Jefferson City, Mo., January 1, 1862.
J. C. KELTON, Assistant Adjutant-General:
SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with directions heretofore received from
department headquarters there have been sent from this post across the Missouri River the
following-named troops, viz: Five companies of the Eleventh Regiment Iowa Volunteers, and
four companies of the Third Iowa Cavalry now at Fulton, in Callaway County; also a detachment
of Merrill's Horse, numbering about 300, which will probably be in Columbia, Boone County,
to-morrow. I would recommend that troops be kept at these places during the entire winter or
until the bands of rebels infesting that neighborhood are effectually dispersed.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Post.
January. 8, 1862.
Lieut. Col. H. C. NUTT,
Aide-de-Camp, &c., Council Bluffs, Iowa:
SIR: I have just received a communication from citizens of Fremont County, of which the
inclosed is a copy.
You will immediately proceed to Sidney, in said county, and fully investigate the matters
therein set forth. Consult Judge Sears and Colonel Hedges, and if you shall be satisfied the
preservation of the public peace so requires, call into the service such of the volunteer companies
of the county as may be necessary to that end and keep them in service as long as their services
may be required. If, in your judgment, it shall be necessary to call out any military force, make
them call first upon the company at Sidney.
Call for no more troops than in your best judgment will be necessary and keep them in
service only so long as may be necessary. In this matter I must trust to your discretion, and I will
hold you responsible for its sound exercise. Procure proper quarters for such troops as you may
call out and make the best arrangements you can for their subsistence. You must make all your
arrangements as economically as possible. No extravagant charges for quarters or subsistence
will be allowed.
You will preserve the public peace and protect the prisoners at all hazards.
I desire full information on the following points:
I. Have rebels or rebel sympathizers from Missouri come into Fremont County, bringing with
them their property, or have such persons sent their property from Missouri into the county? If
so, give the names of such persons, a description of the property brought or sent, and the names
of the persons, if any, of our own citizens who have such property in possession.
II. Does the bringing or sending of the property of such persons into the county tend to
endanger the public peace?
III. I desire a full detail of all the facts connected with the attack on Mr. Fugitt and of the
capture of those under arrest with the causes of all the acts done, so far as you can ascertain
IV. It has been stated to me that one or two persons, supposed to be of the party that attacked
Mr. Fugitt, were shot by some of our citizens near Hamburg upon refusal to surrender. You will
investigate the facts of this transaction and report to me fully thereon. I am determined to
preserve the peace of our State and to protect the property of our citizens, but I am also
determined that our State shall not be made an asylum for rebels who have been compelled to
flee from their own State in consequence of their outrages on Union men there, if affording such
asylum is to peril the peace of our own people. I am also determined that those of our own
citizens who sympathize with and protect these fleeing rebels shall not make the consequences of
their own acts the pretext for a breach of the public peace.
The peace must be preserved, and those persons afforded full protection and a fair and
impartial trial.
You will report to me in writing as soon as possible, and keep me advised at intervals of the
situation of affairs.
Very respectfully,
COUNCIL BLUFFS, IOWA, January 17, 1862.
Governor of Iowa, Des Moines:
SIR: I received your letter, dated January 8, 1862, inclosing a communication from citizens
of Fremont County, and in accordance with your instructions I proceeded on to Sidney on the
morning of the 13th instant, for the purpose of carrying out said instructions, and have to report
my action as follows:
I found the statements contained in the communication above referred to to be true in all
material points. I will answer the four interrogations propounded in your letter in order:
1st. Yes. Rebels to the number of thirty families, at least, with a large amount of horses,
mules, cattle, hogs, &c., have left Missouri, came into Fremont County, and many of the same
class have sent their property who have not come into this State themselves. These persons have
come themselves or sent their property to save the same from seizure by the Government that
they have outraged for the past year. I was able to find the whereabouts and names of but a
portion of these persons, but such as I have found I append below, and will give you further
information upon this point, at an early day. The parties named below are all either rank
secessionists or rebel sympathizers, and I will make no distinction between them. It is enough to
know that they are "not with us"— are not Union men.
Mr. John Pugh has 5 horses, owned in Missouri; owner's name unknown. Mr. Freeman has 2
horses; owner unknown. Mr. Baldwin has 2 horses; owner unknown. H.G. Bowen has 15 horses
and mules, owned by Nichols and Schouler. Nichols lives at Saint Stevens, Nebr., and has
furnished the rebels in North Missouri with arms, and is a prominent rebel. Milton McCartners
has 8 or 10 horses and mules; owner unknown. Mr. Welty has 8 or 10 horses and mules, owned
by Mr. Holland, who lives near Rockport. The Heatt brothers have 6 horses, 60 hogs, and 25 or
30 cattle; owners' names unknown. They had consulted Mr. Cornish as to whether they could
lawfully keep stock which belonged to secessionists in Missouri, for if they could they could
make a large amount of money by so doing, as the secesh were willing to pay high prices. These
men (Heatt) have 6 horses, owned by one Hall, who left Missouri in the night to save his
property. Mr. Hollaway brought 25 horses and mules into this State, and has them scattered
around at several places. Mr. Davis has 8 horses, belonging to a man in Rockport, name
unknown; can be found and identified, as he is well known in Iowa. Mr. English (senator), some
three weeks ago, went to Missouri and brought the personal property of one Poindexter, either
the officer in Price's army or a brother; at all events a rabid rebel, and it is reported and believed
in Siduey that Poindexter himself is about McKinsock's Grove. Mr. English has a horse
belonging to Poindexter now in his possession, but has sent him away from his own farm to a
brother-in-law's for fear of jayhawking.
The above property has all of it been sent from Missouri to avoid seizure and confiscation by
the Government. There have also been horses sent from Missouri lately by rebels who dared not
leave their goods in Fremont County, and one lot of 40 went on, the man saying he was too near
home in Fremont. I think that there are at the present time 100 to 125 horses in Fremont County,
brought there by rebels to save them. Many place the number much higher, but from all my
information I place the number as above.
In reply to your second question, I will say that by these acts I think the public peace is
endangered, and I find all the Union men in Fremont are very certain it does, and say that unless
it is stopped bloodshed will be the result. My reasons for thinking that it does endanger the
public peace are that there is great danger of this property being pursued by jayhawkers and
others, which would be almost certain to bring on a collision and bloodshed. Second, the
accession of these rebels to the number of the same kind and their sympathizers in Fremont
County increases the bitter feelings between the two parties, and which now requires but a word
to bring on a civil strife in that county. As a sample, one John Cooper, of McKinsock's Grove,
has, he says, 25 Missouri friends with him, and he will keep them there as long as they will stay;
that they are well armed, and will shoot the first man who tries to arrest any of their number or
seize a horse.
Questions 3 and 4 I will answer together. On the night of December 30 a body of armed men
from Missouri and Nebraska, under Capt. Warren Price, who is said to be the leader of a band of
jayhawkers, came to the house of T. F. Fugitt, between 10 or 12 p.m., for the purpose, as they
avowed on their way, of seizing some horses which had been taken from Missouri and owned by
rebels in Missouri. Several of the party entered the house and others went to the barn for the
horses. Fugitt got up and ran into another room and seized a double-barreled shot-gun and
instantly fired at the crowd. Then, instead of firing the other barrel, he clubbed his gun and
knocked down another. At this Price drew his revolver and fired four shots at Fugitt, all of which
took effect, one in the neck, which is a serious but not dangerous wound. Fugitt is rapidly
recovering. The party then left Fugitt's and went to several other places in the Grove and took in
all 11 horses. These Captain Price sent in charge of two men to Missouri, but the men lost their
way and at daylight were in sight of Sidney. They at once retraced their steps and tried to reach
Missouri via Hamburg.
In the mean time a party of some 40 men were in pursuit of the robbers, and when these two
men with 11 horses came to Hamburg they were hailed by C. McKinsock and Giles Corrlis. The
men paid no attention to the hail, when McKinsock and Corrlis both fired their rifles. Corrlis
killed his man dead, and McKinsock wounded the other, who was taken prisoner, and is now in
Fremont jail. He says that himself and the dead man were at Fugitt's, and that they reside in
Nebraska. The horses taken from the prisoner were left at Hamburg and proved up and taken
away by avowed rebels. No Union man has been molested, as I could learn.
The news of course spread like wild-fire, and early the next morning the sheriff and county
judge started with a posse of 100 men to arrest the horse thieves, and the sheriff said he would
follow them to Arkansas if he did not get them. On their way an incident occurred worthy of
note. These 100 men left Sidney in three parties, and it is asserted that when on the road persons
in one party were heard to hurrah for Jeff. Davis. The sheriff denies this, but I think it can be
proven, although it was not in the party in which the sheriff was at the immediate head. Arriving
at McKinsock's Grove this party stopped, and another one from the Grove, under the lead of H.
English, went into Missouri and arrested 12 men and brought them to the Grove to lynch them,
but as there was great doubt as to whether these were the men who were at Fugitt's, after keeping
them at the Grove one day they were given over to the sheriff, who took them to Sidney, where
they were guarded by an armed force for three days, when, upon a legal examination before the
county judge, they were all discharged except one, who had waived examination and given bail
before, and the wounded man from Hamburg, who is now in jail.
The Missourians complain bitterly of not only the arrest, but of the men under whom it was
done and under whom they were placed as prisoners. They say that if they could have seen the
face of one single Union man, either among their captors or guards, they would have attributed it
to a mistake and said nothing, but now it looks as if their rebel enemies had run away to Iowa
and sent rebel sympathizers from Iowa and given them Union men's names, to be arrested,
maltreated, and nearly lynched.
There are many men whom I have seen from Atchison County who say that there is a large
number of Union men sworn to shoot Han English at sight, as they think him to be the leader of
their enemies in Iowa while these prisoners were in the hands of Fremont authorities. The
military at Rockport, hearing of the manner of the arrest, started to rescue them. At the line they
left all but 20 men, who went to Sidney and demanded the release of the prisoners, which was
refused, and there was danger of violence, but upon the assurance of Union men that the
prisoners should have a fair trial and would at once prove themselves innocent of the crime
charged, they were induced to return home, which they did, and on their way arrested in Iowa a
young man who had been in Price's army as a cook. The captain of Missouri troops claimed to
have made this and other arrests which he made in Missouri the same day by order of the
commanding officer at Saint Joe. The truth of this I do not know. What became of the prisoners
taken from Iowa by the Missouri troops I was unable to learn.
In the mean time, on Saturday, January 4, a report having gone to Rockport that the civil
authorities were going to give up the prisoners to the mob to be lynched, some 200 men from
Atchison County and thereabouts started for the rescue. They crossed the line and came to
Hamburg, where they were met by some 50 Iowa troops, who tore up the bridge and refused to
let them pass. Here again was a very near approach to open hostilities between Iowa and
Missouri citizens, but a flag of truce passed, and upon mutual explanation the Missouri men went
home; did not go to Sidney at all.
The Union men of Missouri say that all the party who went into Missouri were secessionists,
and that Iowa allows rebels to flee into her State to avoid punishment, and then allows
secessionists to come to Missouri and arrest Union men without a shadow of law or right. I was
able to disabuse them of this idea, or at least all I had a chance to talk with.
This feeling is particularly bitter between Union men in Missouri and the secesh
sympathizers in McKinsock's Grove, who are nearly all that kind, and being so near the line
increases the danger of collision. An armed guard is kept out now in many neighborhoods to
warn them of approach of enemies. I find, further, that many men who have been avowed rebels
and hooted at all soldiers as Lincoln thieves are now very clamorous for armed protection, and
now there is organized a company which has memorialized you for commissions and arms that
are not safe to arm.
The board of supervisors of Fremont are secesh, and they, at their last meeting, passed a
resolution instructing their chairmen, Mr. Sipple and Mr. Cornish, to transmit to you what they
wanted. They got Mr. Cornish in to have some Union influence. The chairman of supervisors
proposed a paper which did not suit Cornish, and he refused to sign it. Sipple then proposed
another, which he would not show Cornish, and sent the same to you. It is supposed to be a
request to commission, arm, and call in service their men at McKinsock's Grove. They are not
the men to have State arms. I also telegraphed you not to tom mission Fremont militia. I found
the infantry were all good men, with sound Union officers, but the mounted company was
formed by Judge Rector, and is not sound.
One officer, Mr. Bovine, has since his election said that he was a secessionist, and he did not
care who knew it. We want no such men with either arms or authority. I told Colonel Hedges that
it should be disbanded and an infantry company put in its place, and told him that it was not
legally organized, and it is not, as there has been no special authority granted, as is necessary, to
organize any but infantry. I presume you will get the organization of another infantry company,
which will make Colonel Hedges' regiment to a maximum, when it should be commissioned at
I did not call out any State troops, and will not, unless there should be an immediate
necessity for their service, until I hear from you again. My reasons are, 1st, the immediate danger
of collision I believe to have passed, and, 2d, that I doubt the policy of keeping an armed force
of State troops in Fremont County unless for immediate use. They should be commissioned and
armed and ready to go at an hour's notice, but I think should be called into camp only as a last
The best way to preserve the peace and remove the danger of collision I believe to be in
sending a small force of Federal troops, say one or two companies of cavalry, from Saint Joe or
Leavenworth, under some prudent, reliable Union officer, and clothe him with power to arrest
armed secessionists either in Missouri or Iowa and seize their effects, to be sent at once to
headquarters for adjudication. This will avoid increasing the personal hatred among the two
classes of our own citizens, which would be increased by arming and calling out any State troops
either from Iowa or Missouri, and lessen the danger of bloodshed if any arrests are to be made,
and the State troops would have no place to send prisoners even if they have authority to make
arrests. I feel certain that calling out any State troops would bring on a collision, and the aim is to
preserve the peace more than to conquer rebels, as I understand it.
I am sustained in this view by all the Union men in Fremont except Colonel Hedges, who is
very anxious to drill his regiment, but I would prefer sending an armed force in command of
some Federal officer who would have no personal enemies to deal with, and I think the arrest of
a very few men, and the seizure of the property belonging to rebels, who have sent the same to
Iowa for safety, will not only quiet the present troubles, but remove the danger of a recurrence in
If I have been lengthy in this, it is because there was a good deal of ground to go over. I find
that in all facts I have stated the Union men from whom I receive my information are supported
by the statements of the other side, so far as I had an opportunity to inquire, in all material points.
Many of the facts in regard to Fugitt's case and the prisoners arrested were received from one
who was with the sheriff, and is called a secessionist by Union men. I refer to W. C. Sipple. He
claims to be a good Union man now. The Union men from whom I received most information
were Judge Sears, Colonel Hedges, Mr. Cornish, Mr. Linkinfitter, Mr. Warren, formerly sheriff,
and Squire Fanner, who lives at McKinsock's Grove, all of whom agree upon the case as I have
presented it.
Since my return I have received your letter of 14th instant. I will proceed at once to
Rockport, and on my return report such other facts as I may come in possession of. In the mean
time I hope to receive further instructions in regard to an armed force in Fremont County.
I remain, your most obedient servant,
January 27, 1862.
Secretary of State, Washington, D.C.:
SIR: I inclose herewith copies of a letter from myself to Colonel Nutt, dated January 14,
1862, and his reply, dated January 24, 1862, concerning the same subject touching which I wrote
you on the 23d instant. I am strengthened in the opinion there expressed, that some of the rebels
escaped from Missouri and some of their alders and abettors in our State should be arrested by
military authority, and that the property brought into our State to escape the officers of the
United States in Missouri should be taken possession of and legally dealt with. I am also satisfied
this should be done by United States officers, supported by United States troops. The secession
feeling is, as I am credibly informed and fully believe, very strong in Fremont County. The
Union men there and in Missouri are greatly exasperated that rebels from Missouri who have
been compelled to fly from that State because of these outrages on Union men should find an
asylum and protection in this State, and I am well satisfied that if these people cannot be dealt
with in some way legally, the jayhawkers will take the matter in their own hands and a small
border war will ensue. I have sent copies of the correspondence between Colonel Nutt and
myself to General Halleck, with the request to lay them before the Governor of Missouri, as I do
not know where to address him. Please consult the Iowa delegation in Congress on this subject,
and permit me to suggest that prompt and decided action will have a decidedly beneficial
influence. If arrests be made, the officer should be supported by United States troops.
Very respectfully,
January 14, 1862.
Lieut. Col. H. C. NUTT,
Aide-de-camp, &c., Council Bluffs, Iowa :
SIR: Since writing you a few days since in regard to the difficulty in Fremont County I have
learned that troops from Missouri have been to Sidney and demanded the surrender into their
hands of the persons arrested on suspicion of having assaulted Mr. Fugitt; that the authorities in
charge of the prisoners very properly refused to surrender them; that the Missouri troops, on
their return, arrested in this State and took with them to Missouri one or more citizens of this
State, and that such a state of feeling exists in Fremont County and in Atchison County, Mo., that
there is imminent danger of collision between people.
In addition to the duties required by my former order, you will proceed as soon as possible to
Atchison County, and call upon the person who may be in command of the State or United States
troops there. You will exhibit to him my former letter of instructions to you and this letter. A
system of reprisals between the States must not be allowed to grow up. Our people must not
enter Missouri, as was done a few days since, arrest persons and bring them to this State for trial,
and people from Missouri must not demand prisoners in the hands of the civil authorities of this
State or arrest persons in this State and carry them to Missouri for trial. Such state of things can
produce but one result, and that is a border war.
If the person arrested by the men from Iowa, and who has not been discharged, is not in the
hands of the civil authorities, I would at once order his discharge. If the man or men arrested by
the returning Missouri troops are not in the hands of the civil authorities of Missouri, you are
instructed to ask his or their discharge.
Men in Iowa who have violated the laws of Missouri in that State can be reached in this State
by requisition from the Governor of Missouri. All men may rest assured the authorities of Iowa
will not make their State an asylum for rebels and traitors, and that all such will be promptly
surrendered when legally applied for. The action of Iowa has thus far, I think, given the loyal
men of Missouri no ground to doubt the good faith of her authorities.
You will present these views plainly, but kindly, to the officer in command in Atchison
County and to other loyal citizens there, and communicate as freely with them as you can in
conversation. Inform all that jayhawking expeditions into our State cannot be permitted under the
claim of taking the property of rebels. The evil result of such course must be apparent. All
information showing that such persons are in our State and in regard to their property will be
placed at once in the hands of the United States officers for legal action, and they can thus be
legally dealt with. Nothing herein contained is intended to countermand anything contained in
my former letter. You may show both letters in Sidney, so that all may know what I intend. As
soon as I receive your report I will write to Governor Gamble. Your early attention to these
matters and your speedy report is expected.
Very respectfully,
COUNCIL BLUFFS, January 24, 1862.
Governor of Iowa, Des Moines:
SIR: In obedience to your letter of instructions, dated January 14, 1862, I went to Atchison
County, Mo., last Monday, and have spent several days there, and will now give you such
additional particulars as I gained while there. I found the prisoner who had been arrested by the
Missouri troops in Iowa released on parole. He is a Hungarian of more than ordinary
intelligence. I saw him, and learned he had been in Price's army, having been induced to go there
by wealthy rebels, who agreed to support his family whilst he was away. He says he soon saw
he was on the wrong side. When General Frémont's proclamation of amnesty was issued he left
for home, but fearing violence from the loyal Germans in Rockport, went to Iowa. He says he
was glad to be arrested, as he can now be with his family and be protected by troops. I told him if
he desired I could have him released and he could return to Iowa with me, which he declined. I
afterwards learned from the officer in command he had orders for his release from Saint Joseph
upon taking the oath. He is now at liberty.
I also saw the officer in command of the State troops, and had a very free and plain
conversation with him and other loyal men in regard to the invasion of Iowa. I do not think these
troops have done much to stop jayhawking, but have not taken sides with them. These troops
have now gone below to be mustered out, as they are six-months' men. Whether they will be
replaced by Federal troops I did not learn.
On my way to Missouri I found at Sidney an intense excitement. There was said to be a
reliable report that the jayhawkers had met on Sunday near Sidney Landing, and had agreed upon
Monday or Tuesday night as the time to "clean out" McKinsock's Grove. I was met by a petition,
signed by nearly every one along the line, calling for immediate help. A messenger had been sent
for me, and the prominent Union men were in council at Judge Sears' to decide what should be
done. I told them I was there on my way to Missouri, and if I saw or heard anything to justify
me, I would return at once. I was in doubt in regard to these reports, and would call out the
militia only as a last resort to repel invasion or preserve the public peace.
On my way to Rockport I became satisfied that the danger was not so imminent as had been
represented, and I learned from those that I thought knew that there was no armed force in
Atchison County at least. As soon as I had completed my business at Rockport I procured
conveyance and took with me a good loyal farmer and proceeded to visit several of the men who
had been arrested and taken to Iowa. I saw four of these men who were arrested by English and
his party, one of them, William Lewis, a man who is called by the secessionists of Fremont
County a jayhawker. I am satisfied, from all I can learn, he has been and perhaps still is
cognizant of all the movements of the jayhawkers, but I am equally well satisfied he never goes
with them and was not at Fugitt's, but I think he knew they were going to Fugitt's. He is the
leader and controlling spirit among the loyal men in Northern Missouri. He is a man of wealth, a
little hard and rough, perhaps, but is loyal. He says boldly a jayhawker is a better man than a
secessionist. He is very bitter against English and the leaders in kidnapping.
I had a long interview with this man. He says he has been outraged by men from Iowa and
says he shall have his revenge. I told him plainly what were your views and that no invasion of
Iowa would be permitted for any purpose, but that any one who had violated the laws of
Missouri could be reached in Iowa in a legal manner. He seemed pleased, and said if the
authorities of Iowa would act in that spirit it was all he and his friends desired. He seemed to be
well aware of the result of the invading of either State, but such men he said must be reached,
and the jayhawkers were the only ones who had reached them as yet. I told him you had not been
aware, until the attack at Fugitt's, that rebels had left Missouri and gone to Iowa, and that you
were now taking steps to stop it. This seemed to put a new face on matters, and he said plainly
that they would try legal means first, and pledged himself to me that he would use his influence
to prevent Kansas jayhawkers or any others from invading Iowa. He further intimated that many
of these jayhawkers have gone south to join General Lane. He says four or five of these
kidnapers must be punished, and if civil law will do it, it will suit him, but if not, he knows what
will. He told me that he would at once take the legal steps to reach these men, and that no further
invasion of Iowa should take place in the mean time if he could prevent it. I was satisfied while
there that he was in earnest, and could and would do as he agreed, and on my return to Sidney
Judge Sears says he can and will make his word good in every respect, and I am satisfied there
will be no more jayhawking in Iowa for the present.
C. McKinsock, who shot the man at Hamburg, went through Missouri to Bloody Island, in
the Missouri River. This island is claimed by Iowa, Nebraska, and Missouri, and by the United
States. He was seen to go there; was followed, taken, and brought to Sidney Landing, in
Missouri, where he was arrested by a civil officer for kidnapping and taken to Rockport, and
bound over in $2,000 to appear for trial, and released. I found all the loyal men in Missouri
particularly bitter against English, and say he shall smart for the treatment he gave these men he
arrested. He cannot go 4 miles in Missouri by daylight a live man, I don't believe.
On my return to Sidney I found Colonel Hedges and Captain Harvey very anxious that I
should call out the militia for thirty days at least for drill. Captain Harvey very plainly told me he
had no fear of immediate invasion, but that they might be needed in future, and were very much
in need of drill. He says the military companies there have labored under many adverse
circumstances; men had been hooted at for joining companies and injured in their business, and
something was needed to infuse proper spirit in the men. I told him that it would be very
expensive; I suggested it would be poor patriotism that needed $13 a month to keep it up, but
that I would state the case to you fairly, and leave the responsibility with you.
In conclusion, I think immediate danger of trouble in Fremont County has passed, but I still
think there should be some Federal troops sent here, more to arrest secessionists and secession
property that has made Iowa an asylum than to protect us from invasion, but the officers placed
in command should be No. 1 in every respect. An inefficient or improvident officer would do
much harm, but one of the right kind, by making a few arrests of men and property, would in my
opinion not only end the present difficulty, but prevent forever its recurrence.
Judge Baldwin has shown me your dispatches, and we have consulted fully in regard to the
best course to pursue. He has promised to write you to-day. I will present our views briefly for
your commendation, and then, if you think best, I will go to Saint Joe and do the best I can. The
troops at Saint Joe are to my knowledge much demoralized, and none that I know to be there are
fit for this service. I refer only to the Sixteenth Illinois, Colonel Smith, who is in command there,
and were I to go there he would send some of his own regiment and I could not object. I think the
best plan is for you to write General Halleck at Saint Louis, get cavalry— one company will
do— and stipulate for a superior man to take charge of them; give this officer full power to arrest
men and property, to be immediately sent to headquarters at Saint Joe or Leavenworth for trial.
This takes the matter from the border, and will prove a wholesome lesson for those who are not
arrested. If you still think best I will go to Saint Joe, Leavenworth, or Saint Louis, as you may
direct, and see what can be done.
Awaiting further orders, I remain, sir, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT LOUIS, January 12, 1862.
Brig. Gen. SAMUEL. CURTIS, Rolla:
GENERAL: In preparing your command for the field you will observe as far as possible the
inclosed memorandum with respect to transportation. All additional wagons attached to
companies and regiments should be turned into the general train. You must be very rigid in this
matter, as every organization will claim double the authorized amount of transportation. The
Ninth Iowa will be sent into the field with you as soon as possible. It cannot be spared just now,
as many of the bridges would be left unguarded.
Lieutenant-Colonel Herron reports that many of the Reserve Corps left their stations and
refused to guard the bridges. It will not do to leave this road unprotected. Every available man
here is under orders for Cairo and Paducah. Orders from Washington required three divisions
(24,000 men) to be sent down instantly, which would have stripped both you and Pope. I begged
and protested for time, in order that you might drive Price from the State. Orders and protests
have been repeated, and the matter is still undecided. I have detailed one regiment from Carlin,
four from Benton Barracks, and two from Prentiss' command. A part of Pope's will be withdrawn
as soon as the new insurrection north of the Missouri is suppressed. If the Government insists
upon sending more troops immediately, I fear your expedition must be given up for the present. I
really hope not. I expect to know by to-morrow or next day. Nearly all the organized forces in
Indiana and Illinois have been ordered to other commands. I have no troops just now to relieve
the Second Iowa. Will do so as soon as possible. I fully approve your plan as to a depot and the
immediate movement of infantry, but I must wait further orders from Washington. If they do not
come by Tuesday I shall telegraph you to move. I will send a reserve of several regiments as
soon as possible. The Forty-third Illinois have been ordered here for arms, which are just
received. They will be restored to Sigel's division as soon as properly armed. The Reserve Corps
should not be taken into the field; a part can be used for depot at Rolla, and a part sent to Pacific
to replace Herron if he can trust them for that purpose. I have directed that he replace his
regiment with them as far as possible.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT LOUIS, January 13, 1862.
Brig. Gen. SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Commanding, Rolla:
GENERAL: Your telegram of this evening has determined me to order an advance without
waiting any longer for advices from Washington. I am quite sick with camp measles, but do not
mean to let the public service suffer on that account if I can help it.
Your suggestions about officers in arrest are approved. You are authorized to suspend their
arrest and order them into the field. The court-martial will close its proceedings and adjourn sine
die. Fletcher's battery will leave here for Rolla Wednesday morning. You now have twenty-four
pieces. This will give you thirty. When the Ninth Iowa joins you you will have six more. Dodge's
battery will also be sent to Rolla as soon as General Schofield can spare the section now with
him. The Forty-third Illinois will be sent to you as soon as they are better armed; also the Second
Iowa the moment I can relieve them. Perhaps I may be able to spare two other regiments in
course of the week. At any rate, your forces will be superior to any reliable estimate I have
received of Price's army. As your advance will necessarily be slow, the additional force will
reach you this side of Springfield and will serve as a reserve.
With regard to routes three have been proposed--that by Lebanon, that by Hartville, and a
middle road. Colonel Phelps thinks the middle road the best; others say not. You will act from
the best information you have there, which is better than I can get here.
Accounts are so contradictory that I am unable to advise you. Lebanon is certainly the best
military line if the road is equally good.
Distribute transportation as directed in my letter of yesterday, except, if you deem advisable,
give a limited number of provision wagons to each brigade or division. This is generally
preferable to making the provision train entirely separate from the troops. Ten days' provisions
will in that case go with each command.
Care should be taken about having provisions cooked in the morning for the day's march, and
also, when in the vicinity of the enemy, to have at least two days' cooked provisions in the
haversacks. If officers neglect this, the men suffer. Make marches at first short, so that the men
may be kept in order and not over fatigued.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT LOUIS, January 12, 1862.
Brig. Gen. SAMUEL. CURTIS, Rolla:
GENERAL: In preparing your command for the field you will observe as far as possible the
inclosed memorandum with respect to transportation. All additional wagons attached to
companies and regiments should be turned into the general train. You must be very rigid in this
matter, as every organization will claim double the authorized amount of transportation. The
Ninth Iowa will be sent into the field with you as soon as possible. It cannot be spared just now,
as many of the bridges would be left unguarded.
Lieutenant-Colonel Herron reports that many of the Reserve Corps left their stations and
refused to guard the bridges. It will not do to leave this road unprotected. Every available man
here is under orders for Cairo and Paducah. Orders from Washington required three divisions
(24,000 men) to be sent down instantly, which would have stripped both you and Pope. I begged
and protested for time, in order that you might drive Price from the State. Orders and protests
have been repeated, and the matter is still undecided. I have detailed one regiment from Carlin,
four from Benton Barracks, and two from Prentiss' command. A part of Pope's will be withdrawn
as soon as the new insurrection north of the Missouri is suppressed. If the Government insists
upon sending more troops immediately, I fear your expedition must be given up for the present. I
really hope not. I expect to know by to-morrow or next day. Nearly all the organized forces in
Indiana and Illinois have been ordered to other commands. I have no troops just now to relieve
the Second Iowa. Will do so as soon as possible. I fully approve your plan as to a depot and the
immediate movement of infantry, but I must wait further orders from Washington. If they do not
come by Tuesday I shall telegraph you to move. I will send a reserve of several regiments as
soon as possible. The Forty-third Illinois have been ordered here for arms, which are just
received. They will be restored to Sigel's division as soon as properly armed. The Reserve Corps
should not be taken into the field; a part can be used for depot at Rolla, and a part sent to Pacific
to replace Herron if he can trust them for that purpose. I have directed that he replace his
regiment with them as far as possible.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT LOUIS, January 18, 1862.
Brig. Gen. SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Commanding, Rolla:
GENERAL: Yours of the 16th is just received. I shall immediately order the Ninth Iowa to
report to you. I find it impossible to get the Curtis Horse ready in time, and the larger
detachments sent from here to Cairo will prevent my giving you any more regiments from this
place; but I am determined to give you force enough to render it certain that you will drive Price
from the State. I have therefore ordered an entire division to march from Otterville to join your
command. They will either go by Linn Creek or Warsaw; if the former, they will direct their
march on Lebanon; if the latter, on Buffalo. I will know by Monday which route is deemed best.
General Pope will consult with officers who have been over both, and report their opinions.
Major Allen will send you 50 teams, and 50 extra will be sent from Otterville with that division.
The Pacific Railroad cannot bring them without interfering with supplies.
Major Allen expects 10,000 mittens in a few days. You will be the first to be supplied.
Cut down regimental transportation as much as possible. Get as many hand-mills as you can
for grinding corn. My great fear is that the Pacific Railroad will break down, and there may be a
delay of a few days before the company can be reorganized. They are greatly distressed for
money to pay their operatives and fear a strike. Captain Sheridan will receive $10,000 from
Major Allen. It is all the money we can rake and scrape together. We hope to get some from
Washington soon. If necessary, fix a fair schedule of prices for forage, &c., and take it: giving
Union men quartermasters' orders for payment. Take the bull by the horns. I will back you in
such forced requisitions where they become necessary for supplying the forces.
We must have no failure in this movement against Price. It must be the last.
Yours, truly,
Saint Louis, January 20, 1862.
General-in-Chief of the Army, Washington:
GENERAL: The cavalry sent to vicinity of Springfield found the enemy in force and were
obliged to fall back to Waynesville. The whole force at Rolla was ordered in advance to reenforce
them and attack Price. Additional troops were ordered from here to Rolla, increasing
General Curtis' army to about 12,000. I have just received a dispatch informing me that a council
of Generals Curtis, Sigel, and Asboth had decided that they required six regiments in addition to
those ordered. I can send no more at present from Saint Louis, and consequently have ordered
General Pope to dispatch one division from near Sedalia to join General Curtis at Lebanon. This
will make his effective force over 15,000.
This winter campaign will be a hard one on account of the weather and roads, but they will
either beat Price or drive him from the State. Of the two divisions left at La Mine I purpose
sending one across the Missouri at Booneville to march through the secession counties of
Howard, Boone, Callaway, and Montgomery to Saint Charles and this city for transportation to
Cairo. They cannot be brought here by railroad, and the road north of the river is much the best.
Moreover, their presence in the counties named is important to break up secession bands and to
assist the Union men in organizing as State Militia. The condition of ice in the river is such that I
have been able to send only three of the five regiments ordered from here to Cairo. I hope to
dispatch some more this week. I hear nothing of the two regiments ordered from North Missouri
to Cairo more than a week ago. It is very probable that they cannot cross the river at Hannibal.
General Schofield hopes to be able to spare me two regiments from his command on the North
Missouri Railroad in a week or two. These will also be sent to Cairo.
I have received no information in respect to the general plan of campaign, and I therefore feel
much hesitation in recommending any line of operations for these and other troops which I may
be able to withdraw from Missouri. Of course this line must be subordinate to some general plan.
I take it for granted, general, that what has heretofore been done has been the result of political
policy rather than military strategy, and that the want of success on our part is attributable to the
politicians rather than to the generals.
So far it seems to me the war has been conducted upon what may be called popper-box
strategy— scattering our troops so as to render them inferior in numbers in any place where they
can meet the enemy. Occupying the circumference of a great circle, with the enemy within that
circumference and near the center, we cannot expect to strike any great blow, for he can
concentrate his forces on any one point sooner than we can ours. The division of our force upon
so many lines and points seems to me a fatal policy. I am aware that you, general, are in no way
responsible for this, these movements having been governed by political expediency and in many
cases directed by politicians in order to subserve particular interests; but is it not possible with
the new Secretary of War to introduce a different policy and to make our future movements in
accordance with military principles? On this supposition I venture to make a few suggestions in
regard to operations in the West.
The idea of moving down the Mississippi by steam is, in my opinion, impracticable, or at
least premature. It is not a proper line of operations, at least now. A much more feasible plan is
to move up the Cumberland and Tennessee, making Nashville the first objective point. This
would turn Columbus and force the abandonment of Bowling Green. Columbus cannot be taken
without an immense siege train and a terrible loss of life. I have thoroughly studied its defenses;
they are very strong. But it can be turned, paralyzed, and forced to surrender. This line of the
Cumberland or Tennessee is the great central line of the Western theater of war, with the Ohio
below the mouth of Green River as the base and two good navigable rivers extending far into the
interior of the theater of operations. But the plan should not be attempted without a large force,
not less than 60,000 effective men.
In connection with this movement I would move a small column of, say, 10,000 men from
Ironton on Pocahontas and Jacksonport in Arkansas, to cut the armies of Price and Mcintosh
from their depots of supplies at these places. Price would be thus compelled to fall back on Fort
Smith or to advance to the relief of these towns. In either case Southwestern Missouri would be
relieved of his presence. The forces I have sent against him will drive him out of this State, but
they cannot pursue him into Arkansas on the line of his retreat; that would be folly on our part. I
would also take and hold New Madrid, so as to cut off river communication from the South with
Columbus. The occupation of New Madrid would entirely relieve Cairo, and almost the whole
garrison could be withdrawn from that place. This plan would require the occupation of Green
River with only a small force. Johnston and Buckner would not venture to cross that river with a
large army in their rear on the Cumberland. If they did, their fate would be sealed.
I am ignorant of General Buell's forces or plans. If he is strong enough to fight the enemy at
Bowling Green or to turn that place and force him to fall back in the direction of Nashville the
same object may be accomplished; but to operate both on Green River and on the Cumberland
with the enemy at Bowling Green is to move on converging exterior lines with the enemy inside
of the angle— always a most hazardous operation, unless each of the exterior forces is superior
to the enemy. Under any circumstances it is bad strategy, because it requires a double force to
accomplish a single object.
To carry out the plan proposed would make it necessary to suspend all minor operations. I
understand troops are being concentrated at Fort Leavenworth to move on Western Arkansas and
Texas. Such a project, if it be contemplated, is contrary to every military rule. Troops must be
sent to a base hundreds of miles from any enemy at an immense cost of transportation. The line
of operation is exterior and beyond relief, and the expense of supplies must be enormous. It can
lead to no possible military result, unless made so large as to cripple or paralyze any movement
on a truly strategic line. It certainly is not a military operation. It may, however, be intended to
gratify some political partisan. If it be intended to check Price's army, that can be much better
accomplished by a line parallel to or near to the main one, viz, on Pocahontas and Jacksonport,
the depots of his supplies.
The main central line will also require the withdrawal of all available troops from this State;
also those in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Ohio, which are armed and still to be armed,
and also the transfer to that route or near it of all the Kentucky troops not required to secure the
line of Green River.
The force at Cairo and on the Ohio River below the mouth of Green River is now about
15,000. Seven regiments have just been ordered there from Missouri. By the middle or last of
February I hope to send about 15,000 more. If 30,000 or 40,000 can be added from the sources
indicated there will be sufficient for holding Cairo, Fort Holt, and Paducah, and to form the
column proposed. The troops at Ironton could threaten Pocahontas until a sufficient force could
be detached from Curtis' army at Springfield to take and hold New Madrid and Jacksonport. So
long as the enemy controls the Mississippi below Columbus it might not be safe to attempt the
occupation of New Madrid before moving up the Cumberland or Tennessee, as otherwise large
force might at any time be thrown across the river from Columbus, to retake that place if once
captured by us.
These suggestions are hastily written out, but they are the result of much anxious inquiry and
mature deliberation. I am confident that the plan, if properly carried out, would produce
important results. I also believe it to be feasible.
I have not designated any particular line or lines of movement. That must be a matter of
further study if the general idea should be approved. Perhaps the main column should move from
Smithland, between the rivers, by Dover, &c. Perhaps the line east of the Cumberland or that
west of the Tennessee would be preferable. These questions, however, are matters easily
I have been sick for more than a week with the measles, and several members of my staff are
unable to attend to any duty. Under these circumstances some delay must occur in answering the
communications from the Adjutant-General of the Army.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT LOUIS, January 21, 1862.
