obstacles in settling on the frontier, from the earliest period of American history  to the present time, has been the fear of a savage foe.  We are told that the North American Indians are "monsters," that "the only associations connected with the savages are of barbarity and perfidy."  That "they have always been the aggressors."  "The results of the repeated efforts of Government to influence these Indians, by measures of kindness and benevolence, will warrent the conclusion, that it is futile to attempt any other course towards them than that of the greatest rigor and severity.  The natural distrust between the white and red man, has at length amounted to an entire want of confidence on both sides; the proneness of the Indians to take the lives of the whites, without regard to sex or condition, whenever it is in their power to do so, - from a barrier to the renewal of any good feeling on either side."  Volumes might be filled with extracts of the above description, which are as illiberal and unjust, as they are cruel and untrue.
"Upon the mouth for the dumb * * * * and plead the cause of the poor and needy."
Having commenced my earthly career about 49 years ago, in the Ohio valley, and from that time to the present date having lived in social and familiar intercourse with the various tribes of Indians who have inhabited the country from Pennsylvania to the Missouri river; speaking many of their languages, and being intimately acquainted with all the causes which have led to the unhappy difficulties between these people and the whites, I hope to be excused for calling in question the correctness of such sweeping charges, no matter how high the authority from which they emanate.  It is due to the injured, it is due to myself, and it is due to posterity, that those insidious reports made by designing individuals who are interested in perpetuating hostilities between the two races, should be corrected and the truth published to the world.  But it cannot be presumed that any thing more than a mere glance at the subject, can be expected in this place.
The Senate of the United States have made void by a vote of 28 to 19, a most solemn treaty with teh Cherokee Indians of Georgia,-a treaty ratified by Gen. Washington and all his successors until the administration of Gen. Jackson.  By this most flagrant outrage upon the rights of humanity, a Nation's character has been sacrificed for Naboth's vineyard, (see 1st Kings, 21st chapter,) and the Indians invited to make another treaty.  Policy has been substituted for the unchangable word justice; and in this as well as other countries, and under its insidious guise aristocracy has committed some of the darkest deeds and blackest crimes which have ever disgraced human nature.  But why dwell upon this particular circumstance, as though it was an isolated case?  If from this act of perfidy on the part of our own government, towards the Cherokees, we could not race the whole catologue of our recent difficulties with the Indian tribes, both in the south, the north and west, we would not have adverted to it.  What man of common sense would listen for a moment to the declarations of another, who had already violated his promise, that he might have an opportunity of making another more in accordance with his interests.  Let any impartial umpire contrast the inhuman butchery of the Moravian Indians on the Muskingum, the burning of the old woman at Massasinneway, the indiscriminate murder of women and children at Bad Axe, the murder of Quasquama's son by the Missourians, and a thousand other atrocities within the knowledge of the writer, with every incident of savage cruelty known to the American people, and we believe the whites would suffer by the comparison.
While this disregard for national character, in the most dignified body of legislators on the whole face of the earth, is so obviously manifested, we should not be astonished if the brigands of our own and other countries, encouraged by so dignified an example, should practice their profession upon these helpless people, though it should be upon a much smaller scale; such, for instance, as horse-stealing, robbing them of the result of their toil, such as meat, skins, &c., and through cowardice, inflict upon the injured Indian a most brutal castigation, with a view of terrifying him from a resort for redress or revenge.  The very blankets were stolen from around the dead bodies of Indians in their graves, at the mouth of Rock River, in the celebrated Black Hawk war, and after being washed and smoked, were carried to their homes by white men.  The bones of the celebrated chief, Black Hawk, have been stolen from his grave!  !  Thus it seems, that these ill fated people are first to be cheated out of all the products of their country by the traders; then to be robbed of the country itself by the Government; and, lastly, as they refuse to be slaves, their bones are destined to become articles of traffic and speculation.  Would to Heaven, for the honor of our common country, that this was an exaggerated picture of the facts in the case.  But, alas! one thousandth part of the truth is not told, nor can it be at this time.  We may smile over our ill-gotten gains, or forfeit with impunity the confidence of a community whom we no longer fear, but sooner or later the oppressor will lie as low as the helpless being upon whom he had trampled.  You must first expunge from the breast of the Indian his memory, or you can never gain his confidence.
Chillicothe, March 5, 1840.

