The Twenty-Second Infantry was for the most part recruited in the old capital county of the State, Johnson, which contributed to this noted command no less than seven companies. There was one company from Jasper County, one from Monroe, and one from Wapello, so that the whole was from the Fourth District, since represented in Congress by the Honorable Josiah B. Grinnell. The companies went into rendezvous at "Camp Pope," near Iowa City, during the month of August, 1862, and were there mustered into the service on the 9th of the following month. William M Stone, who had been Major of the Third Infantry, and who was at this time a paroled prisoner of war, was appointed Colonel; John A. Garrett, Lieutenant-Colonel; Harvey Graham, Major; J. B. Atherton, Adjutant; C. F. Lovelace, Quartermaster; William H. White, Surgeon, with Drs. O. Peabody and Alfred B. Lee, Assistants; and Reverend R. B. Allender, Chaplain. '


   The line officers were: Company A Captain Charles N. Lee; Lieutenants D. J. Davis William Hughes. Company B; Captain John H. Gearkee; Lieutenants John Remmick, J. I. Boarts. Company C; Captain A. T. Ault; Lieutenants N. Murray, Lafayette R. Mullin. Company D-Captain Robert W. Wilson; Lieutenants William Phinney, Matthew A. Robb. Company Captain Hiram C. Humbert; Lieutenants E. G. White, Benjamin D. Parks. Company F- Captain Alfred B. Cree; Lieutenants John W. Porter, William a. Haddock. Company Captain Isaac V. Dennis; Lieutenants James O. Hawkins, George H. Shockey. Company H; Captain John C. Shrader; Lieu-

    Having remained at Camp Pope but a few days after organization, the regiment moved by rail to Davenport, and thence by steamer to St. Louis Thoroughly equipped for service in the field, the command left Benton Barracks on the 22d for Rolla, arriving on the next day. This post was garrisoned by the Twenty-second for about four months, the troops also at times escorting trains to the Army of Southwest Missouri. In the latter part of January, 1863, the regiment moved to West Plains, and joined the Army of Southeast Missouri, forming a part of the First Brigade, First Division thereof, Colonel Stone commanding the brigade, which consisted of his own regiment, the Twenty-first and Twenty-third Iowa, and the Eleventh Wisconsin. Halting at West Plains a few days, the army marched, with much hardship, to Iron Mountain, where another halt was made. The 9th of March, our regiment marched for St. Genevieve, and having encamped there about a fortnight, embarked for the south, under orders to join the forces under Grant, about to commence operations against Vicksburg.

  In the organization of the army for this campaign, the Twenty-second remained in brigade with the same regiments above noted, Colonel Harris commanding the brigade, General E. A. Carr the division, it being the Fourteenth of the Thirteenth Corps, General John A. McClernand. The brigade marched on the 12th of April, and going by Richmond and Carthage, encamped at Perkins' Landing to await the rest of the Corps.

   Lieutenants James L. Perry, Daniel W. Henderson. Company I Captain James Robertson; Lieutenants J. W. Sterling, W. W. Morsman. Company K Captain George W. Clark; Lieutenants John Francisco, Thomas Morrison.

   Inasmuch as there were several changes among the officers of the command before it met the enemy in battle, it may not be amiss here to subjoin the list of officers during the regiment's term of service, ad shown by the Adjutant-General's Reports.

   Colonels, William M. Stone, Harvey Graham. Lieutenant-Colonels, John A. Garrett, (promoted Colonel of the Fortieth, before the Twenty-second left Iowa), Harvey Graham, E. G. White. Majors, Harvey Graham, E. G. White, J. B. Atherton, John H. Gearkee; Adjutants, J. B. Atherton, John W. Porter, Horace Poole, Oscar B. Lee, Samuel D. Pryce, Taylor Pierce. Quart enters, C. F. Lovelace, James W. Stirling. Surgeons, William H. White, John C. Shrader. assistant-Surgeons, Alfred B. Lee, Oren Peabody, William A. Dimwiddie. Captains, Reverend B. B. Allender, Reverend Martin Bowman.

   Line Officers: Company A; Captains Charles N. Lee, David J. Davis, Samuel D. Pryce; Lieutenant. and David J. Davis, William W. Hughes, Samuel C. Jones. company B; Captains John H. Gearkee, John Remick; Lieutenants James A. Boarts, Joseph S. Turnbull. Company C; Captains A. T. Ault, Lafayette F. Mullin; Lieutenants Niel Murray, L. F. Mullin, Robert M. Davis, Samuel C. Fugard. Company D-Captains Robert M. Wilson, N. B. Humphrey; Lieutenants William Phinney, Matthew A. Robb, William H. Needham Company E-Captains Hiram C. Humbert, Benjamin D. Parks, Edward J. Dudley; Lieutenants E. G White, Benjamin D. Parks, Edward J. Dudley, George D. Ulrich. Company F; Captain Alfred B. Cree; Lieutenants John W. Porter, William G. Haddock, William J. Schell, George W. Handy, Theodore S. Loveland. Company G;Captains Isaac V. Dennis, James O. Hawkins, George H. Shockey; Lieutenants James O. Hawkins, George H. Shockey, William M. De Camp, John Smiley. Company H; Captains John C. Shrader, Charles Y. Hartley; Lieutenants James L. Perry, Daldel W. Henderson, Joseph R. Chandler. Company I; Captains James Robertson, W. W. Morsman; Lieutenants James W. Sterling, W. W. Morsman, Joseph E. Griffith, Nicholas C. Messenger; Company K; Captain George W. Clark; Lieutenant John Francisco, Thomas Morrison, Oliver P. Hull.

