There are three published rosters for the 21st Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry. They're significantly different and all three contain numerous errors, in large part since they were relying on handwritten records, handwriting was often difficult to decipher, some men could not read or write, and others sometimes did not know how to spell their own names or altered the spelling from time to time.
a. Nathaniel B. Baker, Report of the Adjutant General, Volume I (Iowa State Printer 1863). Baker's roster was prepared while the war was still in progress, many had not yet enlisted, and there were errors for those who did enlist.
b. George Crooke, The Twenty-First Regiment of lowa Volunteer Infantry (King, Fowle & Company, 1891). Crooke's roster has limited information and was prepared at a time when record keeping wasn't the best. While he was a member of the regiment, he was absent for almost ten months and probably for that reason some of his narrative is also wrong.
c. Roster and Record of lowa Soldiers, Volume 3; by Guy Logan (Iowa State Printer 1910). The most recent of the three rosters, part of a massive state effort to accurately reflect those who served and, I thought, the most likely to be accurate.
I have researched the regiment for more than thirty years and visited most sites that were visited by the regiment. Each of these biographies is based on that research, the soldiers records and records of his comrades that are on file with the National Archives & Records Administration, records and diaries on file with the State Historical Society of Iowa, original letters by members of the regiment, county histories, other original source documents and relevant online information.
Scofield, Norman W.
Maria and Norman Will Scofield had three children, all born in Chautauqua County, New York - Martha Marie born in 1836, Norman W. on June 10, 1838, and George W. in 1841.
Norman married Victoria Davis in Clayton County on October 1, 1859. A daughter, Cora May Scofield, was born on August 27, 1860.
On August 13, 1862, Norman enrolled at Strawberry Point as a 3rd Sergeant in what would be Company B of the 21st Iowa Infantry. They were ordered into quarters at Dubuques Camp Franklin on August 16th, mustered in as a company on August 18th and, with nine other companies, mustered in as a regiment on September 9th. Norman was described as being 5' 9¾ tall with blue eyes, fair hair and a fair complexion, age twenty-four, occupation farmer. When mustered in, the regiment had 985 men, officers and enlisted. Most had no prior military experience and training was minimal.
William Crooke, Captain of Company B, felt "the process of getting used to restraints of freedom, to inclemencies of weather, to hard beds, and new forms of food, sometimes not well cooked, was not always a pleasant one, but, he said, habits of obedience had to be formed, and these to men in the ranks were doubtless the most irksome of all." He was no doubt correct but one writer said, the rendezvous was so near the mens homes, that their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives, sweethearts, and friends, were too often present to allow either drill or discipline to any great extent.
On a rainy September 16th, they marched through town and, from the levee at the foot of Jones Street, crowded on board the Henry Clay and two open barges tied alongside, "packing ourselves like sardines." The four-year old 181-foot long, side-wheel steamer was commanded by Captain Stephenson and described by an indignant Dubuque Daily and Weekly Times as an old tub that did not have even as comfortable accommodations as the horses upon the boiler deck. Absolutely there was not roof enough on the boat to shelter them all from the storm.
On their way south they spent one night on Rock Island (now Arsenal Island), subsequently transferred to the Hawkeye State and reached St. Louis on the 20th. On the 21st, they left by rail and the next morning arrived in Rolla where they would camp for the next four weeks, spending most of the time near a spring about five miles southwest of town. On October 18th they left Rolla and on the 19th arrived in Salem. By then, three had deserted, two had been transferred to other regiments and four had died from disease. When the bimonthly muster roll was taken on October 31st, Norman was present but sick in quarters. From Salem the regiment moved to Houston and then Hartville where it arrived on November 15th.
On the 24th, a wagon train carrying supplies to Hartville was attacked and the regiment suffered its first battle-related casualties. George Chapman was killed in action and two of the wounded, Philip Wood and Cyrus Henderson, would soon die from their wounds. Colonel Merrill moved the regiment back to the more secure confines of Houston where Norman was marked present on the muster roll of December 31st. They were still there in January when word was received that a Confederate force was moving north from Arkansas toward Springfield. A relief force was quickly assembled and, on January 11th, met the enemy in a day-long battle at Hartville. Carl Pehssehl (Preschl), Charles Carlton and Harrison Hefner were killed in action and William Jones was fatally wounded. The survivors returned to Houston by way of Lebanon.
While records confirm that Norman was present when the two muster rolls were taken, they do not indicate if he was present on other dates. They also do not indicate if he was present when the wagon train was attacked or during the battle at Hartville.
On January 27th, the regiment left Houston and started a march to West Plains. From there, they moved to the northeast, passed through Thomasville and Eminence, and continued their march. On February 21st, snow was falling when the regiment camped outside of Ironton. An ambulance detail of twenty men took the sick into town where they were quartered in the courthouse and thats where they were on February 24th when Norman Scofield died. A Casualty Sheet said his death was caused by chronic diarrhea although, a week later, one of his comrades wrote that Norman Scofield 3rd sergeant of our company was burried last week his disease was quick consumption.
Captain Crooke signed an inventory indicating that Normans personal effects (a great coat, blouse, shirt, pair of drawers and blanket) were sent by express to his wife at Strawberry Point. Two of Normans comrades died about the same time as Norman: Avery Thurber on February 27th and William Goodrich on March 2nd, both at nearby Iron Mountain. Most members of the regiment who died from disease or wounds were buried locally and reinterred in national cemeteries after the war. Of these three, Arnold Allen said William Goodrich was sent home to his friends at his request. William was buried in Epworth, but the burial sites of Norman and Avery have not been found. They are most likely buried as unknowns in a national cemetery, possibly at Jefferson Barracks in St. Louis.
On May 19, 1865, with Schuyler Peet as her attorney, twenty-five-year-old Victoria signed an application seeking a widows pension. To secure the pension she would have to prove that she and Norman had married, they lived as husband and wife, and she had not remarried. She swore to the required facts, Rev. D. M. Sterns said he had performed the marriage ceremony and Alvah Rogers, a county judge in Elkader, attested to the county record of the marriage. The Adjutant Generals Office confirmed Normans military service and the Surgeon Generals Office confirmed his service-related death. On May 13, 1866, a certificate was issued providing for a pension of $8.00 monthly retroactive to the date of Normans death and payable through the Des Moines Pension Agency. The pension was later increased by $2.00 monthly, an amount that would continue until Coras sixteenth birthday. Cora was eighteen when she married William Milo Steele on December 24, 1878. A daughter, Norma (possibly named for her deceased grandfather), was born in October 1879.
In 1865, Victoria Scofield was a Strawberry Point resident when she applied for her pension. Two years later, she was visiting in Pontiac, Michigan, when she applied for an increase, but said she was still a resident of Strawberry Point. On October 30, 1874, she wrote from Concordia, Kansas, to the state Adjutant General requesting a certificate regarding Normans service and asking that it be sent to H. A. Hunter in Concordia. In 1884, a circular regarding her pension was issued by the Pension Agency in Syracuse, New York.
Normans mother died in 1899, his father in 1903, his brother in 1907, his sister in 1914, his son-in-law in 1924, his daughter in 1925 and his granddaughter (Norma Steele Horsefield) in 1957. All seven are buried in Strawberry Point Cemetery.
No record has been found of Victorias death or burial or whether she moved from Strawberry Point to Michigan, Kansas, New York or elsewhere. The 1884 circular said she had been paid to June 4, 1881, three years before the circular, and was being dropped due to a statute of limitations, an indication that she may have died, married or otherwise could not be located and had not been receiving her pension payments.