Brig. Gen. SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Commanding, &c., Rolla:
GENERAL: Yours of the 19th is received. I have already informed you that the Ninth Iowa
and a division from General Pope's command have been ordered to report to you. This will make
your force over 15,000 men. Should the Benton Hussars and the Forty-third Illinois be prepared
in time for the field they may be sent to your command. If not, they must go elsewhere. The
Second Iowa cannot be relieved before the last of next week, and it is still uncertain when the
Curtis Horse will be ready for the field. We have neither horses nor arms for them at present.
Brigades and divisions must be made up according to the circumstances of the particular case
and the exigencies of the service. If I were to attempt to gratify the wishes of particular
commands I should be obliged to transfer half the troops in this department at an enormous
expense, at a time when the Quartermaster's Department has not a single cent to pay necessary
expenses. It cannot be done and will not be attempted. I doubt very much whether I can send you
any more artillery than that taken by the division from Sedalia. If possible I will send you Mann's
or Spoor's, as I best can. I find it utterly impossible to unite fragments of regiments so as to
satisfy either men or officers and Governors of States.
I must call your attention to certain irregularities. Your dissolution of the general courtmartial
was contrary to law. When the officers composing the court are ordered into the field the
court ceases to act as such, but it cannot be dissolved or the prisoners released except by the
authority ordering it.
Again, your Special Orders, No. 41, ordering men from General Sherman's command, is
entirely irregular. You cannot give any orders to troops at Benton Barracks. You should have
made a requisition on me for the corporal and men wanted. These may appear small matters, but
they create difficulties mad annoyances which it takes much of my time to arrange. It is just as
easy to follow the law and regulations as it is to violate them.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant.
Otterville, January 23, 1862.
Col. FRED. STEELE, Commanding at Sedalia:
The general commanding directs that you send as large a cavalry force as you can spare, not
less than live companies of your force at Sedalia, who, when joined by four companies from this
place, under Major Torrence, First Iowa Cavalry, will proceed to the neighborhood of Lexington,
thence to Waverly, thence across to Arrow Rock, and from thence to return directly to Sedalia,
so as to make a thorough scout of the whole region, but not to be absent over eight days, and to
report regularly by messengers to Sedalia. Reports reach the general commanding from
department headquarters, from Glasgow, and from Brunswick that the enemy is crossing in
considerable numbers at Brunswick and Waverly. Perhaps it will be best to send a section of
artillery; the whole to be under command of some responsible officer, without reference to the
corps to which he belongs. The four companies of Iowa cavalry will report to you at Sedalia tomorrow
You will keep General Pope advised constantly of the movements and operations of this
By order of General Pope:
January 23, 1862.
Hon. W. H. SEWARD,
Secretary of State, Washington, D.C.:
SIR: Inclosed find copies of certain papers, showing an unfortunate condition of affairs in
Fremont County, the southwestern comity in this State. I am fully satisfied of the correctness of
the facts stated in the report of Colonel Nutt, and that the, if not the only, way to put down the
feeling there that now endangers the public peace is, as he suggests, to arrest the rebels who have
fled from Missouri into our State and some of these sympathizers on our side of the line and to
also seize the property of those men brought into our State from Missouri. The secession feeling
is strong in Fremont County, and, as the State authorities have no power to act in this class of
cases, I request that you will give such full power and instructions to United States officers in
this State and Missouri as will result in prompt and decided action. The United States district
attorney for this State, Mr. Gurley, is, and for some time has been, in Washington, by reason of
which the marshal, Mr. Hoxie, is deprived of his counsel.
If the marshal shall be directed to take any action in this matter, it will be necessary either
that he be directed to act without consultation with the district attorney or that the district
attorney return to the State.
Permit me again to impress upon you that, in my judgment, the safety of the people in the
county of Fremont, from a troublesome border warfare, requires the prompt arrest of the rebels
who have fled from Missouri and some of their sympathizers in this State and to seize the
property of rebels in this State.
Very truly,
Cairo, February 1, 1862.
For the temporary government the forces of this military district will be divided and
commanded as follows, to wit:
The First Brigade will consist of the Eighth, Eighteenth, Twenty-seventh, Twenty-ninth,
Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Regiments of Illinois Volunteers, Schwartz's, and Dresser's batteries,
and Stewart's, Dollins', O'Harnett's, and Carmichael's cavalry, Col. R. J. Oglesby, senior colonel
of the brigade, commanding.
The Second Brigade will consist of the Eleventh, Twentieth, Forty-fifth, and Forty-eighth
Illinois Infantry, Fourth Illinois Cavalry, Taylor's and McAllister's artillery (the latter with four
siege guns), Col. W. H. L. Wallace commanding.
The First and Second Brigades will constitute the First Division of the District of Cairo, and
will be commanded by Brig. Gen. John A. McClernand.
The Third Brigade will consist of the Eighth Wisconsin, Forty-ninth Illinois, Twenty-fifth
Indiana, four companies of artillery, and such troops as are yet to arrive, Brig. Gen. E. A. Paine
The Fourth Brigade will be composed of the Tenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, and Thirtysecond
Illinois, and Tenth Iowa Infantry, Houghtaling's battery of light artillery, four companies
of the Seventh and two companies of the First Illinois Cavalry, Colonel Morgan commanding.
Gen. E. A. Paine is assigned to the command of Cairo and Mound City and Colonel Morgan
to the command of Bird's Point.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
SAINT LOUIS, February 5, 1862.
For General Grant:
Ten thousand men have left Bowling Green to re-enforce Fort Henry. Order forward all your
available troops as rapidly as possible. I send down the Fourteenth Iowa to-day, the Forty-third
Illinois to-morrow, and the Second Iowa in a few days.
Saint Louis, February 8, 1862.
Major-General MCCLELLAN,
Washington, D.C.:
GENERAL: I have considered with due deliberation that part of your telegram of yesterday
in relation to General Buell's coming to the Cumberland River and taking command of the
expedition against Nashville. General Sherman ranks General Buell, and he is entitled to a
command in that direction. I propose, with due deference to your better judgment, the following
plan, as calculated to produce unity of action and to avoid any difficulties about rank and
command: Create a geographical division, to be called Western Division, or any other suitable
name, and to be composed of three departments, viz: Department of the Missouri, including the
present Department of Kansas and the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, and Arkansas;
Department of the Mississippi, including the remainder of the present Department of the
Missouri and West Tennessee; Department of the Ohio, to be the same as at present, with the
addition of East Tennessee. If we penetrate into Alabama or Mississippi, they can be assigned
according to circumstances. General Buell would then retain his present command, with a small
addition; General Hunter could take the new Department of the Missouri, which, I have no
doubt, would be more agreeable to him than his present position; and General Hitchcock, if you
can get him appointed, could take the new Department of the Mississippi. I have no desire for
any larger command than I have now, but it seems to me that this would produce greater concert
of action, give more satisfaction to General Hunter, and economize your labor, as all your orders
for the West would then go through a single channel. Moreover, where troops of different
departments act together, as they must on the Cumberland and Tennessee and on the frontiers of
Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas, they would be under one general head. This would avoid any
clashing of interests or difference of plans and policy.
I make these suggestions for your consideration.
If General Hitchcock cannot be appointed, General Sherman could take the Department of
the Mississippi. His health is greatly improved.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SAINT Louis, February 9, 1862.
Brig. Gen. G. W. CULLUM, Cairo:
All additional stores should be sent to Paducah. The First Nebraska leave to-night: the
Second Iowa will follow to-morrow night. General McClellan gives hopes of adopting my plan
entire, by sending a part of Buell's army to the Cumberland. If so, look out for lively times. The
gunboats should be prepared for the Cumberland with all possible dispatch. Hitchcock is
Fort Henry, February 10, 1862.
The Seventeenth, Forty-third, and Forty-ninth Regiments Illinois Volunteers, commanded by
the senior colonel, will form the Third Brigade, First Division, of the Army in the field.
The Fourteenth Iowa, Twenty-fifth and Fifty-second Indiana Volunteers, Birge's
Sharpshooters, and one battalion Curtis' Horse will form the Fourth Brigade, Second Division.
By order of Brigadier-General Grant:
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Fort Henry, February 11, 1862.
The following changes and additions are made to present brigade organizations:
The Thirty-second Illinois Volunteers will be added to the Third Brigade, First Division; the
Fifty-second Indiana will be transferred to Third Brigade, Second Division; and Seventh Iowa
from the Third Brigade, Second Division, to the Fourth Brigade, Second Division.
The Second Iowa Regiment will be attached to this brigade immediately upon arrival.
By order of Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant:
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Saint Louis, February 19, 1862.
N. B. BAKER, Des Moines, Iowa:
The Second Iowa Infantry proved themselves the bravest of the brave. They had the honor of
heading the column which entered Fort Donelson.
Fort Donelson, February 21, 1862.
Troops in this military district will be brigaded and assigned to (divisions in the following
order, to wit:
First Division, Brig. Gen. J. A. McClernand, commanding:
First Brigade: Eighth, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth, and Thirty-first Illinois Infantry, Dresser's
battery, Dollins', O'Harnett's, and Carmichael's cavalry.
Second Brigade: Eleventh, Eighteenth, Twentieth, and Forty-fifth Illinois Infantry, First
Battalion of Fourth Illinois Cavalry, and Taylor's battery.
Third Brigade: Seventeenth, Forty-third, Forty-ninth, and Fifty-second Illinois Infantry, and
McAllister's and Schwartz's batteries. Second Division, Brig. Gen. C. F. Smith commanding:
First Brigade: Second, Seventh, Twelfth, and Fourteenth Iowa Infantry, and Second Battalion
of Fourth Illinois Cavalry.
Second Brigade: Ninth and Twelfth Illinois and Thirteenth and Sixteenth Missouri Infantry,
Willard's battery, and detachment Regular Cavalry.
Third Brigade: Seventh, Fiftieth, Fifty-seventh, and Fifty-eighth Illinois Infantry, and two
companies Second Illinois Cavalry. -
The battalion of artillery commanded by Major Cavender will be Third Division, Brig. Gen.
L. Wallace, commanding:
First Brigade: Eighth Missouri, Eleventh, Twenty-fourth, and Fifty-second Indiana Infantry,
and Bulliss' battery.
Second Brigade: First Nebraska and Fifty-eighth, Sixty-eighth, and Seventy-eighth Ohio
Infantry, and four companies of Curtis' Horse.
Third Brigade: Twentieth, Fifty-sixth, and Seventy-sixth Ohio and Twenty-third Indiana
Infantry, and the remainder of Curtis' Horse. Fourth Division, Brig. Gen. S. A. Hurlbut,
First Brigade: Fifteenth, Twenty-eighth, Thirty-second, and Forty-first Illinois Infantry, and
Burrows' battery of light artillery.
Second Brigade: Twenty-fifth Indiana, Fourteenth, Forty-sixth, and Forty-eighth Illinois
Infantry, and Mann's battery of light artillery.
Third Brigade: Thirty-first and Forty-fourth Indiana and Seventeenth and Twenty-fifth
Kentucky Infantry, and Third Battalion Fourth Illinois Cavalry.
The senior colonels of brigades will command them in every instance.
Brigade commanders will select from the regimental quartermasters of their commands one
to act as brigade commissary.
By order of Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant:
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Fort Donelson, February 18, 1862.
SIR: In obedience to Special Orders, No. 2, headquarters Second Division, army in the field,
Brigadier-General Smith commanding, I have the honor to make the following report of the
operations of the Twelfth Iowa Volunteer Infantry in the recent attack on Fort Donelson, Tenn.:
On Wednesday, the 12th instant, the regiment, being a part of Col. J. Cook's (Third) brigade,
Second Division, marched from Fort Henry to the neighborhood of Fort Donelson, formed line
of battle to the left of the Dover road, and slept on their arms ready for action.
Thursday morning, at 8.30 o'clock, we marched down to and up the Dover road about half a
mile, when we filed to the left and formed line of battle; threw forward the flanking companies
as skirmishers, and marched forward down a long slope that lay in front, the grape shot and shell
of the enemy flying thick around us all the time. Our skirmishers advanced to the top of the hill
that lay in front of us. The battalion halted at two-thirds of the distance to the top of the hill,
where it was protected from the enemy's fire by the ridge in front. It was but a few minutes after
our skirmishers reached the top of the ridge in front when Private Edward C. Buckner, of
Company A, was shot dead, a bail taking Bffect in the eye. No further damage occurred to the
regiment that day, though the enemy kept up a constant fire.
The following night was very stormy, and as we were ordered not to make fires, the men
suffered from the wet and cold.
Early on Friday morning skirmishing began between our men and the enemy, which was kept
up all day. During the day two of our men were struck with spent balls, but these did not disable
At night-fall eight companies retired and built fires, but passed an unpleasant night.
Companies D and F remained as a guard over the ground we had occupied during the day.
Saturday until noon a random fire was kept up with the enemy. During this and the preceding
days we were nobly supported by the coolness, bravery, and efficiency of a portion of Birge's
sharpshooters, who co-operated with us. Our right flank was protected by the Fiftieth Illinois,
Colonel Bane commanding. Our front and left flanks were unsupported, except by our own
skirmishers and the sharpshooters.
At about 2 p.m. Saturday, 15th, the Twelfth Iowa, Fiftieth Illinois, and sharpshooters were
ordered to make a feint attack to draw the enemy's fire. The men went cheerfully to the work
assigned them, and kept up a warm fire on the enemy, while Colonel Lauman's brigade, on our
left, advanced on the enemy and got possession of a part of the enemy's outworks and hoisted the
American flag thereon. We were then ordered to their support. We moved rapidly by the left
flank and charged over the down timber which the enemy had cut for his protection. At this time
a galling fire of grape from the enemy poured in among us, wounding 8 or 10 of our men.
On reaching the breastworks some confusion was caused by the retreat of a portion of
Colonel Lauman's brigade, who, having expended all their ammunition, were compelled to fall
back. By some exertion our men were rallied, and we opened a warm fire on the enemy, who
also poured a warm fire of grape upon us from their battery on our right and of musketry on our
front. In this cross-fire we fought the enemy two hours, advancing on them into a ravine inside
their breastworks. At length we were withdrawal outside of the works. During this time we lost 1
man killed and 27 wounded.
During all this time Lieutenant-Colonel Coulter behaved with the utmost coolness and
bravery, performing his duties regardless of the danger to which he was exposed. Major
Brodtbeck and Sergeant-Major Morrisy aided much in rallying the men.
When we began to march to support Colonel Lauman, Companies A and G were out
skirmishing. I dispatched Adjutant Duncan to bring them up, which was speedily done, and he
performed all other duties required of him promptly and effectively.
Surgeon Parker was on duty at the hospital. Assistant Surgeon Finley performed faithful
service in attending the wounded.
Lieut. J. B. Dorr, quartermaster, was performing his duty in forwarding supplies. His energy
and efficiency cannot be too highly praised.
The color-bearer, Sergeant Grannis, showed much coolness amid the sharp fire of the enemy,
and, without particularizing, every commissioned officer of the regiment performed his duties
without flinching. The same may be said of the non-commissioned officers and privates, with but
few exceptions.
Colonel Twelfth Iowa Volunteers.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 18, 1862.
In compliance with your order I herewith respectfully submit a report of the part taken by the
Twenty-fifth Regiment Indiana Volunteers in the actions which took place between our forces
and the rebels' on the left wing of our army on the 13th and 15th days of February, 1862, at Fort
The Twenty-fifth Indiana Regiment marched with the brigade from Fort Henry on the 12th of
February, and bivouacked at night on the extreme left of our lines, within less than half a mile of
the enemy. Everything remained quiet during the night. At 10 o'clock a.m. on the 13th we moved
forward in line of battle to the top of the hill which was between us and the enemy's breastworks.
Here I received your order to fix bayonets and charge the rebels, and, if possible, drive them
from their works. The timber was so thick that we could only see here and there a part of the
rebel works, but could form no idea of their range or extent. I sent forward, as directed, the flank
companies--A and B, Captains Saltzman and Rheinlander--to deploy as skirmishers, which they
did most admirably, and the regiment moved forward on the charge. Our flank companies as they
advanced found the enemy's works extended far to our left., and they very properly moved to the
left and took position on a hill, where they did valuable service by preventing a fire on our flank
from the enemy's rifle pits, and in keeping silent a 6-pounder field piece that was brought to bear
on us from that direction. At the foot of the hill the enemy poured on us a terrible fire of
musketry, grape, and canister, with a few shells.
The rebel breastworks were now in plain view on the top of the hill. The heavy timber on the
hill-side had been felled, forming a dense mass of brush and logs. Through and over these
obstacles our men advanced against the enemy's fire with perfect coolness and steadiness, never
halting for a moment until they received your order. After a halt of a few minutes they again
advanced within a short distance of the enemy's breastworks, when their fire from a 6-pounder
field piece and 12-pounder howitzer on our right was so destructive, that it became necessary to
halt and direct the men to lie down to save us from very heavy loss. After remaining under a very
heavy fire for two hours and fifteen minutes, with no opportunity to return the fire to advantage,
the enemy being almost entirely hid, and seeing no movement indicating a further advance from
any part of the line, I asked your permission to withdraw my regiment, to save it from heavy
loss where we could do no good. In retiring, owing to the nature of the ground and our exposed
position, the men were thrown into slight confusion, but they rallied promptly at the foot of the
hill and remained in that position until night, when we moved back, as directed by you, to the
ground we occupied in the morning. We lost in this action 14 killed and 61 wounded.
On the 14th considerable firing was kept up between our skirmishers and the enemy's
sharpshooters, but nothing of importance occurred.
On the 15th, at 2 o'clock p.m., we formed a line of battle, and I sent forward Company B,
Captain Rheinlander, to deploy as skirmishers and advance in front of the regiment. This order
he executed promptly, and moved his company forward at double-quick. A few moments after,
the order came to me to move my regiment by the left flank and follow to support the Fiftysecond
Indiana and Second Iowa Regiments. This movement left Captain Rheinlander without
support, but he advanced boldly to the enemy's rifle pits to the right of the point where they were
being attacked by the Second Iowa and drove back the enemy, and was among the first, if not the
very first, of our forces that mounted the breastworks.
We moved by the left flank to the creek bottom on our left and beyond some old houses,
where the left halted and the right was brought forward, and we advanced in line of battle up the
hill on the run, and entered the enemy's works at the point where they had been taken by the
Second Iowa. We pushed forward across the field in the direction of the heaviest firing until we
reached the bottom of a deep hollow. Here we halted to form our line, which was somewhat
broken in advancing, and prepared to move forward, but seeing the forces in front of us slowly
retiring, we remained in line to cover them, and when they had all passed by us we marched back
in good order to the breastworks, which we held during the night. Our loss in this action was 40
wounded, many of them severely.
I cannot bestow too high praise on the conduct of the officers in both of these actions. To
Lieutenant-Colonel Morgan and Major Foster I am much indebted for the fearless and energetic
manner in which they discharged their duties. Their conduct is worthy of the highest
commendation. Adjutant Walker and Sergeant-Major Jones were brave, prompt, and faithful, and
were ever ready to carry orders in the thickest of the fight. Captain Laird, of Company K, was
severely wounded in the leg on the 13th while leading his company to the charge. He refused to
leave the field, and when at last he was compelled to leave he cheered his men when he retired.
Captains Saltzman and Rheinlander, commanding the flank companies, rendered very valuable
service, and were often placed in exposed positions. The other captains and lieutenants, almost
without exception, displayed great courage and energy, and are worthy of the highest praise. I
could not mention one without naming all. The regimental band and chaplain were actively
engaged in removing the wounded from the field and providing for their wants at the hospital
The conduct of the surgeon and assistant surgeon is esteemed worthy of especial mention. Asst.
Surg. Arthur White devoted himself to relieving the wants of the wounded and suffering at the
hospital, while the principal surgeon, l)r. John T. Walker, followed the regiment to the field, and
received the wounded as they fell in the fight. It was the first time that our men had ever been
exposed to the fire, and they stood it with the firmness of veterans. Many instances of personal
courage and good conduct of non-commissioned officers and men occurred, but so numerous
were they, that it would be difficult to point out particular cases. The conduct of the various
companies was uniformly good and worthy of the highest praise. The loss on the second day was
not so great as the first, although the fire was more severe, but we were not so much exposed to
the fire of grape, which was very destructive on the first day. Inclosed I send a list of the killed
and wounded.
I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Twenty-fifth Regiment Indiana Volunteers.
Col. J. G. LAUMAN,
Commanding Fourth Brigade, Second Division.
Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 18, 1862.
COLONEL: I have the honor to report to you the part which my command took in the
capture of this place:
The Second Regiment Iowa Infantry was transported up the Cumberland River on the
steamer McGill, and landed about 3 miles below the fort on the 14th instant, and immediately
marched to the headquarters of General Smith, where I arrived about 11 a.m. of the same day,
and was by General Grant assigned to General Smith's division and by General Smith to your
brigade. When we arrived at the top of the hill, nearly opposite the right of the enemy's works, in
pursuance of an order from you I deployed Companies A and B as skirmishers. They
immediately crossed a ravine in front of our line and skirmished until night, when they were
called in.
In the mean time the regiment was assigned position on the extreme left of our forces, where
we spent a cold and disagreeable night, without tents or blankets. We remained in this position
until 2 p.m. the next day, when we were ordered to storm the fortifications of the enemy in front
by advancing the left wing of the regiment, supported a short distance in the rear by the right
wing. I took command of the left wing in person and proceeded in line of battle steadily up the
hill until we reached the fortifications without firing a gun. On reaching the works we found the
enemy fleeing before us, except a few, who were promptly put to the bayonet. I then gave the
order to fire, which was responded to with fatal precision until the right wing, with Lieutenant-
Colonel Baker, arrived, headed by General Smith, when we formed in line of battle, again under
a galling fire, and charged on the encampment across the ravine in front, the enemy still
retreating before us. After we had reached the summit of the hill beyond the ravine we made a
stand and occupied it for over an hour.
In the mean time the enemy were being re-enforced, and one of our regiments poured a
disastrous fire upon us in the rear. Our ammunition being nearly exhausted, I ordered my
command to fall back to the intrenchments, which they did steadily and in good order.
I am not able to name the regiment which fired upon our rear, but I do know that the greater
part of the casualties we received at that point was from that source, for I myself saw some of
my men fall who I know were shot from the hill behind us.
We then took our position behind the intrenchments, and soon afterwards, owing to an injury
received, as reported among the casualties of the engagement, I retired from the field, leaving
Lieutenant-Colonel Baker in command until the following morning.
During the night our pickets, who were posted in the enemy's camp, were fired upon several
times; but with that exception all remained quiet until morning, when the enemy gave signal for
a parley, which was succeeded by the joyful intelligence that they had surrendered the fort. We
were then ordered by General Smith to take the post of honor in marching to the enemy's fort,
where we planted our colors upon the battlements beside the white of the enemy, for which
generous consideration he has our hearty thanks.
When I come to speak of those who particularly distinguished themselves for coolness and
bravery, so many examples occur to me, that it seems invidious to make distinctions.
Of those few who were in the most responsible positions--Lieutenant-Colonel Baker, Major
Chipman, and Adjutant Tuttle--to say that they were cool and brave would not do them justice;
they were gallant to perfection. Lieutenant Colonel Baker had a ball pass through his cap and
come out near his temple. Major Chipman was along the first to fall, severely wounded, while
cheering on the men of the left wing, and refused to be carried from the field, but waved his
sword and exhorted the men to press forward.
Captains Slaymaker and Cloutman fell dead at the head of their companies before they
reached the intrenchments. Near them also fell Lieutenant Harper. His death was that of a true
and brave soldier.
Captains Cox, Mills, Moore, and Wilkin were at the head of their companies marked
examples of gallantry and efficiency.
Lieutenants Scofield, Ensign, Davis, Holmes, Huntington, Weaver, Mastick, Snowden, and
Godfrey--in fact, nearly all of my officers, commissioned and non-commissioned--deported
themselves nobly throughout the engagement.
Sergeant-Major Brawner deserves very honorable mention for his gallant conduct.
Surgeons Marsh and Nassau also deserve the highest praise for their skill and untiring
devotion to the welfare of the wounded. Dr. Nassau was particularly noticed for his bravery on
the field, taking off the wounded during a heavy fire from the enemy.
I cannot omit in this report an account of the color-guard. Color-Sergeant Doolittle fell early
in the engagement, pierced by four balls and dangerously wounded. The colors were then taken
by Corporal Page, Company B, who soon fell dead. They were again raised by Corporal
Churcher, Company I, who had his arm broken just as he entered the intrenchments, when they
were taken by Corporal Twombly, Company F, who was almost instantly knocked down by a
spent ball, immediately rose, and bore them gallantly to the end of the fight. Not a single man of
the color-guard but himself was on his feet at the close of the engagement.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Second Iowa Infantry.
Col. J. G. LAUMAN,
Commanding Fourth Brigade.
FORT DONELSON, TENN., February 19, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report of the movement of the Seventh Regiment
Iowa Volunteer Infantry from February 12 to 15 inclusive:
The regiment left Fort Henry on the morning of the 12th and proceeded to the vicinity of Fort
Donelson, where it arrived about 6 p.m. same day. The regiment, by your orders, was placed in
position on an eminence about half a mile from the outer works of the enemy, to support the First
Missouri Battery, consisting of two 20-pounder Parrott guns, where it remained all night, the
regiment bivouacking without shelter or blankets.
On the morning of the 13th it was ordered by you to join its brigade on the extreme left wing,
where it took part with said brigade in the assault on the rebel fortifications during the day. At
sunset it returned to its former position, where it remained during the night, which was one of
great inclemency.
On the morning of the 14th it took position in rear of ground occupied the day previous,
where it remained quietly during the day and night, sending out through the day two companies
as skirmishers.
On the 15th, about 2 p.m., you ordered us forward to the charge on the west end of the
enemy's fortifications, where it came up in good order and passed the intrenchments and
rendered good service. It then took position in rear of the west breastworks, holding the position
we had gained till next morning, when the capitulation took place.
I am proud to say that the officers and men of the regiment behaved themselves with
coolness and courage and nobly retained the reputation formerly won.
Our casualties were 2 privates killed on the field; 2 lieutenants, 5 sergeants 2 corporals, and
28 privates wounded, most of them slightly and none mortally.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.
Col. J. G. LAUMAN,
Commanding Fourth Brigade, Second Division.
Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 19, 1862.
SIR: On February 13 my command, consisting of seven companies, was formed in line of
battle by order of Colonel Lauman, commanding brigade, and ordered to advance with the
Twenty-fifth Indiana upon the works in front and take a battery of two guns. I advanced under a
heavy fire of musketry until I passed the point of a ridge on my right. I then received a heavy fire
of grape from guns to the right, which, however, did but little damage, as the range was too high.
Perceiving no guns in front, and the line being much broken, owing to unevenness of the ground
and the thick fallen timber, I halted my command to place men in the best position to advance, it
being impossible to advance in line of battle; also to protect them as much as possible from the
crossfire from my right. I perceived at this time that the forces on my left, under the immediate
command of Colonel Lauman, had halted. I waited to see by their movements whether we were
to advance on the guns or the rifle pits, the latter being the direction pointed out to me by
Colonel Lauman when I was ordered to advance on the guns. After waiting about an hour, and
seeing no movement on my left, except from two advanced companies of skirmishers, who were
retiring behind the main line, I withdrew my left wing, which was most exposed, out of range of
the enemy's guns, and remained there until night: keeping a few of my best marksmen
sufficiently advanced to keep the enemy from coming outside their intrenchments to annoy my
men by their marksmen.
About dark I received an order from Colonel Lauman to tall back and take my old position
for t he night, but by a subsequent order from General Smith I took a position one-half mile
nearer the enemy.
My loss during the day was light, being but 2 killed and 14 wounded.
On Friday, the 14th instant, we remained in front of the enemy without changing our
Saturday, the 15th, I remained in same position until after noon, we being on the right of our
brigade. Towards night the attack on the enemy's works was made by a flank movement of the
brigade, commencing on the left. Arriving in front of the enemy's works, I deployed my left wing
and marched them up the hill in line of battle. The right wing, owing to the nature of the ground,
moved up by the left flank and formed inside the intrenchments. After remaining some time
under a scattering fire of musketry and rather sharp fire of grape and shell, I formed my men
behind the intrenchments on each side of two pieces of artillery, which had been placed in
position after our entrance into the intrenchments, where we remained until morning, when the
enemy surrendered.
My men behaved themselves well during both engagements, holding their fire till ordered
and then delivering it with regularity and precision. I have never seen men behave themselves
better, whether under fire or bearing with patience and fortitude the fatigue and hardships
necessarily incident to so long an engagement in such weather. My loss this day was 1 killed and
7 wounded.
Where all behaved so well it is difficult to mention individuals without doing seeming
injustice to others, but may mention the valuable services rendered by Sergt. Maj. S. H. Smith,
who was shot dead by my side while encouraging the men on to enter the breastworks of the
enemy; also First Lieut. William W. Kirkwood, commanding Company K, rendered very
valuable assistance in forming the line in front of the enemy's breastworks.
Capt. Warren C. Jones, of Company I, also rendered valuable service in directing the fire of
my marksmen, especially protecting the retiring of the skirmishers on the 13th instant.
Colonel Fourteenth Regiment Iowa Volunteers.
Col. J. G. LAUMAN,
Commanding Fourth Brigade, Second Division.
Fort Henry, February 22, 1862.
The following is the official report of the killed, wounded, and missing of the Third Division
of the army in the battle of Fort Donelson, on Saturday, the 15th day of January, 1862, so far as
reported to me by brigade and regimental surgeons. Several regiments of the division remained
at Fort Donelson, whose surgeons will no doubt report directly to you.
O Officers. A Aggregate
M Enlisted Men.
--Killed-- -Wounded- Missing.
Command.O M O M O M A
11th Indiana ..... 4 2 27 .... .... 33
31st Indiana .... 9 8 44 .... .... 61
44th Indiana .... 3 1 31 .... .... 35
17th Kentucky .... 4 .... 31 .... .... 35
25th Kentucky 2 11 3 58 .... 5 79
3th Missouri 1 6 1 39 .... .... 47
Chicago Light Artillery. .... .... 3 .... .... 3
Total 3 37 15 233 .... 5 293
In making this report I take great pleasure in bearing testimony to the promptness,
faithfulness, and ability with which Brigade Surgeon Keenon and the surgeons and assistants of
this division of the army performed their duties. They followed their regiments into the midst of
danger and exposed their lives to aid the wounded. Surg. J. C. Thompson and Asst. Surg. Clay
Brown, of the Eleventh Indiana, and Surgeon Bailey and Assistant Surgeon Winnis, of the
Eighth Missouri, were exposed to a most terrible fire from the enemy, having been ordered to
follow their men into the field of battle by the medical director, H. S. Hewitt. The surgeons of
this division generally complain of discourteous treatment on the part of the medical director.
When manifesting an earnest solicitude for their wounded and making inquiries as to the time
and manner of transportation and ultimate destination they were rudely and offensively repulsed
without the desired information. They also complain that in the exercise of extra and arbitrary
power they were deprived the privilege of attending their own men, of dressing their wounds, or
attending them when taken to the boats. The report of such conduct is to me a matter of deep
regret, and against such conduct I beg leave to protest.
In my opinion, which is sustained by all the surgeons with whom I have conversed, the
removal of those on whom amputations and other severe operations had been performed was
unwise and highly injudicious, endangering the lives of those who might otherwise recover. The
houses occupied as hospitals could have been retained, and surgeons detailed to wait on them
until recovery had so far advanced as to render removal comparatively safe. The hurry of
moving, the necessary or careless displacement of dressings, the pain inflicted by incessant
jarring must add fearfully to the already dangerous condition of the wounded. If necessary,
surgeons and nurses in sufficient numbers would volunteer to render every service to those who
were injured in defense of their government. Had dangers of an attack or of falling into the
enemy's hands existed, the necessity of removal would have been imperative, but no such danger
existed. It is greatly to be feared that the mortality will be fearfully increased, more especially
when steamboats crowded with the wounded, as was the case with the steamer Tats, were sent
off without a single surgeon. Dressings would necessarily be displaced, requiring immediate
readjustment, and secondary hemorrhage likely to occur, which is always alarming, and
especially when the patient is in motion. There were surgeons belonging to this division anxious
to attend the wounded on their perilous journey whose services would have been cheerfully
dispensed with by their regiments, but they were refused, and ordered to join their regiments, and
the wounded sent without medical attention. Imperative duty compels me to report these facts,
unpleasant though it be. That they were suffered to occur can be attributed alone to incapacity or
willful neglect on the part of those having charge.
Most of the forenoon on the day of battle I was busily engaged at the hospital on the extreme
right, in a narrow valley near the scene of action, where the wounded from General
McClernand's division were rapidly crowding in. Here the slightly wounded, the mangled, the
dying, and the dead presented a scene which baffles description; and, adding to the difficulties
and dangers of our position, hundreds of armed soldiers rushed in, and remained until a volley of
musketry from the enemy caused them to seek other and safer quarters.
It was my fortune to administer to Lieutenant Colonels White and Erwin, of the Eleventh and
Thirty-first Illinois Regiments, in their last moments. They died without a murmur and without a
struggle--Colonel White, if I mistake not, from a shot in the neck, and Colonel Erwin, in the side.
When the hospital was fired on, Surgeon Thompson, of Illinois, and myself retired, with all the
wounded that could be moved, to hospitals farther in the rear. Since the surrender, officers of the
rebel army have informed me that the fire on the hospital was accidental and ceased the moment
the flag was seen. About noon I established a general hospital on the extreme left, in the
headquarters of General Grant, who very kindly and generously offered them for that purpose.
Notwithstanding the abundant supply of hospital stores which the medical director informed me
were on hand, nothing was sent us, neither medicine nor food, neither bandage nor plaster. The
field service of the surgeons and such articles as could be pressed into service constituted our
supply, and the little food obtained was secured by dint of perseverance from regimental
quartermasters. That hospital stores and provisions were not supplied under such circumstances
involves criminal neglect or incapacity on the part of those in charge of this department.
Kind and careful attention to the wounded soldier is a high and most sacred duty. Surgeon
Sexton, of [52d] Indiana Regiment and Assistant Surgeon Christy, of the Thirty-second Illinois,
were aiding me at the hospital. Surgeon Marsh, of the Second Iowa, and Assistant Surgeon
Martin at times gave us most valuable assistance. Dr. Sexton, an efficient and skillful surgeon
when sober, was so much under the influence of liquor for twenty-four hours as to be incapable
of discharging the responsible duties of his office. Assistant Surgeon Christy was exceedingly
kind, prompt, and skillful, rendering most timely and efficient aid.
In our hospital there were three amputations above the knee, a number of fingers taken off,
balls extracted, and wounds such as described in the foregoing report dressed.
All of which is most respectfully submitted.
Brigade Surgeon, Acting Medical Director.
Brigade Surgeon and Medical Director U. S. Force
Clarksville, Tenn., March 6, 1862.
GENERAL: In pursuance of orders from division headquarters I have the honor to submit the
following report:
Monday, the 3d day of February, the Seventh Infantry Illinois Volunteers, under my
command, embarked at Fort Holt, Ky., on board the steamer City of Memphis, under orders to
join an expedition against Fort Henry, Tenn. Landing at Paducah, I reported to you, from whom
orders were received assigning to the Third Brigade the following regiments, viz: Seventh
Illinois, Seventh Iowa, Twelfth Iowa, Thirteenth Missouri, and Fiftieth Illinois Volunteers, with
Captain Richardson's battery (20.pounder rifled guns) of First Missouri Light Artillery. In
company with other troops, the command arrived at Camp Halleck by river, 4 miles below Fort
Henry, on the afternoon of the 4th instant, when it was disembarked, under orders from
Brigadier-General Grant, commanding the District of Cairo, to proceed by land, without
transportation, under temporary command of General McClernand. The 5th instant remained at
Camp Halleck. On the morning of the 6th left Camp Halleck by land for Fort Henry. A severe
rain-storm the night previous to our departure, together with the swollen state of the streams
from continued rains and the absence of all transportation, rendered the march extremely
difficult, the troops suffering intensely from fording the numerous creeks, often wading so deep
as almost to submerge their cartridge-boxes. But, inspired by the frequent reports of artillery
from the gunboats, the men pressed on cheerfully. Impeded by the almost impassable roads and
the necessity of assisting Captain Richardson's battery out of the innumerable mud-holes, the
command proceeded slowly. About 2 p.m. received orders from General Grant to advance the
infantry without regard to the artillery. Having gone a short distance, the guide led us off the
road about a mile, which had to be countermarched. Surmounting every obstacle, the infantry
reached the outworks of Fort Henry soon after retreat, where they encamped on the damp ground
much wearied, many without a single blanket, all transportation having been left in the morning,
and some of the regiments leaving even their knapsacks. Captain Richardson's battery was left
midway between Camp Halleck and Fort Henry, being unable to proceed on account of the
impracticability of the roads. The 7th instant quartered the infantry in Fort Henry, partly in tents
and partly in barracks formerly occupied by the rebels.
The 8th instant four companies of infantry were sent by transports to Camp Halleck, with
orders to bring up our baggage left there, and also Captain Richardson's battery, which they
accomplished, returning the following day. On the 8th the Thirteenth Missouri Volunteers, Col.
C. J. Wright, which had been assigned to the Third Brigade, arrived from Smithland. The 10th
instant, having with much trouble and labor made bridges over the slough formed by backwater
from the Tennessee River, the command encamped 1 mile from the river, immediately inside of
the outer fortifications, where we remained until the morning of the 12th.
On the 11th instant the Seventh Iowa Volunteers was transferred from the brigade and the
Fifty-second Indiana added, Major Cavender's entire battalion of First Missouri Light Artillery
having been in the mean time temporarily assigned to the brigade. Leaving Fort Henry at 8
o'clock a.m. the 12th instant, the command arrived within a mile and a half of Fort Donelson at 3
o'clock p.m., the road being excellent and all transportation having been left at Fort Henry.