This Territory is bounded as follows, to wit:
Beginning at the mouth of the river Des Moines, where it empties itself into the Mississippi river; thence east, to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi; thence up the same, following the main channel thereof, to Lake Winnepeg; thence north, to the Lake of the Woods, thence west, with the southern boundary of Upper Canada, following the parallel of the 49th degree of north latitude, to the White Earth river; thence down said river, with the amin channel thereof, to its junction with the Missouri river; thence down the main channel of the Missouri river, to the north west corner of the State of Missouri; thence east, on the parallel of latitude which passes through the Rapids of the river Des Moines, to the middle of the channel of the Main Fork of the said river Des Moines; thence down the said river Des Moines, with the main channel thereof, to the place of beginning.
From north to south, this district is little short of 600 miles, and its average breadth is something more than 250 miles; affording sufficient territory for three States of ample dimensions.  The whole extent of this vast country abounds with a fertile soil, a pure atmosphere and excellent water, and, in their several localities, are found many of the rich mineral deposits of the earth-the noisy cataract and the gently flowing stream, the smooth surface of the limpid lake and the turbid torrent of the Missouri, the expansive prairie and the almost endless variety of forest trees.

The limits prescribed to these brief remarks, on the general character of Iowa Territory, will only permit me, under this head, merely to rescue, from ignorant or envious neglect, the names of a few of the first actual settlers of that section of country now denominated Iowa Territory.  It is true that they did not render themselves notorious, either by their turmoils with each other, or by their inhuman brutality towards the natives, as many other settlers upon the frontiers have done.  But as long as benevolence and humanity, industry and enterprize, virtue and talents, deserve to be remembered, the names of Russell Farnham, Dr. Samuel C. Muer, Joshua Palen, John Connolly, Moses Stillwell, Morrice Blondeau, Andrew Santamont, John Gaines, Thomas Brierly and James White, should not be forgotten.  These have all gone to another world.  They were among the first settlers in the country, and each one was both the intimate and personal friend of the writer.  Many of them have left indelible traces on the face of the country and in the memory of their friends.  It would seem that thus far each individual who has presumed to write on this subject, has entertained an idea, that nothing deserving of notice had occurred in Iowa until he himself arrived.  The above-named Morrice Blondeau, a half-breed of the Sauk Indians, opened the first farm, enclosing his field with a log wall, on the bank of the Mississippi, and the balance with a worm fence, and caused it to be ploughed and cultivated in corn, in the usual way.  In the spring of 1829, the writer settled with his family on the bank of the Mississippi, at the upper chain of rocks in the Lower Rapids, where the village Ahwipetuk now stands, in Lee county, Iowa.  About the same time, Moses Stillwell an Otis Reynolds erected buildings at the foot of the Lower Rapids, now called Keokuk.  These were the first improvements made by white persons, as actual settlers, in Iowa Territory; and they were confined to that part of the present county of Lee which is known as the Sauk and Fox Half-Breed Reservation, situate between the rivers Des Moines and Mississippi.  And not until the month of June, in the year 1833 were the citizens of the United States permitted to enter upon any other part of the territory.  Still, however, several persons attempted to locate at Fort Madison, Flint Hill (Burlington,) Dubuque, and at other points on the west bank of the Mississippi, during the Fall and winter of 1832, but they were removed by a military force, in obedience to an order from the Secretary of War, as intruders upon the Indians' land.  They were not, however, to be thus easily diverted from their purpose; for no sooner had the troops retired, then they were found resuming their labors.
From that period to this, the rush of immigration to Iowa, has greatly exceeded anything of the kind heretofore experienced in any other part of the United States.  In the year 1832, the whole white population did not exceed fifty persons, and in November, 1839, Gov. Lucas says, in his Message to the Legislative Assembly of Iowa, that "the present population may be safely set down at FIFTY THOUSAND!"  this circumstance, alone, is a conclusive argument that Iowa is a desirable country.