    Thence the troops moved by transports, which had run the blockade of Vicksburg, to Hard Times, a landing not far above Grand Gulf, but on the opposite side of the river. Here the troops witnessed the unsuccessful attack of the navy on the batteries of Grand Gulf, on the 29th. The corps marched down the river under cover of the levee, and on the morning of the 30th embarked on steamers and gunboats, and moved down to Bruinsburg, where a disembarkation was made about the middle of the afternoon.

   The advance did not tarry long at Bruinsburg. The line of march for the interior" was speedily taken up, and the brigade to which the Twenty-second belonged being in the advance, Colonel Stone commanding brought on the battle at Port Gibson, the first of the campaign, before midnight. This engagement, the first battle in which the regiment took part, was a fine victory for the Union arms. It has been already described The Twenty-second took honorable part therein, and received the encomiums of the army for its good conduct. Major Atherton was here in command. The loss of the regiment was about twenty.

   The regiment remained at Bayou Pierre, with the brigade, a few days after the battle. Taking up line of march, it moved by Raymond to Mississippi Springs, where it halted, in guard of trains. The city of Jackson having succumbed to our arms, McClernand about-faced and moved against Pemberton who had marched from behind the works of Vicksburg with the hope of catching Grant's Corers in air, and retrieving the disasters which the campaign had thus far inflicted upon the insurgent cause. The consequence of this maneuver was the Battle of champion Hills, a splendid Union victory, gained by the divisions of Hovey, Crocker, and Logan. During this fine fight, the Twenty-second was posted with the reserves, but it joined in the pursuit of the beaten rebels and captured many prisoners. The next day, in the battle of Black River Bridge, wherein the Twenty-third Iowa was most prominently engaged, our regiment took part, but, covered by the river bank from the enemy's fire, lost only two men wounded on the field made forever memorable in Iowa by the death of Colonel Kinsman of the Twenty-third.

   General Grant pushed on his columns without delay, and on the morning of the l9th, had his army in position around Vicksburg, Sherman on the right, McPherson in the center, and McClernand on the left. There was an assault by part of the army on the afternoon of this day, ordered by General Grant in the hope that the enemy, demoralized and discouraged by recent defeats, might not defend his works with vigor. He was mistaken, and the attack, which was by no means a general assault, failed. Meantime, the troops continued to arrive, and by the evening of the 21st had Vicksburg regularly invested. The troops had been marching and fighting battles; every one a victory; for twenty days on five days' rations. They had begun to feel the want of bread. Though the communications were completely opened up on the 21st, General Grant, reflecting upon what his army had already accomplished, that Johnston was not far in his rear with a considerable power, which was being daily increased by reenforcements, which might soon be strong enough to raise the siege, determined upon trying to carry the enemy's works by assault.


    The assault was ordered for ten o'clock precisely on the morning of May 22d, the same to be rapid, by the heads of columns. In order that it might be simultaneous by all the assaulting columns, the corps commanders set their watches by General Grant's. They were ordered to precede the assault by a heavy, constant cannonading of the rebel works.

   Undoubtedly those works were stronger than General Grant supposed. The defenses of Vicksburg consisted of a system of detached fortifications on commanding points, with the usual profile of field works, connected by rifle-pits. The best engineering skill of the Confederacy had been lavished upon the works, till the place was compared to Sebastopol and Gibraltar. But it was not art alone which made it strong. It was by nature a formidable position. The frowning bluffs on the river-side made it there impregnable. To the rear, whence the assault was to come, the country was broken, so as to afford excellent defensive positions; ridges and knolls with deep ravines intervening, covered with a tangled growth of vines, cane, and saplings, through which an army could not move in line. The ridges were natural parapets and the ravines natural ditches, so that, what with the works of nature and those of their own construction, the rebels had a series of strong lines, each one of which was formidable in the extreme

   Early on the morning of the assault the cannonading began. The great guns from the fleet and all the guns which could be put in position on the investing lines ushered in the day with their awful thunder. They continued their work till nearly ten o'clock, when they suddenly ceased. Partial breaches of the enemy's works were effected, some of his guns silenced, and a number of his caissons exploded Our sharp-shooters and skirmishers also annoyed him by a galling fire, picking off many of his gunners, and compelling the garrison to keep well behind their cover.

   At ten o'clock precisely, the bugles having sounded the charge, the assaulting columns moved forward at quick time, with bayonets fixed, and without firing a gun. Pressing forward over the rough ground, through the obstructions which nature and art had placed in the way, they approached within musket range of the works without receiving the fire of the enemy. Then every available gun was opened on the heads of the columns, already somewhat disordered by the difficult advance, and the rebel infantry rising in the trenches, poured into our masses rapid volleys which had a fearful effect, covering the ground with our dead and wounded Still the brave troops pressed on, to meet with the same fate, the columns of the various corps vying with each other in gallant emulation in their endeavors to carry the works. It was in vain. The terrible fire of the garrison checked the assault, stayed the advance, threw the assailants into disorder. They betook themselves to such covers as could be found, and by a common impulse abandoning the fight by bayonet, maintained their position, galling the garrison with musketry. Thus it was with Sherman and McPherson, who early saw and admitted the unsuccess of the assault so far as their columns were concerned.