Distance marched, 12 miles. The position assigned the brigade under my command was well
chosen, being a high ridge of nearly 1 mile in length, and almost, overlooking the enemy's works
on his right. In fine spirits, with full assurance of success, the troops passed the night, prepared
for an attack should a sally be made from the fort. The 13th, the men's haversacks being well
filled, a hearty breakfast was eaten at an early hour, and under orders at 8 a.m. I moved the
command up the Dover road to a point within one-half mile of the enemy's outer works;
deployed in line the Seventh Illinois on the right and Fifty-second Indiana on the left as
skirmishers. The command moved steadily forward through the dense timber, crossing the deep
ravine without resistance until the Seventh Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Babcock commanding,
found itself within short range of a battery till then undiscovered, which immediately upon
appearance of our colors opened a destructive fire, killing instantly Capt. N. E. Mendell,
Company I, and wounding several others. Owing to the density of the timber our own artillery
was not yet in position. The regiment retired beyond range and to the support of Captain
Richardson's battery, First Missouri Light Artillery, just going into position. With the remaining
four regiments I proceeded to the summit of a ridge overlooking the fort, a distance of nearly 600
yards intervening, the immensity of the abatis covering the whole precluding the possibility of
proceeding farther but by an unwarranted destruction of life, the enemy in force being secure,
concealed in his rifle pits and behind his palisades, from which continuous firing was kept up
during the remaining portion of the day, answered by sharpshooters and skirmishers from our
side, each side sustaining a slight loss. This position gained, it was held during the night, the men
resting on their arms without fires and without blankets, everything but arms and ammunition
having been east aside on approaching the fort.
On the 14th, after a long and weary night of watching, the men being unprovided with tents
or blankets and our immediate proximity to the enemy's works and batteries precluding the
possibility of building fires, knowing that, the light would draw his fire from his two strong
redoubts, under which we lay, the troops under my command arose at an early hour, shook the
thick covering of snow from their overcoats, partook of a meager breakfast, and cheerfully
resumed their old position under the intrenchments. Though suffering from the snow and rain of
the previous night, they returned during the whole of the day the enemy's fire, doing him no little
damage. Night again coming on, the troops fell back for rest and such refreshments as could
under the circumstances be had, reasons before mentioned preventing the building of fires.
Here necessity compels me to state that Colonel Wright, in violation of direct orders,
removed his command, the Thirteenth Missouri, to its first position occupied before the
investment. Immediately upon being informed of the same, I proceeded on foot, and in person
ordered his return. His compliance with the order again left the command in its original line and
in readiness for a combined attack on the following day.
Saturday, the 15th, after another night of snow and severe cold, the troops suffering
intensely, but without murmurs, four regiments of my command returned to their original
position (the Seventh Illinois having been sent the day previous farther to the right to support
Captain Richardson's battery), they having been permitted to fall back by companies out of range
of the enemy's guns to cook their breakfast and thaw their frozen clothes. At 9 a.m., in pursuance
of orders from division headquarters, the Thirteenth Missouri Volunteers was sent to the right to
support a battery left unprotected by the withdrawal of a portion of Colonel McArthur's brigade,
and the Fifty-second Indiana, Colonel Smith, was ordered to the extreme left to repel any sally
which the enemy might make from that quarter, a gap in his breastworks having been left for
egress, leaving only the Twelfth Iowa and Fiftieth Illinois, with one battalion of Birge's
Sharpshooters, to engage the enemy along a line of half a mile in extent. At 2 p.m. orders came
from General Smith to increase the number of skirmishers from my command and more
completely engage the enemy's attention, while he in person, with Colonel Lauman's brigade and
the Fifty-second Indiana, stormed the entrance previously mentioned.
The fortifications having been gained by General Smith and the enemy's infantry having been
driven back, I sent a messenger to General Grant, asking permission to move my brigade up to
the support of Colonel Lauman, and, if possible, take the enemy's batteries, which were pouring
in upon him a murderous fire of grape, canister, and shell. While awaiting the return of the
messenger information was received that the Stars and Stripes were flying over the main battery
of the enemy, when orders were immediately given to cease firing, which having been complied
with and the companies thrown out as skirmishers ordered to rejoin their commands, I
ascertained the Stars and Stripes were raised by the rebels that we might be drawn within their
reach. The messenger having returned, I abandoned the position, and with all the speed possible
proceeded over the abatis, under a heavy fire of grape and canister. The distance being short, the
discharges caused but little damage, overshooting us just enough to tear into shreds the colors of
the Seventh Illinois, which regiment had been ordered by General Grant to rejoin me, two pieces
of the battery it was supporting having been placed in position within the intrenchments, and
succeeded, with the assistance of infantry, in silencing the battery of the enemy, giving us at a
late hour full possession of his outer works on his right, he having been driven to take cover
under his inner intrenchments. The Fifty-second Indiana, from the lateness of the hour having
been ordered back, by direction of General Smith we were instructed to hold the position
obtained during the night and immediately prepare for a combined assault the following
morning, with the simple command from General Smith, "Take it, sir!" During the night the men
rested upon their arms, and for the first time built fires, which enabled them to rest more
Aroused at an early hour Sunday, the 16th, we partook of a scanty breakfast. Called to your
headquarters, I was directed to order two regiments to the relief of Colonel Lauman, two
additional regiments to their support a little retired, holding one regiment in reserve. The Seventh
Regiment having expended more ammunition the day previous than any of the others, having an
average of only nine rounds to the man, and being compelled to await the arrival of ammunition
with which to fill the boxes, was selected as the reserve. About the time of the arrival of the
ammunition, whilst the men were filling their boxes, the woods around were made to ring with
loud and enthusiastic cheers from the troops under the command of Colonel Lauman and myself,
announcing the unconditional surrender of Fort Donelson, giving us uninterrupted ingress into
and peaceful possession of its entire rebel contents. A full and complete statement of the number
of killed, wounded, and missing has in a previous report been supplied you.
In accordance with your order to allude to and particularize those deserving of
commendation, it affords me much pleasure to mention the following officers, viz: Colonel Bane
and Adjutant Brown, of the Fiftieth Illinois; Colonel Smith and staff, of the Fifty-second Indiana;
Colonel Woods and Major Brodtbeck, Twelfth Iowa, and Lieutenant-Colonel Babcock and
Major Rowett, Captain Monroe, Company B; Captain Ward, Company A; Captain Lawyer,
Company C, and Lieutenant Johnson, commanding Company I (Captain Mendell having been
killed in the first engagement), of the Seventh Illinois Volunteers, and the following gentlemen
of the medical staff, viz: Dr. R. L. Metcalf, surgeon, and James Hamilton, assistant surgeon,
Seventh Illinois; Dr. Finley, assistant surgeon of the Twelfth Iowa, and Dr. Brown, assistant
surgeon of the Thirteenth Missouri Volunteers, who were constantly upon the field, regardless of
danger and fatigue. Too high praise and commendation cannot be bestowed upon the medical
staff of my command. Being almost entirely destitute of staff officers myself, I cannot refrain
from an expression of both gratitude and approbation for the bravery and conduct exhibited by
Lieut. B. F. Smith, acting assistant adjutant-general of the Third Brigade, and Private John C.
Brand, composing my entire staff. Being repeatedly called upon to act in the same capacity
myself rendered the labors necessary for the proper command of the brigade more arduous than
upon any previous occasion.
There are doubtless many others deserving of especial mention at my hand for gallant
conduct, but, being almost wholly unacquainted with four regiments of my command, I am
unable to render to them the praise merited. Truth and justice require me to say that the entire
command behaved in a manner deserving of approbation, cheerfully enduring the fatigue and
exposure attendant upon the most inclement weather known in this latitude.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Commanding Third Brigade, Second Division.
Brig. Gen. C. F. SMITH,
Comdg. Second Division, District West Tennessee, U.S. Army.
February 9, 1862.
For the purpose of reorganizing and properly arranging the force in the District of
Southwestern Missouri the following assignment of troops is prescribed:
I. The Benton Hussars are attached to what has formerly been known as the Third Division,
and this division will hereafter be denominated the First Division.
II. The Fourth Missouri Cavalry, Colonel Waring commanding, is attached to the division
heretofore denominated the Fourth Division. Colonel Schaefer is appointed commander of the
First Brigade of the division, and Brigadier-General Asboth commanding division.
III. The two divisions thus designated are placed under the general command of Brigadier-
General Sigel.
IV. The First Missouri Cavalry, under Colonel Ellis, is assigned to the division of Col.
Jefferson C. Davis, which will be designated as the Third Division.
V. The Third Illinois Cavalry, the Ninth Iowa, and Dubuque Battery will constitute a brigade,
to be commanded by Col. William Vandever; the brigade now commanded by Colonel Dodge
and the brigade thus organized under Colonel Vandever will constitute the Fourth Division, to be
commanded by Colonel Carr.
VI. The remaining troops of this command, the Thirteenth Illinois, commanded by Colonel
Wyman, Colonel Phelps' regiment, Bowen's battalion, the Curtis Horse, and other troops not here
designated will report to these headquarters until otherwise ordered.
By order of Brig. Gen. S. R. Curtis:
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
Marshfield, February 10, 1862.
Capt. J. C. KELTON,
Assistant Adjutant-General :
CAPTAIN: The Iowa cavalry are not needed at Rolla; they are needed here. I wish the
general would allow them to come forward. Van Dorn is moving up to join Price. Shall try to
prevent junction. My columns are arriving here. Let the cavalry re-enforce me. Van Dorn has
promised 30,000 or 40,000 at Springfield very soon. Expects to be there with 10,000 by the 15th.
These are the hopes and expectations of the enemy. I move on to attack in detail.
Six Miles from Arkansas Line, in Arkansas, Feb. 18, 1862.
Capt. N. H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General :
The general's dispatch of the 14th is received. We rejoice again at the success of our
comrades in the East.
The enemy was re-enforced yesterday by the troops of McCulloch, and made another stand at
this place. His batteries opened fire upon us and were very soon replied to by mine. After a few
rounds of shot and shell I ordered a cavalry charge, which drove them from the high grounds
they occupied, with the loss of many killed and wounded and scattered. My loss is 13 killed and
15 to 20 wounded. Among the latter are Major Bowen, of my escort, in the wrist; my assistant
adjutant-general, Captain McKenny, severely but not dangerously; Captain Switzler, not
My advance camped at the battle ground. General Sigel's command is 4 miles back and will
reach me this morning. Have sent forward cavalry to annoy and explore. Cross Hollow is their
next point, 12 miles ahead. I shall await the arrival of the First and Second Divisions, as this is
their great boasted trap for the Federal army. Hope also the Third Iowa will arrive to-day.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Commerce, Mo.,February 25,1862.
The Twenty-sixth and Forty-seventh Illinois Regiments and the Fifth Iowa, with another
regiment hereafter to be designated, will form the Second Brigade of the Second Division, to be
commanded by Col. William H. Worthington, of Fifth Iowa Volunteers.
This brigade will march to-morrow morning as early as practicable to Benton, and there
report to Brig. Gen. John M. Palmer, commanding the Second Division.
Such of the sick of this brigade as are likely to be unfit for duty for some time and cannot be
cared for in their regiments will be shipped to Saint Louis by the first steamer.
Commanders of regiments will in no case send off any sick man without his descriptive
By order of General Pope:
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Camp Halleck, March 3, 1862.
Brig. Gen. FRANZ SIGEL, Commanding Division:
GENERAL: Yours of this morning is duly received. I shall remain here at Gross Hollow till
you move around to Sugar Creek, when we must intrench ourselves. I hope your movement will
secure a thorough knowledge of the country and roads passing around our Sugar Creek station.
The Third Iowa reconnoitered within 5 miles of Fayetteville to-day; there was no sign of any
movement; but the people speak of continued augmentation of the enemy's forces.
The mill run by Colonel Dodge— Blackman's Mill, 16 miles southeast of this place— -was
burned last night by the rebels, and they also burned considerable forage in that region.
Other matters of interest will be communicated when we meet at Sugar Greek, which must be
soon, as I desire our camp to be arranged in view of some defenses.
I am, general, &c.,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
New Madrid, March 12, 1862.
Brig. Gen. E. A. PAINE,
Commanding Fourth Division:
GENERAL: I have directed Colonel Elliott to report to you at daylight to-morrow morning
with the Second Iowa Cavalry, and also a battery of four pieces, now encamped with General
Hamilton's division. I desire you to hold your' division in readiness to march at daylight tomorrow
morning, with one day's cooked rations, full supply of ammunition, and everything in
complete order for fighting. As soon as you perceive Hamilton's division (on your right) in
motion, you will march your division to the road leading into New Madrid, through the center of
our lines, and down that road until you are barely out of range of the enemy's gunboats. You will
there remain until further orders. You will be careful to keep your pickets on the bayou road as
far towards the enemy as possible, that our left may not be turned without due warning. Form
your command in columns of division, doubled on the center, on each side of the road leading
into New Madrid, and keep them well in hand, so that you can advance against the enemy at the
shortest notice, being careful always to march well to the rear, so as to be quite out of range, and
not to draw the enemy's fire. I wish you, an hour after dark to-night, to re-enforce the lower
pickets along the bayou with four companies of sharpshooters, and direct them to feel their way
in towards the town and drive in the enemy's pickets, so as to distract his attention from the work
on the battery on our right. They had best keep up the enemy's alarm on our left in this way the
greater part of the night. Orders will be sent to you in time for further movements.
I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Saint Louis, March 21, 1862.
Col. S. H. BOYD, Rolla, Mo.:
Send forward to General Curtis all available forces and ammunition without delay.
Additional troops will be sent from here as soon as they can be armed.
If any of the Fourth Iowa Cavalry refuse to go forward immediately arrest them for mutiny
and place them in confinement.
Jefferson City, Mo., March 23, 1862.
Capt. N.H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General:
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a communication, dated Saint
Louis, Mo., March 21, 1862, from Major-General Halleck, commanding the department,
touching certain reports of disturbances in La Fayette, Jackson, and Johnson Counties, in this
State. His instructions shall be attended to carefully and at the earliest possible day.
In connection with this, I would also mention, for the information of the major-general
commanding, that I have just heard rumors from other sources of a disorderly state of things in
Bates County, where a certain scoundrel, Jackman, heads a band of robbers and desperadoes,
numbering, it is reported by Colonel Warren, as high as 500. Before my arrival here my
predecessor, General McKean, had given orders which, when carried out, places eight companies
of the First Iowa Cavalry and one section First Missouri Light Artillery at Clinton, Henry
County. The object of this was undoubtedly to watch Jackman in Bates County, and also to keep
an eye to the quiet of the other counties adjacent to Henry. The order of General McKean directs
two companies First Iowa Cavalry, stationed at Lexington, to proceed to Sedalia when relieved
by Companies A and C, Missouri State Militia, from Booneville.
The two companies First Iowa Cavalry from Lexington are represented as being broken
down in horses and as requiring rest. When these two companies reach Sedalia, and General
McKean's orders are complied with, there will be four companies of cavalry at Sedalia.
I am, captain, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Jefferson City, Mo., April 3, 1862.
Capt. N.H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Saint Louis, Mo.:
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report, for the information of the Major-general commanding,
that official communications from Col. Fitz Henry Warren, First Iowa Cavalry, bearing date
Clinton, Mo., March 30, 1862, have been received, announcing the arrival of two of his scouting
parties. One brought in 15 prisoners, 5 horses, I secession ambulance, 2 wagons, and 2 yoke of
oxen belonging to Price's army. Two rebels were wounded; I fatally. The second detachment
mentioned returned with 4 prisoners, 3 horses, and I mule. One of our soldiers, Kelley, a gallant
boy of Company K, is badly wounded in the ankle and thigh.
At that date Colonel Warren had also two other detachments out. He seems to be following
up the guerrillas, of whom there are many in that quarter, with commendable energy.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Jefferson City, Mo., April 5, 1862.
1. Maj. W. M. G. Torrence, commanding at Warrensburg, will furnish Col. John A. Turley,
formerly of the Eighty-first Ohio Volunteers, every assistance and facility in his power to enable
him to thoroughly investigate the cause and manner of his brother's recent death at Warrensburg,
2. Major Torrence will take measures to examine into the circumstances connected with the
murder of Mr. Turley. Also those attending the causes recently reported by Captain Thompson,
First Iowa Cavalry, viz, the burning of the residence, furniture, &c., of Colonel McCowan; the
shooting of Mr. Burrgess and his brother, and the burning of their dwelling; the killing by
Captain Houts' company of Mr. Piper on March 30, and the burning of some five dwellings by
the same, and any other misdemeanors which may come to his notice. He will place in arrest and
prefer charges against such officers or men as an examination shall indicate as guilty of these
outrages without sufficient cause. A minute report will be made to these headquarters upon these
cases, supported by charges and specifications, where wrong has been committed upon quiet and
unoffending citizens peaceably occupying their homes.
In these investigations Major Torrence will be guided by General Orders, No. 8, of
November 26, 1861, General Orders, No. 13, of December 4, 1861, Department of the Missouri,
and the thirty-second, thirty-third, forty-first, fifty-first, and fifty-fourth Articles of War.
By command of Brig. Gen. James Totten, commanding district:
Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General.
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
Commanding Department of the Missouri:
GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith copy of a report addressed to your
headquarters by Lieutenant Amory. The original report I forwarded through General Pope's
headquarters. I have no doubt but that this is a correct report of the affair. Lieutenant Amory
thinks that justice was not done him in General Pope's report. Lieutenant Amory's account is
corroborated by Dr. Brodie and Lieutenant Gordon. If the matter were investigated I think it
would be found that there are other inaccuracies in the official report of the expedition and affair
near Milford.
I have the honor to be, general, your obedient servant,
Colonel Eighth Iowa Infantry, commanding at Sedalia.
January 10, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to report that in compliance with your order I marched my
command to Booneville, and was there joined by three companies of Merrill's Horse, under
Major Hunt, and at the earliest day possible crossed the Missouri River, and reached camp near
Fayette on the evening of the 5th instant, when I was there joined by four companies of the First
Missouri, under command of Major Hubbard, and one company of the Fourth Ohio, Captain
Foster. We proceeded at once to gather information of the enemy's movements by sending scouts
through different portions of this and adjoining counties.
On the 7th instant reconnaissances in force were made to Glasgow, Roanoke, and
surrounding country, and information received that one Colonel Poindexter was recruiting in this
and other counties, and that he had his principal camp somewhere on the headwaters of Silver
Creek, with a force of regularly enlisted men from 600 to 800 strong, together with an equal
number of aiders and abettors of rebellion. Early upon the morning of the 8th instant we moved
out of camp with 500 mounted men in search of their camp, and marched to Roanoke, 15 miles
distant, and then in the direction of Silver Creek. When within 4 miles of where the camp was
reported to be the column was halted, and the following disposition made of our forces: To
Major Hunt was assigned the command of that portion of his forces armed with carbines, and
with Major Hubbard's command and Captain Foster's company to form the advance of the
column, to attack the camp, draw their fire, and reply with carbines, when the First Iowa and a
portion of Merrill's Horse were to charge upon the camp, mounted, if possible, and if not
practicable charge with revolver and saber on foot. To Lieutenant Dustin, of Company F, First
Iowa, was assigned the advance guard, supported by Lieutenant Burrows, First Missouri.
All being in readiness the column moved forward rapidly, the advance guard driving the
enemy's pickets and rushing to the entrance of the camp. The column followed soon after,
dismounted, and drew the enemy's fire. They were in a strong position, being protected by
ravines, thick underbrush, and timber. Their volley was promptly answered by our forces pouring
in a galling fire. Three companies of the First Iowa and a part of a company of Merrill's Horse
were then ordered forward to charge the camp, which was promptly done. The enemy were now
thrown into confusion and soon began to retreat, leaving horses, guns, together with camp and
garrison equipage. It was a complete rout, as the appearance of the camp fully attested. Two
companies from the rear were ordered to cut off their retreat, but the darkness and heavy fog,
together with the thick underbrush, rendered it impossible.
To avoid surprise and to be able to move all our forces forward an order was given to destroy
the camp and look up dead and wounded. This was soon accomplished, and the darkness
forbidding further pursuit, the whole command was then moved to camp, 23 miles distant. The
prompt action of the troops throughout is worthy of the highest praise. Lieutenant Dustin is
worthy of honorable mention for his gallant conduct in leading the advance guard; also Major
Hunt, of Merrill's Horse; Captains Clinton and Mondell, of the First Missouri, for their gallant
and cool bearing during the entire action.
The loss of the enemy cannot be actually ascertained, but from the most reliable information
their loss in killed and wounded cannot be less than 80 to 100.
Yours, most obediently,
Major, First Battalion, First Iowa Cavalry.
Brigadier-General Pope.,
Otterille, Mo.
Columbia, Mo., January 10, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report that on the night of Sunday, the 5th, nearly at daylight,
I received a dispatch from Colonel Birge (at Sturgeon), stating that a party of some 300 or 400
rebels had camped that night at Renick, and were to move next morning to Roanoke, some 12 or
15 miles from there, with the object of crossing the river at Arrow Rock or Brunswick, and
stating that he would attempt to overtake them by daylight of the 6th, and requesting me to cooperate.
Not approving the plan proposed for me by Colonel Birge, I sent Lieutenant-Colonel
Shaffer, with all the men I could spare, to go by way of Fayette and thence north towards
Roanoke and cut off the retreat of the enemy, should Colonel Birge's command not succeed in
overtaking him at Renick. Colonel Birge, I understand, went to Renick, and not finding the
enemy, returned to Sturgeon the same day. Lieutenant-Colonel Shaffer reached Fayette late the
night of the 6th, and there found a large cavalry force, consisting of detachments from the First
Missouri Cavalry, under command of Major Hubbard, First Iowa Cavalry, under Major
Torrence, and Merrill's Horse, under Major Hunt. He then learned during the night that the
enemy, variously estimated at from 1,300 to 2,500, were encamped on Smith's farm, about o
miles from Roanoke. At the same time he received information that the remains of the command
of Colonel Dorsey, which had been engaged in the Mount Zion fight, was then marching to
attack me at Columbia. I had only part of one company left when Colonel Shaffer left me, and he
knew that part of that would be sent to Jefferson City to escort the provision train. Early next
morning he sent the command of Major Hubbard, which he had found at Fayette, re-enforced by
one company of his own command, to find the enemy's camp, and returned at once to Columbia
with the rest of his command.
Major Hubbard found the enemy's camp about 14 miles northwest of Fayette about 3 o'clock
p.m., and immediately attacked them, routing them completely and taking possession of their
camp, which he entirely destroyed. I have no official reports of the engagement from the part of
my regiment engaged, and I presume before this Major Hubbard's reports have been received.
The loss of my regiment was 2 killed and 3 wounded. The enemy's loss is not positively
reported, but 5 are known to have been killed and 14 taken prisoners. This is only what is
certainly known.
Capt. J. B. Watson, of the rebel army (and believed to have been concerned in the Magi
burning), now on recruiting service near here, was captured, with two of his men, to-day by a
part of my command.
I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Commanding Merrill's Horse.
Capt. J. C. KELTON,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Bird's Point, Mo., January 8, 1862.
SIR: In pursuance of your orders, on the 7th instant I took the cars with my command at 9
o'clock p.m. We left the cars at 11 p.m., joined the cavalry attached to my command, and
proceeded towards Prairie road, on which, at one Swank's house, a body of Tennessee cavalry,
numbering about 1,000 men, were supposed to be encamped. I formed my line as follows: Guide
and two troops at the head of the column; Company A, Tenth Regiment Iowa Volunteers, as
advance guards; then formed the detachment of the same regiment and that of the Twentieth
Illinois, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Small, of the Tenth Iowa, the cavalry in the
center; then the detachment from the Eleventh and Twenty-second Illinois Regiments, under the
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Ransom, the Twenty-second bringing up the rear. We
proceeded in the greatest and perfect stillness, my instructions being to surprise and fight the
rebel forces. The night was cloudy and rainy. Our guide several times lost his way, which
delayed our progress considerably. At last, at 4 o'clock in the morning, we heard the distant and
faint sound of a bugle. Marching on, we emerged into a more open country and a better-beaten
road, but our guide having lost all calculation he did not know which side to take, and was
obliged to awake the inmates of a farm-house and led us in the direction indicated by them. We
passed seven farm-houses without molestation.
Towards 5 o'clock we found ourselves on the back track to Charleston. Here only was I
informed by the guide that we had passed the pretended camp of the rebels. I think he did not
know it himself. We marched a short distance in this direction, till we reached a farm-house
with the door open and fire and light in the room. As it looked to me a little suspicious, I detailed
Captain Stoddard, with a squad of men, to visit it. He entered it, and found the owner, Mr.
Rodan, washing himself, and the different members of his family at household work. When
asked whether he had seen any rebel soldiers, he replied that he had seen but one soldier during
the last two weeks. Nothing extraordinary having been discovered, Captain Stoddard returned to
his post, and we resumed our march. We had not proceeded more than 150 yards when, as soon
as the guide and advance guards passed, a body of rebels, almost 75 or 80 men, ambuscaded on
the right of the road behind a rail fence, opened upon the detachment of the Tenth Iowa a deadly
fire, covering almost all its length. I was at the head of this detachment, with Lieutenant-Colonel
Small, commanding. The men were thrown into confusion, returned the fire at random, and
probably without effect, but by our united efforts they were rallied in less than two minutes.
Captains Randleman and Lusby, having been ordered to cross the fence and pursue the rebels,
did it with spirit and promptitude, but the rebels, as usual, disappeared. Not knowing the force of
the rebels, I thought it prudent to reform our line to the rear in the woods on our left, and began
the painful duty of collecting our sick and wounded. Assistant Surgeon Dr. Willey, and his aid,
Ephraim R. Davis, steward, took with considerable zeal and activity to their work, and a little
later were ably assisted by Dr. Bailey, of the Twentieth Illinois. Short as the fire was, the Tenth
Iowa had 5 killed, 2 mortally wounded, and 15 more or less severely. The line of ambuscade did
not reach the other detachment. I must remark that even towards dawn the darkness was so
intense that I did not dare to push my advance guard forward. I followed it closely for fear that
we might lose each other. I could not throw out any flanks, because, even at the shortest distance,
the connection must have to be kept up by hailing, which would have frustrated all attempts to
surprise the rebels, by giving them early and continued warning. Deplorable as the result has
been, I have to congratulate the promptitude with which every officer and man, notwithstanding
the effect of first surprise, obeyed every order. Lieutenant-Colonel Small and all the officers
have done their duty. On the 8th instant, in the morning, we put our sick on the cars and returned
to our quarters.
The man Rodan having willfully and damnably denied all knowledge of the presence of the
rebels, while in all probability the ambush proceeded from his house, I arrested and had him
turned over to the officer of the post guard. He is at all events guilty of a capital crime, having
misled us by his feigned ignorance and caused by this our severe loss. The charges against him
will be made out and forwarded to the proper place.
Finally let me add the acknowledgment of prompt obedience and strict preservation of order
to all officers and men of the other detachments composing my command.
I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
Colonel, Commanding Expedition,
Brig. Gen. E. A. PAINE,
Commanding Bird's Point.
February 18, 1862.
CAPTAIN: The general's dispatch of the 14th is received. We rejoice again at the success of
our comrades in the East.
The enemy was re-enforced yesterday by the troops of McCulloch and made another stand at
this place. His batteries opened on us and were very soon replied to by mine. After a few rounds
of shot and shell I ordered a cavalry charge, which drove them from the high grounds they
occupy, with the loss of many killed, wounded, and scattered. My loss is 13 killed and 15 or 20
wounded. Among the latter are Major Bowen, of my escort, in the wrist; my assistant adjutantgeneral,
Captain McKenny, severely cut, but not dangerously; Captain Switzler, not dangerously.
My advance encamped on the battle ground. General Sigel's command is 4 miles back and
will reach me this morning. Have sent cavalry forward to annoy and explore. Cross Hollow is
their next point, 12 miles ahead. I shall also await the arrival of the First and Second Divisions,
as this is their great boasted trap for the Federal Army. Hope also the Third Iowa will arrive today.
Very respectfully, &c.,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Capt. N. H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General
February 20, 1862.
GENERAL: Learning that the secession flag was in Mount Vernon, and that a small party of
Price's soldiers (cut off by your advance to the southward) had entered the place, I dispatched
Captain Mudgett, of the Third Iowa Cavalry, with 30 men of his command, to capture them.
They left here on the 18th and returned on the evening of the 19th, having been perfectly
successful. They took the flag and 5 prisoners, and once more raised the Stars and Stripes over
the courthouse.
I have discovered the whereabouts of some 125 rebels some 28 miles from here, who were
cut off from joining Price, and axe reported to have a train with them. I have organized a
sufficient force, and as soon as my spies return shall send after them.
Respectfully, yours,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Post.
Brigadier-General CURTIS,
Commanding Army of Southwest
[Received Saint Louis, February 21, 1862.]
I sent a cavalry three under Brigadier-General Asboth yesterday to take Bentonville. A small
force was routed; their equipments taken; a large flag, arms, and teams were brought in. It is
difficult to procure information of the topography of the country. Cross Hollow is a deep ravine,
in thick brush, flanked by the White River Mountains.
General Sigel's force and five companies of the Third Iowa have arrived, so my force is again
united. I want to take Cross Hollow and Fayetteville, but see nothing else this side of the
Arkansas River worth going after, and I have no means of crossing that river. Forage and meat
are found in abundance, but the taking of it is attended with considerable labor, and tends to
demoralize my troops and draw after me a horde of camp followers, who commit many outrages.
The scattered blankets and coats on the field show that the enemy had made a more extensive
arrangement for battle than I supposed. Their rout wits complete, but, they keep their artillery so
far back in defiles I have not yet been able to secure it. I shall make a reconnaissance in force
today, and have private scouts also busy feeling the enemy in his brushy cavern.
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Capt. N. H. McCLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
No. 1. -- Report of Lieut. Col. S. N. Wood, Sixth Missouri Cavalry.
Rolla, February 26, 1862.
COLONEL: According to your order of February 15 I left camp Sunday, February 16, 1862,
with all my available force, consisting of Company A, Capt. S. A. Breese, 42 men; Company B,
Captain Hackney, 25 men; Company C, Lieutenants Martin and Hawkins, 27 men; Company D,
Capt. E. M. Morris, 29 men; Company E, Captain De Gress and Lieutenant Cole, 29 men; total,
152; arrived at Salem, Mo., the same evening, and reported to Major Drake, Third Iowa Cavalry;
got what information I could, and we mutually agreed upon an expedition south, and both went
to work to get our commands ready to move. Major Drake's command consisted of Captain
Miller and Lieutenant Cherrie and 60 men, Lieutenant McDannal and 50 men; total, 110 men;
making a total force of 262 men; Company A, of my battalion, taking along their mountain
howitzer. We camped Monday night 8 miles south of Salem. Tuesday we traveled 30 miles, to
Roark's store, in Spring Valley. Wednesday morning at 1 o'clock we were in our saddles and on
our way to either Thomasville or West Plains. Eight miles brought us to Harlow's Mill, a
notorious rebel rendezvous, and 30 miles from either Thomasville or West Plains. A cold sleet
had fallen all the morning. My men were completely saturated and almost frozen. We were
compelled to halt and build fires to keep from freezing.
Here I learned that Coleman's infantry was at West Plains, but no troops in Thomasville.
Where Coleman himself was I could not learn. I immediately detailed a small wagon guard, and
with the balance of command, including our mountain howitzer, pushed on 30 miles to West
Plains. I sent Major Drake with the Third Iowa Battalion to take position on the south and east of
the town. I sent Companies D, E, and C to the west, and prepared to enter the town on the north
with Company A and the howitzer, supported on our left by Company B. At 3 p.m. we thus had
the town completely surrounded. We advanced and entered the place, a brisk firing having
commenced on our part. Not over half a dozen shots were fired by the rebels, they breaking and
running in every direction. Supposing them posted in force in the court-house, Sergeant Moody
opened fire upon the building with the howitzer. One shot with canister covered the entire front
with bullet-holes. A shell passed through both walls and three partitions and then exploded.
The contest was brief. None killed or wounded on our side. Their loss was 5 killed, 1
mortally wounded (died before leaving the place), 8 slightly wounded, and 60 taken prisoners.
We remained in town (which is only 10 miles from the Arkansas line) until the next day (20th) at
2 p.m. Of the prisoners taken about 20 were released, as there was no evidence connecting them
with the rebel army. We also captured about 40 horses and 60 stand of arms, together with
several wagons. I append a list of prisoners and captured property.
At 2 p.m. Tuesday (20th), learning that Colonel Coleman and 30 men were in Texas County,
we marched north 20 miles to Hutton Valley, made one or two arrests, sending scouts in all
directions to ascertain Coleman's position. We remained in Hulton Valley until noon (21st), but
hearing nothing of Coleman we marched 20 miles north to Elk Creek. Saturday I marched the
main command to Houston, sending Captain De Gress and 20 men to Smiley's Mill for flour.
Captain De Gress fell in with a party of 11 rebels, killed 2 and took 1 prisoner, arriving at camp
at 9 o'clock p.m. Believing that other parties of rebels were in the county, I determined to scout
the whole county.
I immediately prepared orders, and from 2 to 4 a.m. Sunday morning had sent out seven
scouting parties of from 15 to 20 each. Hearing that Coleman had a fort near Smiley's Mill, I sent
Captain Breese and 20 men to ascertain the fact, and if true to destroy it. The captain found a
large frame house, the property of Dick Smiley. The inside partitions had been removed. Logs
had been put up as high as a man's breast all around the house. Outside of this a ditch had been
dug, the dirt being thrown between the logs and the building. A door had been heavily planked
and port-holes cut just above the logs, making a position, if occupied by a few men, hard to take
without artillery. Captain Breese set fire to it and burned it down. Lieutenant Cherrie returned
before night, having found 10 armed rebels at Judge Gilmore's, and captured the entire party.
Three or four other prisoners were taken.
Monday morning, being satisfied' Colonel Coleman and party had escaped south, and no
further work left for us to do, and being out of provisions, I directed Major Drake to return with
his command to Salem, taking my own command, prisoners, and horses, and returning to Rolla,
arriving here at I o'clock this day. The total number of prisoners is 60.
In conclusion I must bear testimony to the gallantry of the officers and soldiers constituting
the command. We started with but five days' rations of sugar and coffee and but two of other
articles, depending upon what the country afforded for subsistence. Without tents, traveling 225
miles in ten days, sleeping on the ground, half of the command constantly on guard, yet both
officers and men endured it all without a murmur.
I have the honor, colonel, to be, your obedient servant,
S. N. WOOD. Lieut. Col.,
Commanding Wood's Battalion, Sixth Mo. Vols.
Col. J. B. WYMAN,
Commanding Post, Rolla, Mo.
No. 2. -- Report of Maj. William C. Drake, Third Iowa Cavalry.
March 4, 1862.
I have been unable to make regular reports of my command, owing to absence on sundry and
divers scouts, &c. At the time our last report should have been made we were out on a scout in
On February 17, 120 of my command were attached to Lieut. Col. S. N. Wood's battalion of
120 men, under orders to scout through Dent, Shannon, Howell, and Texas Counties. We
returned, bringing with us 100 prisoners, 80 horses, mules, &c., 80 rifles and shot-guns, 2 kegs
of powder, a large lot of commissary stores, and other contraband articles, including wagons,
ambulance, buggy, &c., most of which were captured at West Plains, the county seat of Howell
County, and the balance at Houston, the county seat of Texas.
West Plains was the headquarters of Colonel Coleman, the guerrilla chief of this country. He
had there at the time of our descent about 40 infantry, forming a nucleus for a regiment of Price's
army. Himself and his cavalry force were absent on a scout. At about a mile and a half before
reaching the town Colonel Wood's battalion and ours separated, to enter the town from different
sides. Our boys got there first and made the attack, resulting in 6 killed and 10 wounded of the
enemy and the rest prisoners. After the fight was all over Wood's men came up.
Our boys behaved like veterans and did credit to your command. We expected to find
Coleman and his mounted men there and looked for quite a brush, but we were disappointed. At
Houston we expected a fight, but found no one there to oppose our entry. Took possession of the
town; remained there over Sunday, and returned on Monday to Salem. Colonel Wood took
prisoners and property to Rolla. General Halleck telegraphed to General McClellan that Colonel
Wood had driven the rebels from Dent, Shannon, Howell, and Texas Counties.
The Third Iowa Cavalry was not mentioned, at which the boys feel highly indignant after
doing all the work.
For state of my command would refer you to accompanying report.
With great respect, I am, your obedient servant,
Major, Commanding.
Fayetteville, Washington Co., Ark., Feb. 23, 1862--11.20 o'clock.
GENERAL: I am now in Fayetteville. The Stars and Stripes float from its court-house. The
enemy's picket, driven in by my men, retreated from the town, and, joined by some others, are
drawn up at a short distance from it. The buildings in the town square are still burning. We have
already several prisoners taken in arms, among them two officers. Your instructions as to the
occupation of the town will be fully complied with. The Third Iowa Cavalry I now order to
charge upon the enemy.
Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.
Commanding Southwestern District, Dept. of the Missouri.
NEW MADRID, MO., April 1, 1862.
Was absent when your dispatch arrived. Canal is finished and boats now descending bayou to
this place; expect them here to-night. Enemy commenced erecting batteries at points of high
land, only landing places on river; little serious to be feared from them. Our floating battery,
properly placed, will deal easily with them or any other obstacle to landing. Have erected two
batteries, of two 32s each, but a mile and a half below the 24-pounder battery, opposite mouth of
slough (see sketch sent you). These batteries cover handsomely the landing on opposite shore. I
have no apprehension of the result. Commodore Foote promises to run a couple of his boats past
Island No. 10 to-night. If so, all difficulty is over. Troops in fine condition and can be relied on.
Railroad to Sikeston under water and roads to Commerce bad. Best send anything for this
command to Island No. 8, with orders to Colonel Buford to send it through the canal in barges or
flats; easy communication in this way for stores. Do not be uneasy; no precaution will be
omitted, and there is no fear of the result in the command. I telegraphed yesterday that gunboats
had again been repulsed by our Iowa battery, one of them so badly damaged as to drift broadside
down the river, unable to work her engines.
General HALLECK.
Camp five miles from Corinth, Miss., May 2, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations which resulted
in the capture of Island No. 10 and the batteries on the main shore, together with the whole of the
land forces of the enemy in that vicinity. A brief sketch of the topography of the immediate
neighborhood seems essential to a full understanding of the operations of the army.
Island No. 10 lies at the bottom of a great bend of the Mississippi, immediately north of it
being a long, narrow promontory on the Missouri shore. The river from Island No. 10 flows
northwest to New Madrid, where it again makes a great bend to the south as far as Tiptonville,
otherwise called Meriwether's Landing, so that opposite New Madrid also is a long narrow
promontory. From Island No. 8 across the land to New Madrid is 6 miles, while by river it is 15;
so likewise the distance from Island No. 10 to Tiptonville is 5 miles, while by water it is 27.