Scovel, James J.
The Scovel surname was spelled several different ways in military and pension records, but James signed his name as Scovel and thats the name on his gravestone.
James J. Scovel was one of at least three children born to Benjamin and Pamelia (Journey) Scovel. Nancy Elizabeth, Christopher, and James who was born on January 26, 1840, in Macon County, Missouri.
On August 11, 1862, James and Christopher enlisted together at Cox Creek in what would be Company B of the 21st Iowa Volunteer infantry. They were two of thirty-two men who enlisted in the company that day. James was described as having grey eyes, dark hair and a light complexion and, at 6' ¼, he was one of the tallest men in a regiment where the average height was about 5' 8½.
When the company was of sufficient strength, they were ordered into quarters at Camp Franklin in Dubuque on August 16th. On the 18th they were mustered in as Company B and, on September 9th, ten companies were mustered in as a regiment. A week later, they crowded on board the sidewheel steamer Henry Clay and two barges tied alongside and left for war, but James was not in the best of health.
All men were required to have medical examinations, but these were often cursory at best. Two of the men in the 21st said, we were both stripped together and were examined by the Doctor, but George Smith was mustered into Company B, and went South with the regiment, despite suffering from epilepsy (and having five seizures during training).
After spending one night at Camp Benton in St. Louis, they traveled by rail to Rolla where they arrived on September 22, 1862. On October 18th they left Rolla and the next day arrived in Salem. They were still there on the 31st when James, a 4th Corporal in the company, was marked present on the bimonthly company muster roll. From there they went to Houston and then Hartville where, on November 30th, James was sick in quarters. They were back in Houston on Christmas Eve when, at his own request, James was reduced to Private, most likely in recognition of his health issues. He remained present through the end of the year, but a pre-enlistment problem prevented him from performing regular duties.
On January 5, 1863, William Crooke, Captain of Company B, signed a Certificate of Disability for Discharge saying: During the last two months said soldier has been unfit for duty 60 days. He has performed but little duty since enlistment: Has desired exemption on account of lameness which existed prior to enlistment: The present aggravation was immediately consequent upon a drill on the double quick at Camp Franklin, Iowa (Dubuque) about Sept 15.
According to a surgeon, James was: incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of Sciatica of right hip; pain upon pressure behind Lochauter is now very lame: I have no reason to suspect malingering. He states while racing on horseback Feby / 62 he was borne in such manner as to strike his right hip against a tree: That he has suffered from its effects ever since.
A discharge was approved by Brigadier General Fitz Henry Warren and James returned to civilian life in Iowa.
James was married to Sarah J. Dewolf. Children of their marriage included Henry W. (born August 6, 1864), George P. (born 1866), Maria Euretta (born 1869), and James J. (born March 24, 1871). James namesake, eight year old James J. Scovel, died on July 21, 1879, and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Anita, Iowa. Sarah died on September 1, 1880, and was buried next to her son in Evergreen Cemetery. Henry died on April 9, 1881, at sixteen years of age and was buried next to his brother and mother. The other two children of James first marriage grew to adulthood.
James was forty-one years old when, on January 17, 1881, he married twenty-seven-year old Alice Valleau in Waverly, Michigan. Children of their marriage included Archie (born January 2, 1882), Roy E. (born December 9, 1883), Myrtle Nancy (born September 4, 1885), Robert L. (born September 26, 1887), Marion E. (born October 2, 1889), Benjamin H. (born August 11, 1891) and Earl D. (born October 7, 1893).
Like most veterans, James applied for an invalid pension. On February 8, 1890, he was living in Runnells, Iowa, when he signed an application. He said he had been discharged due to rheumatism & pains resulting and rupture of right groin and contracted yellow jaundice while at Salem and, as a result was now totally disabled from obtaining his subsistence by manual labor. In support of his claim he submitted affidavits from Elisha Roberts (a Strawberry Point resident who had served with him), from Herbert Hallock (another member of the regiment who was now living in California) and from three neighbors. Also submitting an affidavit was James brother, Christopher, who had served in Company B and testified that James was well and sound when he enlisted, but contracted rheumatism, a rupture of the right groin and yellow jaundice due to exposure and hardships. I have lived near him each year from his discharge to the year 1887, he said, and knew that James was at least one-half disabled. On September 3, 1890, James was examined by a board of pension surgeons in Des Moines and, while they didnt confirm all of the claims, they did find evidence of rheumatism and a hernia.
The pension office felt it was more than possible that the hernia is the result of the injury recd in February prior to enlistment. A $4.00 monthly pension for chronic rheumatism was approved, but further examination was needed regarding the hernia and yellow jaundice. On application, the $4.00 was increased to $6.00. More affidavits were submitted, including one by Alonzo Macomber who had served in the regiment and helped care for James while they were in Salem.
Alonzo pointed out that I was not a regular nerse in the hospitle but had a foot mashed while driveing team and was taking to the hospitle the regiment left the next day all went that could walk as soon as I could walk with a cruch I helped take care of the sick numbering about 60. Now living in South Dakota, he said the doctors gave James callomel which settled in his right groin, which was afterward blistered to draw the effects of the callomel out, until he was ruptured. More medical examinations were conducted and James pension was raised to $8.00 and then $10.00.
On January 11, 1896, his second wife, Alice, died. She was buried in Spry Cemetery, Polk County. At almost fifty-six years of age, James was now a widower with six children under sixteen years of age.
On April 6, 1898, unhappy with previous medical diagnoses, he requested an examination by a different medical board but, on April 24, 1898, he died. James is buried next to Alice in Spry Cemetery where his stone, erroneously, says he died on April 25th.
Maria Euretta, his daughter from his first marriage, was appointed guardian of her six half-siblings and quickly applied for dependent childrens pensions. To prove her claim, Maria secured a certificate proving the marriage of James and Alice and affidavits from friends and neighbors who had assisted with, or otherwise had credible evidence relating to, the birth of the six minors. The claim was approved and a $2.00 monthly pension was paid for each child until the child reached the age of sixteen.
Shuck, David W.
The 1860 census for Wagner Township included 46-year-old Virginia-born Samuel Shuck and his wife, 40-year-old Ohio-born Eliza. With them and also born in Ohio were Sarah age 19, Jacob age 17, David age 15, Ephraim age 14 and Margaret age 10. Born in Indiana were 5-year-old George and 2-year-old Mary. Records are not always consistent and, two years later, David was listed as an eighteen-year-old farmer when he enlisted in the army, something that can be reconciled with the census depending on the month in which he was born. Irreconcilable is another reference that says David was two years older than Jacob instead of the other way around in the census.
David and several of his siblings were born in Tuscarawas County, Ohio. The family moved to Indiana in 1850 and Clayton County, Iowa, in 1857. On August 12, 1862, he was enrolled by William Crooke in what would be Company B of the 21st infantry of Iowas volunteer infantry. He was one of a self-styled Roberts Creek Crowd. The other five members of the crowd, were Jim Bethard, Jim Rice (the brother of Jim Bethards wife, Caroline), John Mather (Carolines cousin), James Frank Farrand, and Robert James Pool. Only three would survive the war.
When mustered in with the company on August 18th, David was described as being 5 feet, 10¾ inches, tall with blue eyes, fair hair and a light complexion. On September 9th, with ten companies of sufficient strength and a total of 985 men, officers and enlisted, the regiment was mustered into service as the states 21st infantry by George S. Pierce, a Captain with the 19th U.S. Infantry then serving as Mustering and Disbursing Officer in Dubuque. Each man was paid $25.00 of the $100.00 enlistment bounty plus a $2.00 premium paid to volunteer recruits who appeared in person.