It cannot have escaped the observation of those acquainted with the early history of the Western country, that the first settlements of the Ohio Valley were attended by circumstances widely different from those of the present day, in Iowa.  In the early settlement of the former, when most of the luxuries and many of the necessary comforts of life were only obtained by transportation across the mountains on packhorses, and at great expense; the emigrants soon learned, by necessity, to change many of their former habits and modes of living, and to conform, in these matters, to the dictates of economy or necessity.  The tardy progress of improvement in a dense forest, the sparse locations of the inhabitants, and their absolute exposure to a savage foe, all contributed to produce a peculiarity of character, according with the surrounding circumstances.  Under these circumstances families were raised, not only without the advantages of a school education, but they were not unfrequently deprived even of the benefits of social intercourse, and hence contracted habits, and even customs, peculiar to themselves.  But these causes now no longer in existence, the effects have also ceased.  The great facilities now afforded to emigration, as well as to commercial intercourse in general, have been productive of as obvious changes, in the character of the western pioneer, as in any other effects which it has produced in society.  The rapidity with which the frontier settlements are now made, the great facilities afforded to emigrants, of carrying with them all the necessaries and most of the conveniences of life, their entire security from danger and the density and proximity of their settlements, at once, conclusively prove that the character of the people of Iowa has nothing peculiar in it but what has been derived from other and older sections of the civilized world.  Almost every State in the Union and many foreign countries are contributing to its population.  The States of Ohio, Pennsylvania and New York, are perhaps among the first affording the greatest number of emigrants; while, at the same time, the Northern States, together with Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, &c. are also doing their part in furnishing Iowa with industrious and enterprising citizens.  Hence an individual from almost nay part of the United States, or in fact from almost any part of the civilized world, may find himself as it were at home, among natives of his own State or country, in Iowa.  If, therefore, anything of the "mobocratic, half-horse and half-aligator" character, so frequently ascribed to the western settlers, can be attributed to the citizens of Iowa, we can only admire the sudden transition, by which Governors, Senators and Representatives, of older States, together with gentlemen of every class, from the polite circles of the most polished societies, can become metamorphosed to a clan of "half-human westerners."
It is truly to be regretted, that the virgin soil of Iowa has ever been defiled by the tracks of a polite mobite, a popular murderer or a legalized thief, but it is quite gratifying that neither the soil nor climate agrees with such gentry.  They have, therefore, found it convenient to make but a short stay in the country; and, after visiting us, they have generally taken up their march to the south, perhaps to Texas.