Commencing at Hickman, a great swamp, which afterwards becomes Reelfoot Lake, extends
along the left bank of the Mississippi and discharges its waters into the river 40 miles below
Tiptonville, leaving the whole peninsula opposite New Madrid between it and the river. This
peninsula, therefore, is itself an island, having the Mississippi River on three sides and Reelfoot
Lake and the great swamps which border it on the other. A good road leads from Island No. 10
along the west bank of Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. The only means of supply, therefore, for the
forces at and around Island No. 10 in this peninsula were by the river. When the river was
blockaded at New Madrid supplies and re-enforcements were landed at Tiptonville and conveyed
across the neck of the peninsula by land. There was no communication with the interior except
by a small flat-boat, which plied across Reelfoot Lake, a distance of 2 miles, and that through an
opening cut through cypress swamps for the purpose. Supplies and re-enforcements or escape to
any considerable extent were therefore impracticable on the land side. One mile below
Tiptonville begin the great swamps along the Mississippi on both sides, and no dry ground is to
be found except in occasional spots for at least 60 miles below. By intercepting the navigation of
the river below Tiptonville and commanding by heavy artillery the lowest point of dry ground
near that place the enemy would be at once cut off from his resources and prevented from
Immediately after the reduction of New Madrid this subject engaged my attention. The roads
along the river in the direction of Point Pleasant followed a narrow strip of dry land between the
swamps and the river, and were very miry and difficult. With much labor the heavy guns
captured from the enemy at New Madrid were dragged by hand and established in battery at
several prominent points along the river, the lower battery being placed immediately opposite the
lowest point of dry ground below Tiptonville. This extended my lines 17 miles along the river. A
week was thus passed in severe labor. The enemy, perceiving the consequence of establishing
these batteries, attempted in every way by his gunboats to prevent their construction. They were
therefore in every case established in the night. As soon as daylight unmasked our lowest battery
the enemy saw at once that we must either be dislodged or all reliable communication with his
forces would be cut off. Five gunboats, therefore, at once advanced against the battery, which
consisted of two 24-pounder siege guns and two 10-pounder Parrotts, manned by a detachment
of the First United States Infantry, under Lieutenant Bates, and supported by General Palmer's
division, encamped 1 miles in rear. Rifle pits for 500 sharpshooters were dug on the flanks of
the battery, close to the river bank, and were constantly occupied. The gunboats ran up to within
300 yards, and a furious cannonade was kept up for an hour and a half, when they were repulsed
with the loss of one gunboat sunk, several badly damaged, and many men shot down at their
guns by our sharpshooters from the rifle pits. Our loss was 1 man killed. From that time no
attempt was made against the battery, and all communication from below with the forces near
Island No. 10 cut off. One of the gunboats would occasionally, during a dark night, steal up close
along the opposite shore to Tiptonville, but always at such great risk that it was seldom
undertaken. Neither supplies nor men could be taken up or carried off in this way.
Such was the condition of affair's on the 16th of March. The object for which the land forces
had been moved upon New Madrid was accomplished in the capture of that place and the
blockade of the river to any supplies and re-enforcements for the enemy at and around Island No.
Meantime the flotilla had been firing at long range both from the gun and mortar boats at the
batteries of the enemy on and opposite the island for seven consecutive days without any
apparent effect and without any advance whatever toward their reduction. This result was
doubtless due to defective construction of the boats.
On the 16th of March I received your dispatch, directing me if possible to construct a road
through the swamps to a point on the Missouri shore opposite Island No. 10 and transfer a
portion of my force sufficient to erect batteries at that point to assist in the artillery practice on
the enemy's batteries. I accordingly dispatched Col. J. W. Bissell, Engineer Regiment, to
examine the country with this view, directing him at the same time, if he found it impracticable
to build a road through the swamps and overflow of the river, to ascertain whether it were
possible to dig a canal across the peninsula from some point above Island No. 10 to New Madrid,
in order that steam transports might be brought to me, which would enable my command to cross
the river. The idea of the canal was suggested to me by General Schuyler Hamilton in a
conversation upon the necessity of crossing the river and assailing the enemy's batteries near
Island No. 10 in the rear.
On the 17th March I suggested to Commodore Foote by letter that he should run the enemy's
batteries with one of his gunboats, and thus enable me to cross the river with my command,
assuring him that by this means I could throw into the rear of the enemy men enough to deal with
any force he might have. This request the commodore declined on the ground of impracticability.
Colonel Bissell having reported a road impracticable, but that a route could be found for a
channel sufficient for small steamers, I immediately directed him to commence the canal with his
whole regiment, and to call on Colonel Buford, commanding the land forces temporarily with the
flotilla, which had been placed under my command, for any assistance in men or material
necessary for the work. Supplies of such articles as were needed and four steamers of light
draught were sent for to Cairo, and the work begun. It was my purpose to make the canal deep
enough for the gunboats, but it was not found practicable to do so within any reasonable period.
The work performed by Colonel Bissell and his regiment of engineers was beyond measure
difficult, and its completion was delayed much beyond my expectations. The canal is 12 miles
long, 6 miles of which are through very heavy timber. An avenue 50 feet wide was made through
it by sawing off trees of large size 4 feet under water. For nineteen days the work was
prosecuted with untiring energy and determination, under exposures and privations very unusual
even in the history of warfare. It was completed on the 4th of April, and will long remain a
monument of enterprise and skill.
During all this period the flotilla had kept up its fire upon the batteries of the enemy, but
without making any progress toward their reduction. It had by this time become very apparent
that the capture of Island No. 10 could not be made unless the land forces could be thrown across
the river and their works carried by the rear; but during this long delay, the enemy, anticipating
such a movement, had erected batteries along the shore from Island No. 10 entirely around to
Tiptonville at every point where troops could be landed. The difficulty of crossing the river in
force had therefore been greatly increased, and what would have been a comparatively safe
undertaking three weeks before had become one full of peril. It is not necessary to state to you
that the passage of a great river, lined with batteries and in the face of the enemy, is one of the
most difficult and hazardous operations of war, and cannot be justified except in a case of urgent
necessity. Such a case seemed presented for my action. Without this movement operations
against Island No. 10 must have been abandoned and the land forces at least withdrawn. It is but
bare justice to say that although the full peril of the movement was thoroughly understood by my
whole command, there was not an officer or man who was not anxious to be placed in the
There seemed little hope of any assistance from the gunboats. I therefore had several heavy
coal-barges brought into the upper end of the canal, which during the progress of the work were
made into floating batteries. Each battery consisted of three heavy barges, lashed together and
bolted with iron. The middle barge was bulk-headed all around, so as to give 4 feet of thickness
of solid timber both at the sides and on the ends. The heavy guns, three in number, were mounted
on it, and protected by traverses of sand bags. It also carried 80 sharpshooters. The barges
outside of it had a first layer in the bottom of empty water-tight barrels, securely lashed, then
layers of dry cottonwood rafts and cotton bales packed close. They were then floored over at top
to keep everything in its place, so that a shot penetrating the outer barges must pass through 20
feet of rails and cotton before reaching the middle one, which carried the men and guns. The
arrangements of water barrels and cotton bales was made in order that, even if penetrated
frequently by the enemy's shot and filled with water, the outer barges could not sink. It was my
purpose, when all was ready, to tow one or two of these batteries over the river to a point exactly
opposite New Madrid, where swamps prevented any access to the river, and where the enemy,
therefore, had been unable to establish his batteries. When near the shore the floating batteries,
with their crews, were to be cut loose from the steamers and allowed to float down the river to
the point selected for landing the troops. As soon as they arrived within short range of it they
were to cast out their anchors, so as to hold the barges firmly, and open fire upon the enemy's
batteries. I think that these batteries would have accomplished their purpose, and my whole force
volunteered to man them. They were well provided with small boats, to be kept out of danger,
and even if the worst happened, and the batteries were sunk by the enemy's fire, the men would
meet with no worse fate than capture.
On the 5th April the steamers and barges were brought near to the mouth of the bayou which
discharges into the Mississippi at New Madrid, but were kept carefully out of sight of the river
whilst our floating batteries were being completed. The enemy, as we afterwards learned, had
received positive advices of the construction of the canal, but were unable to believe that such a
work was practicable. The first assurance they had of its completion was the appearance of the
four steamers loaded with troops on the morning of the 7th April.
On the 4th Commodore Foote allowed one of the gunboats to run the batteries at Island No.
10, and Captain Walke, U.S. Navy, who had volunteered (as appears from the commodore's
order to him), came through that night with the gunboat Carondelet. Although many shots were
fired at him as he passed the batteries, his boat was not once struck. He informed me of his
arrival early on the 5th.
On the morning of the 6th I sent General Granger, Colonel Smith, of the Forty-third Ohio,
and Capt. L. H. Marshall, of my staff, to make a reconnaissance of the river below, and requested
Captain Walke to take them on board the Carondelet and run down the river, to ascertain
precisely the character of the banks and the position and number of the enemy's batteries. The
whole day was spent in this reconnaissance, the Carondelet steaming down the river in the midst
of a heavy fire from the enemy's batteries along the shore. The whole bank for 15 miles was
lined with heavy guns at intervals, in no case exceeding 1 mile. Intrenchments for infantry were
also thrown up along the shore between the batteries. On his return up the river Captain Walke
silenced the enemy's batteries opposite Point Pleasant, and a small infantry force, under Capt. L.
H. Marshall, landed and spiked the guns.
On the night of the 6th, at my urgent request, Commodore Foote ordered the Pittsburgh also
to run down to New Madrid. She arrived at daylight, having, like the Carondelet, come through
untouched. I directed Captain Walke to proceed down the river at daylight on the 7th with two
gunboats, and if possible silence the batteries near Watson's Landing, the point which had been
selected to land the troops, and at the same time I brought the four steamers into the river, and
embarked Paine's division, which consisted of the Tenth, Sixteenth, Twenty-second, and Fiftyfirst
Illinois Regiments, with Houghtaling's battery of artillery.
The land batteries of 32-pounders, under Captain Williams, First United States Infantry,
which I had established some days before, opposite the point where the troops were to land, were
ordered to open their fire upon the enemy's batteries opposite as soon as it was possible to see
A heavy storm commenced on the night of the 6th, and continued with short intermission for
several days. The morning of the 7th was very dark, and the rain fell heavily until midday. As
soon as it was fairly light our heavy batteries on the land opened their fire vigorously upon the
batteries of the enemy, and the two gunboats ran down the river and joined in the action.
I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of Captain Walke during the whole of these
operations. Prompt, gallant, and cheerful, he performed the hazardous service assigned him with
signal skill and success. About 12 o'clock m. he signaled me that the batteries near our place of
landing were silenced, and the steamers containing Paine's division moved out from the landing
and began to cross the river, preceded by the gunboats.
The whole force designed to cross had been drawn up along the river bank, and saluted the
passing steamers with cheers of exultation. As soon as we began to cross the river the enemy
commenced to evacuate his position along the bank and the batteries along the Tennessee shore
opposite Island No. 10. His whole force was in motion towards Tiptonville, with the exception
of the few artillerists on the island, who in the haste of retreat had been abandoned.
As Paine's division was passing opposite the point I occupied on the shore one of my spies,
who had crossed on the gunboats from the silenced battery, informed me of this hurried retreat of
the enemy. I signaled General Paine to stop his boats, and sent him the information, with orders
to land as rapidly as possible on the opposite shore and push forward to Tiptonville, to which
point the enemy's forces were tending from every direction. I sent no force to occupy the
deserted batteries opposite Island No. 10, as it was my first purpose to capture the whole army of
the enemy.
At 8 or 9 o'clock that night (the 7th) the small force abandoned on the island, finding
themselves deserted, and fearing an attack in the rear from our land forces, which they knew had
crossed the river in the morning, sent a message to Commodore Foote, surrendering to him. The
divisions were pushed forward to Tiptonville as fast as they were landed, Paine leading. The
enemy attempted to make a stand several times near that place, but Paine did not once deploy his
columns. By midnight all our forces were across the river and pushing forward rapidly to
The enemy, retreating before Paine and from Island No. 10, met at Tiptonville during the
night in great confusion, and were driven back into the swamps by the advance of our forces,
until, at 4 o'clock a.m. on the 8th, finding themselves completely cut off, and being apparently
unable to resist, they laid down their arms and surrendered at discretion. They were so scattered
and confused that it was several days before anything like an accurate account of their number
could be made.
Meantime I had directed Col. W. L. Elliott, of the Second Iowa Cavalry, who had crossed the
river after dark, to proceed as soon as day dawned to take possession of the enemy's abandoned
works on the Tennessee shore opposite Island No. 10, and to save the steamers if he possibly
could. He reached there before sunrise that morning, the 8th, and took possession of the
encampments, the immense quantities of stores and supplies, and of all the enemy's batteries on
the main-land. He also brought in about 200 prisoners. After posting his guards and taking
possession of the steamers not sunk or injured he remained until the forces from the flotilla
landed. As Colonel Buford was in command of these forces, Colonel Elliott turned over to his
infantry force his prisoners, batteries, and captured property for safe-keeping, and proceeded to
scour the country in the direction of Tiptonville, along Reelfoot Lake, as directed.
It is almost impossible to give a correct account of the immense quantity of artillery,
ammunition, and supplies of every description which fell into our hands. Three generals, 273
field and company officers, 6,700 privates, 123 pieces of heavy artillery, 35 pieces of field
artillery) all of the very best character and latest patterns), 7,000 stand of small-arms, tents for
12,000 men, several wharf-boat loads of provisions, an immense quantity of ammunition of all
kinds, many hundred horses and mules, with wagons and harness, &c., are among the spoils.
Very few, if any, of the enemy escaped, and only by wading and swimming through the swamps.
The conduct of the troops was splendid throughout, as the results of this operation and its
whole progress very plainly indicate. We have crossed this great river, the banks of which were
lined with batteries and defended by 7,000 men. We have pursued and captured the whole force
of the enemy and all his supplies and material of war, and have again recrossed and reoccupied
the camps at New Madrid, without losing a man or meeting with any accident. Such results
bespeak efficiency, good conduct, high discipline, and soldierly deportment of the best character
far more conclusively than they can be exhibited in pitched battle or the storming of fortified
places. Patience, willing labor, endurance of hardship and privation for long periods, cheerful
and prompt obedience, order and discipline, bravery and spirit, are the qualities which these
operations have developed in the forces under my command, and which assure for them a
brilliant and successful career in arms. It is difficult to express the feeling which such conduct
has occasioned one fortunate enough to be the commander of such troops. There are few material
obstacles within the range of warfare which a man of courage and spirit would hesitate to
encounter with such a force.
To the division and brigade commanders, whose reports I transmit, I leave the grateful
privilege of designating in detail the forces engaged in these operations. Generals Paine, Stanley,
Hamilton, and Plummer crossed the river, together with a portion of General Granger's cavalry
division, under Col. W. L. Elliott, Second Iowa Cavalry. To all these officers I am deeply
indebted for their efficient and cordial aid in every portion of our operations. They conducted
their divisions with eminent skill and vigor, and to them I am largely indebted for the discipline
and efficiency of this command.
General Paine, fortunate in having the advance, exhibited conspicuous gallantry and vigor,
and had the satisfaction to receive the surrender of the enemy. General Palmer was posted ten
days before the final operations in support and in charge of the battery below Tiptonville.
Throughout he was prompt and active in the discharge of his duties.
Of Colonel Bissell, Engineer Regiment, and his regiment I can hardly say too much. Untiring
and determined, no difficulties discouraged them and no labor was too much for their energy.
They have conducted and completed a work which will be memorable in the history of this war.
My own personal staff--Major Butler, assistant adjutant-general; Major Morgan and Captain
Marshall, aides-de-camp; Maj. J. M. Corse, inspector-general, and Surg. O. W. Nixon, medical
director--rendered me important service, and were in all respects zealous and efficient.
Our success was complete and overwhelming, and it gives me profound satisfaction to report
that it was accomplished without loss of life.
I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major-General, Commanding.
Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK,
Commanding Department of the Mississippi, Saint Louis, Mo.
Camp near New Madrid, MO., March 16, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the opera-t ions of the artillery under
my command during the investment and evacuation of New Madrid. Having been ordered by the
general commanding to make a reconnaissance of the enemy's works and select a position to
plant a siege battery, I went down on the 11th instant, with Capt. L. H. Marshall, First Infantry,
and a squadron of dragoons, within about a half mile of the enemy's works. From this position
(northwest from the town) I could see distinctly their gunboats and lower fort. I determined at
once, from my observation, where to plant the battery, and on the 12th instant went to the same
point again, in company with Colonel Bissell, of the Engineers, and Captain Marshall, to satisfy
myself that I was not mistaken in the selection of the ground. Colonel Bissell and Captain
Marshall thought the position to be a good one. The same evening, at dusk, Colonel Bissell and
myself, with Colonel Morgan's brigade, the Tenth and Sixteenth Illinois Regiments, went down
within about 500 yards in rear of the position where the battery was to be established. At this
point one regiment was deployed as skirmishers and the other furnished with spades and shovels.
The skirmishers advanced about 50 yards in front of the men in rear with spades and shovels,
until the latter arrived on the ground where the battery was to be established. In a few moments
the work was laid out and the men put to work. At daylight the work was completed., and three
24-pounder siege guns and one 8-inch howitzer put in position. This work was undoubtedly
completed before the enemy had any knowledge of it. At daylight in the morning the enemy's
forts and gunboats opened upon our battery and kept up a constant cannonading until about 12
o'clock m. After this they continued to fire at intervals until sundown. Captain Mower, of the
First Infantry, and Lieutenant Reeder, with Companies A and H, served the guns, and all
conducted themselves in the most gallant and creditable manner. Captain Mower remained in the
battery until the town was evacuated by the enemy, and then placed our siege guns in the
enemy's fort.
During the investment of New Madrid, Capt. A.M. Powell, First Missouri Light Artillery;
Capt. Henry Hescock, same regiment; Capt. N. T. Spoor, Second Iowa Light Artillery, Captain
Sands, Eleventh Ohio Light Artillery; and Lieutenant Darling's battery, Company F, Second
Artillery, U.S. Army, were frequently under the enemy's fire, and all behaved in a very creditable
Captain Powell, a few days after our arrival in front of New Madrid, was detached from the
command and went to Point Pleasant with Colonel Plummer.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major, First Missouri Light Artillery, Commanding Artillery.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Pittsburg Landing, April 22, 1862.
SIR: I have to report that February 27, 1862, at Commerce, Mo., I received orders to
organize the First Division of this army. The First Brigade, under Col. John Groesbeck, was
composed of the Thirty-ninth Ohio, Major Noyes commanding; Forty-third Ohio, Colonel Smith
commanding, and Twenty-seventh Ohio, Colonel Fuller. The Second Brigade, Col. J. B.
Plummer commanding, was composed of the Sixty-third Ohio, Colonel Sprague; Twenty-sixth
Illinois, Colonel Loomis, and Eleventh Missouri, Lieutenant-Colonel Panabaker commanding.
The Seventh Illinois Cavalry, under Colonel Kellogg; a detachment of the First United States
Infantry, under Captain Williams; two companies of Engineer troops, volunteers, under Major
Hasie, and Captain Sands' Eleventh Ohio Battery were also attached to the First Division.
The division marched from Commerce on the morning of the 28th of February, and reached
Hunter's farm at midnight, the roads being almost impassable. The troops bivouacked that night
in the mud and rain without a murmur. By order of General Pope, Colonel Kellogg's Seventh
Illinois Cavalry was dispatched in pursuit of Jeff. Thompson and his band. After a running fight
three light pieces of his artillery were captured and several prisoners taken, among them Capt.
James T. Hogane and Lieut. D. B. Griswold, Engineers, C. S. Army. No official report of this
affair, which was highly creditable to the Seventh Illinois Cavalry, was made to me.
Proceeding by easy stages, we reached New Madrid March 3, 1862. On the 2d of March,
Col. J. L. Kirby Smith, Forty-third Ohio, escorted by Colonel Kellogg's Seventh Illinois Cavalry,
made a daring reconnaissance, penetrating into the town of New Madrid to within three-quarters
of a mile of the enemy's intrenchments. On the 3d the First Division advanced upon the town,
Kellogg's cavalry forming the advance guard and covering the flanks. Colonel Fuller's Twentyseventh
Ohio deployed as skirmishers, supported by a section of Sands' Eleventh Ohio Battery
and closely followed by the whole division. The enemy's pickets were gallantly driven in by
Colonel Fuller's regiment. The orders to the division were to feel the enemy, seizing any
advantage which might offer. To this end the Thirty-ninth Ohio was advanced, by order of
General Pope, as skirmishers on the right flank, and were pushed forward on a line with Colonel
Fuller's Twenty-seventh Ohio to within 1 miles of the enemy's principal works. Colonel Smith's
Forty-third Ohio, in line of battle, supported Colonel Fuller, and protected the left flank of the
division, supported by Sands' battery in the center, while Col. J. B. Plummer's brigade supported
the right. The enemy withdrew to their intrenchments, but kept up an unremitting fire of solid
shot and shell from five gunboats and their works, 24-pounder shot, shell from 32-pounders and
64-pounders, besides missiles from guns of smaller caliber. The troops, unable to reply, evinced
a calmness and steadiness worthy of veterans.
Reconnaissances having demonstrated that an assault of the enemy's works with the bayonet
must have involved an unnecessary loss of life to our troops, it was most prudently not resorted
to, though the bearing of the troops was such as to give reasonable hopes of success. On the other
hand, it seemed doubtful whether, if taken, the works could be held against the fire of the
enemy's gunboats.
Brigadier-General Stanley arrived in camp on the evening of the 3d. On the 4th a
reorganization of division, &c., was made. General Stanley being from Ohio, the Ohio regiments
passed from under my command. Having had evidence of their gallantry and coolness under fire,
and feeling grateful for the cheerfulness with which both officers and men had responded to my
efforts to enforce discipline and excite their ardor, I parted with them with regret. Their place,
however, in the reorganization of brigades and divisions was well filled by the Fifth Iowa,
Lieutenant-Colonel Matthies, and Fifty-ninth Indiana, Col. J. I. Alexander, Colonel Worthington
commanding the brigade thus constituted.
On the night of the 4th Colonel Worthington; with four guns, and Colonel Smith's command
from the Forty-third Ohio, five companies of the Fifth Iowa, and two companies of the Fiftyninth
Indiana, drove in the enemy's pickets and opened a brisk fire on his position. (See his
report herewith.) The general commanding having decided to occupy Point Pleasant, 7 miles
below New Madrid, I cheerfully proposed Col. J. B. Plummer and the Second Brigade of my
now Second Division for this service. This brigade consisted of the Eleventh Missouri,
Lieutenant-Colonel Panabaker, and Twenty-sixth Illinois, Colonel Loomis. He proceeded on it
on the 5th instant. At his request, my aide-de-camp, Lieut. William B. Caw, accompanied him.
The success which crowned Colonel Plummer's efforts reflected honor on the Second Division.
On the 6th, by direction of the commanding general, I detailed Major Robertson, in
command of two companies of the Fifth Iowa, and Forty-sixth Indiana, Colonel Fitch, of General
Palmer's division, temporarily attached to my division, to report to Col. Gordon Granger, who
pressed the enemy on our left vigorously, driving in his skirmishers, but was unable, from want
of heavy artillery, to make any serious impression, on account of the heavy fire of the enemy's
gunboats and the exposed character of the position, without undue exposure of our troops.
Colonel Granger speaks in the following terms of the officers and men engaged in this affair:
As commander of the column mentioned within, which moved upon New Madrid yesterday,
it affords me much satisfaction to more than corroborate every statement of the modest but
gallant Major Robertson. His officers and men, under a terrific fire of round shot and shell for
some two hours, behaved like veterans, and quite surprised me by their coolness and indifference
to the danger which surrounded them. Major Robertson was especially conspicuous, never
dismounting from his horse, although their sharpshooters tried their best to pick him off.
Lieutenant Gordon, Fourth United States Cavalry, aide-de-camp, displayed rare courage with the
skirmishers, and deserves especial notice.
On the 7th instant a demonstration was made by the First Brigade of the Second Division, in
conjunction with General Stanley's division. (See report herewith.) Colonel Plummer having
received promotion as brigadier-general, a reorganization again took place on the 11th instant,
and the Tenth Iowa and Twenty-sixth Missouri were constituted the Second Brigade of the
Second Division, under Colonel Perczel.
On the 13th the Second Division was held in reserve as the support of the First Division. On
the 14th, at 2 o'clock a.m., with Colonel Slack's brigade of General Palmer's Third Division,
composed of the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Indiana, the Second Division was formed to
march to the relief of General Stanley's First Division and the guards of the trenches. The
darkness was palpable. The rain poured down in torrents. The men were obliged to wade through
pools knee-deep. Silence having been strictly enjoined, the division, hoping to have the honor of
leading in the assault on the enemy's works, moved steadily forward with cheerful alacrity, those
assigned to that duty taking post in the rifle pits, half full of water, without a murmur. A heavy
fog shrouded everything from view as the day dawned, and we waited anxiously its lifting, in
order to open fire on the enemy from our batteries. At 6 a.m. the evacuation of the place was
reported, as stated in my report of the 14th instant, as general of the trenches.
Under very considerable privations and hardships, under the severe ordeal of long exposure
to the shot and shell of the enemy without power to reply, all the various regiments, both officers
and men, who have been under my orders, have deserved commendation.
Transports having reached us through a channel cut with enormous labor under the direction
of Colonel Bissell, on a suggestion advanced by the subscriber, March 17, 1862, the Second
Division embarked on them April 7, to cross the Mississippi, which was accomplished in gallant
style, but without opposition, the gunboats Carondelet and Pittsburgh, under Captain Walke,
having in dashing style silenced the enemy's shore batteries. The division marched 4 miles in the
direction of Tiptonville and bivouacked, lying upon their arms. At dawn, April 8, 1862, we
pushed forward, and learned as we advanced of the evacuation of Island No. 10, and
subsequently of the surrender of the whole force of the enemy. Arrived at Tiptonville, the
Second Division was detailed as guard for the prisoners of war. The deportment of the officers
and men towards them was worthy of the highest praise. It was that of brave and generous men
toward a discomfited enemy, and produced upon the minds of the prisoners of war a marked
effect. After exposure of no ordinary kind, without tents and only partial rations, having
accomplished the service assigned to the Second Division, it returned to New Madrid.
Col. G. W. Cumming, Fifty-first Illinois, and the troops under his command, deserve marked
commendation for the energy and devotion exhibited in caring for the prisoners of war and
securing the captured property. Col. William H. Worthington, Fifth Iowa, commanding First
Brigade, and Col. Nicholas Perczel, Tenth Iowa, commanding Second Brigade, showed on all
occasions so much promptitude, so much attention to the health and welfare as well as
instruction of the brigades under their respective commands--the camp of the Second Division
exciting the emulation of the whole army--as to prove them well fitted for their responsible
positions, and inspiring the men and officers under their orders with a confidence which could
not fail to prove of the highest value in an engagement.
April 12 the division embarked on transports and proceeded down the Mississippi River
toward Fort Pillow, reaching a point 5 miles above it Sunday, April 13. Here reconnaissances on
the Arkansas shore were pushed by Lieut. William B. Gaw, Volunteer Engineers, with great
boldness and entire success, during the 14th, 15th, and 16th, when orders were received to
proceed to Pittsburg Landing, Tenn.
The general commanding will have himself observed the creditable and zealous devotion and
unflinching readiness in discharge of duty evinced by the officers composing my staff, especially
First Lieut. William C. Russell, Eighth Missouri Volunteers, aide-de-camp and acting assistant
adjutant-general, who to close attention to his office duties added coolness and gallantry under
fire; Lieut. William B. Gaw, Volunteer Engineers; Brigade Surg. Will? Varian, who, in addition
to his medical duties, intelligently and efficiently performed, has at all times cheerfully
volunteered his services as an aide-de-camp; First Lieut. H. Seymour Burt, Sixty-third Ohio,
acting aide-de camp, has distinguished himself by his promptitude and gallantry; First Lieut.
Charles A. Nazro, Twenty-sixth Illinois, as division quartermaster, has greatly assisted me by
his attention and efficiency in the discharge of his arduous duties; Second Lieut. James E.
Merriman, Twenty-sixth Illinois, acting aide-de-camp, also deserves mention for his active
efforts until thrown out of activity by indisposition. I am informed by General Plummer that
Lieut. William B. Gaw, aide-de camp on my staff, rendered to him very important services in the
construction of the batteries at Point Pleasant and in making reconnaissances of the vicinity. In
justice to the Second Michigan Cavalry. I should mention the cool and soldierly bearing of a
portion of it detailed by the commanding general as an escort to myself on a reconnaissance
ordered by him March 3, 1862. From their ranks the first blood was drawn on that day, and
though, to their chagrin, early ordered back by me, I am satisfied they would unhesitatingly have
advanced wherever ordered. Captain Sands, Eleventh Ohio Battery, has on all occasions
exhibited fine soldierly conduct, as the accompanying report exhibits.
I inclose the reports of Colonel Worthington and Colonel Perczel; also that of Major
Robertson; to all of which your attention is invited.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brig. Gen. Vols., U.S. Army, Comdg. Second Division.
Chief of Staff.
March 22, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the expedition under my command on
the night of the 4th instant:
I left camp at 9 p.m., accompanied by Colonel Smith, of the Forty-third Ohio Infantry, with
his command, and two guns of the Missouri and two of the Michigan artillery, together with five
companies of the Fifth Iowa Infantry and two of the Fifty-ninth Indiana Infantry, of my brigade.
Proceeding cautiously, with skirmishers on either side of my advance, to the suburbs of the town,
I came upon the pickets of the enemy, who were posted in strong force. Receiving their fire,
which was immediately returned, we drove them back. The guns of the Michigan battery were
immediately brought into position on the left side of the road lending into town, near an old
church, and opened a fire of shell upon the town. In a few seconds the guns of the Missouri
battery, supported by Colonel Smith's command were brought into position upon the right side of
the road, and opened fire immediately. The enemy responded with very heavy guns, and soon
obtained our exact range and distance; but few of their shells exploded, their fire coming from
one gunboat stationed at the lower fort, one opposite the town, and one above the town. Our
firing continued until the ammunition of the artillery was nearly exhausted, when the entire
command was withdrawn in good order to the camp.
The conduct of all the troops engaged, both officers and men, was creditable to themselves
and our command, this being the first time ever under fire.
I regret to state that we lost 1 man killed from Company A, of the Fifth Iowa Infantry; one
arm broken in Company I, of the same regiment; these being the only casualties worthy of
I am, sir, most respectfully, yours,
Colonel, Commanding First Brigade, Second Division.
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General.
March 6, 1862.
SIR: In obedience to an order issued from Col. W. H. Worthington, Fifth Iowa Infantry,
commanding First Brigade, Second Division, Army of the Mississippi, I took three companies of
the Fifty-ninth Indiana and two companies (A and B) of the Fifth Iowa Volunteer Infantry to Col.
G. Granger, of the Third Michigan Cavalry, and was by him ordered to deploy the two Iowa and
two of the Indiana companies as skirmishers to atttack the town of New Madrid, Mo., on the
Throwing out my skirmishers, I advanced upon and engaged the enemy's pickets about 400
yards north of the town plat, in a large corn field, driving them to their guard quarters within the
town. Pressing closely upon them, and seeing that they were supported by 400 or 500 infantry
and a piece of light artillery, I sheltered my men behind a fence, awaiting my support, the Fortysixth
Indiana Regiment being designated for that purpose. After keeping my men thus protected
for a length of time, I sent word to Colonel Granger by one of his aides of my position and
discoveries, and requested orders to advance or retire, when I received orders to retire to the
middle of the corn field, which I did in good order. This position I held nearly an hour, when I
was ordered by Colonel Granger to withdraw my skirmishers and return to camp.
It affords me pleasure to compliment the promptness, coolness and energy of the officers and
men of my command throughout.
Our loss consisted of 1 man killed of the Fifty-ninth Indiana and 2 of the Fifth Iowa
Major, Fifth Iowa Volunteer Infantry.
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General,
April 19, 1862.
SIR: In pursuance of Special Orders, No. 11, I have the honor to report as follows:
The Tenth Regiment Iowa Volunteers and Twenty-sixth Regiment Missouri Volunteers
formed the Second Brigade of your division, then in camp near New Madrid. On the 12th of
March the Second Division had been ordered out in the morning at 5 o'clock, and took position
in the center of the line of battle formed by the whole army towards New Madrid, the Second
Brigade in the second line. At 3 o'clock p.m. the Second Division had been ordered back to
camp. The 13th, at 3 o'clock in the morning, we marched to the right of New Madrid, to relieve
the division of General Stanley, and had to protect our batteries operating against the lower fort
of the rebels. The Second Brigade was drawn up in a corn field, a small wooded land separating
them from the rebel batteries. According to your orders, a company as skirmishers had been
thrown forward under Captain Randleman, who at 7 o'clock a.m. reported that 2 men had come
to them with a flag of truce, asserting that New Madrid and all its forts had been evacuated the
night previous by the rebels. I reported the case to you, and received your orders to send a field
officer and 20 men to New Madrid, that he may inquire if the statement be true. I detailed Major
McCalla, accordingly, who entered the rebel forts, found them deserted, and reported to this
effect. You then ordered four companies, one from each regiment of your division, to occupy the
town and the forts, which being accomplished, the Second Brigade was ordered back into camp.
On the 7th of April the Second Brigade, with the rest of your division, marched to New
Madrid, went on board steamboat, and was disembarked towards evening about 3 miles below
New Madrid. The line of march having been ordered, we marched about 4 miles in the wake of
the troops which preceded us, and bivouacked in the woods.
April 8, in the morning, renewed our march at 9 o'clock a.m. Received the news of the
evacuation of Island No. 10 at 12 o'clock m.; received the news of the surrender of the rebel
forces to General Pope at 2 o'clock p.m. Arrived at Tiptonville, encamped there, and returned
April 10 to our camp near New Madrid.
The men and officers behaved all very well. The greatest order was sustained throughout the
whole operations. All had been ready and expected to encounter the enemy, and I do not think it
boastful to assert that the Second Brigade of your fine division would not have been missing in
the hour of deadly conflict.
I am, sir, yours, respectfully,
Col., Comdg. Second Brig., Second Div., Army Mississippi.
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Second Div., Army Mississippi.
Camp near Madrid, Tenn., April 11, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with orders from Brigadier-General
Granger, commanding cavalry division, I proceeded on the 7th, with the band and companies K
and L (Hepburn's battalion), the advance of my regiment, to the Tennessee shore, reporting on
my arrival, about 2.30 a.m., at Watson's farm, to Major-General Pope. By him I was ordered to
proceed at daylight to the camp of the enemy opposite Island No. 10. Adjutant Schnitzer, First
Battalion, Second Iowa Cavalry, was detailed, with 12 men, as an advance guard. About 1 miles
below the foot of the island I found a 9 or 12 pounder gun protected by an earthwork; half a mile
above this, an earthwork--upon this the enemy had been at work the day of the evacuation; half a
mile above another work, completed, but without armament. Near the latter is a ravine, which
contained a large amount of ordnance stores and provisions.
Before reaching this ravine I had placed a guard over steamboats, wharf-boats, and prisoners,
consisting of soldiers, deck-hands, and laborers recently employed on the fortifications of the
enemy; then moved up through the camp of the enemy with my command, collecting prisoners
as I marched up. Observing that one of our transports with troops was approaching from Island
No. 10 I went to meet her. Met Adjutant Schnitzer returning from the upper batteries of the
Tennessee and Kentucky shore. A few minutes after I met General Buford with a party of troops,
and reported to him the condition of the boats; suggested to him that if an engineer and crew
could be put on the Admiral she would be of service to convey the prisoners to General Pope;
also asked that I might be permitted to put the 200 prisoners taken by me in charge of his troops,
and was referred by him to Colonel Heg, with whom I left my prisoners. Having ascertained that
the camps above were entirely evacuated, General Buford having force sufficient to collect the
prisoners and property and guard them, I returned with my command to Watson's farm. Finding
that the commanding general had gone to Tiptonville, I went there and found that he had left, and
by order of General Hamilton, commanding, remained until ordered back to camp to-day.
I could not procure an American flag to place over the camp of the enemy.. The guidons of
my companies and standard of my regiment were the first flags to take the place of those of the
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Second Iowa Cavalry,
Headquarters Department of the Mississippi.
Pea Ridge, Ark., March 9, 1862.
SIR: On Thursday, the 6th instant, enemy commenced the attack on my right, assailing and
following the rear guard of the detachment under General Sigel to my main lines on Sugar Creek
Hollow, but on that occasion ceased firing when he met my re-enforcements about 4 p.m. During
the night I became convinced he had moved on so as to attack my right or rear. Therefore, early
on the 7th, I ordered a change of front to the right on my right, my right thus becoming my left,
still resting on Sugar Creek Hollow. This brought my line crossing Pea Ridge, my new right
resting on the head of Cross Timber Hollow, which is the head of Big Sugar Creek. I also
ordered an immediate advance of cavalry and light artillery--Colonel Osterhaus'--with orders to
attack and break what I supposed would be a re-enforced line of the enemy. This movement was
in progress when the enemy, at 11 a.m., commenced an attack on my right. The fight continued
mainly at these points during the day, the enemy having gained my position so hardly contested
by Colonel Carr at the Cross Timber Hollow, but being entirely repulsed, with the loss of the
commander, General McCulloch, in the center, commanded by Colonel Davis.
The plan of attack on the center was gallantly carried forward by Colonel Osterhaus, who
was immediately sustained and superseded by Colonel Davis' entire division, supported also by
General Sigel's command, which remained till near the close of the day on the left. Colonel
Carr's division held the right under a galling, continuous fire all day. In the evening, the firing
having entirely ceased in the center and there having been none on the left, I re-enforced the right
by a portion of the Second Division, raider General Asboth. Before the day closed I was
convinced the enemy had concentrated his main effort on my right. I therefore commenced
another change of my front, so as to face the enemy where he had deployed on my right flank in
strong position. The change was only partially effective, but fully in progress, when at sunrise on
the 8th my right and center renewed the firing, which was immediately answered by the enemy
with renewed energy and extended line. My left, under General Sigel, moved close to the hills
occupied by the enemy, driving him from heights and advancing steadily toward the head of the
hollows. I immediately ordered the center and right wing forward, the right turning the left of the
enemy and cross-firing on his center. This final position inclosed the enemy in an arc of a circle.