They received brief training of questionable value at Camp Franklin (previously known as Camp Union). Despite a daily schedule for meals, drill, fatigue duty and other chores, one writer said the rendezvous was so near the mens homes, that their fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, wives, sweethearts, and friends, were too often present to allow either drill or discipline to any great extent. But, whatever the cause, the main fact is, the regiment was not drilled at Camp Franklin.
On a rainy September 16, 1862, they walked through town, boarded the tightly packed paddlewheel steamer Henry Clay and two barges lashed to its side, and left for war. They spent one night at Benton Barracks in St. Louis and were then taken by rail to Rolla. Left behind at the barracks were David Shuck and several others too sick to travel. After treatment in a local hospital, many were able to rejoin their regiment and, on October 3d, an Order for Transportation was issued to Lewis Parsons for the transportation of David and seventeen others from St. Louis to Rolla. By the 15th, Jim Bethard was able to tell Caroline, that "David Shuck has got well and joined the regiment."
Under trying conditions during the harsh weather of a Missouri winter, David and many others continued to suffer from numerous illnesses. In December, David was well enough to serve on forage duty but, on January 22, 1863, with the regiment then in Houston, Jim Bethard wrote, the Roberts creek crowd are all well and ready for the march except David Shuck he is in the hospital verry sick with the Tiphoid fever."
By the end of the month the regiment had moved to West Plains but, again, David had been left behind. He was, said Jim, at Houston the last I heard from him he had a verry severe spell of the tiphoid fever but is getting along verry well now."
Davids recovery was short-lived. On April 11th he was admitted to the floating hospital Nashville at Milliken's Bend, Louisiana. Ten days later, on April 21, 1863, still on board the Nashville, David died of typhoid fever and Jim told Caroline that David Shuck died in the floating hospital a the bend soon after the regt left that place." William Crooke, Captain of Company B, signed an inventory of Davids personal effects: 1 blanket, 3 shirts, 1 blouse shirt, a pair of boots and a silver watch. Separated from the regiment when it was last visited by the Paymaster, David had not been paid since leaving Dubuque, but had drawn $39.27 in clothing.
Interred initially in the hospital cemetery, David was later reburied in the National Cemetery, Vicksburg, Mississippi, in Section A, Grave 2927 (originally grave 71).
His parents are buried in Pleasant Hill Cemetery, OBrien County, Iowa.
Shull, Oliver C.
Oliver C. Shull was born in Ohio, but, on August 14, 1862, was in McGregor when he enlisted for three years in a company then being raised by local postmaster Willard Benton. With a total of eighty-seven men they were mustered in as Company G on August 22, 1862, at Dubuque. When all ten companies were of sufficient strength, they were mustered in on September 9th, also at Dubuque, as the states 21st regiment of volunteer infantry.
Oliver was described as being 5 feet 9¾ inches tall with blue eyes, auburn hair and a light complexion. On a rainy September 16, 1862, after brief training at Camp Franklin (formerly Camp Union), they walked through town, crowded on board the Henry Clay, a four-year old 181-foot long, side-wheel steamer, and two barges lashed alongside, and left for war.
The regiment had 985 men, officers and enlisted, on the rolls when it was mustered into service. By the end of November, six would die from illness, one would be killed in action, one would die from wounds, five would be discharged for illness, four would be transferred to other regiments, and three would desert. Illnesses continued in December with Hiram Phillips being discharged for a disability, Orrin Fallon dying from congestive chills, David Jewell being discharged with a spinal problem, and Samuel Page dying from typhoid fever. On December 13th, Oliver became the next to leave.
Medical exams given when men enlisted were often cursory at best. Boyhood friends Alfred Kephart and John Ridler had gone to school together, enlisted together and "when we were mustered in we were both stripped together and were examined by the Doctor," but Charles Lucas of the 24th Iowa was surprised that all his company had to do was march fully clothed "one by one, before the mustering officer, with our hands raised above our heads, and work our fingers. As a result of examinations such as Charles', soldiers mustered into some regiments included men with hernias and syphilis, men sixty and seventy years old, men who were underage, and an estimated 400 "men" who were women, some of whom completed three years of service without detection. In the 21st Iowa, one man had pre-existing epilepsy, suffered five attacks during training in Dubuque, had four more while the regiment was in Missouri, and was discharged on October 23rd.
Oliver Shull had been willing to serve but, on December 4, 1862, Willard Benton, then Captain of Company G, certified that Oliver had been unfit for service for at least sixty days and was in my opinion wrongfully past by the Examining Surgeon at the time of his enlistment. Assistant Surgeon Lucius Benham found Oliver incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of Haemorrhoidoids which disqualifies him and damages his health to such a degree that he cannot discharge the duties of a soldier. Colonel Merrill approved and Oliver was Discharged, this Thirteenth day of December 1862.
By 1880, Oliver and his wife, Delia, were living at 1229 West 9th Street, Kansas City, Missouri. Oliver was working as a watchmaker and was an officer of the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor (commonly known as the K of L), the countrys largest labor organization. That years federal census said others in the household included a daughter (Minnie L. Shull age 12) and two sons (Frank age 11 and Oliver age 10). The census of 1900 for Bourbon County, Missouri, reflected a household of Oliver (age 67), Delia (age 59) and three grandchildren.
Delia died on January 11, 1901 and was buried in Evergreen Cemetery, Fort Scott, Missouri. On June 15, 1903, Oliver was admitted to the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers in Leavenworth. While there, he applied for, and was ultimately awarded, a military pension.
On March 30, 1908, at Kansas City, Missouri, Oliver married Mary A. Hart. Mary had been married once, and possibly twice, previously. On April 8th they moved to Fulton, Kansas, and, on April 16th, the National Home in Leavenworth notified the government that seventy-five year old Oliver had been officially discharged from the home at his own request.
In Fulton, the Shull marriage did not go well. Mary said Oliver deserted her on May 12, 1908, she had no idea where he went, and she moved to St. Joseph where she was better able to find work cleaning houses and caring for people who were ill. On July 12, 1909, pursuant to a pension law enacted in 1899, Mary filed a claim seeking one-half of Olivers pension and said she met the laws requirements: her husband had been gone for six months, she had a good moral character, and she was in necessitous circumstances. As proof of her claim, she submitted eight affidavits from people, some in Fulton and some in St. Joseph, who knew her and attested to her good character and financial need.
The Pension Office notified Oliver of Marys claim and gave him thirty days to respond. On October 11, 1909, Oliver signed a lengthy affidavit. He said he had merely gone to visit a daughter and, when he returned to Fulton, he discovered that Mary was gone and he didnt know where she was. To refute her claim of having a good moral character, he alleged that, not only had she engaged in improper conduct, but she used vulgar language.
Now it was Marys turn to respond. She strenuously denied all of Olivers allegations and supported her denial with another four affidavits. Minnie Koch said Marys character was good, her reputation was good, she was hard working, she was industrious, and her services were sought by highly respected people. August Koch agreed. He had known Mary for forty years and said she maintained a good name and reputation. He had rented a house to her. She was honest, could be trusted, and never used vulgar language. Mary Hagers affidavit was similar as was one filed by Charles Seaman who had known Mary for thirty years and said she was neither meddlesome, nor quarrelsome, nor ill-tempered. To the contrary, he said, she was a peaceable quiet, unostentatious hard working faithful woman who is well liked by all.