   With McClernand it was somewhat different. The principal work in his front was Fort Beauregard; a strong fortification, containing a heavy armament, well manned, covered by other works in flank and rear. The Twenty-second Iowa led the column which assaulted this work. It was accompanied by the Twenty-first Iowa, Major Van Andy, and the Eleventh Wisconsin General Lawler being in command of the brigade. The Twenty-second had taken an advanced position on the right of the Twenty-first, where, under cover of a ridge, the order for the assault was awaited. Receiving it, Colonel Stone shouted "Forward !" and his gallant command leaped over the hill to the charge, and in an instant came in full view of the frowning Fort. The column moved steadily, silently, to within fifty yards of the work passing through a murderous fire, under which many fell in death and wounds, among the latter Colonel Stone. The line became disordered, but Lieutenant-Colonel Graham assuming command rallied his men around the flag, and himself pressed forward with about sixty officers and men. The fort was reached, the colors planted on the ramparts, Sergeant Joseph E Griffith and a number of others. making ladders of themselves, scaled the wall, entered the fort, and captured a number of prisoners. Colonel Stone, being borne from the field, conveyed this intelligence to General McClernand, and a renewed assault took place all along the lines, but without success. Sergeant Griffith and private David Trine alone escaped from the fort, which, covered by works in rear, was entirely untenable. Lieutenant-Colonel Graham and several men were captured in the ditch. As they were conducted within the rebel works, the troops engaged in the assault retired behind friendly protections and the fearful slaughter was ended. The Union losses in this assault of Vicksburg w ere not far from three thousand, being nearly three-fourths of the loss sustained by General Grant's forces during the entire siege; from the 19th of May to the 4th of July

   In this assault there were not less than sixteen regiments of Iowa infantry engaged; the Fourth, Fifth, Eighth, Ninth, Tenth, Twelfth, Seventeenth, Twenty-first, Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth Twenty-eighth, Thirtieth, Thirty-first, and Thirty-fifth; whilst the First and Second Batteries were in position and performing well their duty on the line of investment. The Second Battery Is specially mentioned by General Sherman in his official report, there spoken of as Spoor's battery. All our troops engaged behaved most worthily, so that it is impossible to say one regiment was more meritorious than another. The Fourth, Ninth Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first regiments were on the right, and did all that mortals could to carry the day. The Eighth, Twelfth, and Thirty-fifth, were in the division commanded by General James M. Tuttle, who fully sustained, throughout the entire campaign of Vicksburg, the reputation of a gallant commander which he had fairly gained on former fields. The Fifth and the Tenth were in the brigade of the heroic Boomer, of Missouri, who was slain on this field. The Seventeenth supported an assaulting column, and met with slight loss. The Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-eighth were in Hovey's Division, which, having suffered most severely at Champion Hills, here met with slight loss. The Twenty-first, the Twenty-second, and Twenty-third were in the same brigade, but the Twenty-third having but a few days before borne the brunt of the battle at Black River Bridge, was now absent in guard of prisoners, and the other Iowa regiments in the command took the leading part in this day's bloody work.

   General Grant, in his report of the Vicksburg campaign, speaking of the assault of the 22d of May, says: "No troops succeeded in entering any of the enemy's works with the exception of Sergeant Griffith, of the Twenty-second Iowa Volunteers, and some eleven privates of the same regiment; of these none returned except the sergeant and possibly one man." Those who participated with Sergeant Griffith in this famous exploit were . John Robb, Munson L. Clemmons, Alvin Drummond, Hezekieh Drummond, William H. Need ham Ezra Is. Anderson, Hugh Sinclair, N. C. Messenger, David Trine, William Griffin, Allen Cloud, David Jordan, and Richard Arthur. Of these, both the Drummonds, Anderson, Arthur and Griffin paid for their temerity with their lies, being slain within the fort. The total loss of the regiment in the assault was one hundred and sixty-four, killed, wounded, and captured.

   The assault, though unsuccessful, was gallant in the extreme on the part of all the troops, and did not weaken their confidence, or that of the commanding general, in their ability to ultimately succeed. General Grant determined upon a regular siege. It was forthwith entered upon. The troops went to work with alacrity, and it was not long till they were an army of engineers. They labored day after day, night after night, creeping upon the enemy slowly but surely by lines of entrenchments, living pent-up, enduring many hardships, uttering no word of complaint. They held on to their prey with the tenacity of Grant himself, who knew no such word as fail. Through the hot days and the sultry nights these devoted troops learned the great lesson of how to labor and to wait most thoroughly. Johnston threatened attack from the rear. Grant sent Sherman to watch him. He ordered re-enforcements from the north, with whom came more Iowa troops, so that before the final victory there were about thirty of our regiments, besides artillery, engaged in the reduction of the stronghold. To relate in detail the operations of the siege were a tedious and unnecessary labor. They were crowned with success on the anniversary of our national independence, when the garrison capitulated, and our troops entered the city in joyous triumph.

   Thus ended the great campaign, wherein the enemy had been signally defeated in five battles; whereby he had lost thirty-seven thousand prisoners, among whom were fifteen general officers; ten thousand men killed and wounded, among the slain three officers of the rank of general; arms and munitions of war for an army of sixty thousand; immense quantities of public property of other kinds. In achieving this splendid result, General Grant had lost less than nine thousand men, killed, wounded, and missing. But this fine result of a military nature was not half the victory. The taking of Vicksburg split the confederacy in twain; gave to the Union the navigation of the most magnificent river of the world; threw over the rebellion the gloom of irretrievable disaster; gave to the nation bright promise of eventual success. When we consider what Grant accomplished here, and how, we shall have no difficulty in saying which of all his great campaigns is the greatest.