A charge of infantry extending throughout the whole line completely routed the whole rebel
force, which retired in great confusion, but rather safely, through the deep, impassable defiles of
Cross Timber.
Our loss is heavy. The enemy's can never be ascertained, for the dead are scattered over a
large field, and their wounded too may many of them be lost and perish. The foe is scattered in
all direct ions, but I think his main force has returned to Boston Mountains. General Sigel
follows towards Keetsville, while my cavalry is pursuing him toward the mountains, scouring the
country, bringing in prisoners, and trying to find the rebel Major-General Van Dorn, who had
command of the entire force of the enemy at this battle of Pea Ridge. I have not as yet the
statements of the dead and wounded so as to justify a report, but I will refer you to dispatch I will
forward very soon.
The officers and soldiers in this command have displayed such unusual gallantry I hardly
dare to make distinctions. I must, however, name all my commanders of divisions: General Sigel,
who gallantly carried the heights and drove back the left wing of the enemy; Brigadier-General
Asboth, who is wounded in the arm, in his gallant effort to re-enforce the right; Colonel and
Acting Brigadier-General Davis, who commands the center, where McCulloch fell on the 7th,
and pressed forward the center on the 8th; Col. and Acting Brig. Gen. E. A. Carr, who is also
wounded in the arm, and was under continuous fire of the enemy during the two hardest days'
struggling, where the scattered dead of friends and foe attest the hardest of the struggling.
Commanders of brigades Colonels Dodge, Osterhaus, Vandever, White, Schaefer, Pattison, and
Greusel, distinguished; but for their gallantry and that of others I must refer to reports of division
I must also tender my thanks to my staff officers, Capt. T. I. McKenny, acting assistant
adjutant-general; Capt. W. H. Stark; Capt. John Ahlfeldt, and Lieuts. J. M. Adams and R. A.
Stitt, all acting aides, and Lieut. A. Hoeppner, my only engineer officer. All the staff officers did
gallant service in conveying orders and aiding in their prompt execution.
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Missouri very proudly share the honor of victory which
their gallant heroes won over the combined forces of Van Dorn, Price, and McCulloch at Pea
Ridge, in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas.
I have the honor to be, captain, your obedient servant,
Brigadier- General.
Capt. J. C. KELTON,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Cross Timber, Ark., April 1, 1862.
CAPTAIN: The brief telegraphic report which I gave on the 9th ultimo is not sufficient to
present even the general outline of the battle of Pea Ridge, and with the report of my
commanders of divisions I now submit a more general detail.
My pursuit of General Price brought me to Fayetteville, Ark. The entire winter campaign
from the 26th January to this time, including the march from Roll to the Boston Mountains, 240
miles, was attended with continual exhibitions of toil, privations, conflict, and gallantry, some of
which I have telegraphed to headquarters, and may hereafter deserve more full development.
After reaching Arkansas the forces of General Price were rapidly re-enforced by regiments
which had been stationed in Arkansas and the Indian Territory. I therefore expected these
combined forces would return upon us to give us battle, and in conformity with the orders of the
general of the 22d of February I selected Sugar Creek as the strongest of several strong places
taken from the enemy to make a stand against any and all odds.
I reported my force to you on the 12th February, after Colonel Davis' division had joined me,
at 12,095 men and fifty pieces of artillery, including four mountain howitzers. My long line of
communications required garrisons at Marshfield, Springfield, Castle, and Keetsville, besides a
constant moving three to guard my train. My force in Arkansas on the 7th ultimo was therefore
not more than 10,500 cavalry and infantry with forty-nine pieces of artillery, including the
mountain howitzers, one piece having been sent out into Missouri and thus prevented front
joining us in the battle.
The scarcity of forage and other supplies made it necessary for me to spread out my troops
over considerable country, always trying to keep it within supporting distance, convenient to
rally on the positions selected for battle. On the 4th of March this force was located as follows:
The First and Second Divisions, under Generals Sigel and Asboth, were 4 miles southwest of
Bentonville, at Cooper's farm, under general orders to move around to Sugar Creek, about 14
miles east.
The Third Division, under Col. Jefferson C. Davis, acting brigadier-general, had moved and
taken position at Sugar Creek, under orders to make some preparatory arrangements and
examinations for a stand against the enemy.
The Fourth Division was at Cross follow, under command of Col. E. A. Car, acting brigadiergeneral.
My own headquarters were also at this place, within about 12 miles from Sugar Creek,
on the main telegraph road from Springfield to Fayetteville.
Large detachments had been sent out from these several camps for forage and information.
One from Cross Hollow to Huntsville, under command of Colonel Vandever, ;and three from
Cooper's farm to Maysville and Pineville. One of these, raider Major Conrad, with a piece of
artillery and about 250 men, did not reach us till after the battle. All the others came in safe and
joined in the engagement.
The enemy had taken position in the Boston Mountains, a high range that divides the waters
of the White River and Arkansas. General Price had rallied the forces that had fought at
Carthage, Wilson's Creek, and Lexington, augmented by his exertions to recruit in Missouri
during the winter. On his arrival from Springfield, in Arkansas, he reported to Governor Rector
that between 4,000 and 5,000 of these had joined the Confederate service previous to his leaving
Springfield. The circulation of all manner of extravagant falsehoods on his way induced the
whole country to leave their homes, and for fear we would kill them thousands joined his ranks.
General McCulloch brought at least eleven regiments to the field and General Pike five. Besides
these regularly-organized Confederate troops which General Price met in Arkansas, there were
many companies and regiments of' Arkansas volunteers, most of the country people being
required to take up arms. From this data and the general opinion of the country I estimated the
force of the enemy to have been at least 30,000 or 40,000. This was the force in and near Boston
Mountains, rallying to drive us from Arkansas and Missouri.
The two armies thus constituted and located were within hearing of each other's cannon,
about 30 miles apart. I submit an accompanying map, showing some of the topographic features
of the country on the roads which we traversed. Our troops were weary and somewhat exhausted
in their long forced marches and frequent conflicts. Our cavalry had especially suffered in the
breaking down and loss of horses. But our troops were generally well armed, drilled, and anxious
to encounter the enemy at any reasonable hazard. They were all intelligent, ardent, flushed with
our repeated success in many encounters on our way, and all conscious of the righteousness of
their country's cause.
The arrival of Major-General Van Dorn on the 2d of March in the camp of the enemy was the
occasion of great rejoicing and the firing of forty guns. The rebel force was harangued by their
chiefs with boastful and passionate appeals, assuring them of their superior numbers and the
certainty of an easy victory. Dispatches were published falsely announcing a great battle at
Columbus, Ky., in which we had lost three gunboats and 20,000 men; and thus the rebel hordes
were assembled. The occasion was now opened to drive the invaders from the soil of Arkansas
and give a final and successful blow to a Southern Confederacy.
The 5th of March was cold and blustering. The snow fell so as to cover the ground. No
immediate attack was apprehended, and I was engaged writing. About 2 o'clock p.m. scouts and
fugitive citizens came in, informing me of the rapid approach of the enemy to give me battle. His
cavalry would be at Elm Springs, some 12 miles distant, that night, and his artillery had already
passed Fayetteville. Satisfied of the truth of this report, I immediately sent couriers to General
Sigel and Colonel Vandever, and ordered them to move immediately to Sugar Creek, where I
also ordered Colonel Carr to move with his division.
I also sent you a dispatch, which may have been lost with other mail-matter which I have
since learned was captured by the enemy. I told you I would give them the best reception
possible. All my messengers were successful in delivering their orders. Colonel Carr's division
moved about 6 p.m. Colonel Vandever had intelligence of the movement of the enemy before my
messenger reached him, and made immediate change in his march, so that with great exertion he
arrived on the 6th. General Sigel deferred his march from Cooper's farm till 2 o'clock in the
morning of the 6th, and at Bentonville tarried himself with a regiment and battery till he was
attacked about 9 a.m.
I arrived at Sugar Creek at 2 o'clock a.m. on the 6th, and immediately detailed parties for
early morning work in felling timber, to obstruct certain roads to prevent the enemy having too
many approaches and to erect field works to increase the strength of my forces. Colonel Davis
and Colonel Carr early in the day took their positions on the high projecting hills commanding
the valley of the creek, leaving the right of the line to be occupied by the First and Second
Divisions, which were anxiously expected. The valley of the creek is low, and from a quarter to
a half mile wide. The hills are high on both sides, and the main road from Fayetteville by Gross
Hollow to Keetsville intercepts the valley nearly at right angles. The road from Fayetteville by
Bentonville to Keetsville is quite a detour, but it also comes up the Sugar Creek Valley; a branch,
however, takes off and runs nearly parallel to the main or Telegraph road, some 3 miles from it.
The Sugar Creek Valley, therefore, intercepts all these roads.
The Third and Fourth Divisions had before noon of the 6th deployed their lines and cut down
a great number of trees, which thoroughly blockaded the roads on the left. Later in the day I
directed some of the same work to be done on the right. This work was in charge of Colonel
Dodge, who felled trees on the road which runs parallel to the main road to which I have before
referred. This proved of great advantage, as it retarded the enemy some two hours in their flank
movement. Breastworks of considerable strength were erected by the troops on the headlands of
Sugar Creek as if by magic, and a battery near the road crossing was completely shielded by an
extensive earthwork, erected, under the direction of Colonel Davis, by a pioneer company,
commanded by Captain Snyder. About 2 o'clock p.m. General Asboth and Colonel Osterhaus
reported the arrival of the First and Second Divisions. This good news was followed immediately
by another report that General Sigel, who had remained behind with a detachment, had been
attacked near Bentonville and was quite surrounded by the enemy's advance forces. I
immediately directed some of the troops to return to his relief. In the mean time he had advanced
with his gallant little band, fighting its way within 3 or 4 miles of our main forces. The two
divisions turned back in double-quick, and a large cavalry force also started, all being anxious to
join in a rescue of their comrades in peril.
Part of the First Division, under Colonel Osterhaus, soon met the retreating detachment, and
immediately opened with artillery and infantry, which checked the further advance and
terminated the action for the day. In the retreat and final repulse, which occupied several hours,
our loss was some 25 killed and wounded. The enemy must have suffered more, as our artillery
had telling effect along the road, and the rebel graves in considerable numbers bear witness of
the enemy's loss.
The firing having ceased, I sent back other troops that had joined the movement and
designated the positions on the right, which were promptly occupied by the First and Second
Divisions. Our men rested on their arms, confident of hard work before them on the coming day.
The accompanying map of the battle ground will fully illustrate the positions then and
subsequently assumed. In my front was the deep, broad valley of Sugar Creek, forming the
probable approaches of the enemy, our troops extending for miles, and generally occupying the
summits of headlands on Sugar Creek. In my rear was a broken plateau called Pea Ridge, and
still farther in my rear the deep valley of Big Sugar Creek, or Cross Timber. My own
headquarters and those of Generals Sigel, Asboth, and other commanders of divisions were near
Pratt's house. The lines A, B, and C show the different fronts assumed during the progress of the
The approach by Bentonville brought the enemy to my extreme right, and during the night of
the 5th and 6th he began a movement around my flank by the road before mentioned, which
crosses Pea Ridge some 3 miles northwest of the main Telegraph road. I ascertained in the
morning this flank movement of the enemy, which I perceived was designed to attack my right
flank and rear. I therefore immediately called my commanders of divisions together at General
Asboth's tent, and directed a change of front to the rear, so as to face the road upon which the
enemy was still moving. At the same time I directed the organization of a detachment of cavalry
and light artillery, supported by infantry, to open the battle by an attack from my new center on
the probable center of the enemy before he could fully form. I selected Colonel Osterhans to lead
this central column, an officer who displayed great skill, energy, and gallantry each day of the
The change of front thus directed reversed the order of the troops, placing the First and
Second Divisions on the left, their left still resting on Sugar Creek, Osterhaus and the Third
Division in the center, and the Fourth Division became the extreme right. While I was explaining
the proposed movement to commanders and Colonel Osterhans was beginning to rally and move
forward this attacking column, a messenger brought me intelligence that my picket, commanded
by Major Weston, of the Twenty-fourth Missouri, had been attacked by infantry. This was at
Elkhorn Tavern, where the new right was to rest. Colonel Cart being present, he was ordered to
move into position and support the major as soon as possible.
This was the commencement of the second day's fight. It was about 10.30 o'clock, and the
officers separated to direct their several commands. The fire increased rapidly on the right and
very soon opened in the center. After visiting the right, where I perceived the enemy was making
a vigorous attack, and finding Colonel Carr, under a brisk fire of shot and shell, coolly locating
and directing the deployment, I returned to my central position near Pratt's house, and sent orders
to Colonel Davis to move near to Colonel Carr, to support him. In the mean time Colonel
Osterhaus had attacked the enemy and divided his forces; but he was soon pressed with greatly
superior numbers, that drove back our cavalry and took our flying battery, which had advanced
with it. The colonel, however, was well supported by his infantry, and soon checked a movement
that threatened to intercept the deployment of other forces. I considered the affair so imminent
that I changed my order to Colonel Davis, and directed him to move to the support of the center,
which was his proper place according to my order for the change of front. My new line was thus
formed under the enemy's fire, the troops generally moving in good order and gallant bearing.
Thus formed, the line was not continuous, but extended entirely across Pea Ridge, the divisions
in numerical order from left to right, Colonel Osterhaus remaining in command of a detachment
and operating with Colonel Davis in resisting McCulloch and Mcintosh, who commanded the
enemy's forces in the center. I did not err in sending Colonel Davis to this point, although
Colonel Carr, on the right, also needed re-enforcements.
The battle raged in the center with terrible fury. Colonel Davis held the position against
fearful numbers, and our brave troops nobly stood or charged in steady lines. The fate of the
battle depended on success against this flank movement of the enemy, and here near Leetown
was the place to break it down. The fall of Generals McCulloch, McIntosh, and other officers of
the enemy, who fell early in the day, aided us in our final success at this most critical point; and
the steady courage of officers and men in our lines chilled and broke down the hordes of Indians,
cavalry, and infantry that were arrayed against us. While the battle thus raged in the center the
right wing was sorely pressed, and the dead and wounded were scattered over the field. Colonel
Carr sent for re-enforcements, and I sent a few cavalry and my body-guard, with the little
mountain howitzers, under Major Bowen. These did good service at a most critical period. I
urged Colonel Carr to stand firm--that more force could be expected soon. Subsequently Colonel
Carr sent me word that he could not hold his position much longer. I could then only reply by
sending him the order to "persevere." He did persevere, and the sad havoc in the Ninth and
Fourth Iowa and Phelps' Missouri and Major Weston's Twenty-fourth Missouri and all the troops
in that division will show how earnest and continuous was their perseverance.
Seeing no signs of approaching foes by the Telegraph road, I sent him three pieces of
artillery and a battalion of infantry of Colonel Benton's command (part of the Third Division),
which had been located at Sugar Creek to guard the approaches. Each small accession to the
Fourth Division seemed to compensate an overpowering force. As to the left, I was repeatedly
informed it stood safe and firm, although threatened by the foe.
About 2 p.m. my aide, Captain Adams, who had communicated with that wing informed me
he had just seen Generals Sigel and Asboth on Sugar Creek, and there was still no attack in that
quarter and no appearance of an enemy. About this time the enemy's forces melted away in the
brushy center, and the fire gradually ceased. Believing the left and center were no longer
menaced, and the enemy was concentrating on the right, I again sent word to Colonel Carr that
he would soon be re-enforced. I had now resolved to bring up the left and center to meet the
gathering hordes near Elkhorn Tavern. To inform myself of the condition of the extreme left I
went in person to that point. On my way I ordered forward the remainder of Colonel Benton's
command, three pieces and a battalion, which had remained guarding the crossing of the main
Telegraph road.
I found Generals Sigel and Asboth with the troops on the hill near the extreme left, where all
was quiet, and the men, not having been under fire, fresh and anxious to participate in the fight.
It was now safe to make a new change of front, so as to face Sugar Creek. I therefore ordered this
force forward. General Asboth moved by the direct road to Elkhorn Tavern, and General Sigel
went by Leetown to re-enforce Davis if need be, but to press on to re-enforce Carr if not needed
in the center. Both generals moved promptly. I accompanied General Asboth, collecting and
moving forward some straggling commands that I found by the way.
It must have been near 5 o'clock when I brought this force to the aid of Colonel Cart. He had
received three or four shots, one a severe wound in the arm. Many of his field officers had fallen
and the dead and wounded had greatly reduced his force. He had been slowly forced back near
half a mile, and had been about seven hours under constant fire. His troops were still fiercely
contesting every inch of ground. As I came up the Fourth Iowa was falling back for cartridges in
line, dressing on their colors in perfect order. Supposing with my re-enforcements I could easily
recover our lost ground, I ordered the regiment to halt and easily about. Colonel Dodge came up,
explaining the want of cartridges; but, informed of my purpose, I ordered a bayonet charge, and
they moved again with steady nerve to their former position, where the gallant Ninth was ready
to support them. These two regiments won imperishable honors.
General Asboth had planted his artillery in the road and opened a tremendous fire on the
enemy at short range. The Second Missouri Infantry also deployed and earnestly engaged the
enemy. About this time the shades of night began to gather around us, but the fire on both sides
seemed to grow fierce and more deadly. One of my bodyguard fell dead, my orderly received a
shot, and General Asboth was severely wounded in the arm. A messenger came from General
Sigel, saying he was close on the left and would soon open fire. The battery of General Asboth
ran out of ammunition and fell back. This caused another battery that I had located on the right
of the road to follow, this latter fearing a want of support. The infantry, however, stood firm or
fell back in good order, and the batteries were soon restored, but the caissons got quite out of
reach. The artillery firing was renewed, however, and kept up till dark, the enemy firing the last
shot, for I could not find another cartridge to give them a final round; even the little howitzers
responded, "No cartridges." The enemy ceased firing, and I hurried men after the caissons and
more ammunition. Meantime I arranged the infantry in the edge of the timber, with fields in
front, where they lay on their arms and held the positions for the night. I directed a detail from
each company to bring water and provisions, and thus without a murmur these weary soldiers lay
and many of them slept within a few yards of the foe, with their dead and wounded comrades
scattered around them. Darkness, silence, and fatigue soon secured to the weary broken slumbers
and gloomy repose. The day had closed in some reverses on the right, but the left had been
unassailed, and the center had driven the foe from the field.
My only anxiety for the fate of the next day was the new front which it was necessary to
form by my weary troops. I directed Colonel Davis to withdraw all the remainder of his reserve
from the center and move forward so as to occupy the ground on Carr's immediate left. Although
his troops had been fighting hard most of the day and displayed great energy and courage, at 12
o'clock at night they commenced their movement to the new position on the battle-field, and they
too soon rested on their arms.
Nothing further had been heard from General Sigel's command after the message at dark that
he was on or near the left. His detour carried him around a brushy portion of the battle-field that
could not be explored in the night. About 2 o'clock he reported at my headquarters with his
troops, who, he said, were going to their former camps for provisions. The distance to his camp,
some 2 miles farther, was so great I apprehended tardiness in the morning, and urged the general
to rest the troops where they then were, at my headquarters, and send for provisions, as the other
troops were doing. This was readily concurred in, and these troops bivouacked also for the night.
The arrangement thus completed to bring all four of my divisions to face a position which' had
been held in check all the previous day by one, I rested, certain of final success on the coming
The sun rose above the horizon before our troops were all in position and yet the enemy had
not renewed the attack. I was hardly ready to open fire on him, as the First and Second Divisions
had not yet moved into position. Our troops that rested on their arms in the face of the enemy,
seeing him in motion, could not brook delay, and the center, under Colonel Davis, opened fire.
The enemy replied with terrible energy from new batteries and lines which had been prepared for
us during the night. To avoid raking batteries the right wing fell back in good order, but kept up a
continuous fire from the new position immediately taken. The First and Second Divisions soon
got under way, and moved with great celerity to their position on the left.
This completed the formation of my third line of battle. It was directly to the rear of the first,
and was quite continuous, much of it on open ground. We then had our foe before us, where we
well knew the ground. The broken defiles occupied by him would not admit of easy evolutions to
repel such as could be made by us on the open plain. Victory was inevitable. As soon as the left
wing extended so as to command the mountain and rest safely upon it, I ordered the right wing to
move forward so as to take position where I placed it the night previous. I repaired myself to the
extreme right, and found an elevated position considerably in advance which commanded the
enemy's center and left. Here I located the Dubuque battery, and directed the right wing to move
its right forward so as to support it, and give direction to the advance of the entire right wing.
Captain Hayden soon opened a fire which proved most galling to the foe and a marker for our
line to move upon. Returning to the center, I directed the First Iowa Battery, under Captain
David, to take position in an open field, where he could also direct a fire on the central point of
the enemy. Meantime the powerful battery of Captain Welfley and many more were bearing on
the cliff, pouring heavy balls through the timber near the center, splintering great trees and
scattering death and destruction with tempestuous fury.
At one time a battery was opened in front of Hayden's battery on the extreme right, so near I
could not tell whether it was the enemy or an advance of Hayden's, but riding nearer I soon
perceived its true character, and directed the First Iowa and the Peoria battery, Captain Davidson,
to cross-fire on it., which soon drove it back to the common hiding place, the deep ravines of
Cross Timber Hollow. While the artillery was thus taking position and advancing upon the
enemy the infantry moved steadily forward. The left wing, advancing rapidly, soon began to
ascend the mountain cliff, from which the artillery had driven most of the rebel force. The
upward movement of the gallant Thirty-sixth Illinois, with its dark-blue line of men and its
gleaming bayonets, steadily rose from base to summit, when it dashed forward into the forest,
driving and scattering the rebels from these commanding heights. The Twelfth Missouri, far in
advance of others, rushes into the enemy's lines, bearing off a flag and two pieces of artillery.
Everywhere our line moved forward and the foe as gradually withdrew.
The roar of cannon and small-arms was continuous, and no force could then have withstood
the converging line and concentrated crossfire of our gallant troops. Our guns continued some
time after the rebel fire ceased, and the rebels had gone down into the deep caverns through
which they had begun their precipitate flight. Finally our firing ceased. The enemy had suddenly
vanished. Following down the main road, which enters a deep canyon, I saw some straggling
teams and men running in great trepidation through the gorges of the mountains. I directed a
battery to move forward, which threw a few shots at them, followed by a pursuit of cavalry
comprised of the Benton Hussars and my escort from Bowen's battalion, which was all the
cavalry convenient at the time. General Sigel also followed in this pursuit towards Keetsville,
while I returned, trying to check a movement which led my forces north, where I was confident a
frightened foe was not likely to go. I soon found the rebel forces had divided and gone in every
direction, but it was several hours before I learned that the main force, after entering the canyon,
had turned short to the right, following obscure ravines which led into the Huntsville road in a
due south direction. General Sigel followed some miles north towards Keetsville, firing on the
retreating force that ran that way. Colonel Bussey, with cavalry and the little howitzers, followed
beyond Bentonville.
I camped on the field and made provision for burying the dead and care of the wounded.
This sad reckoning shows where the long-continued fire was borne and where the public
sympathy should be most directed. The loss of the enemy was much greater, but their scattered
battalions can never furnish a correct report of their killed and wounded.
The reports of division and other officers of my command are all submitted, with such details
as were seen or understood by local commanders. They give interesting incidents and notice
many deserving heroes.
I mentioned in my telegraphic report of the 9th March with high commendations, and I now
repeat, the names who have done distinguished services. These are my commanders of divisions,
Generals Sigel and Asboth, Colonel and Acting Brigadier-General Davis, and Colonel and
Acting Brigadier-General Carr. They commanded the four divisions. I also again present
commanders of brigades, Colonels Dodge, Osterhaus, Vandever, White, Schaefer, Pattison, and
Greusel. The three first named I especially commend. I also renew the just thanks due to my staff
officers, Capt. T. I. McKenny, acting assistant adjutant-general, Capt. W. H. Stark, Capt. John
Ahlfeldt, Lieut. J. M. Adams, and Lieutenant Stitt, all acting aides; also A. Hoeppner, my only
engineer. To these I must now add Major Bowen, who commanded my body-guard, and with the
mountain howitzers did gallant service in every battle-field, in the pursuit, and especially at Pea
Ridge. Captain Stephens, Lieutenant Madison, and Lieutenant Crabtree, of this battalion, also
deserve honorable mention. Major Weston, of the Twenty-fourth Missouri, provost-marshal, in
camp and in battle did gallant service. Lieutenant David, ordnance officer on my staff, took
charge of me First Iowa Battery after Captain Jones was wounded, and did signal service. I must
also thank my commanders of posts, who supported my line of operation and deserve like
consideration, as their duties were more arduous--Colonel Boyd at Rolla, Colonel Waring at
Lebanon, Colonel Mills at Springfield, and Lieutenant-Colonel Holland at Cassville.
To do justice to all I would spread before you the most of the rolls of this army, for I can bear
testimony to the almost universal good conduct of officers and men who have shared with me the
long march, the many conflicts by the way, and final struggle with the combined forces of Price,
McCulloch, Mcintosh, and Pike, under Major-General Van Dorn, at the battle of Pea Ridge.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Capt. N.H. MCLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Saint Louis, Mo.
Forsyth, Mo., April 12, 1862.
Maj. Gen. SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Commanding:
SIR: In compliance with your request, conforming to the wish of the joint committee of
Congress "to inquire into the fact whether Indian savages have been employed by the rebels in
their military service, and how such warfare has been conducted by such savages against the
Government of the United States," I hereby certify upon honor that I was present at the
engagement near Leetown, Ark., on the 7th of March ultimo, when the main charge of the
enemy's cavalry was made upon our line; that there were Indians among the forces making said
charge; and that from personal inspection of the bodies of the men of the Third Iowa Cavalry,
who fell upon that part of the field, I discovered that 8 of the men of that regiment had been
scalped. I also saw bodies of the same men which had been wounded in parts not vital by bullets,
and also pierced through the heart and neck with knives, fully satisfying me that the men had
first fallen from the gunshot wounds received and afterwards brutally murdered.
The men of the Third Iowa Cavalry who were taken prisoners by the enemy, and who have
since returned, all state that there were great numbers of Indians with them on the retreat as far as
Elm Springs. Their affidavits will be furnished to you as soon as possible.
Respectfully submitted.
Adjutant, Third Iowa Cavalry.
Southwestern District of Missouri:
I, Daniel Bradbury, on my oath, say that I am orderly sergeant of Company A, Third Iowa
Cavalry, and that I was present at the battle of Pea Ridge, near Leetown, Ark., on the 7th of
March, 1862, and I then and there saw about 300 Indians scattered over the battle-field, without
commanders, doing as they pleased. On the 8th of March I saw what I would judge to be about
3,000 Indians marching in good order towards the battle-field, under the command of Albert
First Sergeant Company A, Third Iowa Cavalry.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 30th day of April, 1862.
Adjutant, Third Iowa Cavalry.
Southwestern District of Missouri:
I, John H. Lawson, on my oath, say that I am a private in Company D, Third Iowa Cavalry,
and that I was present at the battle of Pea Ridge, near Leetown, Ark., on the 7th of March, 1862,
and I then and there saw, as near as I could judge, about 150 Indians, scattered, they were
afterwards formed into companies and marched out of my sight in good order.
On the 8th of March I saw about 2,.000 Indians, said to be under the command of Albert Pike
and Martin Green, marching towards the battle-ground in good order, These were all mounted,
armed with shot-guns, rifles, and large knives.
Subscribed and sworn to before me this the 30th day of April, 1862.
Adjutant, Third Iowa Cavalry.
Jacksonport, Ark., May 11, 1862.
Commanding Army of the Southwest:
GENERAL: On the morning of the 7th of March I was on the battlefield of Pea Ridge. While
my command was engaging the enemy near Leetown I saw in rebel army a large number of
Indians, estimated by me at 1,000.
After the battle I attended in person to the burial of the dead of my command. Of 25 men
killed on the field of my regiment, 8 were scalped and the bodies of others were horribly
mutilated, being fired into with musket balls and pierced through the body and neck with long
knives. These atrocities I believe to have been committed by Indians belonging to the rebel army.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Camp Pea Ridge, Ark., March 15, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to lay before you the following reports in regard to the actions
of the First and Second Divisions from the 5th to the 9th day of this month:
I.--Expedition to Pineville on the 5th of March.
On the evening of the 5th the main body of the two divisions was encamped near
McKissick's farm, 3 miles southward of Bentonville and 1 mile from the fork of the roads
leading west to Maysville and northeast to Pineville. The Second Missouri, under Colonel
Schaefer, and one company of cavalry were stationed at Osage Mills, otherwise called Smith's
Mill, 5 miles southeast of McKisick's farm, whilst our pickets guarded all the other avenues to
the camp. For the purpose of reconnoitering the country towards the Indian Territory and to
detain the rebels of Southwest Missouri from following Price's army by the State line road,
Major Conrad, with five select companies of infantry, 60 men of cavalry, and two pieces of
Welfley's battery, was ordered to proceed on the first day to Lindsey's Prairie, where he arrived
in the evening, 16 miles southwest of McKisick's farm, on the 2d (the 5th) to Maysville, and to
return on the third day to our own camp.
Such was our position on the evening of the 5th, when I received orders from you to send a
detachment of cavalry to Pineville, where there were said to be some 200 or 300 rebels, who
disturbed and endangered the Union people of McDonald County. I directed Major Meszaros,
with 80 men, to march at 10 o'clock p.m. on the northwestern road to Pineville, whilst Capt. von
Kielmansegge was sent to Major Conrad at Maysville, to lead his 60 men of cavalry, with one
piece of artillery and 20 infantry, at 10 o'clock in the night, from Maysville to Rutledge and
Pineville, and to act in concert with Major Meszaros. A Home Guard company, stationed
between Pineville and Keetsville, was ordered to occupy at night the roads leading to Neosho
and Kent, and thereby prevent the secesh to escape in that direction. Major Meszaros and Capt.
von Kielmansegge should approach the town from the east, southeast, and southwest. It was
understood that these detachments should attack the town simultaneously at 5 o'clock in the
Just a few minutes before 10 o'clock in the evening, when Meszaros was prepared to leave
the camp, I received news from Colonel Schaefer, at Osage Mills, that his pickets posted in the
direction of Elm Springs were fired upon by the enemy. This, in addition to your own dispatches
reporting the enemy’s force at Fayetteville and a strong party of cavalry advancing towards
Middletown, and, besides this, your order to march to Sugar Creek, made me at once aware of
the dangerous position of my command. I therefore ordered Colonel Schaefer to break up his
camp immediately, to send the cavalry company to Osage Springs to cover his right flank, and to
march with his regiment to Bentonville, leaving Osage Springs to the right and McKisick's farm
to the left. All other troops I ordered to be prepared to march at 2 o'clock in the morning. In
regard to the expedition to Pineville, it was too late to countermand the movement under Captain
von Kielmansegge, and I therefore ordered Major Meszaros to begin his march and to
accomplish his task with his own detachment and that of Captain von Kielman-segge, but to
return to Sugar Creek as quickly as possible, without ruining his horses, so that they could be of
some use in the ensuing battle. Major Conrad was made aware of our situation, and instructed to
join us at Sugar Creek by some circuitous road leading northeast. The result of the expedition
was not very great, but satisfactory.
The attack was made according to the instructions given and at the precise time, but only 1
captain, 1 lieutenant, and 15 men of Price's army were found in the town and made prisoners;
the others had left some days previous. The commands of Major Meszaros and Captain von
Kielmansegge arrived safely on the 6th in our camp at Sugar Creek, bringing with them their
prisoners. Unfortunately they had to leave behind and to destroy a printing press and types taken
at Pineville, as the roads they took were too bad to bring this important material along.
Major Conrad, with his detachment, found his way to Keetsville and Cassville, which place
he left on the 9th, and arrived at the former place, with Colonel Wright, some time after I had
opened the road to Cassville on the pursuit of Price's force, which retired from Keetsville to
II.--Retreat from McKisick's farm, by Bentonville, to Camp Halleck, on Sugar Creek.
At 2 o'clock in the morning of the 6th the troops encamped at McKisick's farm moved
forward towards Bentonville in the following order:
Advance guard, under Asboth: One company of Fourth Missouri Cavalry (Fremont Hussars);
Second Ohio Battery, under command of Lieutenant Chapman; Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers,
under command of Colonel Joliat. Train of First and Second Divisions, escorted and guarded by
detachments of the respective regiments. The First Division, under Colonel Osterhaus. The
flying battery, the Fifth Missouri Cavalry (Benton Hussars), and the squadron of the Thirty-sixth
Illinois Cavalry, Captain Jenks.
Before leaving camp I detached Lieutenant Schipper, of Company A, Benton Hussars, with
20 men, to Osage Springs, to communicate with Colonel Schaefer, and to bring news to
Bentonville as soon as the enemy would approach that place.
The advance guard of General Asboth arrived at Bentonville at 4 o'clock, when I directed
him to halt until the train had come up more close. He then proceeded to Sugar Creek, followed
by the train. Meanwhile the Second Missouri, Colonel Schaefer, and one part of the First
Division arrived in town. I ordered this regiment, as well as the Twelfth Missouri, under
command of Major Wangelin, the flying battery, under Captain Elbert, and the whole disposable
cavalry force, under Colonel Nemett, comprising the Benton Hussars, the Thirty-sixth Illinois
Cavalry, under Captain Jenks, and a squad of 13 men of Fremont Hussars, under Lieut. Fred. W.
Cooper, to occupy and guard the town, to let the whole train pass, and remain at my disposition
as a rear guard.
At 8 o'clock the train had passed the town and was moving on the road to Sugar Creek. With
the intention not to be too close to the train and awaiting report from Lieutenant Schipper's
picket at Osage Springs two hours elapsed, when ten minutes after 10 it was reported to me that
large masses of troops, consisting of infantry and cavalry, were moving from all sides towards
our front and both flanks.
After some observation I had no doubt that the enemy's advance guard was before us. I
immediately called the troops to arms and made them ready for battle. As Bentonville is situated
on the edge of Osage Prairie, easily accessible in front and covered on the right and left and rear
by thick woods and underbrush, I ordered the troops to evacuate the town and to form on a little
hill north of it. Looking for the Second Missouri, I learned to my astonishment that it had already
left the town by a misunderstanding of my order. I am glad to say that this matter is satisfactorily
explained by Colonel Schaefer, but at the same time I regret to report that this regiment was
ambuscaded on its march and lost in the conflict 37 men in dead, wounded, and prisoners.
The troops now left to me consisted of about eight companies of the Twelfth Missouri, with
an average strength of 45 men, five companies of Benton Hussars, and five pieces of the flying
battery; in all about 600 men. The troops I directed to march in the following order: Two
companies of the Twelfth at the head of the column, deployed on the right and left as
skirmishers, followed by the flying battery; one company of the same regiment on the right and
one on the left of the pieces, marching by the flank, and prepared to fire by ranks to the right and
left, the remainder of the regiment behind the pieces, two companies of cavalry to support the
infantry on the right and left, and the rest of the cavalry, under command of Colonel Nemett,
with one piece of artillery, following in the rear. In this formation, modified from time to time
according to circumstances, the column moved forward to break through the lines of the enemy,
who had already taken position in our front and in both flanks, whilst he appeared behind us in
the town in line of battle, re-enforced by some pieces of artillery. The troops advanced slowly,
fighting and repelling the enemy in front, flankward, and rear, wherever he stood or attacked.
From the moment we left the town, at 10.30 in the morning, until 3.30 o'clock in the
afternoon, when we met the first re-enforcements--the Second Missouri, the Twenty-fifth
Illinois, and a few companies of the Forty-fourth Illinois--we sustained three regular attacks, and
were uninterruptedly in sight and under the fire of the enemy. When the first re-enforcement had
arrived I knew that we were safe, and left it to the Twenty-fifth and Second Missouri, and
afterwards to Colonel Osterhaus, to take care of the rest, which he did to my satisfaction.
It would take too much time to go into the detail of this most extraordinary and critical affair,
but as a matter of justice I feel it my duty to declare that according to my humble opinion, never
troops have shown themselves worthier to defend a great cause than on this day of the 6th of
III.--Battle of the 7th, near Leesville [Leetown] and on Pea Ridge.
In the night of the 6th the two divisions were encamped on the plateau of the hills near Sugar
Creek and in the adjoining valley separating the two ridges extending along the creek. The
Second Division held the right, the First the left of the position, flouting towards the west and
southwest, in order to receive the enemy should he advance from the Bentonville and
Fayetteville road. Colonel Davis' division, forming the center, was on our left, and Colonel Carr
covered the ground on the extreme left of our whole line.
Early in the morning report came in that troops and trains of the enemy were moving the
whole night on the Bentonville road around our rear towards Cross Timber, thereby endangering
our line of retreat and communication to Keetsville, and separating us from our re-enforcements
and provision trains. This report was corroborated by two of my guides, Mr. Pope and Mr.
Brown, who had gone out to reconnoiter the country. I immediately ordered Lieutenant
Schramm, of my staff, to ascertain the facts, and to see in what direction the troops were moving.
On his return he reported that there was no doubt in regard to the movement of a large force of
the enemy in the aforesaid direction. You then ordered me to detach three pieces of the flying
battery to join Colonel Bussey's cavalry in an attack against the enemy in the direction of
Leesville. Colonel Osterhaus was directed to follow him with three regiments of infantry and two
At about 11 o'clock the firing began near Elkhorn Tavern and Leesville. To see how matters
stood, I went out to Colonel Carr's division, and found him a short distance beyond the tavern,
engaged in a brisk cannonade. Several pieces, partly disabled and partly without ammunition,
were returning, whilst another advanced from the camp. As the enemy's fire was directed to the
place where I halted, I ordered two pieces of the battery which came up to take position on an
elevated ground to the left and to shell the enemy. After a few shots the fire of the enemy
opposite our position became weaker, and I sent the two pieces forward to join their battery. I
then returned to look after my own troops, and passing along the road met the Third Iowa
Cavalry, which had been sent in advance of Colonel Osterhaus, and which now escorted their
lieutenant-colonel, who was severely wounded, back into the camp. I immediately sent to you to
order the regiment back to Leesville, which order was given, and the regiment returned. I met
Lieutenant Gassen, of the flying battery, who reported to me that our cavalry had been driven
back by an overwhelming force, and our three pieces taken by the enemy, as there was no
infantry to support them. I now ordered Major Meszaros and the two other pieces of the flying
battery to re-enforce Colonel Osterhaus, but during their march I learned that Colonel Davis had
been directed to advance with his whole division to Leesville, which induced me to send only
Major Meszaros to that point, and directed the two pieces of the flying battery to act as reserve,
and to join the troops left in their encampment. Proceeding to the camp to see what was going on
there and whether we were safe in our rear (towards Bentonville), I found the following troops
assembled in their respective positions: The Seventeenth Missouri and a detachment of 60 men
of the Third Missouri; the Twenty-fifth and the Forty-fourth Illinois ; two pieces of Welfley's
battery (12-pounders) ; two companies Thirty-sixth Illinois Cavalry, and nearly the whole
Second Division, comprising the Second and Fifteenth Missouri, Carlin's battery, and two
companies of the Benton Hussars.