The pronunciation of this name in the language of the Sauk Indians is, Mis-se-Se-po,  Mis-se is an adjective, answering to the English words, grandest, noblest, chiefest, or most splendid,-and Se-po, simply means river; hence, the name in its original acceptation signifies, the grandest, the noblest, the chiefest, or the most splendid river.  The Indians often pronounce this name with the plural termination, un, as Misse Sepouh, that is, Chiefest of Rivers.  This truly majestic river rises between the 48th and 49th degrees of north latitude, and after winding its course towards the south, for the distance of about 3,038 miles, empties into the Gulph of Mexico in the 29th degree of north latitude.  It receives in its course, from each side, many beautiful streams.  At, and near its source, are found many delightful lakes, whosewaters abound in fish and fowls, and whose shores are lined with groves of fine timber.  Other lakes in this vicinity, of similar character, are likewise the sources of the Red River of the North; another noble river which rising in this great valley, runs north, and discharges its waters into Hudson's Bay.
From St. Anthony's Falls to the head sources of the Mississippi, the country is only now beginning to be correctly examined, by competent engineers in the service of the United States.  The Secretary of War, says:  "When the calculation of the observations made this summer shall be worked out, the department will possess all the materials necessary to enable it to construct a physical and topographical map of this portion of our country, which, added to that already in our possession, from the same hand, of the sources of the Mississippi and North Red River, will present at one view the vast country comprehended between the 87th and 100th degree of longitude, and 40th and 49th degree of north latitude."
This river is called by the Sauks and Fox Indians in their own language, Pe-ka-ton-oke Sepo; which literally translated is, "River of Vortexes," or whirlpools.  It constitutes the almost entire western boundary of the Iowa Territory; and the White Earth river, one of its tributaries, completes the whole western line, from the north boundary of the State of Missouri tot he Canadian line, on the paralled of the 49th degree of north latitude.  The Missouri rises in the Rocky Mountains, and passing along the west side of the Iowa Territory receives many fine rivers from each side, and after leaving the Territory of Iowa, it continues its course through the most fertile and interesting portion of the State of Missouri, and empties itself into the Mississippi about 20 miles above the city of St. Louis.  The appearance of this river is very repulsive; the muddy and filthy appearance of its water, the torrent-like current, the immense numbers of snags, sand-bars and falling banks, all contribute to produce in the mind of the beholder, feelings of an unpleasant character.  Steamboats have navigated its waters for some distance above the mouth of the Yellow Stone river, which is still in advance of the White Earth river.  It seems to be the present policy of the government of the United States, to remove all the Indian tribes within its jurisdiction, to the south-west side of the Missouri river; and to settle them there, under the influence of as many of the arts of civilization, as they may be prevailed upon to adopt.
Or James river, rises in about 47 degrees of north latitude, and running south, empties itself into the Missouri, in latitude 43.  This river is said to afford an extensive and delightful valley, situated between the high table lands and the Missouri river.
Or Calument river, sometimes called the Sioux river, has its source also in the Beautiful Meadows or table lands which separate it from the St. Peters.  His Excellency Gov. Lucas, of Iowa, recommends as the northern boundary of the contemplated new State of Iowa, the St. Peters river from the mouth up to the mouth of the Blue Earth river; thence up the same, and west to the Cactus, an eastern branch of the Red Pipe Stone; thence down the same to its confluence with the Missouri river.  It is said, that a great part of the country is not surpassed by any lands in the United States as to fertility of soil.  Being also well watered, and interspersed with groves of timber.
This is a beautiful river, rising, as has been already remarked, in some small but delightful lakes, in the vicinity of the south-eastern slope of the Beautiful Meadows, and sweeping around in a south-easterly direction, to its southermost bend about the Swan Lakes, it changes its course to a north-east direction, and empties itself into the Mississippi at Fort Snelling.  This river, as well as its tributaries, abounds with water power.  And at no very remote period of time will doubtless be connected with the river Des Moines by a canal.
This name was given to this stream by the French traders, and is interpreted "The Monks' River."  The Indian name, however, is "Ke-o-shaw-qua;" the origin of which they account for, as follows, to wit:  They say, that when their ancestors first explored this country, they found, residing on the bank of this river, an old man without family or human companion, and that his name was Ke-o-shaw-qua; hence they called it Keoshawqua's river.  The French seem also to have had a view to the same circumstance, when regarding this lonely inhabitant as a recluse, they named it (La riviere Des Moines,) or "The river of the Monks."  It is about 400 miles in length, and averages about 300 yards in width.  Its headwaters interlock with branches of the St. Peters, and in its course it passes diagonally through the neutral ground, and receiving the Raccoon river and many other fine tributary streams, it continues its course through the centre of that district of country, of which the new State of Iowa must soon be formed.  Its waters are transparent, and its current swift and shallow; it abounds in fish, and springs of excellent water are in many places found in great profusion along its shores.  The  bottom lands are not very extensive, except in some places, but they are of a rich alluvial soil, covered generally with a heavy growth of forest trees, such as black and white walnut, hackberry, sugar tree, cherry, locust, mulberry, coffee nut, some buckeye, and all the varieties of oak, &c.  Upon the banks of this river are already situated the flourishing towns of St. Francisville, in missouri, Farmington, Van Buren, Rochester, Lexington, Bentonsport and many others, all now rapidly improving.  Its shores are also lined with beautiful farms as high up as to the Indian Agency, above which the white people are not yet permitted to settle.  Iron ore and stone coal have been found in abundance in every part of this country where they have been searched for.  There is no doubt that lead ore will be discovered in great quantities on the neutral ground, as soon as that district of country is subjected to a proper examination.
The Des Moines, from the 40* 44' 06" of north latitude, to its confluence with the Mississippi, constitutes the boundary line between the State of Missouri and the Territory of Iowa; and between this section of the same and the Mississippi, is situated that tract of land known as the Sauk and Fox half breed reservation.  This is the southern extremity of Iowa Territory, and occupying the lower rapids of the Mississippi, where water power to any extent can be obtained; to which might be enumerated many other local advantages, which cannot fail to make this one of the most promising situations on the Mississippi river.
In passing up the river Des Moines, above the Indian Agency, we are in a district of country which still belongs to the Sauks and Foxes but which it is presumed the United States will soon purchase from them.  This tract, together with the neutral ground, is a most desirable section of Iowa, not only on account of the fertility of the soil, the timber, the water power and its mineral productions, but also on account of the centrality of its location, in reference to the contemplated boundaries of a new State.
This river is about 150 yards wide and probably 200 miles in length:  it is already thickly settled with an industrious and improving population.  There are also several flourishing towns and villages on its banks, together with some fine mills.  The soil is fertile, and the timber in many places is both abundant and of a good quality.  This river empties into the Mississippi about 8 miles below Burlington, and 12 above Fort Madison.
Is a valuable little stream, on account of the excellent water powers which it affords.  It empties itself into the Mississippi, a short distance above Burlington.
This stream is called by the Indians in the Sauk language, Nah-a-to-seek-a-way, which signifies a yearling Buffalo bull; it is about 200 yards wide, and perhaps 300 miles long, a deep channel and strong current; its bottoms, which are principally prairie from the mouth up for the distance of 20 miles, are not excelled in beauty, fertility of soil and romantic scenery by any other parr of the western country.  The principal tributaries to this beautiful river, are the Red Cedar and the English rivers; the former from the north-east, and the latter from the south-west sides.  On the banks of it are situated several flourishing towns, among which is Wapalaw, the seat of justice of Louisa County, situate about 15 miles from its mouth; and still higher up, perhaps 100 miles from the mouth, Iowa City has been located by authority as the permanent Territorial seat of Government.  The several counties through which this river and its branches pass are rapidly improving; Cedar County is especially a delightful district.
Or White Mineral river, is also a fine steam, abounding with water power and a good soil.  This is regarded as the commencement of the mineral region, in ascending the Mississippi.
This stream is principally celebrated for its cascades and mill privileges, though it also affords much excellent farming land and some valuable mineral deposits.  The settlement of this district of the country is also rapidly progressing.
Or Pen-e-ah, is a very pleasant little stream, abounding with good timber and a rich soil; the white population as yet is rather sparse.  From this, following up the Mississippi, we first meet with Yellow river, a small stream upon which a part of the Winnebago Indians reside, having a school and some farms.
Thence passing Paint Creek, we arrive at the
This is a considerable stream, but not yet inhabited by white people; it is the point at which the neutral ground commences on the west bank of the Mississippi; thence to the Red Cedar; thence to the Des Moines; thence to the Red Pipe Stone, and thence to the Missouri river; being a belt of country 40 miles in width.  A few miles above the mouth of this river, and on the opposite bank of the Mississippi is the mouth of the "Bad-Axe Creek," noted mainly on account of the inhuman butchery of a large number of Indian women, children and helpless old men of the Sauk nation, at the conclusion of the late celebrated "Black Hawk war."
Root river, River of the Mountains, White Wild or Cannon river, and many other smaller streams empty themselves into the Mississippi from the western shore.  The River of the Mountains is celebrated for its ancient mounds or tumuli which are found upon its banks; and the White Wolf or Cannon river is noted for its water power.  This is all, however, still an uninhabited wilderness, except a settlement of principally half breeds of the Sioux nation of Indians, who are located on a valuable reservation of land, situated on the shore of Lake Pepin; to which may be added, a few Missionary establishments at different points.  It is now in contemplation to purchase from the natives, the entire district of country south of the St. Peters, out of which it is proposed to form the new State of Iowa.