   It is gratifying to know that among the gallant troops who took part in the greatest campaign of the acknowledged captain of the age, those of Iowa won the most conspicuous renown. No troops bore a more prominent part at Port Gibson than Colonel Stone's Brigade. It was General M. M. Crocker who stormed the works of Jackson, where our Seventeenth regiment surpassed all others in daring. No troops in Hovey's Division fought more bravely, or more tenaciously, than our Twenty-fourth and Twenty-eighth regiments at Champion Hills, where Crocker again rushed in to the aid of hard pressed friends, and like the black knight in Ivanhoe, saved the day by vigor almost superhuman. At the Black River Bridge, our Twenty-first regiment was only surpassed by our Twenty-third, whose bravery and sacrifices can never be forgotten while courage continues to be a virtue. What soldiers but those of Iowa entered the works of Vicksburg on the assault of the 22d ? When the battle was over, only our dead were found within those works.

   In this campaign, all the Iowa regiments engaged suffered less or more severely, and all those which took part in the assault had many slain and wounded. The Twenty-second lost during the campaign about two hundred.2 Colonel Stone, as we have seen, was wounded during the assault, and Lieutenant-Colonel Graham captured. Captain Gearkee, and Lieutenants Remick and Mullins were severely wounded in the same action.

   The regiment marched against Jackson immediately after the surrender of Vicksburg, and took honorable part in that campaign of great labors and of great results. Captain Free, of Company F. was specially mentioned for gallant conduct on the skirmish line, on the 9th. Colonel Stone, who had been meanwhile nominated for Governor by the dominant park of the State, resumed command of the regiment in front of Jackson, and was soon placed in command of the brigade. His command reached Vicksburg on its return from the Jackson campaign in the latter part of July. He soon afterwards resigned, and returned to Iowa, and was elected Governor at the October election by a large majority. I should have stated before that Major Atherton had resigned during the siege of Vicksburg, and that, it afterwards coming to the knowledge of the War Department, that his letter of resignation was a tissue of falsehoods, the acceptance was revoked, and he was dishonorably dismissed the service; the only instance, says the generally accurate State Register, among all Iowa officers, upon whom such disgrace was cast. Captain E. G. White, a highly meritorious officer and excellent man, was promoted Major.

    The 13th of August, Lieutenant-Colonel Graham embarked on the transport Baltic, and arrived at Carrollton on the 16th, where the regiment went into camp. Its next campaigning was on what has been called the "Bayou Teche Expedition," to the west of Berwick Bay. The regiment was engaged on this expedition from early in September till the middle of November, and it participated in several skirmishes, near Iberia and beyond, but without mentionable loss. It reached Algiers November 18th.

 AT THE BATTLE OF POINT GIBSON; Killed, David P. Robertson, J. T. Wittington. Wounded, Adjutant D. J. Davis; Lieutenants William M. De Camp, D. W. Henderson, John Francisco; Sergeant William Franklin; Thomas Harper, John L. Chiles, James A. Moore, S. S. Garrison, George A. Remley, E. L. Pardee, Alexander Zika, Jeremiah Daniels, Wenzel Zika.

AT THE BIG BLACK - Wounded, George W. McCall, Patrick Monegan.

ASSAULT OF VICKSBURG; I only have the names of those killed and mortally wounded. Killed, Captain James Robertson; Corporals David Jordan, N. G. Teas, James A. Eshorn, James A. Rany; Privates John L. Green, Joseph T. Cushshalt, J. R. Kennedy, Elvin Drummond, Hezekiah Drummond John A. Robb, A. H. Green, Abner Magee, John Stallcup, Jerome Smart, Marshal D. Fry, William Griffin, E. W. Hamlin, John B. Lamb, William P. Marvin, John W. Williamson. mortally Mounded. Lieutenant Matthew A. Robb; Sergeant Samuel Lloyd; Color-Guards, David H. Norris, James K. McIntosh, William McKeever, George W. Campbell; Corporals William Johnson, Jackson F. Newell, G. Giltner Privates C. H. Detwiler, S. Eister, Rufus J. Hoy, Ernest Haverstraw, Isaac Winterhalter, Samuel Story, John W. Jack Emanuel Barr, Samuel Kester, C. W. Farrar, E. Brewer M. M. Parkhurst, Junius Lawson, David Smith, Joseph Middleton, E. C. Peregoy, W. H. H. Rosebrugh, Joseph Jackson, Jacob H. Detwiler, Martin L. Kirk, John Hale, John McElree.

SIEGE OF VICKSBURG; Killed, Nicholas Russell, William Turners

     Five companies, Lieutenant-Colonel Graham, at once embarked for Texas, the others remaining at Algiers, under Major White, awaiting transportation. Lieutenant-colonel Graham landed his command on Mustang Island on the evening of the 27th, and on the 29th joined in the march on Fort Esperanza The work having been abandoned by the enemy, the regiment went into camp at De Crou's Point, where it was joined by Major White with the left wing. Early in January, 1864, Lieutenant-Colonel Graham moved by steamer to Indianola, where the division went into winter quarters, the Twenty-second in the "Old Town" portion, after three weeks of quiet in the abandoned houses of the New Town. General Fitz Henry Warren was now in command of the brigade, designated the First, of the First Division, Thirteenth Corps. The regiment remained in Texas until the latter part of April, at Indianola till March 13th, when it returned to Matagorda Island, the division being sent thither to defend the coast. The men had good health and rapidly improved in discipline and military efficiency, General Warren carrying his strict disciplinarian notions to the extreme of not allowing a single "ridiculous hat" to be seen on dress parade, and all the officers joining in the laudable ambition of bringing the command up to the standard of perfection. Hence the Texas expedition was of great value to the troops, but without noteworthy contests with the enemy, who only appeared in small bodies, called "Rangers." One of these bands, however, attacked a small reconnoitering party, whilst the Twenty-second was at Indianola, and captured six of its men. Not long before its departure from Matagorda Island, the regiment, under the command of General Warren in person, made an expedition to Port Lavaca, seventy miles from the island, and taking possession of the place, captured a large quantity of property, and returned in safety.