It was about 2 o'clock in the afternoon when the cannonading and musket firing became more
vehement, and when you ordered me to re-enforce Colonel Carr at Elkhorn Tavern, and Colonel
Davis and Colonel Osterhaus near Leesville, as both forces, especially those at Leesville, were,
according to your reports, pressed hard and losing ground. I therefore sent General Asboth, with
four companies of the Second Missouri, under Colonel Schaefer, and four pieces of the Second
Ohio Battery, under Lieutenant Chapman, to assist Colonel Carr. Major Poten, with the
Seventeenth Missouri, one company of the Third Missouri, two companies of the Fifteenth
Missouri, two pieces of the flying artillery, under Captain Elbert, and two companies of the
Benton Hussars, under Major Heinrichs, I ordered to advance on the Sugar Creek road towards
Bentonville, to demonstrate against the rear of the enemy. Two pieces of the Second Ohio
Battery, with six companies of the Second Missouri, remained in their position to guard the camp
and two companies of the Forty-fourth Illinois, with 20 men of the Thirty-sixth Illinois Cavalry,
under Captain Russell, were sent forward in a northwestern direction, to remain there as a picket
between Leesville and the Sugar Creek road. With all other troops--the Fifteenth Missouri, the
Twenty-fifth and Forty-fourth Illinois, and the two pieces of Captain Welfley's battery--I
marched to Leesville, to re-enforce Colonels Davis and Osterhaus. My intention was to throw
back the enemy from Leesville into the mountains and towards Bentonville, and then, by a
change of direction to the right to assist General Asboth and Colonel Carr by deploying on their
On my march to Leesville, I heard Major Poten's firing on the Bentonville road. Arrived at
Leesville, the firing in front had ceased, whilst it commenced with new vehemence on the right,
at Elkhorn Tavern. At this moment Captain McKenny, acting assistant adjutant-general,
requested me, by order of General Curtis, to send some more re-enforcements to the right, which
I did, by detaching five companies of the Twenty-fifth Illinois and four pieces of Captain
Hoffmann's battery, stationed in reserve at Leesville, to Elkhorn Tavern. I then proceeded
beyond the town to the battle-field, which I found in full possession of Colonels Davis and
Osterhaus. As no enemy could be seen except a small detachment on a distant hill, I requested
Colonel Davis to protect my left flank, by sending his skirmishers and one regiment of infantry
forward through the woods, whilst I proceeded with the Twenty-fifth Illinois and four pieces of
Welfley's and Hoffmann's batteries on the road to the northeast, which was already opened by
the Forty-fourth Illinois and Fifteenth Missouri. After making 1 mile and passing two hospitals
of the enemy I ordered Colonel Osterhaus to follow me with the Twelfth Missouri and Thirtysixth
Illinois and a section of artillery, which troops came up promptly, except the two pieces,
12-pounders, that remained with Colonel Davis. We advanced slowly, and after making half a
mile more we reached an open field, where we took our position, and from which we could
easily discern the camp-fires of our friends and those of our enemies near Elkhorn Tavern. I sent
immediately to General Curtis to apprise him of my position and that I was ready to co-operate
with him. Meanwhile night had fallen in, and although the cannonading was renewed on the
right, I did not believe that after a hard day's work the enemy would make a final and decisive
attack. In order, therefore, to disguise our position from which I intended to advance in the
morning I kept the troops in the strictest silence, and did not allow the building of camp-fires or
any movement farther than 200 to 300 paces distance. So we remained until 1 o'clock in the
morning, when I found it necessary to remove the troops by a short and convenient road into our
common camp, to give them some food, sleep, and a good fire, and to prepare them for battle.
To show the whole position of the First and Second Divisions on the evening of the 7th,
allow me, general, to make the following statement:
Be ginning on the left, Major Poten, with the Seventeenth Missouri, one company of the
Third Missouri, two companies of the Fifteenth Missouri, two pieces of the flying artillery, and
two companies of the Benton Hussars were stationed on the Sugar Creek and Bentonville road, 3
miles from the camp. The entrance of the road from this side was guarded by two pieces of the
Second Ohio Battery and six companies of the Second Missouri. Towards the north (Leesville)
two companies of the Forty-fourth Illinois and 20 men of the Thirty-sixth Illinois Cavalry
remained on picket. On the right, near Elkhorn Tavern, were the following troops: Four
companies of the Second Missouri, five companies of the Twenty-fifth Illinois, four pieces of the
Second Ohio Battery, and four pieces of Captain Hoffmann's battery. In the field to the left of
General Asboth and Colonel Cart, under my immediate command, were the Twelfth Missouri,
the Fifteenth Missouri, the Twenty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and Forty-fourth Illinois, two pieces of
Captain Welfley's and two pieces of Captain Hoffmann's batteries. The Fremont and Benton
Hussars and one section of Captain Welfley's battery returned to camp with Colonel Davis.
The detachment of Major Conrad, consisting of six companies of infantry detailed from the
Third, Fifteenth, and Seventeenth Missouri and Thirty-sixth Illinois, and one piece of Captain
Welfley's battery, was encamped a few miles west of Keetsville.
One piece of Captain Welfley's battery was spiked and then taken by the enemy, but retaken
and unspiked. Three pieces of Captain Elbert's flying battery had been lost near Leesville, the
trails burned by the enemy, and the guns left on the battle-field. Another piece of this battery had
broken down on the retreat from Bentonville to Sugar Creek, but the gun was recovered and
brought into camp.
IV.--Battle of the 8th, near Elkhorn Tavern.
The different combats of the 7th had fully developed the plans of the enemy. It was evident
that his main forces were stationed near and at Elkhorn Tavern, and that he would make all
efforts to break through our lines on the Fayetteville road, and thereby complete his apparent
victory. I therefore resolved to recall all troops and different detachments of the First and Second
Divisions from wherever they were stationed (with the exception of four companies of the
Second Missouri and four pieces of artillery from the Second Ohio Battery sent to their original
position on Sugar Creek), and to fall upon the right flank of the enemy should he attack or
advance from Elkhorn Tavern. At daybreak of the 8th the following troops were assembled near
and around my headquarters awaiting orders:
First Division, Colonel Osterhaus: Two companies Third Missouri Volunteers; Twelfth and
Seventeenth Missouri; Twenty-fifth, Thirty-sixth, and Forty-fourth Illinois; Welfley's battery,
five pieces; Hoffmann's battery, six pieces; Captain Jenks' squadron of the Thirty-sixth Illinois.
Second Division, General Asboth, Second Missouri, six companies; Fifteenth Missouri; two
pieces Second Ohio Battery, Lieutenant Chapman; battalion (four companies) Fourth Missouri
Cavalry (Fremont Hussars); six companies Fifth Missouri Cavalry (Benton Hussars); two pieces
of Captain Elbert's flying battery.
It was about 7 o'clock in the morning when the firing began on the Keetsville road, this side
of Elkhorn Tavern. I was waiting for Colonel Osterhans and Lieutenant Asmussen, of my staff,
who had gone out to reconnoiter the ground on which I intended to deploy and to find the nearest
road to that ground. The Forty-fourth Illinois had already been sent in advance to form our right,
when the above-named officers returned and the movement began In less than half an hour the
troops were in their respective positions, the First Division forming the first line, the Second
Division, with all the cavalry, the reserve, 250 paces behind the first line.. To protect and cover
the deployment of the left wing I opened the fire on the right with a section of Captain
Hoffmann's battery, under Lieutenant Frank, and the five pieces of Captain Welfley's battery.
The enemy returned the fire promptly and with effect, but was soon outflanked by our position
on the left and exposed to a concentric and most destructive fire of our brave and almost neverfailing
After the first discharges on a distance of 800 paces I ordered Captain Welfley and
Lieutenant Frank to advance about 250 yards, to come into close range from the enemy's
position, whilst I threw the Twenty-fifth Illinois forward on the right, to cover the space between
the battery and the Keetsville road. Colonel Schaefer, with the Second Missouri, was ordered to
proceed to the extreme left, and by forming against the cavalry, to protect our left flank. This
movement proved of great effect, and I now ordered the center and the left to advance 200 paces
and brought the reserve forward on the position which our first line had occupied. I then took a
battery commanded by Captain Klauss, and belonging to Colonel Davis' division, nearer to my
right, and reported to you that the road towards Elkhorn Tavern was open and we were
advancing. About this time, when the battle had lasted about one hour and a half, the enemy tried
to extend his line farther to the right, in occupying the first hill of the long ridge commanding the
plain and the gradually rising ground where we stood. His infantry was already lodged upon the
hill, seeking shelter behind the rocks and stones, whilst some pieces of artillery worked around to
gain the plateau. I immediately ordered the two howitzers of the reserve (Second Ohio, under
Lieutenant Gansevoort) and the two pieces of Captain Elbert's flying battery to report to Colonel
Osterhaus on the left, to shell and batter the enemy on the hill. This was done in concert with
Hoffmann's battery and with terrible effect to the enemy, as the rocks and stones worked as hard
as the shells and shot. The enemy's plan to enfilade our lines from the hill was frustrated, and he
was forced to lead a precipitate retreat with men and cannon. Encouraged by the good and
gallant behavior of our troops, I resolved to draw the circle a little closer around the corner into
which we had already pressed the enemy's masses, and ordered a second advance of all the
batteries and battalions, changing the position of the right wing more to the left, and bringing the
troops of the reserve, the Fifteenth Missouri, and the whole cavalry behind our left.
Assisted by Klauss' battery on the right, and co-operating with the troops of the Third and
Fourth Divisions, who advanced with new spirit on the Keetsville road, the enemy was
overwhelmed by the deadly power of our artillery, and after about an hour's work the firing on
his side began to slacken, and nearly totally ceased. To profit this favorable moment I ordered
the Twelfth Missouri, the Twenty-fifth and Forty-fourth Illinois to throw forward a strong force
of skirmishers and take the woods in front, where the enemy had planted one of his batteries. In
the same time I ordered the Seventeenth Missouri Volunteers, which had arrived during the
battle from Bentonville road, to climb the hill on our left and to press forward against the
enemy's rear. The Thirty-sixth Illinois was also ordered to assist this movement and to hold
communication between the Twelfth and Seventeenth Missouri Volunteers, whilst Colonels
Schaefer and Joliat, with the Second and Fifteenth Missouri, followed slowly, and Colonel
Nemett, with his cavalry, guarded the rear.
The rattling of musketry, the volleys, the hurrahs, did prove very soon that our troops were
well at work in the woods, and that they were gaining ground rapidly. It was the Twelfth
Missouri Volunteers, under Major Wangelin, which at this occasion took Dallas' artillery and
their flag, followed close behind and on the right by part of the Third Missouri, the Forty-fourth
Illinois, and Twenty-fifth and on the left by the Thirty-sixth Illinois. The Seventeenth Missouri,
under Major Poten, had meanwhile arrived on the top of Pea Ridge, forming the extreme left of
our line of battle.
The enemy was routed and fled in terror and confusion in all directions. It was a delightful
moment when we all met after 12 o'clock on the eminence, where the enemy held positions with
his batteries a few minutes before, and when you let pass by the columns of your victorious
To pursue the enemy I sent Captain von Kielmansegge with one company of Fremont
Hussars forward. The Seventeenth and Third Missouri followed in double-quick time, assisted by
two pieces of Elbert's flying artillery, other troops of the First Division, all under Colonel
Osterhaus, came up and continued their march towards Keetsville.
At the fork of the Benton and Keetsville roads I detached the Forty-fourth Illinois (Colonel
Knobelsdorff), two pieces of artillery of the flying battery, and a squad of 30 men, Fremont
Hussars, to proceed a short distance on the road to Bentonville and to guard that road. Arrived at
Keetsville with the greatest portion of my command. I found that one part of the enemy had
turned the Roaring River and Berryville, while others had turned to the left. I also received your
order to return to Sugar Creek, which I did, and met the army on Sugar Creek at 4 o'clock in the
evening of the 9th.
A list of the dead, wounded, and missing of this command has already been transmitted to
you, and a special report mentioning those officers and men of my command who deserve
consideration for their conduct in action, together with the reports of the different commanders
of regiments and corps, will follow to-day, as some of the reports have not come in yet.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding First and Second Div.
Camp Welfley, Ark., March 14, 1862.
CAPTAIN: Ill compliance with special orders from headquarters of Southwest District I have
the honor to report the part taken by the First Division in the three days' battle of the 6th, 7th, and
8th of this month.
At 9 o'clock p.m. on the night of the 5th instant (I was then stationed at McKisick's farm, 3
miles southwest of Bentonville, Ark.), I was officially informed of the approach of the enemy,
receiving at the same time orders to march at 2 o'clock a.m. next morning, in order to join the
other divisions of the army at Pea Ridge, on Fayetteville or Telegraph road. We left camp at the
hour mentioned, and on arriving at Bentonville General Sigel ordered the Twelfth Missouri
Volunteers, Major Wangelin commanding, to remain there and re-enforce the rear guard
(composed of the Second Missouri Volunteers, Colonel Schaefer, the flying battery, and the
Fremont and Benton Hussars). This force was to stay at Bentonville under the immediate
command of General Sigel, while I myself proceeded to Sugar Creek with the other regiments
and batteries of the First Division. On my arrival there I learned by rumor, afterwards confirmed
officially, that General Sigel had been attacked at Bentonville, and that his egress from that town
was disputed by a strong rebel force. I immediately, after giving notice to General Curtis,
ordered all the regiments and Captain Hoffmann's battery to return with the utmost speed to the
support of our general. They, together with the Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers, of the Second
Division, responded promptly to my sudden call, and though tired by a 16-mile march, hurried
back in double-quick to the field of action.
I had almost arrived at the head of Sugar Creek Hollow with this force when I met General
Sigel an(l his small force, who had broken through the enemy. The latter was still following
them. On a bend in the narrow defile formed by Sugar Creek Hollow I planted two pieces of
Hoffmann's battery, while the Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers (Second Division)formed in line of
battle in support of the battery, while the Seventeenth Missouri Volunteers were deployed as
skirmishers over the whole breadth of the valley and the crests of the bordering hills.
The enemy advanced towards us with artillery in the valley and skirmishers on the hills,
when a few rounds of spherical case and canister stopped him. His artillery played without
success. I then ordered the two pieces back, as well as the infantry, with the exception of the
Seventeenth Missouri Volunteers, which covered our retreat in most admirable style, exchanging
an occasional shot with the enemy. Major Poten, commanding the Seventeenth Missouri
Volunteers, deserves the highest credit for the determination and coolness exhibited on this
We arrived in camp without any further molestation, and prepared to bivouac on the northern
ridges skirting Sugar Creek Hollow, near the camp of the other divisions, fortifying our position
at once in anticipation of a night attack. The enemy did not molest us, however.
March 7-- Early morning brought us in the intelligence that the united forces of the
Confederate and Missouri rebels had passed our right flank and were deploying also on our line
of retreat near Elkhorn Tavern. They advanced during the night by the direct road leading from
Bentonville, Ark., to Cassville, Mo. This road joins the Telegraph road from Fayetteville to
Cassville at a point a few miles north of the above-mentioned Elkhorn Tavern. To prevent the
enemy from still more strengthening their position in our rear and to engage a part of his forces
General Curtis ordered me to make a demonstration on their right flank towards Leetown, and, if
necessary, on the Bentonville and Cassville road. The forces detailed for this purpose were
mainly cavalry (battalions of Third Iowa Cavalry, First and Fifth Missouri Cavalry), and three
pieces of the flying battery, all under the immediate command of Colonel Bussey, Third Iowa
Cavalry; and; further, the Twelfth Missouri, Thirty-sixth Illinois, and Twenty-second Indiana
Regiments, three pieces, 12-pounder howitzers, of Captain Welfley's battery, and Captain
Hoffmann's battery. This command started after 10 o'clock a.m. I arrived at Leetown, having no
knowledge whatever of the whereabouts of the enemy, and took position in the open fields north
of Leetown, going forward myself with the cavalry and three pieces of the flying artillery. The
field in which the infantry and artillery were posted is divided from another tract of cultivated
land by a belt of timber with thick undergrowth. Debouching from this timber I came in sight of
a large force of the enemy, mostly cavalry. All the open fields to my front and right were
occupied, and the road from Bentonville was filled with new regiments arriving.
As appears from the accompanying sketch, this gathering of the enemy's forces was
accomplished in the immediate neighborhood of the headquarters of our army, being only 1
miles distant, and it was patent that the enemy was preparing a most energetic attack on our right
flank at the same time that they opened fire on our rear. Notwithstanding my command was
entirely inadequate to the overwhelming masses opposed to me, which I learned afterwards were
under the immediate command of Generals McCulloch and Mcintosh, and comprised some of
the very best-drilled regiments in the Confederate service and Indian regiments, I could not
hesitate in my course of action. The safety of our position was dependent upon the securing of
our right flank and the keeping back of the enemy until I was re-enforced. I therefore ordered the
three pieces of the flying battery to form, supporting them by companies from the First Missouri
Cavalry, provided with revolvers and revolving carbines, forming the remainder of the cavalry in
line of attack. The battery opened fire with the most disastrous effect on the enemy, and in order
to cut off fresh supports two companies of cavalry were ordered to charge down the road. When I
saw the effect of the artillery, creating a panic in the lines of our opponents, I ordered Colonel
Bussey to charge from the right, attacking the left of the rebels. While these preparations were
making, a wild, numerous, and irregular throng of cavalry, a great many Indians among them,
rushed towards us, breaking through our lines. A general discharge of fire-arms on both sides
created a scene of wild confusion from which our cavalry, abandoning the three pieces of
artillery, retreated towards their old camping ground, while that of the enemy made their way
across the fields towards the Bentonville road.
It being evident that the cavalry could not be formed again for the present, I had to rely solely
on the infantry and artillery to achieve my purpose. Fearful of the impression which the above
scene of confusion might have made. I went to meet them. They had stood without flinching, and
in a few minutes they were in such shape that I could attack the enemy again.
The Twenty-second Indiana on my right, Captain Welfley's two pieces (one piece had been
disabled), the Twelfth Missouri, Captain Hoffman's battery, and the Thirty-sixth Illinois on my
left formed the line. For the reserve I had to rely on the re-enforcements for which I sent to
General Curtis.
The enemy soon made his appearance with colors flying on the opposite side of the field
which I occupied. Our batteries opened their fire on him, sweeping everything from our sight. I
ordered skirmishers from the Twelfth Missouri Volunteers to advance and scour the woods on
our right and front and sent one company of Benton's Hussars (which had reassembled) to our
On approaching the wood they were received by the enemy with a heavy musketry fire to
which the infantry replied so successfully, that they were able to bring back (from a very
exposed position) the piece of Captain Welfley's artillery which had been disabled. This piece
afterwards did very good service. For several hours the enemy repeatedly attempted to advance,
on each occasion bringing fresh troops into action. However, they invariably had to give way to
the unflinching courage of my men. McCulloch and Mcintosh led their troops in person and both
fell--the former by a ball from a soldier of the Thirty-sixth Illinois Volunteers, Peter Pelican. The
enemy's cannon played for a time pretty severely on our ranks, and it became necessary to
silence them. My instructions to that effect were so well executed that the rebels were unable
even to carry away the three pieces of the flying artillery abandoned by our cavalry in the early
part of the day. They had to leave them on the field.
About 2 o'clock p.m. General Jefferson C. Davis arrived with some of his regiments and was
joined by the Twenty-second Indiana, up to this time under my command. The gallant officer
deployed his regiments at once on my right, advancing towards any foe who might still be in the
timber. The report of musketry which followed told me that a lively fight was going on. To act in
concert with him I ordered my tirailleurs forward in front, also some cavalry which had partly
reassembled. I advanced with my whole line, when the enemy showed his colors again. Cavalry
and infantry came around the left of General Davis and opened their fire on my now unsecured
right. In double-quick I threw the Twelfth Missouri on this exposed flank, supported them by
Captain Welfley's battery, who had wheeled to the right, and forming the Thirty-sixth Illinois in
close column on the extreme left of this new position, to be ready for any cavalry attack,
protecting at the same time Captain Hoffmann's battery. The enemy's plan being defeated by a
raging fire from the Twelfth Missouri Volunteers and Captain Welfley's artillery, they made a
feeble attempt to cut off our line of retreat, which was frustrated by skirmishers thrown out from
the Thirty-sixth Illinois Volunteers. As my infantry force was not equal to the artillery (having
only the Twelfth and Thirty-sixth with me), and also to counteract any further attempts of the
enemy to outflank me, I thought it judicious to send four pieces of Captain Hoffmann's battery
back to Leetown, which affords a very commanding position. This, with some of General Davis
infantry, formed my reserve. Cavalry flankers and infantry skirmishers having thoroughly
scoured the ground in front of where the battle had raged for hours, reported the enemy gone,
and his train could be seen in the distance moving towards Bentonville. Similar news was
brought me from the right, when a brave Indiana regiment (Colonel Davis') held aloft the Stars
and Stripes, which emblem of our country was hailed with enthusiastic cheers by the brave men
around me.
General Sigel now arrived with the rest of the First and Second Divisions, and as we passed
on the ground the enemy's dead and wounded, amounting to hundreds, gave evidence of the
fearful execution done by our soldiers. On our extreme right, where Colonel Carr was engaged,
the cannon were still thundering, although night was not far distant. We marched to the
assistance of our friends, planted our battery, and brought the infantry into line, but it was too
late to open fire. General Sigel was of opinion that it was best to wait until morning, and not to
betray our position by a few shots, which could be of no avail, as it was already night. Our men
laid down to rest in a wet corn field, having eaten nothing since morning, but not a murmur was
heard; they waited in patience. So ended the second day of battle.
I cannot pass over the occurrences of this day without again paying a tribute to the
indomitable courage and devotedness of the officers and men. They all deserve the highest
encomiums for their bravery and endurance. To mention names is almost impossible when
everybody has such noble claims.
Under my immediate observation were all the artillery officers present, Captain Welfley, the
unterrified, and Lieutenant Bencke, both of Battery A, and Captain Hoffmann and Lieutenants
Froehlich, Piderit, and Frank, of Battery B (Ohio); Major Wangelin, commanding Twelfth
Missouri Volunteers, and Colonel Greusel, of the Thirty-sixth Illinois Volunteers; furthermore,
two reliable officers who were detailed to me for the occasion as orderly officers, viz, Captain
von Kielmansegge, Fremont Hussars, of General Sigel's staff, and Captain Ahlfeldt, Twelfth
Missouri Volunteers, of General Curtis' staff, and also the gentlemen of my staff. I have also to
mention Captain McKenny, assistant adjutant-general on General Curtis' staff, who was with me
part of the day, and rendered great assistance in bringing Hoffmann's battery to Leetown, as well
as the general arrangements for the disposition of my lines.
March 8.--The commencement of this day still found our troops on the corn field, without
food or fire. Several messengers sent off for provisions returned, having been unable to procure
them. It being indispensable that our men should eat something before entering on another day's
struggle General Sigel, at 2 a.m., gave the order to return to camp (about 1 mile distant), where
we arrived at 3 o'clock a.m. The men slept till daybreak, and provisions having been brought up
in the mean time, fell in, after a hasty breakfast, to deliver another and last blow on the enemy.
The ground selected for this last attack by Lieutenant Asmussen, of General Sigel's staff, and
myself was a field forward of and connecting with the one in which we had taken position during
the forepart of the night. The Forty-fourth Illinois Regiment was first brought up and formed in
line on the left of the right wing (Third and Fourth Divisions) of our army. General Sigel then
arrived and took command in person, while I was engaged in bringing out the regiments and
batteries of my division.
The first position on the field was as follows: The Twenty-fifth Illinois Volunteers on my
extreme right, connecting with the left of our right wing of our army (Third and Fourth
Divisions). On the left of and in advance of that regiment I had posted the Forty-fourth Illinois
Volunteers, with Captain Welfley's battery on the left. To the left of the battery the Twelfth
Missouri Volunteers was brought into position, while the Thirty-sixth Illinois Volunteers formed
the extreme left in column by division at half distance, Hoffmann's battery occupying the interval
between the Twelfth Missouri and the Thirty-sixth Illinois. The Third and Seventeenth Missouri
Volunteers were formed as reserve in rear of my center.
The enemy fired from several batteries with the utmost vehemence, their shot and shell
falling thickly around our lines and on our batteries, so much so, that the troops to our right were
forced to fall back for a while. At this critical moment the batteries of the First Division opened
on the enemy, bearing mainly on the extreme right of the rebels. The effect was proportionate to
the skill, courage, and coolness of the officers and men. The enemy, seeing that his right was
endangered, concentrated all his energies on that wing, the fire of their other batteries slackening
off considerably. General Sigel ordered the batteries to advance, and at the same time dispatched
me to General Curtis to report progress. By this maneuver, in which the right wing of our army
co-operated, the enemy's entire line of retreat was brought under the concentrated fire from our
To execute this movement, on my return all our batteries wheeled to the left and I ordered the
skirmishers of the Twelfth Missouri Volunteers forward towards a grove of timber, from which
the heaviest battery of the enemy was firing against us. The men, under command of the gallant
Captain Lightfoot, of Company F, advanced like veterans.
In connection and to the left the skirmishers of the Thirty-sixth and Forty-fourth Illinois
Volunteers were also thrown out, and all the regiments of the First Division began their march
forward in support of the skirmishers. They were received with an intense fire by the enemy.
The Twelfth Missouri, supported by the Twenty-fifth Illinois, Colonel Coler, entered the
grove on our right, when the enemy's infantry fired heavy volleys, disputing every inch of
ground. Major Wangelin, commanding the Twelfth Missouri Volunteers, here had his horse shot
under him, and the two regiments, going on in gallant style, soon obtained possession of the
main road. Two brass pieces and the flag of the Dallas Artillery were taken by the Twelfth
Missouri in this charge.
During these struggles the movements on our extreme left were just as fast, powerful, and
successful. The Seventeenth and Third Missouri and the Thirty-sixth Illinois, supported by the
gallant soldiers of the Second and Fifteenth Missouri and the artillery of Lieutenant Chapman
(Second Division), advanced steadily, the cavalry on the left, towards the rocks over which the
enemy was retreating. Soon we saw the noble regiments Seventeenth and Third Missouri and
Thirty-sixth Illinois on the crest of the steep rocks, and with this position the field of the defeated
rebel army was in our possession.
We had conquered. The rebels were retreating in all directions--one force by the Cassville
road, which we followed in close pursuit and prevented every attempt of theirs to form again. A
great many prisoners and munitions of war, muskets, caissons, baggage wagons, and one more
cannon were taken by us in this pursuit. General Sigel ordered me to drive the rebel column as
far as Keetsville, which I did, arriving in the neighborhood of that place at 5 o'clock p.m. Next
morning (March 9) we entered the town of Keetsville, and dispatched a cavalry force a few miles
beyond, but it being evident that the enemy's forces in that direction had dispersed, General Sigel
ordered us to return to the battle ground, where he encamped our command near the other
In conclusion I ought to mid the names of those who excelled. They all were brave, and I
only could repeat the names mentioned before. First Lieutenant Jacoby, of Captain Welfley's
battery, who was not in the battle of Leetown, did great service and immense execution with his
12-pounder guns on the 8th. He is a worthy comrade of his brother officers. It also becomes my
pleasant duty to acknowledge the very kind assistance I repeatedly received on the 8th from
Colonel Schaefer, Second Missouri Volunteers, and his command.
Herewith you will find the reports of the different regiments and batteries composing my
command. The list of casualties was previously sent in.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Colonel, Commanding First Division, Army of the Southwest.
Capt. T. I. MCKENNY,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., S. W. Dist., Army of the Missouri.
Camp, Pea Ridge, March 11, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the action of this regiment from the 6th to the 9th of March,
The regiment, stationed at Camp Cooper, near Bentonville, received marching orders at 11
o'clock p.m. of the 5th, and at 2 a.m. of the 6th commenced a retrograde movement towards
Sugar Creek Hollow. When marching orders were received Company F, under command of
Lieutenant Hicks, were stationed at Williams' Mill, 7 miles west, grinding flour for the use of the
regiment. A messenger was immediately sent for them, and they made a very rapid march,
reaching the regiment in time to march with us, bringing also a quantity of flour. The regiment,
with the First Division, passed Bentonville at sunrise, and arrived at Sugar Creek Hollow at 11
a.m. We had hardly stacked our arms before (information having been received that the Twelfth
Missouri was cut off by the enemy) we were ordered by you to hasten back to their assistance,
which was immediately done, the regiment going double-quick some 6 miles, but as the enemy
had retreated we were ordered back, and took our position on the bluff west of the hollow.
Contrary to all expectations the enemy attacked our forces the next morning on the northwest
side, and the battle of Leetown commenced. My regiment, together with the Twenty-fifth
Illinois, Seventeenth Missouri, and part of Welfley's battery, were held in reserve until about 1
o'clock p.m., when we were all ordered by General Sigel onto the field and to the rescue.
Companies C and A, under command of Captain Russell, were previously ordered to skirmish
the woods in front of our position and secure the march of the reserve to the battlefield. Captain
Russell succeeded by skillful management in driving back scattering parties of the enemy, who
threatened our left flank, and in taking many prisoners. Eight companies proceeded double-quick
to the battle ground near Leetown. Arriving on the field, they were ordered by Brigadier-General
Davis to take position on the right of the road, where the hardest fighting had been. A line of
skirmishers was immediately thrown out, and the regiment followed with the greatest
promptness, passing over the dead and wounded, who lay in every direction. Finding the enemy
were retreating, I followed them rapidly, taking a number of prisoners and keeping up a lively
skirmishing fire. After pursuing them over a mile I took position on a high ridge commanding
the surrounding ground.
At this moment General Sigel arrived with artillery and other forces, and ordered us forward
in pursuit of the enemy. Night overtaking us, we were ordered into an open field on the left, and
slept on our arms in front and near the enemy. Early the next morning, together with other
regiments, we changed position, and went towards the headquarters of General Curtis, near Pea
Ridge. At 7 o'clock on the morning of the 8th we took position on the left of Colonel Carr's
regiment, fronting northeast. I had hardly thrown out skirmishers before the enemy commenced a
heavy fire on our right flank, forcing Colonel Carr's regiment and the two batteries they were
supporting to retire. Part of the infantry broke through our line, but our men behaved coolly, and
did not fall back until ordered to do so. General Curtis then ordered me to take a new position,
supporting the First Iowa and one other battery. The order was obeyed with promptness. As the
battery advanced the regiment also advanced, exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy's batteries.
General Sigel ordered us at this instant to the Support of Welfley's and Hoffman's batteries,
stationed on the open field in front of the high ridge occupied by the enemy, which was done
with the greatest alacrity.
Having taken this position, I ordered Companies A, C, G, and K forward to support General
Sigel's troops, who were then storming the ridge, which they did in the most spirited manner, our
companies joining with other regiments in driving the enemy from their strong position, whilst
the balance of the regiment followed as a reserve. The enemy having been driven forward, we
pursued them some 4 miles on the road towards Keetsville. On arriving at the junction of the
Bentonville road I was ordered, after being joined by two companies of the Thirty-sixth Illinois
and one company of the Benton Hussars, to continue the pursuit of the enemy on the Bentonville
road. At 9 o'clock the next morning I marched towards Bentonville, going within 5 miles of the
place. Having no orders to proceed farther, and Colonel Ellis' cavalry regiment having overtaken
me, I returned to within 1 mile of the Keetsville road, and the next day joined your command,
leaving two companies to guard the road. Owing to the coolness and discipline of the soldiers
and the fortunate positions which were selected, the loss of the regiment is astonishingly small,
amounting to 1 man killed and 2 wounded. Officers and soldiers behaved with the greatest spirit
and courage. I especially have to mention the following officers, who by their activity, courage,
and the abilities they displayed as soldiers deserve especial praise, viz: Capt. W. W. Barrett,
acting major, Capt. J. Russell, Capt. L. M. Sabin, Capt. Max Krone, and Lieutenant Davis.
The regiment in this engagement has taken over 150 prisoners, among them the colonel of
the Third Louisiana Regiment, acting brigadier-general ; also I colonel, 1 major, 3 captains, and
2 lieutenants, and have also captured 1 stand of colors, 230 stand of arms, 60 horses, and 38
saddles, all of which have been delivered over to the proper authorities.
Very respectfully, yours,
Colonel, Comdg. Forty-fourth Regiment Illinois Volunteers.
Commanding -First Division.
Pea Ridge, Ark., March 14, 1862.
SIR: I have to report that, in compliance with orders received from you, I, on the morning of
the 7th instant, proceeded with Companies A, B, C, D, and M, of the Third Iowa Cavalry, under
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Trimble, numbering 235 men and officers; the Benton Hussars,
under command of Colonel Nemett; four companies of the First Missouri Cavalry, under
command of Colonel Ellis; two companies of the Fremont Hussars, under command of
Lieutenant Howe, and three guns of Captain Elbert's battery, from your camp, towards Leetown,
to attack the advancing column of the enemy, myself and the force under my command acting in
connection with the infantry and artillery of General Osterhaus' brigade, and subject to his
command. My column left camp in advance of the other force of General Osterhaus at about 9.30
o'clock a.m., and proceeded cautiously west about a mile and a half to a large open field beyond
Leetown, and which was about a quarter of a mile wide from east to west and running south
about 2 miles, but which was intersected by fences, dividing it into smaller fields. The field first
entered by my force was surrounded on the east, north, and west by a thick wood of small oaks
and underbrush. Here I sent two companies of the First Missouri Cavalry to reconnoiter the
woods surrounding this field. At the same time, about 2 miles to the south, the wagon train of the
enemy could be seen moving in the direction of Bentonville. As my immediate command was
proceeding across this field in a westerly course General Osterhaus in person overtook us, and
immediately ordered the three guns to the front, they having up to this time been in rear of the
First Missouri and Third Iowa Cavalry.
We advanced in this new order across the field and entered the woods on the west side by a
narrow road going west. Following this road about a quarter of a mile we came upon a small
prairie extending 300 yards west and about 150 yards wide to the north. On the south open fields
under fence extended for a quarter of a mile to the west. This prairie was surrounded on the north
and west by timber and low brush.
At this point we came in full view of the enemy's cavalry passing along about a half mile
distant to the north. No other force being discovered, the three guns were immediately advanced
by General Osterhaus, who was present and in command, about 200 yards, and immediately
opened fire on the cavalry of the enemy on the road to the northwest. One company of the First
Missouri Cavalry was in line of battle on the left of the guns and one company of the same
troops on the right.
The companies of the Third Iowa Cavalry were formed in line of battle in rear of the guns,
parallel with the road and facing to the north. While forming the Benton Hussars in line on the
right of the Third Iowa Cavalry and facing the west, I was ordered by General Osterhaus to send
two companies of the Third Iowa Cavalry down the road to the west, to charge the enemy' line at
a point supposed to be about a half mile distant. This order was communicated by me to
Lieutenant-Colonel Trimble, who immediately advanced with columns of fours, which was
necessary, the road leading along a fence on the south and thick brush and woods being on the
north. The Benton Hussars were now in line about 100 yards to the right and rear of the battery
of three guns, and the Fremont Hussars were yet in column of fours at the edge of the prairie,
having just arrived on the ground. The Third Iowa Cavalry galloped down the road, and going
beyond the edge of the woods or timber on the west side of the prairie they unexpectedly found
themselves in front of several lines of infantry heretofore unseen, and who were drawn up in line
to the front and right of our men, at short musket range. This large force I afterwards learned
from rebel officers who were taken prisoners was the divisions of McCulloch, Mcintosh, and
Pike, and consisted of several regiments of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas troops, who were
concentrating there, evidently intending to attack your camp from the direction of Leetown.
The companies of the Third Iowa Cavalry were immediately wheeled into line facing the
enemy, it being impossible for them to advance in column farther, when they at once received a
deadly fire from the near and overwhelming numbers of the foe, who were also partly concealed
and protected by the woods and brush. A large number of my men and horses were here killed
and wounded, and Lieutenant-Colonel Trimble, at the head of the column, was severely wounded
in the head. This fire was returned by the Third Iowa Cavalry from their revolvers with
considerable effect.
Just at this moment a large force of the enemy' cavalry charged from the north upon different
portions of our cavalry line, and, passing through the lines, went into the fields in our rear. The
Third Iowa Cavalry companies now charged this cavalry force, and an exciting running cavalry
fight ensued between these forces, the enemy fleeing and being pursued by my men to the south.
The enemy was followed in this direction by the Third Iowa Cavalry alone to the brush on the
other side of the large open fields. The loss of the enemy in this running fight was very heavy,
and estimated by me, from the most reliable information I have been able to obtain, at 82.
In this same charge of the enemy's cavalry a portion of them came in the direction of the
three gulls, and the companies of the First Missouri Cavalry being compelled to give way, I
ordered the Benton Hussars to charge, which they failed to do, but fell back. The Fremont
Hussars being in rear and not in position, were compelled to give way. The guns were thus left
unsupported, and were taken by the enemy and burned. These cavalry forces, failing to rally, fell
back through the woods to the large open fields through which we had first marched, when they
met the infantry and artillery of General Osterhaus in line of battle. Being left on the field of the
first action without any force (the cavalry in reserve having failed to obey my orders), I followed
to the open field, where I found two companies of the First Missouri Cavalry being formed in
line by Major Hubbard. After seeing the cavalry mentioned in line, I sent Adjutant Noble, who
had remained with me on the field during the whole time, to bring up the companies of the Third
Iowa Cavalry to our new position, they having pursued the enemy through the fields as above
stated and not yet made their appearance. He soon returned with all the companies, having met
them coming in perfect order to the place desired, the companies having returned towards the
camping ground, Major Perry being in command (Lieutenant-Colonel Trimble having been
wounded early in the engagement, as heretofore mentioned). The enemy immediately advanced
to the western edge of the field in which our new position was taken, when a general engagement
ensued. At this time I ordered the First Missouri Cavalry to take position on the extreme left in
the woods, which was on the east of our main position. A force of the enemy made their
appearance here, evidently attempting to turn our left flank. I sent the Third Iowa Cavalry to
support Colonel Ellis. When our force appeared the enemy withdrew, were followed by Colonel
Ellis about 2 miles and did not again show themselves in this quarter. The Benton Hussars and
Fremont Hussars, having reformed, remained on the field to the left of the batteries until the
close of the engagement, having, however, been several times sent to ascertain the position of the
enemy. This duty they performed satisfactorily. The Third Iowa Cavalry were then formed in
line of battle immediately in rear of the artillery, and maintained this position until the close of
the action, when they were ordered to conduct a battery to re-enforce General Carr, who was still
engaged on the right. I went with them, leaving the remainder of the cavalry force under
command of General Osterhaus. This was at 5 o'clock p.m.