Meanwhile, Oliver wrote and advised the Pension Office that he had filed for divorce in Fort Scott and expected the case to be heard during the May 1910 term of the court. To defend herself, Mary sold furniture and other property, hired an attorney, and went to Fort Scott. On September 2, 1910, her attorney advised the Pension Office that the court had ruled that Oliver failed to prove his case, the court ordered Oliver to pay $25 alimony, and other issues were continued to the October term. The results of that continued hearing were not reflected in pension records but, ultimately, the Pension Office ruled that Mary was entitled to one-half of Olivers monthly pension.
In 1919 Oliver crossed the river to Kansas where, on June 20, 1919, the Kansas City Kansan reported: "Run Down by Street Car. Oliver C. Shull, 86 years old, was run down by a Central avenue car at Twenty-fourth street and Reynolds avenue, this morning. His left arm and right leg were broken. He was removed to Bethany hospital. Shull was on his way to the station to board a train for Enid, Okla., where his daughter is to be married tomorrow."
Oliver died on November 13, 1919, and The Leavenworth Times reported that Oliver: "died Nov. 13, and will have his funeral Nov. 15. Of the Civil War, he was in Co. G, 21st Iowa Infantry." Oliver is buried in Leavenworth National Cemetery, Leavenworth, Kansas.
Since Mary was receiving half of his pension and he was now dropped from the rolls, Marys pension also came to an end. Since she had not married Oliver until long after the war, she was not entitled to pursue a claim for her own widows pension. Instead, she applied for the amount that had accrued but was still unpaid when Oliver died, engaged an attorney, and wrote to a U. S. Senator. On July 29, 1924, the Pension Office issued an order that she be paid. By then Mary was living in Kansas City, Missouri. Its unknown when she died or where she is buried.
Sloan, Samuel P.
Samuel P. Sloan, son of James and Nancy (Pangborn) Sloan, was born in Highland County, Ohio, on July 17, 1829 (although records slightly as to his date of birth).
He studied at an academy in South Salem for two years and at Delaware College for a year, before going to Minnesota with his brother for a short time. He then returned to Ohio and studied theology under the Rev. Emilias Grand Girard (also seen as Grandgirard). Sloan family then moved to Rockford, Illinois, where Samuel first encountered the Congregationalism. In 1852 he studied at a seminary and, in 1854, he moved to Winnebago, Illinois. It was there on August 17, 1856, that he was ordained to the ministry and, on the same day, married Susan Marguerite Grand Girard.
Several residents of McGregor, Iowa, were interested in establishing a Congregationalist church and, on January 3, 1857, a meeting for that purpose was held at the home of J. H. Merrill. In 1860 they invited Rev. Sloan to take charge of their church and, that December, Samuel and Susan Sloan moved to McGregor where he assumed the pastorate of the First Congregational Church.
Most regiments, North and South, had, or professed to have, chaplains. Rank, pay and duties were often poorly defined and most served without command. Until late in the war most were not even required to conduct services and, when services were conducted, they were often not appreciated, especially by officers. Most chaplains preached temperance and many could be seen on the battlefield administering to men "when death's messengers flew thick and fast." When proposed as Chaplain of the 21st Iowa Infantry, six brief statements, all dated September 1, 1862, were signed by Rev. Sloans supporters, each one saying:
I hereby certify that Rev. S. P. Sloan of McGregor, Iowa, is a regularly ordained minister of the gospel of the Congregationalist denomination & that he is in good & regular standing as such. I also recommend him as a suitable person for the appointment of Army Chaplain of the 21st Regt Iowa Vols.
Signers included H. M. Cobb (Congregationalist minister in Prairie Duchene), H. M. Daniels (pastor of the First Congregational Church in Winnebago, Illinois), Jesse Guernsey (agent of the American Home Missionary Society of Iowa), H. M. Goodwin (pastor of the First Congregational Church, Rockford, Illinois), J. E. Walton (pastor of the Second Congregational Church, Rockford, Illinois) and Jno. C. Holbrook (pastor of the Congregational Church of Dubuque). Rev. Sloan was appointed with rank from September 1, 1862, the same date that was on each of the six statements. He was described as being thirty-three years old, 5'10" tall with dark eyes, dark hair and a dark complexion. On September 9th, the regiment was mustered into service at Dubuque and Rev. Sloan signed the oath of office:
I, Samuel P. Sloan do solemnly swear that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of Iowa, and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of Chaplain of the 21st Regiment Volunteer Infantry of the State of Iowa, during my term of office, according to the best of my skill and ability. So help me God. S. P. Sloan
Leaving Dubuque on September 16th, the regiment went first to Missouri where they spent one night in St. Louis before traveling by rail to Rolla. On Sunday, October 12th, he wrote to his McGregor Sunday School: "here I sit by my little sheet iron stove; for I must tell you I have a stove in my tent. The Quartermaster kindly brought it to me yesterday, and as the mornings and evenings are becoming very chilly and frosty I find it a great comfort. As I sit and warm my feet by it I sometimes think - God bless the Quartermaster. That morning and again in the afternoon, he wrote, he had gone up upon the side of the mountain to pray and preach. He visited men in the hospital and, at 6:30 in the evening, conducted a Bible class.
Susan Sloan was with her husband in Rolla and, on October 15, 1862, echoed comments made by many of the soldiers about Missouri women: "I wish you could see this class of Missouri beauties, guiltless of crinoline, guiltless of soap and water and carefully avoiding too frequent use of comb and brush. Many of these fair ones visit this camp with edibles in the shape of pies and ginger cakes. The pies I can describe in a few words, they are composed of a great deal of flour, very little lard, not much apple and a large proportion of that peck of dirt, which they say we must dispose of before we died; how the soldiers manage to eat them I cannot tell."
From Rolla they moved to Salem, Houston and Hartville where, on November 20, 1862, Rev. Sloan wrote and again discussed the weather: "From Saturday till Wednesday evening, we had almost incessant rain, with high winds part of the time - a regular Missouri storm in all the attributes of its dreariness sited to this doleful region of country. We did very well in the officers tents; they kept us perfectly dry, while our sheet iron Stoves made the temperature delicious. As we sat around our fires listening to the rain pattering on the tightly drawn canvass, there would have been a real luxury in the sound had it not been for the painful reflection that our poor soldiers in their little tents were cold and damp. It has been a hard storm for soldiers in the field, but our boys have borne it cheerfully."
On November 23, 1862, still in Hartville, he wrote: "It would hardly seem creditable to you if I were to tell you how ignorant the natives are. Capt. Benton has found some who never saw a postage stamp and did not know what he meant by it. One old fellow was in camp yesterday, selling molasses, who said he never heard of Lincoln and didnt know who he was. Some of our boys went for forage and found a man who said he never seen an iron or a steel pitch fork. A man who can read or write is quite an oracle in these parts. . . . We are to counter march from here to Houston as soon as our teams return from Salem, whither they have been gone for a week. We expect them certainly tomorrow."
The wagon train bringing supplies from the Rolla railhead to Salem, Houston and Hartville was, as he anticipated, on the way. It did not arrive the next day as Rev. Sloan expected, but it was close and camped for the night of the 24th along the banks of Beaver Creek. That evening, some had finished dinner and others were still eating when they were attacked and quickly overwhelmed by much larger band of enemy guerillas. One man in the regiment was killed immediately, two had wounds that would prove fatal, and three more had non-fatal wounds.