  The regiment reached New Orleans the first of May, moving on two vessels, Major White commanding the right Ring and Captain Gearkee the left during the voyage. Soon after its arrival, the left wing, Captain A. B. Cree, now commanding, moved up the Mississippi and the Red River to Fort De Russey, General Warren taking thither a considerable force to aid the army of Banks in its retreat. Captain Cree rejoined the regiment at Baton Rouge, on the 10th of June, whither the right wing had meanwhile proceeded. The commanding officer being now commissioned Colonel, Major White was promoted Lieutenant-Colonel and Captain John H. Gearkee, Major.

  Early in July Colonel Graham reported to General Reynolds at New Orleans. The Thirteenth Corps being discontinued the Twenty-second was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Division, Nineteenth Corps, Colonel E. L. Molineaux, One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York, commanding brigade, General Grover the division, and General Emory the corps On the 17th, the regiment embarked for Fortress Monroe, where it arrived on the 24th, without memorable incident, except a general conviction that the writer of "Life on the Ocean Wave" ought to have been hanged for his execrable taste. The command proceeded up the James River to Bermuda Hundreds, and marching thence a few miles joined the Army of the James, General Butler. The regiment remained on duty in the trenches between the James and the Appomattox till the 31st, when Colonel Graham was ordered to report at Washington City. Arriving the next day, the regiment marched up Four-and-a-half street, down Pennsylvania Avenue by the Capitol, and halted at the Soldiers' Rest for the night, where the men enjoyed themselves heartily. The command remained in the vicinity of Washington a fortnight.

  The 14th, the regiment took up line of march to join the forces under general Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. Crossing the Potomac on the Chain Bridge near Georgetown, and marching by Drainsville, Leesburg, and Hamilton, over the Kittoctan Mountains, through Snicker's Gap in the Blue Ridge, and, fording the Shenandoah at midnight, reached Berryville on the morning of the 18th, there joining Sheridan's Army in retreat down the valley before the rebel Cavalry. The retreat was continued to near the Potomac, and after no little maneuvering, the Twenty-second found itself in position not far from Halltown, near the center of the army, occupying a strong position, its left resting upon the Potomac, and the right at the foot of North Mountain by Martinsburg.

  From the time General Sheridan took command in the Shenandoah country till about the middle of September, the campaign was one of strategy only. Sheridan, the most fiery fighter of our armies, merely maneuvered for weeks, first marching up the valley, with considerable flourish of trumpets, and then down again, without apparent direct results. But he accomplished three things of importance: First, he detached a force from Lee; second, he employed that force in the valley, so that not a musket could be sent to Hood at Atlanta, before whose gates Sherman was thundering with his magnificent army; third, he guarded the national capital and the border from attack. His work was done in the best manner possible. At length Atlanta fell, and, as it was Sheridan's object before to avoid a battle, 80 now it was his object to fight, the moment he could get his antagonist at a disadvantage. There was some marching and counter-marching, with skirmishing, after the army took the position last noted, but the first great battle of the campaign was fought on the 19th of September, on the line of the Opequan Creek, and has therefore been called the Battle of Opequan, but it will, perhaps, continue to be popularly known as


  On the 13th, a heavy reconnaissance to Lock's Ford on the Opequan discovered the enemy there in force. Three days later, he was found to have disappeared from our left, on the Winchester and Berryville turnpike, and to have but a weak line opposed to our right. On Sunday, the 18th, the rebel Gordon was driven from Martinsburg by Averill, and it became evident that the enemy was in position near Bunker Hill. General Sheridan determined to attack, and on this day ordered the whole army to be ready to move at a moment's notice. At two o'clock of the following morning, the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps were in motion, on the Berryville and Winchester Pike, the former in advance. The Army of Western Virginia, under General Crook, was ordered to move from its position near Summit Point, in a southwesterly direction, and form a junction with the Nineteenth Corps, occupying the center, where the turnpike crosses the Opequan. brook holding the reserve, moved at five o'clock.

  The Sixth and Nineteenth Corps, marching down a narrow ravine, winding among steep and thickly wooded hills, debauched into an irregular valley, resembling a contracted rolling prairie, faced on the south by an amphitheater of stony heights. Sheridan's object was, to amuse the enemy's right, attack his center vigorously, turn and force his left. The head of the Sixth Corps emerged from the ravine about 10 o'clock, and advancing rapidly to the left in two lines carried a line of works and wood that formed the outwork of the enemy's right. There was very little heavy fighting at this time or afterwards on this part of the line. The serious struggle was on the center, and it was made the more severe because of a misunderstanding of orders whereby the deployment of the Nineteenth Corps was delayed and the enemy thereby given time to make his dispositions against the attack.