The accompanying report of the killed, missing, and wounded of the Third Iowa Cavalry is
hereby referred to as a part of this report. The loss of the other forces will be reported to you by
their immediate commanders. The three guns, after falling into the hands of the enemy, were not
spiked nor taken from the field, and have been recovered, except the carriages, which had been
burned, as heretofore mentioned. On reporting to General Carr, in pursuance of the order
requiring me to do so, my companies took position on the right in rear of our batteries, where we
remained until after the darkness of night closed the action of the 7th.
On the morning of the 8th, pursuant to order, I went with my command, now being the five
companies of the Third Iowa Cavalry, into the field on the road leading to the Elkhorn Tavern,
and was then ordered to take position on the right flank, where the enemy was expected to attack.
This position was held by my command, with other cavalry forces, until the retreat of the enemy
after the middle of the day.
In pursuance of your direct order, my command, at 2 o'clock p.m., started in pursuit of the
enemy towards Keetsville, on the road leading east, and continued to be thus engaged until night.
I took 59 prisoners, with some horses and arms, on this expedition. Among the prisoners was
Major Rucker, First Missouri Volunteers, who was slightly wounded.
On the morning of the 9th I proceeded, in command of the Third Iowa Cavalry companies,
Bowen's cavalry, with four pieces of mountain howitzers, and one battalion of First Missouri
Cavalry, under command of Major Hubbard, on the road to Bentonville. After advancing on the
Bentonville road about 6 miles I found where the enemy had encamped the night before in large
force. We followed on until I reached Bentonville, near which place we overtook a party of the
cavalry of the enemy, who fired upon us and fled. My advance guard pursued, killing I man. We
reached Bentonville at 2 o'clock p.m., and entered the town. Seeing a small party of cavalry at
some distance beyond the town in the brush, I ordered Major Bowen to fire on them with the
howitzers. Two shots were fired, the enemy retreating in great haste. Here we learned the enemy
in force had left the town a few hours before our arrival, taking the road leading to Elm Springs.
The horses of my command having been for three days without anything to eat, it was not
possible to pursue the enemy farther. Therefore, having seen to the wounded who had been left
in the town, I returned to camp. There were taken on this expedition about 50 prisoners, with
some horses and arms. This march, close upon the heels of a force largely superior in numbers to
our own, was not unattended with great risk, and I have to express my admiration for the
promptness with which my commands were obeyed by all the troops and for their general good
soldierly conduct.
In conclusion, I beg leave to express my satisfaction with the conduct of my own men, who,
in their first action, having been the first and most directly of the cavalry forces engaged with the
enemy, and suffered a severe loss from a near and unexpected fire, yet evinced great coolness
and courage in their attack upon the foe; and although the loss of my command is greater in
proportion to my force than perhaps any other engaged, being 24 killed, 17 wounded, and 9
missing out of 235 men and officers, yet it was retaliated upon the rebels by a loss to them of
double the number. You will perceive that 8 of my men were scalped. That their brave comrades,
fighting in support of our national banner, the emblem of all that is good and great in the present
civilization of the world, should thus be butchered and mangled by rebel savages has excited
among my men an indignation that will, I assure you, exhibit itself on every field where they
may in future be allowed to engage the enemy, in a relentless determination to put down the flag
that calls to its support bands of rapacious and murdering Indian mercenaries.
I have to acknowledge valuable assistance rendered me on the 7th by Adjt. John W. Noble,
who acted that day as my aide, and of the officers who came under my notice I mention Capt. T.
I. McKenny, assistant adjutant-general, of your staff, whose conduct was that of a general, and a
brave one, and whose valuable service contributed, in my opinion, much to the success of our
arms at the battle of Leetown.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Third Iowa Cavalry.
CAMP PEA RIDGE, March 11, 1862.
GENERAL: Below I have the honor to hand you a report of the part my battery took in the
battle of Pea Ridge. By order from headquarters I left Camp McKisick Tuesday, March 4, with
two howitzers, on an expedition. Thursday night, the 6th instant, I returned with one piece to
Camp Sugar Creek, leaving the other in charge of Lieutenant Waizenegger.
On Friday morning, March 7, I received marching orders, and left with the command, under
General Osterhaus, with three howitzers, leaving the two 12-pounder guns in command of
Lieutenant Jacoby, on the ridge, looking south. Being ordered to advance, I went forward about
half a mile, where, as I was advancing on a small road surrounded by a timber, the Third Iowa
Cavalry rushed down upon me in a regular stampede, running several of my men down. I ordered
my pieces left about, which movement was made in good order, but just as I was leaving the
timber one of the horses was shot and broke the tongue, and it was impossible to take the piece
along. As soon as we had formed in line, myself and Lieutenant Bencke went forward with two
companies of infantry of the Twelfth Missouri Volunteers, and, after considerable labor, were
able to bring the piece from the brush and into action. We kept up a steady fire on the enemy for
about four hours, after which the firing ceased. About dark we followed the main column, and
got to camp at 2 o'clock a.m. At 4 o'clock p.m. the two 12-pounder guns came out to the field of
action, and returned to camp with General Davis' division.
On Saturday the 8th instant, at 6 o'clock a.m., the battery being ready, was ordered to the left
wing, where I occupied with all five pieces the center of our division. Here my battery suffered
most, being exposed to a terrific fire from the enemy. After two hours' continuous firing I
ordered the three howitzers to advance, and sent the 12-pounder guns to the left, where they
occupied a slightly elevated ground, and opened a very successful fire on the then retreating
forces of the enemy. The three howitzers then went forward and struck the Cassville road near
the Elkhorn Tavern. After arriving here I had the honor to pursue the enemy, which I did till 4
o'clock p.m., when the advance guard camped about 2 miles south of Keetsville. Sunday
morning we kept up our advance about 2 miles north of Keetsville, when I was ordered to return
to camp, arriving at 2 o'clock p.m.
Enough praise cannot be given to my officers and men, all of whom behaved with the utmost
coolness and bravery. To the Twelfth Regiment Missouri Volunteers I am indebted for a fine 6-
pounder brass cannon, which they captured in their advance, and also for rendering me such
valuable assistance in recapturing my disabled piece the day before. My loss during the two days'
engagement is comparatively small, considering the heavy fire my battery was mostly exposed
to; the third section, in command of Lieutenant Beneke, suffered most.
Most respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain, Commanding Artillery.
Camp near Sugar Creek, Ark', March 8, 1862--2 a.m.
GENERAL: As General Nigel, under whose command you have placed me, with my
division, has not yet returned to our camp, I beg to address you, general, directly, reporting that
all the troops of the Second Division were yesterday, as well as now, in the night, entirely
without forage; and as we are cut off from all supplies by the enemy, outnumbering our forces
several times, and as one more day without forage will make our horses unserviceable,
consequently the cavalry and artillery as well as the teams of no use at all, I would respectfully
solicit a decided concentrated movement, with the view of cutting our way through the enemy
where you may deem it more advisable, and save by this if not the whole at least the larger part
of our surrounded army. I take the opportunity of mentioning the high valor of the Second
Missouri Volunteers and Second Ohio Battery, which, supported by the First Iowa Battery, did
save this afternoon, at a very critical time, our camp from the advancing enemy. Officers and
men all did their duty gallantly, pressing the enemy until evening, when the last cartridge and
artillery ammunition was exhausted.
I have especially to mention the gallant conduct of Colonel Schaefer, Lieutenant-Colonel
Laibold, and Lieutenant Chapman, who was wounded in a manner which will deprive the army
of his services for some time.
Finally, I have to communicate the gratifying news that the three pieces of the First Flying
Battery, detailed this morning from my division to General Osterhaus, and supposed to have
been taken by the enemy, have been brought in by Colonel Pattison, and that the two batteries
will be able to resume the fight at daybreak.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.
Commanding Southwest Army.
Camp at Ekhorn Tavern, -Pea Ridge, Ark., March 16, 1862.
GENERAL: In compliance with Special Orders, No. 637 I have the honor to submit my
report of the participation of the Second Division in the battles of the 6th, 7th, and 8th days of
the present month at Bentonville, Sugar Creek, and Pea Ridge.
By way of preliminary I may allude to the happy union of the First and Second Divisions
under your command. I say happy union, because I have never witnessed more perfect harmony
either in camp or upon the battle-field. Native Americans and foreigners of varied nationalities
have been aptly blended, and the fraternity of the troops finds its counterpart in that prevailing
between the officers and commanders. No wonder the privations of our arduous winter campaign
in the midst of a hostile populace, were so cheerfully borne, or that the friendliness thus
engendered should result in so irresistible a co-operation upon the battle-field. Officers and men
were all imbued with the earnest feeling that you would lead them only to victory, and you did so
at a moment when experienced and brave soldiers admitted the critical character of our position.
Allow me to thank you, general, in the name of my division, for your skillful leadership and the
results achieved. As owing to the harmony alluded to the two divisions were consolidated for the
engagement and their respective commands exchanged between their commanders as the
occasion demanded it is impossible to give an exact report confined exclusively to either
division. You alone can give the whole history. The commanders of divisions only can furnish
you the materials, to be combined by yourself.
Thursday, March 6.--On the 5th of March, being encamped at McKissick's farm with my
division, in close proximity to the First Division, 3 miles southwest of Bentonville, I received
orders from you at 11 o'clock p.m. to march at 2 o'clock on the following morning, in
conjunction with the First Division, to Bentonville, and there to await further orders. We started
accordingly in the following order: 1, company of Fremont's Hussars; 2, Fifteenth Missouri
Volunteers; 3, Second Ohio Battery; 4, the train, in the order of respective commands; 5, First
Division; 6, First Flying Battery; 7, Benton Hussars, and reached Bentonville at about 4 o'clock
in the morning. Overtaken by you, and as information arrived that the Second Missouri
Regiment, of my division, expected from Smith's Mill, was already near the town, you ordered
me to continue the march in the same order to our old camp at Sugar Creek, yourself awaiting
the Second Missouri Regiment, which with the Benton Hussars and the flying battery, was to
form the rear guard of the column.
I had arrived at your old headquarters on Sugar Creek, with all the troops of the First and
Second Divisions except the rear guard mentioned, after 10 o'clock a.m. but while arranging the
encampments the verbal intelligence came that you were attacked and surrounded by a vastly
superior force of the enemy at Bentonville. General Osterhaus and myself hastened with all our
troops to your relief, and found you still engaged 5 miles off on the Sugar Creek-Bentonville
road with the rebel troops, who were speedily routed.
By your order our forces were drawn up on the Bentonville-Sugar Creek road with all
predictions against a fresh attack, but nothing more was heard of the rebel forces, and you
effected a junction with the main body on the Telegraph road at its crossing of Sugar Creek
Valley. The Benton Hussars, the Flying Battery, the Twelfth Missouri, and Second Missouri
Volunteers took a prominent part in fighting their way though the Sugar Creek Valley, the lastnamed
regiment losing Capt. Francis Kohr, of Company E, a most efficient officer, who was
killed in the first attack, when deploying his coral)any as skirmishers. Lieutenant-Colonel
Laibold, commanding the Second Missouri Regiment, speaks in his official report. of the bravery
of Frederick Jaensch, acting assistant adjutant-general of Colonel Schaefer's brigade, and also of
Capt. Walter Hoppe, of Company K, and also of Capt. Christian Burkhardt, of Company B, who
gave a noble example to the rest of the troops, and I cheerfully make mention of them here.
Friday, March 7.--Intelligence having been received that the enemy was advancing in force
with the view of cutting off our communication with Missouri and by approaches in other
directions to surround us, General Curtis, commanding, ordered a force, composed of parts of all
the different divisions, under command of General Osterhans, to attack him at Leesville in
concert with the Third Division, under command of General Jefferson C. Davis. The Benton and
Fremont Hussars and the Flying Battery were directed to join him from my division. The First
Brigade, under command of Colonel Schaefer, and comprising the Second and Fifteenth
Missouri Volunteers, with the Second Ohio Battery, was directed to take position upon the
heights this side of the Sugar Creek-Bentonville road, commanding it. The battle speedily
opened both in the direction of Leesville and Keetsville, at Pea Ridge, and raged furiously,
without involving the First Brigade of my division in the action. A few skirmishers from the
heights on the opposite side of the valley and several wounded horses of the rebels without riders
were all that we saw.
In the afternoon, between 3 and 4 o'clock, however, General Curtis, commanding, came
personally with the information that the Fourth Division, under Acting Brigadier-General Carr,
on our right, was hard pressed. All the troops were immediately ordered forward with the
exception of two howitzers of the Ohio battery and six companies of the Second Missouri
Volunteers, which were left in their old position on the Sugar Creek-Bentonville road. I myself
was directed by you to take four companies of the Second Missouri Volunteers and four pieces
of the Second Ohio Battery forward as quick as possible on the Telegraph road, with the view of
meeting the remaining part of the First and Second Divisions on the contested battle ground this
side of Elkhorn Tavern. Arriving there in advance of your troops, I found the Fourth Division
already exhausted, the enemy pressing forward from the woods around Elkhorn Tavern to the
open space on either side of the Telegraph road with great force, and seeing that in that critical
moment no time was to be lost, I ordered the Second Ohio Battery to take position on the left of
the road, and replacing the three pieces of the Iowa battery, under command of Capt. M. M.
Hayden, to its right, opened at once a brisk and concentrated fire upon the enemy, checking
instantly his advance, and at the same time rallying the partly faltering pieces of the Second
Brigade, Fourth Division.
The artillery having kept up a steady fire for half an hour, and perceiving that the enemy was
forced by it to abandon the woods this side of the tavern, the Second Missouri Infantry to the
right and left of the artillery was deployed as skirmishers, under Colonel Schaefer, and advanced
steadily to and through the woods to the fence, within 200 yards of the Elkhorn Tavern. Thus
securing the advance of my artillery, I ordered the Second Ohio Battery forward to follow us to a
position on and to the left of the road commanding the enemy's stronghold. Sharp firing and a
hard contest were again maintained from this point until the enemy's battery was silenced, and
the ammunition of the Second Ohio Battery being nearly exhausted, we retired in good order to
our first position, to hold it at all hazards. Night, however, setting in, fighting ceased on both
sides, and the four companies of the gallant Second Missouri Volunteers were ordered to remain
as guard on the extreme line of our center for the night.
Lieutenant Chapman, commanding the Second Ohio Battery, was severely wounded during
the action and was carried away by the surgeon. A musket-ball passed through my right arm, but
did not disable me from continuing in command.
I take here the opportunity of mentioning the high valor of the Second Missouri Volunteers
and the Second Ohio Battery, as well as the gallant co-operation of the Third Iowa Battery, under
Captain Hayden. Officers and men all did their duty well and gallantly until the last cartridge
was expended. I have especially to mention the gallant conduct of Colonel Schaefer, Lieutenant-
Colonel Laibold, and the commander of the Second Ohio Battery, Lieutenant Chapman. They
united coolness to energy and daring.
The First Flying Battery, of my division, ordered in the morning to join the Leesville
expedition, suffered very severely. Three of its pieces, under command of Lieutenants Gassen
and Schneider, followed by the First Missouri and Third Iowa Cavalry, with the larger portion of
the Benton and Fremont Hussars, under command of Colonel Bussey, were engaged when the
first attack was made upon the enemy's cavalry. The fire of the battery forced the rebels to
retreat. Being, however, attacked from all directions and not supported by the cavalry, the three
pieces were lost, but afterwards found burned, and recovered. Six men of the Flying Battery were
killed on this occasion, 3 wounded, and 8 missing. The rest of the battery, under command of
Captain Elbert, with a part of the Seventeenth and Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers and two
companies of the Benton Hussars, under command of Major Heinrichs, were guarding the rear of
the engaged army, and encountered the enemy about 4 miles from Sugar Creek, on the
Bentonville road. They opened and exchanged fire with them with shell and spherical case shot
until dark, when they retired towards their camps. The Benton Hussars, who were also, as stated,
with the command of Colonel Bussey, report that on arriving at the field of contest, at 9.30
o'clock a.m., they participated in a momentarily unsuccessful encounter with the enemy, but that,
forming again in the first open field, they held it during the remainder of the day, guarding
Welfley's battery.
At 5.30 o'clock p.m., when the rest of the cavalry were withdrawn from the field, the Benton
with two companies of the Fremont Hussars were left to maintain it during the night. Half the
battalion of Fremont Hussars, under command of Lieutenant Howe, were, with the four
companies of Benton Hussars, under command of Colonel Nemett, and in the affair just
mentioned Lieutenant Clowes and 4 men were killed, 8 wounded, and 3 missing. The other half
of the battalion, under command of Major Meszaros, charged, as he reports, near the town of
Leesville, upon a regiment of the enemy's infantry. After the enemy had retreated on the left
wing Major Meszaros was ordered by General Curtis to take his command to the support of
General Carr, but not finding him, was ordered by the commanding officer to return to camp.
Saturday, March 8.--On this day the battle was resumed at 7 o'clock a.m., our center and right
having first opened fire (I may say too soon), with a sharp and continuous return from the
enemy. So severe was their fire as to imperil our camp before the First and Second Divisions had
taken position on the left. Arriving there, however, the hottest artillery fire was opened, and the
whole force moved from position to position like an immense machine, perfectly irresistible in
its progress, under your command. The enemy, severely pressed upon every side, finally fled in
wild disorder, leaving large numbers of his dead and wounded upon the ground--the Union army
taking unmolested possession of his position, and the First and Second Divisions pursuing till
night-fall to Keetsville, taking many prisoners, arms, and ammunition, and returning the next day
to our common camp.
On that day of triumph to our arms the whole of the First and Second Divisions were united
upon the open field in the full view of friend and foe, except four pieces of the Ohio battery, with
four companies of the Second Missouri Volunteers, of my division, left as guard at our position
in the Sugar Creek Valley. The two remaining pieces of the Flying Battery, with the Fremont and
Benton Hussars and the Fifteenth Regiment Missouri Volunteers, were designated as the
reserve in the beginning, but were soon drawn into the line of battle and ordered into action. Six
companies of the Second Missouri Volunteers, with two howitzers of the Ohio battery, were sent
towards the enemy's extreme right flank, southwest of Elkhorn Tavern, and forming our extreme
left. The infantry, deployed as skirmishers, drove the enemy from a thicket at the foot of the hill,
and there formed the general advance, the two howitzers of the Second Ohio Battery in the mean
while dismounting the enemy's battery and driving their infantry from the top of a hill upon
which it had formed.
I have to regret that the efficient Swiss regiment, Fifteenth Missouri Volunteers, whose
beautiful flag floated so picturesquely throughout the battle-field, had not the opportunity they so
ardently longed for of following their energetic commander, Colonel Joliat, to the heart of the
conflict, and of attesting by their blood their devotion to the cause.
I feel bound to make honorable mention of the officers of my staff. They were always at
hand, regardless of danger, where duty called them, especially during our desperate attack on the
afternoon of the 7th. Lieutenants Gillen and Haskell, although for the first time in a severe
engagement, stood coolly at my side under the hottest artillery and musketry fire, while
Lieutenant Von Unrich, a soldier of European experience, carried my orders, dashing bravely
and promptly through every danger. Mr. Ullfers, the accomplished topographical engineer of my
division during the arduous campaigns of the last six months, although not called by his especial
duties to the battle-field, was everywhere, regardless of danger, and while exhibiting an example
of cool courage, gathered from the events of the moment many important features towards his
topographical delineation of the battle ground.
Major Wiegand, recently of the Garibaldi Guard, who joined me the day before as a
volunteer aide, deserves my hearty commendation. You yourself, general having been
everywhere and having seen everything, know how well our men and officers generally behaved.
Forward they always moved. Honor to them all.
My report of killed, wounded, and missing is herewith submitted. It shows commissioned
officers killed, 3; wounded, 3; enlisted men killed, 17; wounded, 60; missing, 36. One hundred
and twenty-six prisoners were delivered by Captain Hesse, provost-marshal of the Second
Division to the grand provost-marshal Major Heinrichs. Over 350 stand of arms, with a large
amount of ammunition and various implements of war, were also taken and delivered to Chief
Quartermaster Carr. An artillery caisson taken is now with the Second Ohio Battery.
I submit topographical sketches of the extended Pea Ridge battlefield, with our and the
enemy's position on the 7th and 8th of March, prepared by the topographical engineer of my
division just so honorably mentioned, Mr. Ullfers. The sketch appertaining to your action at
Bentonville will follow in a few days.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Second Division.
Commanding First and Second Divisions.
SIR: Agreeably to your orders I hereby submit the following report of the part which the
Benton Hussars took in the battle of Sugar Creek.
We formed the rear guard of the army on the march from the camp 3 miles west of
Bentonville to Sugar Creek, and started about 6 a.m. We arrived at Bentonville about 10. First
perceived the enemy at 11. He had then surrounded us on three sides, and we were soon closely
pressed. My rear guard did not exceed 100 men (Companies A, B, and F, and 9 men of Company
D). Observing a large cavalry force, about 500 men, bearing a secession standard, advancing
rapidly upon our rear, I, with Companies A and B, of the Benton Hussars, charged them and put
them to flight, and by these means kept them at a respectful distance for half an hour, thus giving
time to the whole column to retreat from the town without molestation. Following, we formed
again on the hill east of town in line of battle, fronting the enemy, who formed in town. On the
whole retreat we sent out flankers and skirmishers to the rear, fronting to the enemy about every
ten minutes, thus keeping them in check and preventing their advance upon us. Although delayed
on the road by the breaking down of a piece of artillery for a half an hour, and separated by this
means over a mile from the main body,. we kept the enemy from encroaching upon us, and
succeeded in carrying off the gun. We were continually fired upon, and only saved ourselves
from being cut off and surrounded by repeated charges to the rear and flanks, thus letting the
enemy believe that our force was superior to what it really was.
After marching about 3 miles the whole column halted, and we were happily re-enforced and
supported by a battalion of the Second and Twelfth Missouri Infantry and two pieces of light
artillery, our situation having then become so critical that unless thus supported we must have
succumbed to the infinitely superior numbers. The enemy soon ceased his fire, and we marched
5 or 6 miles without molestation. Then we were again attacked, but ordered by General Sigel to
proceed to our quarters.
My force was as follows: Company A, Captain Pfaff and Lieutenant Apprederis, 28 men;
Company B, Captain Langen and 30 men Company D, Lieutenant Borcherdt and 9 men;
Company F, Lieutenant Luther and 26 men; in all, 93 men. Company E, 45 men, under
command of Lieutenant Galeskowsky, remained as guard to the flying battery, and did its duty
well. Company G, under command of Captain Lehmannm had the advance guard, and, as I
understand, at one time made a spirited charge and cleared the road in front near Bentonville.
Lieutenant Kluefer, of Company D, with 30 men, had been ordered off two days previous, to
form part of an expedition under Major Conrad; Lieutenant Hansen, of Company B, with 30
men, to form part of an expedition under Major Meszaros; and Lieutenant Schipper, of Company
A, with 20 men, the night before the retreat, as a scouting party. Fifteen men of Company F were
detailed as provost guard to Captain Hesse, division provost-marshal.
I must here observe that the bravery and bearing of my men were exemplary, but
notwithstanding this, had the enemy shown the least military spirit, we should unavoidably have
been sacrificed.
On the 7th, Companies A, B, E, and G, with the First Missouri Cavalry, Third Iowa Cavalry,
and three pieces of flying artillery, besides two or three regiments of infantry and Welfiey's
battery, under command of General Osterhaus, proceeded to attack the left flank. Colonel
Bussey, of the Third Iowa, commanded the cavalry. The order of march was: 1, First Missouri; 2,
Flying Battery; 3, Third Iowa; 4, two companies of Fremont Hussars; 5, Benton Hussars. The
forces ahead of us had already engaged the enemy in the timber (9.30 a.m.) when we came upon
the battle-field. We were about forming right into line when suddenly the First Missouri and
Third Iowa rushed in mad flight upon us and carried us along. We, however, immediately formed
as soon as we reached the open field, and were the only cavalry that kept the open field the
whole day. One gun of Welfley's battery, the horses of which had been shot, was left behind in
the timber, but I immediately returned with Company A, commanded by Lieutenant Schipper,
rescued it, and brought it back in safety. We afar this were all day posted on the extreme left
flank and as guard to the battery. We remained in the open field exposed to the fire, which lasted
until 5.30 p.m. The rest of the forces were then ordered off the field, and the Benton Hussars and
two companies Fremont Hussars were alone left to maintain the battle-field during the night.
March 8, 1862, early in the morning, I was ordered back to the Second Division, posted on
the extreme left flank as guard to that flank, and advanced until we reached Elkhorn Tavern.
There we were ordered to halt, and in the afternoon sent in pursuit of the enemy, taking 15
prisoners. In the evening we reached the encampment and there remained.
Colonel, Commanding Fifth Missouri Cavalry.
Brigadier-General SIGEL,
Pea Ridge, Ark., March 16, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the Third
Division, under my command, in the recent engagement with the rebel forces at this place.
(In the morning of the 1st instant, in obedience to instructions from the general, I broke up
my camp near Cross Hollow and took position on the heights of Pea Ridge, on the north side of
Sugar Creek, commanding the main road. On the night of the 5th I received intelligence of the
approach of the enemy from the general and of intention to concentrate his forces on my right
and left and give battle at this point. On the morning of the 6th I deployed the First Brigade of
my division, consisting of the Eighth, Eighteenth, and Twenty-second Indiana., with Klauss'
Indiana battery, commanded by Col. Thomas Pattison, on the right of the Fayetteville road, so as
to command the approach completely. The Second Brigade, consisting of the Thirty-seventh and
Fifty-ninth Illinois (formerly the Ninth Missouri), with Davidson's Illinois battery, commanded
by Col. Julius White, I ordered to take position on the left of this road. This battery commanded
the valley of Sugar Creek east and west and strongly supporting Klauss' battery on the right. This
battery was well posted, and protected by a small earthwork, which I had ordered to be thrown
up during the night. The Eighth and Eighteenth Indiana, under Colonels Benton and Washburn,
strengthened their position by felling timber and throwing up some small intrenchments. During
the night the general himself arrived, followed by a part of Colonel Carl's division from Cross
Hollow, which took position on the left. On the afternoon of the 6th General Sigel's column
arrived from Bentonville and took position on the right. During the night my troops bivouacked
on the ground, anxiously awaiting the enemy's approach.
On the morning of the 7th it was ascertained that the enemy was making an effort to turn our
right flank and to attack us in rear. In order to prevent this, Colonel Osterhaus was ordered with
some cavalry and artillery to make a demonstration in the direction of Leetown. The First
Missouri Cavalry, under Colonel Ellis, and the Twenty-second Indiana, under Colonel
Hendricks, were ordered to support this movement. Colonel Osterhans advanced about a mile
beyond Leetown and found the enemy in force, moving rapidly along the road leading from
Bentonville to Elkhorn Tavern, where Colonel Carr's division had already sharply engaged him.
At this-time the unexpected appearance of the Third Iowa Cavalry from the field gave proof of
the necessity of re-enforcements being sent at once in the direction of Leetown, and an order to
that effect was timely received. Passing through Leetown a few hundred yards, I found Colonel
Osterhaus, with the Forty-fourth Illinois, Twenty-second Indiana, and some artillery, had taken
position on the left of the road and was contesting the approach of the enemy over a large open
field in his front.
In the mean time the enemy was rapidly approaching and advancing his forces on the right of
the road, and had already lodged himself in large numbers in a thick oak scrub extending to our
camp. I immediately ordered the Second Brigade to deploy to the right and engage him. This was
done in a vigorous manner by the Thirty-seventh and Fifty-ninth Illinois, assisted by Davidson's
battery, which I had put into position for that purpose. I soon became satisfied, from the
increasing and excessive fire of the enemy, that he was being rapidly re-enforced, and ordered
the Eighteenth and Twenty-second Indians to make a flank movement to turn right and
perpendicular to the enemy's lines, and then move forward and attack him. This was
accomplished with alacrity, but not, however, until the Second Brigade had begun to recede
before the excessive fire of the enemy, who had now concentrated his forces to the number of
several thousand, under McCulloch and Mcintosh, with a large body of Indians, under Pike and
Ross. The Second Brigade being thus overwhelmed, I ordered it to fall back in changed front to
rear on its right, and the First Brigade to change front forward on its left, so as to attack the
enemy in his rear, who was now exultingly following up his temporary success The Eighteenth
Indiana soon executed the movement as directed, and opened a well-directed fire upon the
enemy rear, which had the effect of drawing his fire and disconcerting his pursuit, so as to enable
the Second Brigade to reform their lines as directed, but not until the enemy had succeeded in
capturing two guns of Davidson's battery: which, owing to the precipitate advance of the enemy
and disabled horses, could not be withdrawn.
The Eighteenth Indiana pushed rapidly forward and drove the enemy from this part of the
field, and, advancing to the open ground, found three pieces in the hands of the enemy; charged
and routed him with a heavy loss from them. The Twenty-second Indiana during this time
engaged a large portion of the Arkansas troops and Indians, and after a sharp engagement put
them to flight. In the mean time the Second Brigade renewed the engagement, when the enemy
fled from the field, leaving behind him many of his killed and wounded. Among the former were
Generals McCulloch and Mcintosh. At this moment I ordered the cavalry to charge the flying
foe, but for some unexplained reason it was not done.
The enemy made an attempt to reform on his former position near the Bentonville road, but
was easily driven from it by the action of our batteries. Two regiments of re-enforcements, with
two pieces of heavy artillery (12-pounders), arrived at this time from General Sigel's command.
These I ordered to take position on the right, so as to be able to move the more readily to the
support of Colonel Carr's division; which had been hotly engaged in the vicinity of Elkhorn
Tavern for several hours. General Sigel soon arrived himself, and, accompanied by Osterhaus'
command, moved in the direction of Carr's left. I at the same time threw forward the Second
Brigade to the Bentonville and Elkhorn Tavern road. Finding the enemy gone and night upon us,
I ordered the troops to bivouac on the field they had so gloriously won.
After reporting to the general the entire rout of the enemy at Leetown, he directed me to
move my division during the night to the support of our position of the previous day at Elkhorn
Tavern. The forepart of the night was occupied by the troops in collecting the wounded and dead.
Daylight, however, found us in position in front of the enemy at Elkhorn Tavern, where the
troops under Colonel Carr had so nobly fought the day before. That gallant officer, though
suffering much from a wound, was still upon the ground to assist in disposing of my troops.
The First Brigade was deployed a few hundred yards to the right of the Fayetteville road to
support Klauss' battery, which was placed at the edge of an open field intervening between the
range of hills at Elkhorn Tavern and the timber protecting oar camp. Here the five companies of
the Eighth Indiana, under Lieutenant-Colonel Shunk, joined their brigade. These companies had
the previous day participated in the engagement with Colonel Carr's forces and had bivouacked
on the field during the night. Davidson's battery was placed in a similar position on the left of the
road, supported by the Second Brigade. At sunrise the enemy's position was discovered by a few
shots being thrown by Davidson's battery, which was at once answered by the rebel batteries.
Klauss' battery soon responded, but after a sharp contest of a few rounds was forced to retire by a
sudden attack from one of the enemy's heretofore-undiscovered batteries, which opened closely
upon his flank with grape and canister. This battery, however, soon withdrew upon discovering
dispositions being made by the First Brigade to charge it.
The Second Brigade at this time was much exposed to an enfilading fire from the enemy's
guns, and I ordered it to fall back and take position under shelter of the timber. By this time the
position of the enemy's batteries was well developed, and Davidson's now took a more
commanding position in the open field. He was soon joined by Klauss, whom I had ordered to
support him, and in a few moments the contest was opened and maintained with great spirit on
both sides until the arrival of General Sigel's forces, about 7.30 o'clock. Sigel's a artillery soon
took position on the enemy's right and engaged with great spirit in the contest. The approach of
Sigel's infantry on the left of my division rendered the position of my battery secure, and enabled
me to withdraw the Second Brigade from their support and prepare my whole division for a
general attack upon the enemy's left. The gradual decrease of the enemy's fire and the withdrawal
of some of his guns offered a favorable opportunity, and I immediately ordered an advance
across the field. Previous to this movement Colonel Dodge had taken position with his brigade
on my right, so as to prevent any attempt the enemy might make to attack me on this flank.
The Second Brigade, together with the Twenty-second Indiana and five companies of the
Eighth Indiana, soon warmly engaged the enemy's infantry, occupying a strong position in the
thick scrub-oak skirting the base of the hill upon which his artillery was posted. The enemy soon
began to yield to the steady fire and determined advance of our troops, and finally broke and fled
in much confusion, leaving behind his dead and wounded. The heights were soon carried, and on
reaching the summit of the hill I ordered a halt, in order to bring my artillery in position on the
road leading to Huntsville, my left resting on Elkhorn Tavern. Here Colonel Benton, with five
companies of the Eighth Indiana and a section of artillery, who had been kept back guarding the
road leading from Cross Hollow, joined their command. Much to their chagrin and that of their
gallant commander, the enemy did not give them an opportunity to add new laurels to those
already won at Rich Mountain.
The division lost during the engagement 60 killed, 270 wounded, and 8 missing. Total killed,
wounded, and missing, 338. It affords me pleasure to be able to bear testimony to the prompt and
efficient manner in which the brigade commanders, Colonels Pattison and White, conducted their
brigades throughout the entire engagement. The regimental commanders, Colonels Benton,
Eighth Indiana, Hendricks. Twenty-second Indiana, and Lieutenant-Colonel Washburn,
Eighteenth Indiana, of the First Brigade, and Lieutenant-Colonels Barnes, Thirty-seventh, and
Frederick, Fifty-ninth Illinois, of the Second Brigade, acquitted themselves with distinction.
Colonel Hendricks fell early in the engagement, after which Major Daily commanded the
regiment, with great credit to himself, during the remainder of the battle. The part taken by the
Peoria Light Artillery (Illinois), under Captain Davidson, and the First Indiana Battery, under
Captain Klauss, has been so conspicuously described in the above report, that it would be useless
to call further attention to their efficiency and gallant conduct. The First Missouri Cavalry, under
Colonel Ellis, reported during the night of the 6th from a four days' scout on White River, during
which they captured 50 rebels, with their arms and horses. The bearing and efficiency of my staff
officers, Lieutenant Holstein, assistant adjutant-general, and Lieutenants Pease and Morrison,
aides-de-camp, were conspicuous everywhere, fearlessly executing every order; every part of the
field witnessed their gallantry. My division surgeon, Benjamin J. Newland, deserves the highest
commendation for his promptness and skill in establishing his hospitals and taking care of the
wounded. My division quartermaster and commissary, Captains Branson and Bradley, performed
their duties equally promptly and efficiently.
The superior numbers of the enemy's forces, engaged as he was in his favorite "scrubs" his
utter rout, when led on to desperation at the sacrifice of two of his famous generals on the field,
is sufficient proof of the valor and patriotism of the troops displayed in every conflict with the
enemy. Both officers and men fought with a courage and determination seldom excelled, and
will ever entitle them to the gratitude of a grateful country.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Commanding.
Capt. T. I. MCKENNY,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., Hdqrs. Army of the Southwest
March 13, 1862.
SIR: In reply to your note of the 12th instant would say that about 3 o'clock p.m. of the first
day's fighting an order came from General Curtis to Colonel Benton, commanding the Eighth
Indiana Regiment, to send five companies to your support. He immediately ordered me to take
the left wing of the regiment and proceed at double-quick. I was joined by three pieces rifled
cannon from Captain Klauss' Indiana battery, which I reported to you at the same time. You
attached my command temporarily to Colonel Vandever's. Afterwards I received an order to go
over on the right of the main road, in the brush, to the support of Colonel Dodge, to whom I did
not report, from the fact that my guide's horse was killed under him, and I was soon engaged by
about 1,200 of the enemy, with whom I continued to fight, along with the Fourth Iowa, until
dark. We then fell back about 300 yards across the field in the edge of the timber, and laid on our
arms all night. In the morning I was ordered by Colonel Pattison, commanding our brigade, to
join my brigade, which I did. My loss in the engagement of Friday afternoon was 5 killed and 27
I have the honor to be, your very obedient servant,
Lieutenant-Colonel Eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteers.
Col. E. A. CARR,
Commanding Fourth Division.
Pea Ridge Battle-field, Ark., March 10, 1862.
LIEUTENANT: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the First
Brigade of the Fourth Division in the battle on the 7th and 8th instant; also of the killed,
wounded, and missing:
On the morning of the 7th I was ordered to take position with my brigade near Elkhorn
Tavern, on the Springfield road. On my arrival I discovered the enemy in the timber about half a
mile to the right, and brought up one section of the First Iowa Battery, which opened the battle,
doing considerable execution. The enemy fled to the hollow, when I deployed my line, covering
as much ground as possible, placing Major McConnell, commanding one battalion of the Third
Illinois Cavalry, on the right, the Thirty-fifth Illinois Infantry on the left, and the Fourth Iowa
Infantry and one section of the First Iowa Battery in the center, on the center sending forward a
company of skirmishers from the Fourth Iowa, who soon became sharply engaged, causing the
enemy to open on us with shell, solid and grape shot. Four pieces of the First Iowa Battery were
planted on the Springfield road near the tavern, which opened on the enemy's batteries to the
right. Capt. J. A. Jones and Lieutenant Gambell were wounded here. Soon after this the Thirtyfifth
Illinois Infantry became engaged in the attack made in the morning on the left, and fought
with great bravery. Colonel Smith fell wounded and the regiment lost severely.