With Hartville supplies running out, the regiment returned to Houston where, on December 15, 1862, Rev. Sloan, citing serious & increasing disability, tendered his immediate and unconditional resignation on a/c of disability to fill the duties incident to his position. Since his official commission had not yet been received, Colonel Sam Merrill wrote to Adjutant General Nathaniel Baker enclosing a certificate signed by eight of the ten company Captains confirming that the regiment had elected Rev. Sloan as their Chaplain and explaining the delay in commissioning was with Capt. Pierce the mustering officer. He made no requirements as to the manner of election or Certificate of Standing & c.
On January 5, 1863, Rev. Sloan explained, I had tendered my resignation & received my discharge before my commission reached me. The Justice of the Peace made the date of this paper agree with the date of my muster in 9th Sept 1862. With the paperwork and commissioning in order so Rev. Sloan could be paid for his three months of service, he was officially discharged by Order of Maj. Gen. Curtis and returned to McGregor where he resumed his duties with the church.
Articles in the North Iowa Times occasionally referred to his service - a wedding he performed in 1864, a tribute he paid to the recently deceased Major E. V. Carter - and his formal installation as pastor. Despite the return to McGregor, Rev. Sloans health continued to slowly decline. He died on October 29, 1870 at only forty-one years of age and was well-remembered by many who knew him. How he did preach in the days of the irrepressible conflict! said one. He stiffened all our backbones by his sermons in those days, said then-Colonel, now-Governor, Sam Merrill. Rev. Sloans remains were returned to Illinois where he was buried in Winnebago Cemetery.
On August 21, 1877, his widow, Susan Sloan, married Marcus Sackett. They moved to Chautauqua, New York where, on March 17, 1885, Susan died. She and Marcus are buried in Evergreen Lawn Cemetery, Hanover Center, New York.
Smith, George Artemis
When George Smith was born in Wayne County, Michigan, on March 18, 1839, John and Margaret Dempster were living 3,500 miles away in Ayrshire, Scotland. On August 20, 1841, they and their five children left for the United States where they too settled in Wayne County. It was there, on January 30, 1844, that a daughter, Mary Campbell Dempster was born. In the early 1850s, the Smith and Dempster families moved to Taylorsville in Fayette County, Iowa. Thats where they were living when George Smith traveled ten miles to Strawberry Point and, on August 9, 1862, was enrolled as a wagoner in the Union Army by Charles P. Heath. Charles, a local dentist, was actively recruiting for a company then being raised in Clayton County and, on the same day, was able to also enroll Hiram Libby, Frank Aldrich and Daniel Eldredge.
At Dubuque on August 18, 1862, they were among ninety-nine men who were mustered in as Company B of the states new 21st regiment of volunteer infantry. On September 9th the regiment was mustered in at Camp Franklin (formerly Camp Union) with George S. Pierce, a Captain with the 19th U.S. Infantry, serving as the mustering officer. George was described as being a 23-year-old farmer, 5' 6¼" tall with blue eyes, fair hair and a fair complexion.
Earlier in the war, the law provided for a $100.00 federal bounty to be paid when soldiers completed their enlistments, but, on July 7, 1862, Congress agreed, at Secretary of State Seward's request, that $25.00 could be paid in advance, the balance on discharge. A $2.00 premium would be paid to anyone who secured a recruit or to the recruit himself if he appeared in person. George Smith, and other men who enlisted in the regiment, were paid the $25.00 bounty and $2.00 premium.
On a rainy September 16th, at the levee at the foot of Jones Street, they crowded on board the four-year old 181-foot long side-wheel steamer Henry Clay and two barges lashed to its side and left for war. They went ashore briefly at Rock Island while the federal government decided whether they were to continue south or go north to help protect citizens threatened by a Minnesota uprising of the Dakota. Eventually they were allowed to continue, but low water at Montrose forced the men to transfer to railroad cars while the barges were cast off and floated downstream.
The next day, at Keokuk, they were reunited on another steamer, the Hawkeye State of the Northern Line Packet Company, and left for St. Louis where they arrived about 10:00 a.m. on September 20th and marched to Benton Barracks. George reportedly suffered sunstroke while marching in the hot sun and this was the only march he made while in the military. Others also suffered in the oppressive heat. Many, said Maple Moody, gave out and stragglers didnt reach the barracks until nightfall. After one night at Benton Barracks, they boarded cars of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad and traveled through the night to Rolla. On October 18th, they left for Salem and from there would go to Houston in Texas County, but George did not go with them. Due to a pre-existing condition, his military service was cut short and he was discharged:
Army of the United States
Certificate of Disability for Discharge
(To be used, in duplicate, in all cases of discharge on account of disability.)
George A. Smith of Captain W. D. Crookes Company (B) 21st Regiment of Iowa Vol. Inf., was enlisted by C. P. Heath, of the 21st Regiment of Iowa Vols at Taylorsville [sic], Iowa on the ninth day of August 1862 to serve three years; he was born in Wayne County in the State of Michigan, is twenty two years of age [sic], five feet, 6½ inches high, fair complexion, blue eyes, fair hair, and by occupation when enlisted a farmer. During the last two months said soldier has been unfit for duty 30 days.
Since his enlistment he has been subject to fits having had 5 during our stay at Camp Franklin Dubuque Iowa from Aug. 18 to Sept 15, 1862. Had a fit at Benton Barracks Sept 2nd 1862 and 3 fits in camp at Rolla since the Regiment encamped here. From information obtained from parties acquainted with him prior to enlistment I have every reason to believe that he has been subject to . . . for several years.
Station: Rolla Mo. W. D. Crooke, Capt., Commanding Company
Date: October 13, 1862
I certify, that I have carefully examined the said George A. Smith of Captain Wm. Crookes Company and find him incapable of performing the duties of a soldier because of epilepsia.
Lucius Benham, Asst. Surgeon
Discharged this 22d day of October 1862 at Post Salem, Mo.
Col 21 Reg. Iowa Vol. Commanding the Post
Two months later, on December 2, 1862, twenty-three-year-old George Smith and eighteen-year-old Mary Campbell Dempster married. While genealogical information is notoriously wrong for dates and places, their first three children were reportedly born in Iowa - George Edward Smith (April 7, 1864 - June 29, 1948), Mary Adella Smith (Graham) (March 8, 1867 - September 14, 1849) in Volga, and Ole Leonard Smith (February 9, 1871 - March 11, 1901) in Taylorsville.
On October 14,1872, George and Mary sold their Fayette County farm. More children followed - Harry Monroe Smith (June 14, 1873 - October 11, 1951) in Kansas, Sidney Otto Smith (February 22, 1876 - August 16, 1951) in Iowa, and Georgiana Rebecca Smith (Waite) (April 7, 1879 - April 17, 1973) in Kansas.
On June 27, 1879, George filed an invalid claim with the Pension Office in Washington, D.C. The claim was investigated and approved. He was pensioned initially at $2.00 per month from the date of his discharge, an amount ultimately increased to $10.00 per month,
Two more children, John William Smith (June 26, 1882 - February 2, 1958) and Tessie Jane Smith (Phillips) (November 24, 1887 - September 19, 1972) were born in Kansas.
On January 3, 1903, George died at sixty-three years of age from gangrene of his left foot and leg. He was buried in Boone Creek Cemetery, Licking, Missouri.