  About noon, however, the Nineteenth Corps, and Rickett's Division of the Sixth Corps, advanced across the valley in a finely enthusiastic onset, which fairly swept before it the enemy's first line. But these gallant troops were met with a most stubborn resistance from a second and a stronger line which poured into them a withering fire. They were enfiladed too by batteries on the right and batteries on the left. They suffered fearfully, but they fought on, with a tenacious courage never surpassed. They clung to their position with a desperate endeavor to win the victory then and there. In vain. The retreat was ordered. They fell back, at first in good order, but presently in confusion, so that brigade and regimental organizations became undistinguishable The rebels advanced steadily with yells of triumph, and a constant roll of murderous musketry. "It was the bloodiest the darkest, the most picturesque, the most dramatic, the only desperate moment of the day," says an eye witness, who wrote an account of the battle for Harper's Monthly. "Through the midst of the confusion came a captain of infantry, Rigby of the Twenty-fourth Iowa, leading a sergeant and twelve men, all marching as composedly as if returning from drill. ' Captain, you are not going to retreat any further, I hope,' said Captain Bradbury, of the first Maine Battery. ' Certainly not,' was the reply. ' Halt ! Front! Three cheers, men; hip, hip, hurrah !' The little band cheered lustily. It was the first note of defiance that broke the desperate monotony of the panic; it gave heart to every one who heard it, and made an end of retreat in that part of the field. In a few minutes the platoon swelled to a battalion composed of men from half a dozen regiments."

  The shattered line was reformed, the rebel advance checked. Presently the enemy was repulsed. Then our second line advanced, and regained the position which had before been lost, and amidst terrible slaughter, held it firmly. It was after 3 o'clock when the Army Of Virginia on the right, with a deafening shout of defiance rushed to the attack. Simultaneously the cavalry on the extreme right made a splendid charge, when the whole army, rising like a huge machine possessing soul and spirit advanced from one end of the line to the other and almost instantly put the enemy to rout. Shortly afterwards, in a disorganized mass, the rebel army was "whirling through Winchester" up the Valley of the Shenandoah. The day was gloriously won, and all that was left to the army was to gather up the immense spoils of victory and pick up prisoners.

  By the battle of Winchester the rebels lost not less than seven thousand men hors-de-combat, a number of guns, many battle-fags, and thousands of small arms. The Union loss was less than three thousand, the greater proportion of which fell upon the Nineteenth Corps. The soul-stirring victory aroused the whole country. The great cities illuminated their windows and fired their big guns in honor of it; the rural districts shouted for joy. "Little Phil. Sheridan," as the treat general was familiarly called, became the hero of the day, and never afterwards lost his strong hold on the hearts of the army and the people.

  In this engagement, the Twenty-fourth and the Twenty-eighth Iowa Regiments fought in Colonel Shunk's Brigade, the Fourth of Grover's Division. It will be remembered that these gallant regiments, fighting together on Champion Hills, there won proud distinction. Ever afterwards they maintained their admirable reputation, and on the field of Winchester were surpassed by none in dashing courage or obstinate tenacity. Lieutenant-Colonel J. Q. Wilds, and Major Ed Wright, of the Twenty-fourth, Lieutenant-Colonel B. W. Wilson, and Major John Meyer, of the Twenty-eighth, all the staff and line officers and men of both regiments, fought on this field in the bravest manner possible. When our troops were compelled to retire before the blasting fire of the enemy, they passed through the dreadful ordeal of retreat under such circumstances, with as little breaking of ranks as any regiments engaged, and, as we have seen, it was what was left of a company of the Twenty-fourth, whose cool courage and defiant manner first stayed the tide of disaster, and enabled the officers to bring order out of chaos. It might seem a small thing, but without it the sun might have set upon our army in retreat and rout. It propitiated fortune, without whose aid the best generals and the best troops must suffer defeat. Both the regiments now spoken of suffered severely in killed and wounded, and lost on this glorious field not a few of their most gallant officers.

   Molineaux's Brigade, in which was the Twenty-second, occupied the extreme left of the Nineteenth Corps. No brigade had more to do at Winchester, and none did more than Molineaux'. All his troops, for the most part New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts men, fought long and well, in the most hotly contested part of the line; none longer or better than the Twenty-second Iowa. Its position was one of full as much exposure, perhaps, to the enemy's terrible fire, as that of any regiment on the field. Its endurance of such a fire for so long a time was a miracle of splendid tenacity. Not faltering for an instant, it stood like a wall, till Dwight's Division on its left gave way, when it fell back. It was speedily rallied, at no time losing its oneness. It joined in the second charge, with its ranks already thinned by many mournful casualties, but with its colors proudly waving in the midst of an unbroken line, officers and men rushing to the attack with a grand enthusiasm, born of vengeance and patriotism.

  When the regiment went into bivouac that night near Winchester, it was proud of the glory it had won, sorrowful for the brave men it had lost. Its losses in the battle had been one hundred and nine, slain, wounded, and captured. Among the first to fall was Captain D. J. Davis, who, his temple pierced by a minie ball, fell dead at the head of his company. No more gallant officer or estimable man fell on the field of Opequan. Captain B. D. Parks, as brave as warm-hearted, fell near by. Sergeant-Major George A. Remley, pierced with three balls, gave up his noble life. Lieutenant James A. Boarts, a most promising young man, received a mortal wound. Lieutenant-Colonel White and Captain Cree were slightly wounded, Lieutenants James and Hull, captured. "Colonel Graham, Lieutenant-Colonel White, Major Gearkee, Captains Mullins, Humphrey, Cree, Clark, Shockey, Partly, and Morsman, and Lieutenants Turnbull, Davis, Needham, Messenger, and Chandler are all entitled to great praise," says Adjutant Samuel D. Pryce, in his account of the engagement, "for their gallantry throughout the battle." He also makes mention of Surgeon Shrader, Quartermaster Sterling, Hospital-Steward Ealy, and Commissary-sergeant Brown for efficient services, accompanied by danger, in caring for the wounded. And it is for me to say, on the authority of many eye-witnesses, that in this great battle, where not a man of the regiment faltered, no one quitted himself more handsomely than Adjutant Pryce himself