This is that extensive elevation of rich and fertile table land which separates the valleys of the Jacques or James, and the Red river of the North.  "This is represented to be a country of surpassing fertility and beauty.  The slope rises to a fine table land, about nineteen hundred feet above the surface of the sea, and is watered by frequent steams abounding in fish, that, after swelling two small lakes, form at their confluence the river St. Peter.  The soil is very rich, and would support a numerous population, that would enjoy the advantages of inhabiting one of the most beautiful and healthy regions of the far north-west.  This tract of country is of great extent; it rises in the vicinity of the Devil's lake, and extends to the neighborhood of the sources of the Des Moines and Red Pipe Stone rivers.  The whole extent of it is skirted and interspersed with groves of the finest woods.  It is already recommended to the general Government, to purchase this region of country, from the natives who now roam over it, and occasionally fish and hunt upon it.  But it is mostly used at present, as a hunting ground by the Hudson Bay traders, and the half breeds in their employ, who procure large supplies of Buffalo flesh in this district, and, after drying the same, carry it to their residences on the Assinaboin, Pembina, Red river, Hudson's bay, &c. for their own subsistence-of which complaints have already been made to our Government; but it is probable that these matters will not attract much attention, until that section of the country shall begin to be settled by American citizens.

This lake is situated between the 28th and 49th degrees of north latitude as appears from the latest observation.  It is ascertained to be about 40 or 45 miles long, and in some places about half that width; its shores are well timbered, and its waters, which abound with excellent fish, are as salt as those of the ocean.  It is interspersed with numerous islands, which are likewise covered with woods.  "These physical characteristics are common to several other smaller lakes which are found in this region of country, where salt is so abundant, that in many places it effloresces on the surface of the earth."
Is the southern source of the Red river of the North, and as well as the
Which is the source of the St. Peters river, is situated immediately in the vicinity of those delightful table lands, called the "Beautiful Meadows."  These lakes have been long known as important trading posts, and have been occupied alternately by different Indian traders for many years.

These are a cluster of small lakes, on the north side of the St. Peters river, and about a hundred miles south and west of Fort Snelling, near the extreme southern bend of said river.  These are said to be beautiful sheets of water, surrounded by a pleasant country.  This is the point at which the river Des Moines will probably be connected with the St. Peters, at no very distant day.