His widow, Mary C. Smith, applied for a widow's pension under an act of June 27, 1890. The claim was denied by the Bureau of Pensions since it found, correctly, that she could not prove George's death was from a war-related cause and since he had not served the ninety-day minimum required by that act. During the second session of the 62nd Congress (December 4, 1911 to August 26, 1912) a private bill was introduced on her behalf in Congress:
S. 4491. Mary C. Smith, of Springfield, S. Dak., is the widow of George A. Smith who served in Company B, Twenty-first Iowa Volunteer Infantry from August 9, 1862, to October 22, 1862, when he was discharged on account of epilepsy which, it is stated, existed prior to enlistment. He filed and established a claim under the general law for chronic diarrhoea and resulting disease. . . .
This is the only reference found to Mary, or any other family member, living in South Dakota. By then, Mary was sixty-seven years old and had no means of support. The bill was approved on February 12, 1913, and Mary was awarded a monthly pension of $12.00. She died on March 5, 1927, and was buried near George in Boone Creek Cemetery.
Snedigar, Edward Burton 'Bert'
The second of nine children born to Fielding and Miranda (Hayes) Snedigar, Burt was born in Wisconsin on October 10, 1844. From there the family moved to Illinois and then Clayton County, Iowa, where Fielding worked as a merchant and was regarded as one of the strongest Union men in the County and a man of the highest integrity.
On March 9, 1861, Fielding was appointed Postmaster in Elkader (a position he would hold until 1868) and the next month Confederate guns fired on Fort Sumter. On July 9, 1862, Iowas Governor Kirkwood received a telegram asking him to raise five three-year regiments in addition to those already in the field. If the states quota wasnt met by August 15th, it "would be made up by draft," but the volunteers came and a draft was not required.
Burt Snedigar enlisted at Elkader on August 9, 1862, as a private. His Muster-in Roll and Descriptive Book said he was 5' 7¾ tall with a light complexion, light hair and dark eyes. The company was ordered into quarters at Dubuques Camp Franklin, mustered in as a company on August 22nd and, with nine other companies, mustered in as regiment on September 9th with a total of 985 men, officers and enlisted. Military training was received, but it was very brief and on September 16th they marched through town and, at the foot of Jones Street, boarded the Henry Clay and two barges tied alongside and started down the Mississippi. Due to low water at Montrose, they had to debark, travel by rail to Keokuk and board the Hawkeye State before continuing to St. Louis.
On January 9, 1863, they were in Houston, Missouri, when word was received that a Confederate column was moving north toward Springfield. A relief force was organized and Burt was one of twenty-five from Company D who volunteered to participate. Two days later they engaged in a day-long battle at Hartville after which both sides withdrew, Confederates to the south and Federals north to Lebanon before returning to Houston. From there on the 27th they started south, on the 30th they reached West Plains, on February 8th they left, and on March 11th they reached Ste. Genevieve, an old French town on the Mississippi. They were then transported downstream to Millikens Bend where General Grant was organizing an army to capture Vicksburg. They walked south along the west side of the river until April 30th when they crossed to the Bruinsburg landing on the east bank and started a slow walk inland. Before the campaign ended with the surrender of Vicksburg on July 4th, Burt Snedigar had participated in the May 1st Battle of Port Gibson - we gave them (the rebels) a good thrashing at Port Gibson, and theyll remember it too, he said - been present at Champions Hill on May 16th (when the regiment was held out of action by General McClernand), participated in a May 17th assault at the Big Black River, participated in a May 22nd assault at Vicksburg (during which Burt received a slight leg wound that was treated in the field hospital), and participated in the ensuing siege. He was one of only twelve members of Company D who were still able for duty when the siege ended and they pursued Confederate General Joe Johnston east to Jackson where there was a brief siege that ended with the citys surrender.
The regiment then served in southwestern Louisiana and spent six months along the Gulf Coast of Texas. On May 10th, Burts older brother, James Snedigar, was still at home when he enlisted in the 47th Iowa Infantry, a 100-day regiment, and two of their sisters, Martha and Irena, stepped in to help their father at the post office. The 21st Iowa returned to Louisiana in June and was transported up the Mississippi before debarking at New Orleans. They then saw brief service near the Terrebonne rail station west of New Orleans, in Algiers and at Morganza followed by two months along the White River of Arkansas. On December 15, 1864, while the regiment was stationed in Memphis, Confederate General John Bell Hood suffered a defeat at Nashville and started a withdrawal to the south. Union cavalry under Benjamin Grierson was ordered to move east from Memphis to try to intercept Hood and, leaving their tents behind, the 21st Iowa joined Grierson. This was the earliest and coldest winter Tennessee had experienced for years and men struggled through mud and rain, suffered through cold nights and bivouacked in the open. It rained and snowed intermittently throughout the day as they covered fifteen miles and retired for the night at Germantown.
On the second day of its march, the regiment continued another fifteen miles over rough frozen ground covered with snow. They covered seven miles on the third day and camped near Wolf River while Grierson's cavalry continued its search. Then the rains came, the river flooded, pickets waded to their posts and lowlands were inundated. It was thought the infantry would be needed to build bridges so the cavalry could cross the river, but another crossing was found and the regiment was free to return to Memphis. On December 26th, it was raining as they started their return through water, mud and slush. The march was hard but they covered twenty-two miles the first day before arriving at Germantown. On the 27th, they reached White's Station where they camped until continuing to Memphis on the 31st. Burt Snedigar would later say that it was while they were at Whites Station that his eyes became sore and inflamed, a condition diagnosed as acute ophthalmia. He continued with the regiment and was marked present on all bimonthly muster rolls until being mustered out as a 3rd Sergeant on July 15, 1865.
After being discharged at Clinton, soldiers returned to their homes with Burt going to Elkader. His vision was often blurred, sometimes with pain, and he could scarcely see to read or write or do any work at his profession as a jeweler. Harvest hands were making $2.50 per day, but manual labor was difficult since it aggravated his eye problems. In 1864, Burts father had formed a partnership with Henry Stearns and Burt now went to work with them as a mercantile clerk. Seeking medical help, he traveled to Danville, New York, for treatment at the home on the hillside spa of Dr. James Jackson, a practitioner of alternative medicine, but the relief received was only temporary and, on November 14, 1870, Burt applied for an invalid pension. Their family doctor had served with the 48th Iowa Infantry, but was living in Toledo, Ohio, when he wrote to confirm that Burt had been in good health prior to the war.
It was about this time that Burt met Ellen Mitchell, a resident of Smithfield Township in Fayette County and, by the end of 1871, their relationship had become close. On June 26, 1872, they were married and in 1873 moved to Maynard. A daughter, Mabel Louise, was born in 1874 and a son, Charles, in 1879.
Meanwhile the pension claim lingered. Ellen said he was singing at the organ and he could not see unless he had a book to himself and his music teacher noticed he couldnt see the music without holding it to his eyes. During the war he had ordered medications from O. W. Fowlers in New York, but there was nothing in government records that indicated the vision problems were service-related as the law required. Gilbert Cooley, 2nd Lieutenant of Company D, signed an affidavit confirming that Burt had an inflammatory eye condition caused by exposure while in the line of duty with the troops in support of General Griersons raid and a regimental surgeon said he had treated Burt for acute ophthalmia while they were at Whites Station. A West Union doctor confirmed the current eye problems as did numerous other witnesses, but the government wasnt convinced and ordered a special examination. Depositions were taken in Maynard, Fayette, Elkader, Strawberry Point, Dubuque, Brush Creek, Earlville, Edgewood and Volga City, nineteen total. Affidavits were signed, letters were written and Burt was examined by a skilled oculist in Davenport who recommended that the claim be allowed.