  On the morning of the 20th, the regiment joined in the pursuit of the retreating rebels, marching through Newtown and Middletown to the vicinity of Strasburg, beyond Cedar Creek, where the command went into encampment. The enemy made a stand at Fisher's Hill, a strong position not far behind Strasburg. The battle of Fisher's Hill, another fine victory, took place on the 22d. Our regiment participated in the fight, but, owing to the nature of the ground over which it advanced lost but four men wounded. The regiment joined in the pursuit by night, with the famous Eleventh Indiana, also of Molineaux' Brigade, occupying the extreme advance till four o'clock the next morning. It marched to Mount Crawford, beyond Harrisonburg, in this pursuit, having frequent skirmishes with the enemy. At the close of the first week in October the army countermarched from Harrisonburg, and went into fortified encampment on the

LIST OF CASUALTIES: Field and Staff; Killed, Sergeant-Major George A. Remley. Wounded Lieutenant-COLONEL E. G. White.

Company A; Killed, Captain David J. Davis. Wounded, Corporal Edmund H. Wilcox, Privates Noel Morrison, (mortally), John E. Mead, Solomon McGue, James A. Smith, Chester Hunter, Jacob Orb, Jacob C. Switzer. Captured, Lieutenant Samuel C. Jones; Barney Tallman, Nicholas H. Bryce, Robert J. Smith.

Company B; Killed, First Sergeant John D. Bane; Private John McCarty. Wounded, Lieutenant James A. Boarts, (since died); Sergeant William Franklin; Privates Andrew Douglass, George Lunnon, Mark Thomas.

Company C-Wounded, Corporal John W. Dinsmore; Privates Barney Worrell, Henry B. Jack Jeremiah Adams, Adam Bennett, (mortally). Prisoners, Corporal George C. Nicholl Private James T. Dailey.

Company D; Wounded, Privates Joseph H. Holbrook, (since dead), William C. Wilson, George Lefever, James H. Van Pelt. Prisoners, Privates Henry C. Kritzer, Charles H. Stevenson.

Company E- Killed, Captain Benjamin D. Parks. Wounded, Sergeant Washington J. Warren

Privates William A. Mahoney James Porter, John W. McCoy, Shelby C. Byers, Samuel D. Lain, Nichols Motes, Angelo Macklin. Prisoners, Corporals Usher J. Stalcup, Benjamin F. Pickerel; Privates Thomas Anderson, James M. Anderson, Henry Webb, Horatio G. Stalcup, Corporal Julius B. Gardner, (Color Guard).

Company F; Killed, Privates Joseph Knapp, Alvin V. Pinney. Wounded. Captain Alfred B. Tree; Sergeant James A. Pinney; Corporal James M. Hopwood; Privates David H. Daly, Jacob Hirt, Peter Shilling, Conrad Strickler, John Rafter, (mortally), John W. Kinsey, (mortally), Joseph Fox. Prisoner, Private Philip Burgy.

Company G-killed, Sergeant Cyrus Wical; Private Henry Sharp. Wounded, Sergeants John K. Duncan, David R. Shockey, John Grewell; Corporal Hiram Toms; Private Nathaniel E. Bells.

Company H; Killed, Sergeant David H. Minor. Wounded, Corporals Henry F. Devault, George Flint; Privates Joseph Armstrong, Jacob F. Pfaff, Luther Ulum, Charles Parsen, John W. Carmichael. Prisoners, First Sergeant John Walt; Corporal Elisha B. Judson, Edward Goodison; Privates Anthony Bower, Alexander Miller, James Stearns, Jared Strauser, Joseph Clure, Jeremiah Daniels, H. Caldwell.

Company I; Killed, Private Uriah M. Kimberly. Wounded, Sergeant Clement or. Baker, (mortally); Corporal John W. Poland; Privates David W. Connelly, Thomas Carr, Francis McReynolds, Edward W. Mullen, (mortally).

Company K; Killed, Sergeant Jacob Frank. Wounded, Private Jacob Stover. Prisoners, Lieutenant Oliver P. Hull; Corporal Simon Taylor; Privates Loren G. Cutler, Wenzel Zika

A few others, slightly wounded, were not reported.


line of the Cedar Creek, where the last great battle of the campaign took place on the 19th, and resulted, after a hard day's fight, in a complete and glorious victory for the Union arms. In this engagement the Iowa regiments in Sheridan' s army took a most honorable part, and lost many gallant officers and men.4

  The battle of Cedar Creek was the last in which the Twenty-second engaged. It met the enemy in skirmishes afterwards before it departed from the valley, but suffered no further loss at the hands of the rebels. The men of the regiment made quarters for the winter twice in the Shenandoah Valley, but, nevertheless, bade farewell to the locality in which the command had fought so nobly and suffered so severely early in January, 1865. The command proceeded by rail to Baltimore, whence it embarked for Savannah, Georgia, and arrived at the Forrest City on the 20th. Here the regiment remained on garrison duty about two months. About the middle of March, it left its beautiful encampment in a suburb of Savannah and sailed for Morehead City, where the men performed heavy duties in the way of assisting Brevet Brigadier-General Easton, Sherman's chief quartermaster, having also performed the journey to Newbern and return Early in April the command returned to Savannah, where the brigade was reorganized. It consisted of the Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth, and


4 The wounded of the Twenty-second at Fisher's Hill were: Sergeant Major David Higby, Fife-Major Paul Miller; Corporal John Hack, Jacob Bitner,

The casualties at Cedar Creek were Severe. They are thus officially reported:

Company A;Wounded, First Sergeant Calvin H. Bane; Sergeants Peter B. Boarts, Oscar B. Lee; Corporals Joshua B. Hughes, William H. Bechtel, Selva S. Street, Elmer J. C. Bealer; Private Andrew J. Hamilton.