These Indians occupy the country embracing the head waters of Grand, Chariton, Little Platte, &c. of the Missouri, on the south, and extending north, from the boundary line of the State of Missouri to the neutral ground, embraces the Des Moines, Shecauque, or Skunk, Iowa and Red Cedar rivers.  These people are divided into five general divisions-three on the Des Moines river, a short distance above the present white settlements, one on the Missouri, and one on the Iowa rivers.  From the late report of Gen. J. M. Street, U. S. Indian Agent for the Sauks and Foxes, to His Excellency R. Lucas, Governor of Iowa, he estimates their population, exclusive of those on the Missouri river, at 4396 souls, "inhabiting a fertile and well watered country."  "Two sections of land and four mills have been added to their improvements since last year.  The mills on Soap creek are calculated to do a fine business, and are so near the settlements that the business will be thronged, as it is the only mill for 50 miles that has water to run this summer.  Sawing to any amount can be done there, and much lumber is wanted in the adjoining country.  The other mill at the Indian town, though also nearly completed, is not as fortunately situated as to water; I apprehend it will only operate about five or six months in each year.  At the Soap creek mills there will be required at least two hands to cut and haul logs and to attend the saw-mill, while the miller (Samuel Smith) will be attending the grist-mill.  At the Indian towns on the Des Moines, I have had three fields broke up and substantially fenced, and at the desire of the Indians have had 100 bushels of wheat sowed on the farms."  Gen. Street continues:  "At the mills near the Indian towns, I have appointed Jeremiah Smith, the miller.  I presume the field of 640 acres on the Iowa will ve ready for delivery over in 15 or 20 days.  When that is completed, the Sauks and Foxes will have four fields broke and fenced, on the Iowa and Des Moines, and be prepared to farm to a considerable extent.  These Indians have the most flattering prospects of doing well and living happy," &c.
Gov. Lucas, in his report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, says:  "There has not as yet been a school or a missionary established among these Indians, and I am satisfied, from personal observation, that there are no people more susceptible of improvement than they are." The same causes which Gov. Dodge of Wisconsin alludes to in these words, viz.:  "The benevolent designs of government to- wards the Indians can never be consummated until the power and influence of the traders are counteracted," may account for the absence of schools and missionaries among the people, as well as for their general degradation.  As long as whiskey-selling atheists, are permitted to exercise a controlling influence over these people, both the officers of the Government and philanthropists will be embarassed, in the discharge of their duties towards them.
[From Major Taliaferro, Agent at St. Peters.]
This ill-fated tribe, from being once warlike and a terror to their enemies, have, since 1812, nearly been exterminated.  Many have been cut off by marauding parties of the Sauks and Foxes, besides those who fell in battle.  This state of things, in connexion with the small-pox, has left but 325, and they are wending their way to their destiny with rapid strides.  This tribe, in conjunction with the South Yanetons of the river Des Moines, once held nearly all the soil comprising the beautiful Territory of Iowa.  It was taken from them by conquest, by the Sauks and Foxes, and a part of it has now fell into the hands of our Government.  Continually harassed by their old enemies, the Sauks and Foxes, they can raise no corn, although they inhabit a beautiful country, from the headwaters of the Des Moines to the Cannon rivers, the Mixed Lakes and on the Blue Earth river.  Water power abounds in this portion of the country.  These people claim an equal right in the famed pipe stone quarry, on the Red Pipe Stone river, with the Susseeton Sioux.
These also, from a formidable people, have become reduced to 276, by migrations and wars with the Sauks and Foxes.  They now reside on the Lizzard river, about the Swan lakes, and on the St. Peters, about 100 miles from its mouth.  "The country claimed by this fractional band is an interesting one, beautiful to view, pretty well timbered and watered."  Specimens of good stone coal have been found in this region.
These people number 980 persons; they raise but little or no corn, and follow the chase for subsistence; they roam from Big Stone and Traverse lakes, where they reside at times, to the country on the Chippewas border on Red river of the North.  They are at war with the Chippewas, but often in company with the Yanetonas.
This band numbers 325 souls, and resides at the "Little Rapids" of the St. Peters, about 35 to 40 miles from Fort Snelling - they are anxious to sell their country.
These number 425 - are at war with the Chippewas:  "raising nothing, but depended upon the chase alone for subsistence, until the Rev. T. S. Williamson, M. D., and S. R, Riggs, A. M., at Renvill's trading post, located among them.  Since then, a visible change for the better has been effected."  They are now cultviating the soil and some of their women have been taught to spin, knit and weave.  The general features of the country owned by these people, which is situated around Lake qui-Parle on the St. Peters river, are a fertile soil and good water - timber not very abundant.
This is the most numerous tribe of the Sioux in these regions, and may be estimated at about 2,150 souls.  They depend on the buffalo, both for food and clothing to a very great extent.  They roam through the country on Red river of the North, and upon the waters of the Missouri; and sometimes they rest a season with others at the "Devil's Lake."  Their country is extensive, and abounds with fish, fowl and buffalo.
Or Stone Sioux, as they are termed, are but little noticed, and imperfectly known, but are said to number over 3,000 souls.  They range over the country about "Devil's Lake," and upon the Assinaboine river.  They sometimes remove to the high lands, and resort to the Missouri for the purposes of trade.
Maj. Taliaferro says, "This tribe numbers exactly 1,658 souls, 484 warriors, 406 women and 768 children.  These reside in seven detached villages."  They formerly resided east of the Mississippi, but since the treaty of session of 1837, they have removed west, and are now living upon their country in Iowa Territory, which extends from the "Little Rapids" of the St. Peters to the neutral grounds, twenty miles above the Upper Iowa river.  Ample provisions have been made by the government for the improvement of these people; work cattle, horses, carts, wagons, ploughs, black-smith shops and other mechanics are furnished them.  In the neighborhood of St. Anthony's Falls, on Lake Clahoun, Mr. Pond, the farmer, at that point, reports, that under his charge there was raised this year (1839) 2,300 bushels of corn, 200 bushels of potatoes and other vegetables.  Mr. Holton at the Little Crow village, reports 1,500 bushels of corn, many potatoes, &c.  It is ascertained that over 6,000 bushels of corn have been harvested this year.  "The general features of the country of this particular tribe are level, with undulating rolling prairie lands, interspersed with ravines and valleys, as you approach the Mississippi from inland.  It is well watered; having the Crow, St. Peters, Cannon, Racine, Disembarrass and numberous other small streams passing through it."  Lead ore is found on the half-breed Reservation on Lake Pepin.  The present prospects of these people are quite flattering.