On April 6, 1886, more than fifteen years after the application was filed, the pension office mailed a certificate entitling Burt to $2.00 monthly, an amount later increased to $6.00. On March 23, 1904, the Oelwein Register reported that, on the afternoon of March 16, 1904, while at work with his son in the cellar, he dropped dead. Burt had been active in the I.O.O.F., been Secretary of the school board and served as postmaster for twelve years. A funeral was held at the opera house and Burt was buried in Long Grove Cemetery. His father had died in 1896, but Burt was survived by his mother, wife, both children, two brothers and three sisters.
Ellen assumed the position of postmaster and, on April 1, 1904, applied for a widows pension. She secured a certified copy of their marriage record and numerous affidavits testifying to their marriage and that they were still living as husband and wife when Burt died. Her only assets were household goods, Burts Kit of Mechanical Tools that might sell for $100, and a $400 half interest in real property. On June 6th a certificate was issued entitling Ellen to a monthly pension of $8.00 but she received no payments since, less than a month later, on Saturday, July 2, 1904:
In an attempt to tilt a gasoline stove while it was lighted, Mrs. E. B. Snedigar set fire to her house and herself. The alarm was given at once and the flames in the house soon extinguished but not before she had been most terribly burned. All that medical skill could do was done for her but to no avail and after terrible suffering she passed away early Sunday morning.
Ellen, like her husband, was buried in Long Grove Cemetery.
Spangler, Henry C.
Co. G, age 20, born in Ohio, residence Millville
08/15/62 enlist as Musician (fifer)
08/22/62 muster in
01/10/65 transferred to Veteran Reserve Corps
08/22/65 discharged at Davenport (expiration of service)
This is from the R&R. I have not verified the information. On September 30, 1920, Henry Spangler was a patient in the Veteran's Hospital, Napa, California, so he is presumably buried in that area.
Spangler, William H.
Co G, age 23, born in Ohio, residence Millville
08/15/62 enlisted as 2d Sergeant
08/22/62 muster in
09/01/63 discharged at Davenport (disability)
This is from the R&R. I have not verified the information.
Stoddard, Charles E.
Co G, age 20, born in Iowa, residence Clayton co.
10/03/64 enlisted as a Recruit
10/12/64 muster in Company G
07/12/65 transfered to 34th/38th Consolidated
This is from the R&R. I have not verified the information.
Stringham, Gleason F.
The 1860 census for Mendon Township listed a family of three: Margaret Stringham (age 40, born in Kentucky) and two boys, Gleason (age 19, born in Wisconsin) and Henry (age 14, born in Iowa).
In 1862 when President Lincoln issued a call for 300,000 volunteers, Governor Kirkwood, on July 7th, assured the President "the State of Iowa in the future as in the past, will be prompt and ready to do her duty to the country in the time of sore trial. Our harvest is just upon us, and we have now scarcely men enough to save our crops, but if need be our women can help." Two days later he received a telegram asking him to raise five regiments. If the state's quota wasn't raised by August 15th it "would be made up by draft" but, despite the Governor's confidence, enlistments started slowly as ''farmers were busy with the harvest, the war was much more serious than had been anticipated, and the first ebullition of military enthusiasm had subsided. Furthermore, disloyal sentiment was rampant in some parts of the State." All men between eighteen and forty-five were listed in preparation for a possible draft, but it was not needed. The ten companies of the 21st Regiment of the Iowa Volunteer Infantry were raised in the northeastern counties, the state's 3rd Congressional District, with each company being separately mustered as it reached its full complement. Four of the companies came primarily from Dubuque County, three from Clayton and two from Delaware while Company A, with men from eleven counties, was more diversified. In the McGregor area the primary recruiters were Englishman William Crooke who would become Captain of Company B and McGregor postmaster Willard Benton who would become Captain of Company G.
Gleason Stringham, a farmer, was enrolled on August 6, 1862, at McGregor in a company being recruited by William Crooke. They were ordered into quarters at Camp Franklin (formerly Camp Union) in Dubuque on August 16, 1862 and mustered in as Company B on August 18th at Dubuque. When all ten companies were of sufficient strength, they were mustered in as the 21st Regiment of Iowa Volunteer Infantry on September 9, 1862, with a total complement of 985 men.
On the Company Muster-in Roll described Gleason as being nineteen years old (the same age as shown on the census taken two years earlier), born in Ohio (the census said he was born in Wisconsin), and five feet four inches tall with blue eyes, fair hair and a light complexion. He received the normal $25.00 advance on a $100.00 federal bounty and a $2.00 premium. The balance of the bounty would be paid on completion of his service.
On a rainy September 16, 1862 they marched through town and, at the levee at the foot of Jones Street, crowded on board the paddlewheel steamer Henry Clay and two barges tied alongside and left for war. Low water at Montrose forced them to debark and, downstream, board the Hawkeye State for the rest of their trip.
After spending one night at Benton Barracks in St. Louis, they traveled by rail to Rolla and spent the next several months in Missouri - Salem, Houston, Hartville, West Plains, Ironton and Ste. Genevieve - with Gleason marked ''present" on all bimonthly muster rolls. He was also present on April 10, 1863, at Milliken's Bend where General Grant was organizing a massive army intent on capturing the Confederate stronghold ofVicksburg.
During the ensuing campaign, Gleason participated in the May 1, 1863, Battle of Port Gibson, was present at the May 16th Battle of Champion's Hill when the regiment was held in reserve by General McClernand, the May 17th assault at the Big Black River Bridge, and the subsequent siege that ended with the surrender of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863. During the campaign the regiment lost thirty-one men killed in action, thirty-four men mortally wounded, and at least one hundred who had less severe wounds. Gleason then participated in the pursuit of Confederate General Joe Johnston to Jackson and the siege of that city.
During the balance of his enlistment he was present with the regiment during its service in Louisiana, Texas, Alabama during the Mobile Campaign, and Arkansas. He served briefly as a hospital nurse in July 1863, had his pay debited small amounts when he lost his bayonet and scabbard and again for some commissary stores. On October 13, 1864, he was arrested by order of Lieutenant Colonel Van Anda: "It is hereby ordered that Private Gleason Stringam [sic] of Company "B" be arrested and sent to the Guard House for the space of six (6) days for absence from Roll call, for being drunk, and for conduct prejudicial to good order and military discipline."
Gleason and his younger brother, Henry, who had also served in the regiment, were mustered out at Baton Rouge on July 15, 1865. The next morning they boarded the Lady Gay and started upstream. At Cairo they debarked, boarded cars of the Illinois Central Railroad, and traveled the rest of the way by rail. At Clinton, on July 24, 1865, they were discharged from the military.
The 1860 census for Mendon Township listed a family of three: Margaret Stringham (age 40, born in Kentucky) and two boys, Gleason (age 19, born in Wisconsin) and Henry (age 14, born in Iowa).
Northern regulations during the Civil War said infantry regiments were to consist of approximately 1,000 men, each taking an oath of loyalty to the United States. No man under the rank of commissioned officer was to be younger than eighteen nor older than forty-five although age requirements were not always honored and some men stretched to permit (or prevent) their enlistment. Later in the war, requirements were often eased with minors openly accepted on the signature of a parent who would "freely give my consent to his volunteering as a soldier."