Company B;Wounded, Privates Edward Mulhern, Christian Dodt.

Company C-Wounded, Captain Lafayette F. Mullins; Sergeants Taylor Pierce, George W. Cooney; Privates Jonathan Guthrie, Lewis W. Smithhart, Robert I. Bean, Jeremiah Adams, William F. Strater, Anthony McKeever. Prisoners, Lieutenant Robert W. Davis; Corporals Benjamin West, George S. Post.

Company D - Wounded, Privates Samuel Byerly (mortally), James Moore, William W. Cook, Samuel R. Convey. Prisoners, Joel Webb, Calvin H. Bray.

Company E- wounded, Lieutenant Edward J. Dudley; First Sergeant George D. Erich; Sergeant Oscar J. Shoemaker; Corporal John Giltner; Privates Charles R. Kackly, John Motes, Jehial McDonald. Prisoners, Privates Edward C. Shoemaker, Elias W. Lively, Joseph W. Jennings, Abraham Myers, James F. Wiley.

Company F;Killed, Amos M. Scott. Wounded, Captain Alfred B. Cree; First Sergeant Theodore S. Loveland; Sergeant Richard H. Gabriel Privates James M. Fernean, Edward Morgan, Isaac S. Struble, George Hibler. Prisoners, Privates George W. Bell, Isaac N. Halderman, Lewis Goben, Francis M. Payn.

Company G-Wounded

Privates John Loader, Albert T. Baker, Charles Kepford. Missing, Andrew L. Crain.

Company H - Wounded

Captain Charles Hartley; Sergeant George Reynolds; Corporal Caleb

L. Eddy; Privates Marion Blaylock, James Holt, James K. P. Rowe. Prisoner, Drummer Francis C. Flint,

Company I - Wounded

Lieutenant Nicholas C. Messenger, Prisoners, Captain Westel W. Morsman; Privates Frank Booth, Oliver Crocker, David Connely. Missing James M. Bonham.

Company K - Wounded, Captain George W. Clarke Prisoners, Sergeant William J. Oldacre; Private Charles Bowen,


  Twenty-eighth Iowa regiments, One Hundred and Twenty-eighth and One Hundred and Fifty-ninth New York, and Thirteenth Connecticut, and was commanded by Colonel Harvey Graham. On the 11th this command marched for Augusta, where it arrived on the 19th. And there our regiment remained, performing garrison and provost duties till after the middle of June, when it returned to Savannah to be mustered out of the service; a ceremony which took place on the 20th of July, and elicited from the "Republican" newspaper, edited by a former army correspondent of the New York Tribune, the following paragraph:

  "We felt a thrill of admiration for the noble State which has sent these brave men to represent her sterling principles and unswerving fealty to the Union upon the bloody fields of conflict. Iowa has a glorious record and having personally witnessed the heroism of her honest, hardy sons of toil in the fiercest battles, we but do our duty as loyal journalists to add a few words of commendation for a State that has surpassed nearly every State in our Union in her positive proofs of loyalty. The battle-torn flags that will grace the State archives of Iowa, will, in future years, be gazed upon by admiring thousands with the proud satisfaction that, though the storms of heaven caused the silk to fade, yet the colors never run when the enemies of our country swarmed in legions around the valiant Iowans, and may God bless and protect them, and permit them to live long enough to reap the blessings of that rich harvest which their valor and patriotism have won. "

  The following was the roster of the regiment at this time:

  Colonel Harvey Graham; Lieutenant-Colonel E. G. White; Major John H. Gearkee; Adjutant Taylor Pierce; Surgeon John C. Schrader: Acting Quartermaster W. E. Needham; Chaplain Martin Bowman. Company A; Captain Samuel D. Pryce; First Lieutenant Samuel C. Jones. Company B; First Lieutenant Joseph S. Turnbull. Company C; Captain Lafayette F. Mullins; First Lieutenant Robert W. Davis. Company D; Captain Napoleon B. Humphrey. Company E; Captain Edward J. Dudley; First Lieutenant George D. Ulrich. Company F; Captain Alfred B. Cree. Company G; Captain George H. Shockey. Company H; Captain Charles Y. Hartley; First Lieutenant Joseph R. Chandler. Company I; Captain W. W. Morsman; First Lieutenant Nicholas C. Messenger. Company K ;First Lieutenant Oliver P. Hull.

  The Twenty-second arrived at Davenport near the end of the month, and went into bivouac at Camp Kinsman. The original Colonel, now Governor Stone, soon arriving, tents were procured and the men made comfortable. August 3d, the regiment was disbanded, then being in charge of Lieutenant-Colonel White, and numbering four hundred and thirty-six officers and men At Iowa City, a place remarkable for its warm-hearted citizens, the returning soldiers met with a grand reception, as did those from other parts of the district, at their respective homes. During its long and honorable term of service the Twenty-second Iowa had been in nearly every State of the rebellion; had traveled thirteen thousand miles; had been engaged in many battles and skirmishes, always with honor, and almost always with conspicuous gallantry. If there was a single regiment in the service which made a prouder, brighter record in three years' service, I am unacquainted with its history.