      These people have a village at Leech Lake, which contains a population of 820 souls.  A second at Red Lake containing 290, making the Chippewa population in Iowa Territory 1,110 persons, besides those who are continually passing and repassing to and from Wisconsin Territory and Upper Canada.


      Win-o-shick's band of the Winnebagoes reside on the Upper Iowa river.  The band of Two Shillings, at the Winnebago school, on Yellow river; the united bands of the Little Priest and Whirling Thunder, at a new farm recently opened for them fifteen miles west of the school.  The bands under Big Canoe and his brother Wah-con, are residing on Black river and in its vicinity, on the Mississippi, in Wisconsin Territory.  Likewise, the bands belonging to Yellow Thunder, Caramance, Dandy, Little Soldier, Decory and Big Head, all reside at present in Wisconsin, but are under treaty stipulations to remove west of the Mississippi river.  Nothing very definite can be said of the number of these people, as the head of each family wishes to make his number as large as possible, knowing that he draws money or goods in proportion to the number of the inmates of his lodge.  Maj. Boyd, estimated the Winnebagoes at 5,000 souls; and we have no authority to say that this is incorrect, but it is thought to be full large.


     The buffalo is found in abundance on Red Pipe Stone, Jacques or James, St. Peters and Red rivers; they continually recede before the white population, and are  now only occasionally found on the head waters of the river Des Moines and Lower Iowa.
     Elk are frequently found much nearer the white settlements, and, occasionally, even in the limits of the present settlements.
Deer are not very abundant, being hunted out by the natives; still, however, there are many hundreds of them killed yearly.
     Bears are scarce, but the Indians succeed every winter in obtaining more or less of these animals, as appears from the skins which they bring to the traders.
     Raccoons are in great abundance in every district of timbered country, and more especially along the water courses.  They constitute the pork of the Indians.
     Squirrels. The common grey squirrels are found plentifully in the woods, with a few scattering fox squirrels, but no black ones, however, during fourteen years residence and rambling in that country, I have not seen one, neither have I discovered the singular phenomenon of migration and emigration, profusion and scarcity, of these little animals, which are so remarkable in the early settlement of the Ohio valley.
     The Panther is rarely seen in the country; their skins are to be found sometimes among the Indians, but I have not seen the animal alive in this country.  Wild cats are more frequently seen, but they are not by any means numerous.
The Wolf.  There are a few of the large black wolves, and some grey, but the most numerous of this class of animals are the Prairie wolf, which is something above the size of the fox.  These animals have not yet proved troublesome to any extent to the farmers; and probably never can, as the country is not adapted to their security, against the search of the hunter-having to burrow in the earth, in certain elevations of the prairie, they are readily found and easily destroyed.  Many of those animals which have been so industriously destroyed for their skins, as the beaver, the otter, the must-rat, the mink, &c., are becoming scarce; the beaver may be said to be almost extinct, while but few of the otter remain.  It is true that the musk-rat abounds in great plenty in some places, and they are said to be found in the greatest abundance about the sources of the Raccoon river.
Rabbits are found in the settled parts of the country; and rats are continually arriving, with almost every accession to our white population, though it is clear that they are not natives of the country.  The oppossum, the pole-cat or skunk, the hedge-hog or procupine, and the ground-hog, are severally to be found in this country.