As the war progressed through its second year, President Lincoln called for more volunteers. Gleason answered the call and enlisted on August 6, 1862, but Henry was still too young. Two years later, on September 2, 1864, giving his age as eighteen, he signed a one-year enlistment at McGregor. Signing the Volunteer Enlistment by mark, he agreed to bear true faith and allegiance to the United States of America and to serve them honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers. While this was standard wording, it was somewhat strange. While the North had insisted the United States was a single unified entity from which individual states could not secede, the federal form referred to the United States as them rather than it (as does the 13th Amendment that abolished slavery).
Henry was found to be free from all bodily defects and mental infirmity by examining surgeon Allen Phillips. Shubael P. Adams, Captain and Provost Marshal for the states 3rd Congressional District, said Henry was entirely sober when enlisted and that, to the best of Adams knowledge, is of lawful age. Henry was described as being five feet, ten inches, tall with grey eyes, dark hair and a florid complexion and, as a new recruit, was paid $33.00 of the $100.00 enlistment bounty.
When Henry enlisted on the 2nd, the regiment was at Morganza, Louisiana but, the next day, after delaying its departure a short time so Francis Washburn could be buried, it left for Arkansas. After pausing at the mouth of White River, it went upstream and, on September 10th, men were debarked at St. Charles, a small village of only a few houses but strategically located near the cut off between the Arkansas and White Rivers. It was here, on October 6, 1864, more than a month after enlisting, that Henry reached the regiment, was assigned to duty as a teamster, and was reunited with Gleason.
Henry remained with the regiment for the balance of its stay in Arkansas and during the Mobile campaign the following spring.
On July 15, 1865, like many others, he elected to pay $6.00 for his musket and accouterments when they were mustered out at Baton Rouge. That evening they turned in their tents and equipment and moved rations to the landing. The next morning, they boarded the Lady Gay. About 7:00 a.m. on the 16th they started up-river and, on July 21st, debarked at Cairo. From there, they traveled by rail to Clinton where, on the afternoon of July 24th, they received their final pay and discharge, and were free to return to their mother.
Henry would later move to Sioux Falls, South Dakota, where he is buried in the citys Woodlawn Cemetery where he has a military issue stone
Stuart, Archibald H.
Military records indicate that Archibald H. Stuart was born in the historic city of Perth in central Scotland, moved to Iowa, and settled in Millville. There, on August 12, 1862 he was enrolled in the Union army by McGregor postmaster Willard Benton. At Camp Franklin (formerly Camp Union) in Dubuque, he was mustered in as a 3rd Sergeant with Company G on August 22nd and the 21st Regiment, Iowa Volunteer Infantry, on September 9th. On a rainy September 16th they walked through town and, at the foot of Jones Street, boarded the steamer Henry Clay and two barges lashed to its sides and headed downstream.
After an overnight stay at Benton Barracks in St. Louis, they traveled by rail to Rolla and then, on October 18, 1862, left Rolla for Salem. Most men walked, but those suffering from a variety of ailments were often able to ride in wagons and ambulances. From Salem they went to Houston and then Hartville. On November 24, 1862 a wagon train bringing supplies from Rolla was attacked and, on January 11, 1863, 262 men from the regiment fought a one-day battle at Hartville.
On January 26, 1862 they left Houston with West Plains as their destination, discovered they were on the wrong road, and returned to Houston. On the 27th, a miserable day of sleet and snow, the regiment headed south on the correct road to West Plains while Archibald was promoted two ranks to 1st Sergeant. They spent eight days in West Plains where the post was commanded by Brigadier General John Wynn Davidson. Also present was the 22nd Iowa Infantry under the command of Colonel William Stone (Iowa Governor 1864-1868). On February 6, 1863, Davidson wired Major General Curtis: I found Stone a ready soldier and a gentleman, and I put the Iowa people in one brigade, the Iowa Brigade, under him, and he manages everything, to my great relief.
On February 8th they left West Plains, but not towards Arkansas as most expected. Instead, they started a long walk to the northeast - to Thomasville, Ironton, Pilot Knob and Iron Mountain. At Iron Mountain, on March 9th, Archibald was granted a furlough while the regiment continued its march. At Ste. Genevieve the regiment went into camp while Archibald boarded a northbound steamer. Its unclear when he returned, but he was marked present on April 10, by which time the regiment had moved farther south to Millikens Bend where General Ulysses Grant was organizing a massive army of three corps in preparation for a campaign to capture the Confederate stronghold at Vicksburg.
The army crossed the Mississippi from Disharoons Plantation on the west bank to the Bruinsburg landing on the east bank on April 30th, but Archibald had become ill and was sent to a hospital in New Carthage. Two weeks later he caught up near Bolton Station, Mississippi. He was present on May 16, 1863 when the regiment was held in reserve during the Battle of Champions Hill, he participated in the assault at the Big Black River on May 17th, and he participated in the assault at Vicksburg on May 22nd.
John Craig had been serving as the regiments 2nd Lieutenant since they were mustered into service but, effective May 27, 1863 he was promoted to 1st Lieutenant while Archibald Stuart was promoted to take his place as 2nd Lieutenant of Company G. He continued with the regiment during the siege of Vicksburg and the subsequent expedition to and siege of Jackson, Mississippi. Effective July 27, 1863 there was another round of promotions. John Dolson resigned as Captain, John Craig was promoted from 1st Lieutenant to Captain, and Archibald Stuart was promoted from 2nd Lieutenant to 1st Lieutenant.
He remained present but, in October, became ill and was admitted to the Convalescent Camp in Carrollton, Louisiana. While there he was placed in command of the camp but, still ill, he was granted leave on November 20th. On his return, he was relieved of command of the Convalescent Camp and rejoined the regiment, then in Indianola, Texas, on February 14, 1864. From then through the end of its service, Archibald maintained his health and was present with the regiment during its remaining service in Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Alabama where he participated in the campaign to occupy the city of Mobile. On July 15, 1865 he was mustered out with the regiment at Baton Rouge.
Tents and equipment were turned in and, on the morning of July 16, 1865, they boarded the steamer Lady Gay, that had been built only a few months earlier in Cincinnati for the Atlantic & Mississippi Steamship Company, and started upstream. Traveling against the current, progress was slow, but they reached Cairo and debarked on the morning of the 19th. After a good meal at the soldiers rest, they boarded cars of the Illinois Central Railroad and continued north. On the 21st they reached Clinton and camped outside of town. On July 24, 1865, the 9th Iowa marched into town before noon to receive their discharge while, according to Myron Knight, "our regiment marched down to town at 1PM and received our final discharge and payment. Some left immediately for their homes while others remained in Clinton. On the 28th, the remaining men were paid and the regiment was formally disbanded.
Archibald returned to his wife and family in Dubuque where he worked as an attorney and frequently represented soldiers making claims for federal pensions. Among them, from his own regiment, were George Hess, William McCarty, Alfred Kephart, Joseph Carter, Loring Knaebel and William Schwaegler.
Online sources indicate he was married to Fanny A. Stuart and that they had six children: Hastie A. Stuart (10/1857-11/21/1923), Charles Stuart (1862- ), James Stuart (1868- ), Lizzie Stuart (1872- ), Margaret Stuart (1874- ), and Bessie Stuart (1877- ). Archibald died on August 1, 1890, and was buried in Dubuques Linwood Cemetery.
~researched and compiled by Carl Ingwalson for Clayton co. IAGenWeb ©Carl Ingwalson & Clayton co. IAGenWeb.
Carl has offered to do look-ups in his extensive records of the 21st Iowa. His email address is on the Look-up Volunteers page.
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