     Those reptiles are not numerous in this country, but there are a few of the large yellow-pied rattle-snakes, and still more frequently the little venomous prairie rattle-snake is heard, whizzing about the traveller's feet in passing through the prairies.      There are also the bull-snake, the black-snake, the moccasin-snake, the garter-snake and a variety of water snakes, which are occasionally met with in the different sections of this country, none of which are poisonous except the moccasin.




    The groves in all this vast region of country, are enlivened with the morning matins and evening vespers of a great variety of singing birds.
    The wild turkey, which was so abundant on the Ohio in early times, is but rarely found in Iowa:  I have, however, seen large flocks of them on the river Des Moines, more frequently than in any other part of the country.
    The prairie hen obtains in the greatest abundance, and more especially in the vicinity of the white population.  Quails are also numerous, but the pheasant is rarely seen.  Swans, geese, brants, and an almost endless variety of ducks are in the greatest abundance along the rivers, upon the lakes, and not unfrequently upon the prairies.
    Pelicans.  These singular fowls, in the early part of autumn, often whiten the sand bars of the rivers and lakes-hundreds of them, on their passage to a southern latitude, alight together on a sand bar or island, and give it the appearance of a bank of snow.
    The crow and the black bird are sufficiently numerous to be at times troublesome to the farmers.
Bald Eagles are quite common, while the grey eagle is scarcely ever seen.  Buzzards and ravens are also frequently seen.
Doves and pigeons, a great variety of woodpeckers, and a few of the real woodcock genus, of a large size, are found in the country.
    The little humming-bird is likewise often seen, examining the flowers for his food.
The honey bee is doubtless a native of this region;-they are found in the greatest abundance, as we advance beyond the white population.


     The earlist fruit, which ripes in the last of May or first of June, is the strawberry.  It grows in barren land, or adjoining the timber in prairies, and often on the second bottoms, which are of a sandy soil.  This fruit is of an excellent flavor, and in some seasons can be obtained in almost any quantity.
     Black berries grow plentifully, in those places where the timber has been either cut down by the hand of man, or where it has been prostrated by hurricanes; these are also a very pleasant berry, but not so delicious as the strawberry.
Raspberries are not as plentiful as the foregoing, but they are very common in the country.
Gooseberries are in many places in the greatest abundance, and of the best quality; they are large and smooth and of an excellent taste.
     Plums abound in a great variety of size, color and flavor, and grow on trees or bushes in a variety of soils, some of them are of an excellent flavor.
    Crab apples are found plentifully about the head of watercourses in the edges of the prairies, they are very large and make excellent preserves, having a fragrant smell and a fine golden color.  Several varieties of hickory nuts, the black walnut, the butter nut, the hazel nut and the pecan, are plenty in many places.
     Grapes.  Both summer and winter grapes, and of several varieties, both in size and flavor are found in the country.  Wild cherries, the black haw, the red haw and the paw-paw, are also found here.
     Cranberries grow in the greatest abundance in the northern parts of this Territory, and are obtained from the Indians by the traders in large quantities.



      (Extract from the Report of the Quarter Master General.)
"If it be contemplated to establish posts on the route surveyed between Forts Leavenworth and Snelling, I would recommend that the ordinary log cabins and block houses of the frontiers alone be constructed, and with as little expense as practicable.  The natural line of defense of that frontier is the Missouri river itself; it runs nearly parallel with the Mississippi through several degrees of latitude; and will afford the best boundary west for the States that must in a few years be found north of the State of Missouri.  As to the road, I would recommend that neither money nor labor be expended upon it.  The whole country is represented as an open prairie, that may be traversed in all directions without difficulty.  Posts on the Missouri, in advance of Fort Leavenworth, at the mouth of Table creek, and at or near the mouth of Sioux River," [Red Pipe Stone,] "with one on the St. Peters, would have much greater influence over the Indians between the former river and the Mississippi, than any post placed on the line near the white settlements.  To secure the communication with Fort Snelling, barracks for two companies, with good block houses, are necessary at some intermediate point between that port and Prairie du Chien; and for the security of the extending settlements of Wisconsin, a post is required at Sandy lake, or some other point in advance of Fort Snelling on the Upper Mississippi; and another at Fond du Lac, the southwestern extremity of Lake Superior."

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