As soon as the engagement had fairly begun I closed up my line to the left and awaited the
attack, keeping the section of the battery at work with my skirmishers until near 2 o'clock, when
the enemy ceased firing and drew back. I soon discovered that the enemy were preparing for a
general attack, and changed front to the right, covering my men with a rail fence, forcing the
enemy to cross an open field to reach me. I formed my line and opened fire with one section of
my battery, the other four pieces having left the field for want of ammunition. The enemy
answered with eight pieces of artillery, and advanced on my right, left, and front. I brought up
the skirmishers and placed them on the left, and held the position for more than two hours with at
least 6,000 infantry and eight pieces of artillery against me, the artillery playing upon us at short
range with canister. My section of the battery left the field early, having exhausted all their
Near the last of the engagement three rifled pieces of a German battery were sent to me and
took position on my left, which, after firing three or four rounds, was compelled to retire from
the field, being flanked by a regiment of the enemy. I then ceased firing, to discover the position
of the enemy's forces on my right, when they immediately advanced to within 100 feet of my
lines, when I ordered my men to fire, which they did so effectually that the enemy fled along the
whole line in confusion. Fresh regiments immediately filled their places. Finding that the enemy
were outflanking me on the right and that my forces were insufficient to extend my lines, I sent
for re-enforcements, and obtained five companies of the Eighth Indiana Infantry, which I placed
on my right. The firing becoming more terrific, the enemy having placed a battery on my left
that enfiladed my line, the ammunition of the Fourth Iowa beginning to fail, the Thirty-fifth
Illinois being forced to give way, I ordered Colonel Chandler to rally his men, which he did with
great gallantry, driving the enemy back a short distance on the left, but he was soon surrounded
and taken prisoner, with 40 men.
1 noticed at this time that the Second Brigade, which was on my left, ceased firing. I sent my
adjutant to ascertain the cause. He informed me that they had retired. At this time the
ammunition of the Fourth Iowa had almost entirely given out, and I ordered them to fall back,
which they did in splendid order in line of battle, the enemy running forward with their batteries
and whole force. I halted and turned on them, and with my last ammunition poured so hot a fire
into their ranks that they fled in confusion. I then fell back and took a position on the open field
in my rear, the division at this time having been strongly re-enforced. General Curtis ordered the
Fourth Iowa to fix bayonets and advance, though they were out of ammunition. They did so, and
moved briskly over the field, but found no enemy. General Curtis then ordered us to halt, it being
dark. I then took the brigade back to camp to replenish their ammunition and clean their guns,
which they did, and at 12 o'clock took another position on the left of the road.
At sunrise the First Iowa Battery was put in position and opened fire on the enemy's batteries,
which were planted on the point near the hotel. The fire was effective and very hot. The battery
had to retire in about an hour, having spent all the ammunition. I was then ordered to the right,
and took that position, advancing with the entire line steadily until the enemy fled in all
directions in confusion. We took many prisoners, also one gun (spiked) and one caisson.
The list of the killed and wounded in the brigade shows that it fought against fearful odds and
disputed the field with great stubbornness. Every field officer in the brigade was disabled and
had to leave the field, and only two lieutenants were left in the battery. When so many fought so
gallantly it is hard to distinguish, but I noticed the daring bravery of Major McConnell, of the
Third Illinois Cavalry, who supported me on the right, and of Colonel Smith, of the Thirty-fifth
Illinois Infantry, who in the early part, of the day fought gallantly until he was wounded. I make
mention especially of Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler, who displayed coolness and bravery in
rallying his men. Lieutenant-Colonel Galligan rendered efficient service in holding the Fourth
Iowa firm, no part of which gave an inch until the whole was compelled to fall back. I wish to
mention especially the bravery and valor of Capt. H. H. Griffiths, acting major, and of Lieut. J.
A. Williamson, brigade adjutant; also of Lieut. V. J. David, commanding the section of the
battery on the right; also of Private J. W. Bell, adjutant's clerk, who fell mortally wounded while
nobly doing his duty, and Color Sergt. T. Teil, who, after being severely wounded, staid upon the
field. The conduct of the above-named officers came under my personal observation. All did
well and fought nobly, and did their parts in winning a great battle.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Col. Fourth Iowa, Comdg. First Brigade, Fourth Division.
Lieut. T. W. SULLIVAN,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., First Brig., Fourth Division.
March 9, 1862.
SIR: In accordance with my duty I beg leave to report that on the morning of the 7th instant I
proceeded to your camp with my battery, and by your order sent Lieutenant David, with the first
section, to the head of the column. Upon arriving at the Elkhorn Tavern, by order of Colonel
Carr, commanding division, I sent Lieutenant Gambell, with the left section, some 200 yards
farther north, on the Springfield road, to take position against the rebels, and proceeded on the
road to the right and easterly from the tavern some 800 yards to take position against the same
force. Just as I was ready to go into action the firing of the right section having ceased, and a
messenger arriving telling me Lieutenant David had advanced, I limbered up and moved to join
the left section, which commenced action as I reached the Elkhorn Tavern. I immediately joined
Lieutenant Gambell and took position on his right and commenced on the rebel batteries
forthwith. I found Lieutenant Gambell actively engaged, the rebel guns having him in perfect
range of grape, shell, and shrapnel. The fire of the rebels was galling in the extreme. Just as I
delivered my second round Reese Parkhurst, acting as No. 3, was killed, a cannon-ball taking off
his left leg and a piece of rock striking him in his head. I then had the prolongs fixed to fire
retiring when necessary. Shortly after this event one of my caissons was exploded by a shot from
the rebels, and another was lost to me by a runaway team running into the caisson team, which
took fright, and they in running away capsized it down a slope, breaking the pole and otherwise
disabling it. The team escaped. Two of the horses were subsequently recovered by Lieutenant
David, as was by him two of my ammunition-chests and contents. By this time the rebels' fire
began to tell on my men. Kirk W. Henry was disabled by a piece of shell striking him in the
mouth; Sergt. H. R. Horr was severely hurt by a spent round shot striking him in the groin; W. F.
Conner was slightly wounded in the hand; D.J. Duvall was struck over the eye with a piece of
shell, disabling him for a time; Thomas Brown was injured by a piece of shell, wounding him in
the right side; LB. Nelson was wounded in the right hand and back; Clark Woodmansee was
wounded in the right shoulder by a grazing ball; Samuel Black was wounded slightly in the ankle
by a grazing solid shot; James Moles-worth was disabled by a spent round shot striking him in
the hip, and John Easton, detailed from Company --, Fourth Iowa, was wounded in the right arm
slightly by a grape shot. After these casualties the limber of a second caisson was exploded by
the rebels, burning severely E. Skivinki, the driver of the wheel team.
About this time Lieutenant Gambell was disabled by a grape shot passing through his left leg
above the knee and between the bone and tendons. My ammunition becoming exhausted, I began
to fire retiring. The second piece had nearly reached the road when I was hit by a spent round
shot below the groin on the left leg, which compelled me to retire from the field, being unable to
sit on my horse. When I left the scene of action the last piece was in the act of retiring. We were
keeping up the fire, waiting to be relieved by the Dubuque battery. Lieutenant Williams kept the
field with the last piece, and afterwards collected the left and center sections and drew them up
in, battery in a field eastward and southward of the tavern, where they were afterwards joined by
Lieutenant David with the right section, who, being the senior officer, took command.
After I retired Gustavis Gustavison, No. 3 of the piece remaining in action, had his right leg
shot off by a solid shot, and William Selden, No. 6 of the same piece, was wounded severely in
the ankles by a fragment of a shell. Gustavison has since died from the shock and amputation.
For the labors of the right section and the subsequent service of the battery I refer you to the
report of Lieutenant David. I should have noted that to keep the ammunition of the capsized
caisson from the rebels we exploded it.
In conclusion I am pleased to state that with the exception of Lieutenant Gambell and
William Selden the wounded will be ready for duty in a short time.
Captain First Iowa Battery.
Colonel DODGE,
Commanding Brigade.
Camp Stevens, Ark., March 13, 1862.
COLONEL: On the morning of the 4th instant I left Camp Halleck at Cross Hollow in
command of an expedition in the direction of Huntsville. The forces consisted of 350 of the
Ninth Iowa Infantry, 150 from Colonel Phelps' Missouri regiment, one battalion of the Third
Illinois Cavalry, one section of the Dubuque Light Artillery, and one section of Bowen's
mountain howitzers. We prosecuted the march and arrived at Huntsville at noon on the 5th
without incident. A portion of the enemy's stores were captured at their camp, 3 miles beyond
Huntsville, and several prisoners taken. From the prisoners I obtained information that the enemy
were advancing in the direction of our lines for the purpose of attack, which information I
immediately transmitted to headquarters, and then prepared to retrace my steps. On the same
evening I moved out of Huntsville and camped 3 miles distant. At 2 o'clock in the morning I
received your order to return and rejoin the main body at Sugar Creek, and at 3.30 o'clock
resumed my line of march, and at dusk the same evening arrived in camp, having accomplished a
forced march of 40 miles in a single day. Too much praise cannot be bestowed upon officers and
men for energy and perseverance in our-mounting the difficulties of this long and painful march.
On the morning of the 7th, being aroused by the sound of firing in the direction of Elkhorn
Tavern, in obedience to your order I moved up my brigade, consisting of the Ninth Regiment of
Iowa Volunteers, Colonel Phelps regiment of Missouri Volunteers, and the Dubuque Light
Artillery, the Third Illinois Cavalry having already been ordered to observe the enemy. Upon
arriving at the Elkhorn Tavern the artillery immediately took position near the main road and
opened a brisk fire, infantry forming mainly on the left, Colonel Dodge's brigade being to the
right. Soon after my whole line of infantry was briskly engaged with the enemy, who fell back,
we pushing forward and driving him until met by an overpowering force. The infantry then
resumed the position in advance of the Elkhorn Tavern where the enemy was first encountered,
and retained it during most of the day against greatly superior odds, a part of the time being
supported by a battalion of the Eighth Indiana, under Lieutenant-Colonel Shunk, which,
however, was soon withdrawn and sent to the support of Colonel Dodge. Towards evening, the
enemy having concentrated a heavy fire of artillery and infantry upon our position, and to avoid
the chance of being flanked during the night, I fell back to a line of timber and formed on the
right of the main road. Here Lieutenant-Colonel Shunk again joined me, and we remained in line,
resting upon our arms, until near morning, when I again moved to the left of the road and formed
on the left of Colonel Dodge's brigade.
Soon after sunrise the fire of our artillery again opened upon the enemy and he replied with
vigor. At this point, finding ourselves exposed to a raking fire from one of the enemy's batteries
on our right, we changed direction to the east. About this time, the First Division coming into
position on our left, we joined in the general advance upon the enemy, the whole cavalry force
participating and the artillery co-operating. The enemy here broke into disorder, and the fortune
of the day was decided in our favor.
I cannot close this account without bearing testimony to the coolness, bravery, and steadiness
of all the troops under my command. Colonel Phelps was especially active in leading his
command, and inspired them by his own example to deeds of bravery. Of Lieutenant-Colonel
Herron, commanding the Ninth Iowa, too much cannot be said. He was foremost in leading his
men, and with coolness and bravery never excelled rallied them to repeated acts of daring and
bravery. Unfortunately at the close of the day on the 7th his horse was killed under him, and he,
being disabled by the fall, was captured by the enemy. Major Coyl, also of the Ninth Iowa, acted
with distinguished bravery until disabled by a painful wound, when he was compelled reluctantly
to leave the field.
I deem it but just to add that every officer of my command was prompt and ready in the
discharge of duty throughout the action, inspiring their men by example to acts of determined
bravery. Lieut. Asher Riley, my acting assistant adjutant-general, deserves particular mention.
Upon the fall of Captain Drips and Lieutenant Kelsey, of Company A, Ninth Regiment, both
distinguished for their bravery, Lieutenant Riley gallantly took command of the company and
remained with it to the end of the action. Captain Carpenter and Lieutenant Jones, of Company
B, distinguished themselves by leading their company into the face of an overpowering force of
the enemy and recapturing one of our guns and a caisson. Lieutenant Tisdale, of Company F,
deserves especial mention for his gallantry while in command of the company after the fall of
Captain Towner and Lieutenant Neff, both of whom acted with distinguished bravery until
disabled by painful wounds. Captain Bull, of Company C, was particularly distinguished for his
coolness and bravery ;also Lieutenant Baker, of Company E, and Captain Washburn and
Lieutenant Beebe, of Company G; Lieutenants Crane and Magee, of Company D; Captain Moore
and Lieutenant Mackenzie, of Company H. Captain Carskaddon and Lieutenant Claflin, of
Company K, were conspicuous for bravery. Captain Drips of Company A, and Captain Bevins,
of Company E, fell mortally wounded while gallantly leading and cheering their men. Company
I was commanded by Lieutenant Fellows, whose conduct was deserving of great praise. Many
instances of special gallantry occurred among non-commissioned officers and men. Where all
did their duty so nobly and so well distinction would be invidious.
I desire also to call your especial attention to the Dubuque Light Battery, under command of
Capt. M. M. Hayden, whose report is appended. Captain Hayden and every officer of this battery
acquitted themselves with the highest credit. They bore the hottest fire of the enemy with
coolness and intrepidity, the men under the skillful lead of Captain Hayden performing duty with
cheerfulness and alacrity, and never faltering. He mentions special instances of bravery in his
report hereto appended, to which I would call especial attention.
Numerous instances of individual bravery occurred during the trying events of the battle
which I cannot enumerate. I can only say that I feel deeply indebted to every officer and man of
my command for the heroic manner in which they have acquitted themselves. They did their duty
nobly. I herewith append a list of casualties.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Ninth Iowa Vols., Comdg. Second Brig., Fourth Div.
Col. E. A. CARR,
Commanding Fourth Division
Sugar Creek, March 9, 1862.
COLONEL: Herewith please find statement of the part taken by this command in the action
of the 7th and 8th instant:
Pursuant to your order I sent forward one section of the battery, in charge of Lieut. M. C.
Wright, who took position in the road directly in front of and under a heavy fire from the
enemy's battery. Lieuts. W. H. McClure and J. Bradley, with their respective sections, were
ordered forward to engage the enemy on the right and left of the first section. Supported by the
Ninth Iowa Infantry, we held this position until the rebel guns had disabled ten pieces and killed
and wounded many of both men and horses. The engagement now became general along the
whole line with both artillery and infantry. The enemy's fire becoming too severe, we withdrew,
leaving behind our disabled limber and several killed and wounded horses. We then took
position about 300 yards in rear of the point where our fire was first opened, remaining there
until near evening (having held the enemy in cheek during the entire day), at which time the
whole division fell back to a large open field, where it halted during the night. Here the enemy
pursued, but being vigorously engaged by our artillery and infantry, were driven back with
severe loss. During the engagement we attempted to plant the pieces of the battery upon a
commanding eminence, but failed in the endeavor, an immense force of the enemy's infantry
charging upon us, carrying away one of my guns, and killing and wounding 2 of my own and
several of the battery horses.
On the morning of the 8th we took position on the enemy's left, unsupported by either
infantry or cavalry, opening fire on the slope where our guns were captured the day previous.
Shortly afterwards the enemy opened upon us from a battery in our front, to which we then
turned our fire, silencing his guns and driving him from the field. Our loss is 2 men killed and 17
wounded. We lost 23 horses killed and 3 disabled. Three of ore' guns and one limber were
captured by the enemy.
I desire to make mention of the coolness and bravery of the whole command during the entire
engagement, especially of Lieutenants Wright and Bradley, who, fearless of all personal danger,
met the enemy with a spirit worthy the highest commendation, and cannot overlook the efficient
services rendered by Sergeants House, Harkins, and Weaver, alike of Corporals Martin,
Guilford, Goldthorp, and Rowles. The latter, while spiking the last gun left upon the field, was
severely wounded in both legs.
I am, colonel, respectfully,
Commanding Second Brigade, Fourth Division.
Pea Ridge, Ark., March 10, 1862.
GENERAL: In pursuance of general orders, dated Headquarters, Rolla, Mo., January 25,
1862, this command, with four mountain howitzers attached, under charge of Captain Stephens,
Company A, acting as body-guard to Brigadier-General Curtis, took up the line of march for
Lebanon, Mo., which point was reached without any incident worthy of comment on the 29th
January, when the command encamped.
On the 10th of February, 1862, in pursuance of general orders, dated Headquarters Army of
the Southwest, Lebanon, Mo., this command moved towards Springfield. On the 12th instant our
advance saw and fired on the enemy's pickets. My command was ordered to the front, which was
rapidly gained, when I immediately opened with the howitzers on a heavy picket of the enemy,
concealed partially from view by the thick brush. After two rounds the rebels disappeared. At 8
p.m. the camp was alarmed by heavy firing in the front. My command was rapidly pushed
forward to the scene of action, but the rebels were already repulsed.
On the 14th, whilst in advance, came suddenly upon the rebel camp, threw 10 shells in the
camp, killing 15 and wounding 9. Finding the enemy were trying to outflank us and being so far
from the main army, we fell back to camp to-day. We took 30 prisoners, amongst them the
notorious Colonel Freeman.
On the 16th, about 3 a.m., sent out 10 men, under command of Lieutenant Ballon, Company
C. and Sergeant-Major Evans, to reconnoiter the position of the rebels. They found that the
whole force had retreated some time before. About 12 m. came up with the enemy's rear guard,
concealed by the brush in the Cross Timber; commenced throwing shell amongst them, then
advanced our battery to within 200 yards of their position, and threw canister into their ranks,
when they fled. The prisoners taken at this place state their loss was heavy from our shell and
On the 17th came up to the enemy's re-enforcements, opened fire with the howitzers from the
valley, when the cavalry was ordered to advance. We formed the center of the column, moved up
with the guns to within 200 yards of the enemy's battery. After firing a few rounds we retired,
together with the cavalry; advanced again, and maintained the position till our place was filled by
one of the heavy batteries. Two guns only were used, the other two being in the rear. On the 22d
detached two mountain howitzers, under command of Lieutenant Madison, and Company B,
cavalry, Captain Ing, to join an expedition, under Colonel Vandever, to Huntsville, Ark.
Detachment returned to camp on the evening of the 6th. On the 7th formed my command for
battle. At 12 m., according to orders, took two guns, under Lieutenant Madison, and Company C,
Captain Benteen, and reported to Acting Brigadier-General Carr, who instructed me to take
position on the road between the Ninth Iowa and the Twenty-fourth Missouri. After firing 24
rounds my pack caissons were exhausted, and I fell back. Having resupplied myself with
ammunition, took post about 300 yards to the left of my former position, and threw sphericalcase
shot into the ranks of the enemy until, finding their heavy guns had our range, we fell back.
The ensuing day Captain Williams, with Company D, pursued the enemy some 4 miles, taking
10 prisoners and capturing a wagon and a number of horses.
On the 9th, according to orders from General Curtis, this command reported to Colonel
Bussey, Third Iowa Cavalry, proceeded to Bentonville, and attacked the rear of the enemy; threw
two shells into their force, captured several horses, and took a number of prisoners. The
command returned to the camp about 8 p.m.
I have the honor to inclose herewith a list of the killed, wounded, and missing of this
command since the 26th January, 1862.
Commanding Battalion Cavalry.
Brigadier-General CURTIS,
Commanding Army of the Southwest, U.S. Army.
March 10, 1862.
I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my command in the late
action of the 7th and 8th instant:
We were encamped at what is known as the Elkhorn Tavern. On the evening previous to the
conflict I had placed cavalry pickets on the Huntsville and on a cross-road leading into the
Springfield and Bentonville road, supported by infantry. I should here remark that I had two
companies of cavalry attached to my command, to wit: Company G, commanded by Capt.
Barbour Lewis, of the First Missouri Cavalry, and Company M, commanded by Capt. James H.
O'Connor, of the Third Illinois Cavalry. About 3 o'clock the morning of the engagement Private
Welch, of Company M, Third Illinois Cavalry, while on duty near the Bentonville road, was
captured by a party of rebel cavalry. While on the road to the rebels' camp he suddenly turned
into a by-road and fortunately escaped, minus his arms. In the mean time my pickets reported a
force moving around on our left flank. I immediately ordered Company F, of my battalion,
commanded by Capt. S. P. Barris, together with my two companies of cavalry, to go out into the
cross-roads and reconnoiter the enemy, and ascertain, if possible, their strength. They proceeded
to do as ordered, and on arriving near our picket ground they discovered a small force of rebel
cavalry, who upon their approach fell back through a field and copse of timber. Captain Barris,
dividing his company, sent Lieutenant Hart to the right and went to the left himself, the cavalry
keeping up the center. They followed them a short distance and gave them one or two volleys,
which caused them to disperse and disappear. The whole then returned to camp.
I soon learned of a force approaching on the Cassville road. I immediately sent Company B,
commanded by Capt. R. W. Fyan, down the road, with instructions to take them, supposing them
to be the same scouting party before alluded to at the cross-roads. On arriving near the tannery
Captain Fyan, discovering the force to be larger than before anticipated, sent back to be reenforced.
I immediately sent him Companies I and H, under command of Lieutenant Lyon, of
Company H, to his assistance, at the same time ordering out the two remaining companies, A and
F, to be in readiness, and sent Company K, Capt. J. R. Vanzant, with my train and 40 prisoners
then in charge, to the extreme rear. At this time, receiving information that the enemy were on
our left and steadily moving around to our right, I deployed the second platoon of Company A on
the high hill to the left, and the first platoon, together with Company F, to the right, as
skirmishers. My entire command being now engaged, I waited patiently for the result of what
was yet to be. After waiting anxiously for an hour or more, I was somewhat relieved by the
appearance of Acting Brigadier-General Carr and his division. I then drew in my companies of
infantry that were deployed as skirmishers on the right, and took a position on the extreme left of
the division, bordering on the base of the hill, deploying Company A to the cone of the hill and
Company F down the ravine making down from the house, holding this position for two hours or
more. My men being in range of the enemy's battery, their ranks gradually being thinned, and the
infantry of the enemy slowly closing in upon them with greatly superior numbers, I ordered them
to retire to my main line. I then took a position in line of battle on the brow of the hill; deployed
Lieutenant Hart and 20 men to the cone of the hill. This position I held till forced to retire with
the Ninth Iowa, under a raking fire of a vastly superior number of the enemy's fresh troops.
After falling back some distance I again formed my battalion, and the field officers of the
Ninth Iowa Volunteers all being absent or wounded (Colonel Vandever commanding a brigade),
I assisted in forming them. Colonel Vandever, then coming up, took command of the brigade,
and moved it by the right flank to the right of the road. I here halted my battalion in support of a
battery there stationed in the open field. This position I held until the close of the day, when I
then retired with my command to camp, where were the remainder of my provost guard. My two
cavalry companies, Captains O'Connor and Lewis, were doing very efficient service during the
day, scouting and skirmishing, ascertaining movements of the enemy, &c. They executed all my
orders promptly and with a zeal and gallantry highly praiseworthy, and I would be glad had I
time and space to give particular note of some of their daring exploits.
I must not omit to mention that quite early in the morning I sent out my quartermaster, Lieut.
S. L. Fritz, with one of my own and one each of the cavalry companies' wagons, foraging, with a
guard, under Lieutenant Moore, of Company G, First Missouri Cavalry. I regret to say that,
although Lieutenants Fritz and Moore and one or two of the guard escaped, the wagons loaded
with forage, also the teams with several of the guard, were captured by the enemy's cavalry.
However, they did not succeed in getting all the wagons away, as on the evening of the 8th I
found one of my wagons, minus the team (four good mules), in a ravine to the right of the road,
below the blacksmith shop.
On the evening of the 8th instant, receiving no special orders to repair to the battle-field and
having a large number of prisoners in charge I remained with my command in camp in charge of
the prisoners. There are several officers and men whom I desire to mention particularly for their
gallant deeds of skill and bravery. Capt. T. A. Reed, of Company A, exhibited great bravery and
coolness, maintaining the position assigned him in the morning two or three hours, with but few
men, against great odds. Capt. R. W. Fyan also displayed the greatest courage and skill as an
officer, executing all orders with calmness and precision. Captain Barris and Lieutenant Hart, of
Company G, were of great service to me indeed as skirmishers, and their part could not have
been acted better by the most veteran soldiers. Lieutenant Lyon, commanding Companies I and
H, held his companies to their post under a raking fire of the enemy, and was among the very last
to retire from his position. Lieutenant Lyon is a gallant young officer, and acted his part nobly.
Lieutenant Robberson, of Company A, conducted himself bravely, and displayed great coolness
and ardor for a contest with the enemy. I am also highly pleased with Captain Vanzant for his
services in taking charge of the prisoners and my train. I desire to mention Sergt. Maj. A. A.
Harrison as showing much bravery, and Private Collins, of Company F, and would be glad if I
had time and space to mention others.
I desire to take this opportunity of speaking of Adjt. J. C. S. Colby, and to tender him my
thanks for his efficient services in carrying orders from point to point, which he did with alacrity
and with the least possible concern for his personal safety. In short, my whole command behaved
with remarkable coolness, and obeyed my orders promptly and to the letter. Our loss sustained is
as follows, viz: 4 killed, 13 badly wounded, 3 slightly, 10 missing; for particulars of which I
refer you to company commanders' reports, which I herewith transmit.
Most respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major, Commanding Twenty-fourth Mo. Vols.,
Provost. Marshal S. W. D., U.S. Army. Brig. Gen. SAMUEL R. CURTIS,
Commanding Army in the Field.
IN CAMP IN THE FIELD, March 9, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor herewith to submit the following report:
At about 7 o'clock a.m. of the 7th instant I received your order to take my company and
proceed north on the Cassville road as far as I was able, and ascertain, if possible, whether the
enemy were advancing on that road and in what force. The company were under arms speedily,
all of the company, even the sick, turning out with the utmost promptness and alacrity. We had
not advanced more than three-quarters of a mile on the road before we came in view of the
enemy's cavalry. In consequence of the garb in which many of them were clothed I was in doubt
whether they were Union or rebel forces. I therefore threw out a squad of 8 men, and deployed
them in the ravines on both sides of the road we were advancing. I then cautiously proceeded
some 200 yards farther, when the enemy opened a cross-fire on us from both sides of the road,
wounding Private John Franklin. The fire was promptly returned, when, finding the enemy in
force and about to flank us, I ordered the company to fall back some 200 yards, where we
remained, having sent back to camp for re-enforcements.
Being joined by Companies I and H, we ascertained the enemy were moving around on our
right towards the Huntsville road. I immediately ordered my company across the woods to the
Huntsville road. Deploying as skirmishers on both sides of the road we advanced until we
reached the field, where we took position along the fence, awaiting the advance of the enemy,
whom we could now distinctly perceive in heavy force on the edge of the woods immediately in
our front.
In this position we remained until the First Iowa Battery, supported by the Fourth Iowa
Infantry, reached us. Having been ordered by you we fell back to camp, and in executing your
further order to move across and take position on the left of the camp we lost Private Francis M.
Dooly, killed by the explosion of a shell that burst in the midst of the company.
We remained in the position designated until ordered to join the rest of the regiment, where
we were under your own immediate observation and command the remainder of the day.
Appended you will find a list of the killed, wounded, and missing of my company. Of the
latter, two were detailed to accompany Quartermaster Fritz on a foraging expedition on the
morning of the 7th, and are supposed to be captured by the enemy. The third one we left very
sick in camp.
Respectfully, yours, &c.,
Captain Company B, Twenty-fourth Regt. Mo. Vols.
Commanding Twenty-fourth Missouri Volunteers.
IN CAMP IN THE FIELD, March 9, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor of reporting to you that upon receiving your order at daylight of Friday,
7th instant, I formed my company of those present for duty, consisting of 36 men, and marched
out west as skirmishers, according to order. When within about three-quarters of mile from camp
we fell in with Captains O'Connor and Lewis, of the cavalry of the provost guard, who were
firing occasionally on the enemy in the brush, when I took my command out in the brush on the
left. We scoured the wood for some distance, when we came to a farm. We divided the company,
Lieutenant Hart taking command of one platoon flanking the right of the road, myself, with the
other platoon, taking the left. In that position, with cavalry in the center, under their commanders
respectively, we pursued the enemy some distance, when I came in sight of them in the distance
and opened a fire on them to draw their attention (which they answered), while Lieutenant Hart
came up on their left flank and opened fire on them from the brush, which caused them to break
in retreat. Becoming satisfied that they were falling back on a strong force we withdrew, together
with the whole command, into camp. The whole command, according to my judgment, acted
with coolness and bravery.
When we had been in camp some twenty minutes we were called under arms by your order
and marched out, when, according to your order, we took position on the side of the hill east of
the encampment, as skirmishers, to hold the enemy in check. We had but short time to wait
when the enemy approached in considerable force. We opened a fire on them. After a few rounds
they fell back a short distance and took cover behind trees, logs, &c., and continued the fire for
some time. We were soon re-enforced by Captain Reed, Company A, who formed on our left and
entered into the engagement with a coolness and bravery that would have done honor to veteran
soldiers. The action lasted some hour and a half, when the enemy retired, moving to our left,
after which by your order we moved our position to the left on top of the hill, where we were
joined by Lieutenant Lyon, in command of Companies I and H, together with some Iowa
infantry and cavalry, the whole under the command of Captain Reed, which position we held till
late in the evening, when we were ordered to take position at the foot of the hill, where we were
under your immediate command from that time forward. I can say for my men and officers that
they exceeded my expectations for deliberate firing, coolness, and courage.
Upon the whole, I believe your whole command acted as soldiers fighting for a good cause.
I have the honor to be, your humble servant,
Captain Comdg. Co. F, Twenty-fourth Mo. Vols, Lyon Legion.
Post Rolla, Mo., March 10, 1862.
CAPTAIN: Having learned from a reliable source that two men of the First Missouri
Cavalry, on a visit home, living between here and Salem, were murdered a few days since by a
small band of rebels, immediately on information of the fact I yesterday morning ordered Major
Joslyn, First Missouri Cavalry, to proceed with 15 men of Wood's battalion on the road to Salem,
scouting and breaking up any rebel bands found, &c. In accordance with the above, Major Joslyn
proceeded a distance of 17 miles to the house of one Captain Pace, a notorious rebel character,
who was reported at that time to have one of Bowen's men prisoner. The command took the
captain's horse and another he had left there that morning; took one rifle and broke it. Learned
that Coleman had a camp of 300 or 400 men about 100 miles from here, in Howell County, near
West Plains. He also learned that bands of 6, 15, and 20 would rob, plunder, scatter, and then go
to Coleman's camp with their ill-gotten stores.
I also report that on being informed of a band in Lane's Prairie, said to be led by one Captain
Spillman, of Wood's battalion, I ordered Lieutenant Ross, commanding detachment Third Iowa
Cavalry, to proceed to Lane's Prairie, make inquiries, arrest and bring to these headquarters all
persons engaged in such unlawful proceedings. In accordance with said order Lieutenant Ross,
with 18 men, proceeded at 9 a.m. of the 8th instant to Knob View and then to Lane's Prairie. No
accurate information could be gained with regard to the complaint made here, and after an
absence of two days returned to this post.
I also hear reports of marauding bands robbing, plundering, and stealing in different
directions around, and shall use my utmost ability in stopping the same. I am in great need of
some cavalry here.
Colonel, Commanding Post.
Capt. N.H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Saint Louis, Mo.
No. 1. -- Report of Col. John D. Stevenson, Seventh Missouri Infantry.
Post at Lexington, Mo., March 14, 1862.
CAPTAIN: Since I occupied this post I have employed my mounted force constantly in
dispersing and arresting small parties of marauders, in no instance meeting with much resistance,
until the night of the 11th instant, hearing there was a band of from 20 to 30 marauding rebels
within 15 miles of this post, I ordered Lieut. J. D. Jenks, Company I), First Regiment Iowa
Cavalry, with 30 men, to proceed to their rendezvous and arrest or disperse them. He found them
posted in a log-house known as the Greer farm, 16 miles distant. After a very fierce fight, the
enemy losing 9 killed, 3 wounded, I prisoner, and all their horses, the remainder escaped into the
adjoining woods. Our loss 1 killed and 4 wounded. For the number engaged this was as severe a
contest as marked the war. I send you the official report of the affair.
Lieutenant Jenks advises me that his men were compelled to make it a hand-to-hand fight
from the nature of their arms--sabers and pistols--and labored under the disadvantage of inferior
weapons for long range.
I desire to suggest the necessity of arming a portion of this cavalry force with carbines. The
country is filled with marauding parties, armed with double-barreled shot-guns, who when
pressed take refuge in places inaccessible to cavalry, where to reach them the men must
dismount, and on foot they necessarily fight at a great disadvantage. With 80 carbines and 20,000
rounds of suitable ammunition I shall be able to so operate as to drive every band out of the
Colonel, Commanding Post, Lexington, Mo.
Capt. J. O. KELTON,
A. A. G., Saint Louis, Mo.
No. 2. -- Report of Lieut. James D. Jenks, First Iowa Cavalry.
LEXINGTON, MO., March 12, 1862.
COLONEL: Pursuant to your instructions 1 left here with a detachment of 30 men of
Companies B and D at 7 o'clock p.m. March 10. Throwing forward our advance guard, after
having moved about 18 miles I learned that a company of rebels under Captain Jones were in the
vicinity. We surrounded and examined five houses without finding the enemy. Upon proceeding
to the house of one William Greer, which we immediately surrounded, we sought admittance by
knocking at the door, and were immediately fired upon by the parties within, and also from the
barn adjoining, both being built of logs and pierced with port-holes. A sharp skirmish ensued for
about ten minutes, when the party at the barn retired and those in the house called for quarter.
The firing then ceased, and upon moving up and opening the door the enemy discharged a volley
full upon the party, killing I and wounding 2 of our men. The firing was incessant for about thirty
minutes, our men firing into the doors and windows until we at last succeeded in dislodging the
enemy by firing the house, which was reduced to ashes. We remained upon the ground until
daylight, removing our wounded to a house near by, where they were cared for properly. The
enemy lost 9 killed, 3 wounded, and 1 prisoner. Our loss is I killed and 4 wounded.
We arrived at this post at 3 o'clock p.m. of the 11th instant, bringing in our dead and
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant Co. D, First Iowa Cav., Comdg. Detachment.
Comdg. Post, Lexington? Mo.
Houston, March 15, 1862.
I arrived here last Saturday, March 8, from Rolla, and was joined the same night by Major
Drake, Third Iowa Cavalry, and 130 men. Sunday was spent in making preparations for our
expedition. Monday morning I wrote you, but as I have received no answer I much fear my
messenger has been captured. I wrote you that 50 of Colonel Coleman's men were in the county
when we came, but had gone south on our approach; that he and Colonel Woodside were in
camp 20 miles south of Thomasville, reported at 600; that I had several men down with the
mumps, and was compelled to leave them here, and thought it best to leave a few men here to
hold the place, but dare not go west and leave my men here and Major Drake's at Salem, with
Coleman and Woodside so near us on the south, and had determined upon an expedition south
first. I therefore left this place Monday morning, with 250 men, in the direction of Thomasville.
Tuesday evening we arrived at that place, a distance of 54 miles. I found that Coleman and
Woodside, and also MacFarlane, were camped near the Spring River Mill, each with a portion of
a regiment, trying to consolidate them into one regiment.
Wednesday at daylight we started in pursuit. Ten miles out we encountered their pickets,
badly wounding one. Pressing on, at noon we arrived at their camp, to find that during the
previous night it had been deserted. Passing 5 miles beyond, we came to the Spring River Mill,
in the edge of Arkansas. Just before arriving at the mill our advance guard ran upon a squad of
secesh, supposed to be Coleman's men; killed 2 and wounded 4. At the mill I had the wounds
dressed, fed our horses, released our prisoners as an incumbrance, and pushed on west, a part of
the time in Arkansas and part in Missouri. At 9 o'clock we camped, having traveled 40 miles. At
daylight started again on the trail of the rebels, whom I had reason to suppose were 10 miles
west, and had been re-enforced 100 men. Two miles, and we again encountered their pickets, but
my advance guards failed to capture them. Ten miles brought us to their camp, but again
deserted, and from all appearances in the greatest haste. Provisions were left, and even breakfast
uneaten. Being satisfied they were not far in advance, I cautioned my advance and flankers to be
on the alert to prevent surprise, and pushed on about 5 miles farther. I heard sharp firing in
advance, and supposing my advance had encountered the retreating rebels, I galloped forward to
find my guard engaged with the whole rebel force, estimated at from 600 to 1,000. They had
taken a strong position in one of those pest-holes of creation, an Arkansas swamp, and we within
4 rods of them. Just then a ball struck Sergeant Rottaken and knocked him from his horse.
Turning, I found my whole battalion, including the howitzer, at my side, followed by Major
Drake and the Iowa Third. Our sudden appearance seemed to paralyze the enemy for a moment,
and knowing that everything depended upon immediate action, I ordered the howitzer into
position to shell the swamp. I also ordered the men of my battalion to dismount, every fourth
man to take the horses to the rear. I also ordered Major Drake to the right of the swamp. This
order was obeyed in an instant, and the men advanced upon the enemy. Sergeant Moody threw
two shells, but I noticed too high for those in our immediate front. By this time the enemy rallied
and poured upon us a deadly fire. My bugler, who was at my side, fell from his horse. Young
Watt was killed instantly at the cannon. Pierce, another one at the cannon, was badly wounded.
Young Kendall fell mortally wounded. First Lieut. R. H. C. Mack, of Company A, whilst leading
his men bravely forward, fell mortally wounded. Several others were wounded. Turning, I rode
to the howitzer and directed Sergeant Moody to load with grape and lower his piece. Just then
my horse was pierced by two bullets, but Sergeant Moody instantly obeyed the order, when the
rebels broke in the greatest confusion, my men on foot advancing from tree to tree. The enemy at
this time attempted to retreat, but were met by a charge from the Iowa boys on the north, which
drove them back into the swamp with a loss of 20 prisoners and a large number of killed and
wounded. Two prisoners belonging to Major Bowen's battalion were also released. Among the
prisoners is a nephew of the celebrated Jim Lane, of Kansas.
Had we been able to pursue the enemy into the swamp our triumph would have been
complete, but Major Drake's men had no carbines and I could not use them on foot. Sergeant
Moody informed me that he was out of ammunition for the howitzer, and I was also informed
that my men in the swamp were also nearly out, some having fired 30 rounds, with which they
were provided. I sent to the ammunition wagon, but was pained to find that it broke down 2
miles back on the road. The battle had lasted over an hour. I immediately ordered a wagon back
for ammunition and another to collect our dead and wounded; which done, I ordered the men to
fall back to an open space, with a small field between us and the swamp.
Soon after the enemy were re-enforced by 250 men from Salem, Ark., and the enemy again
made their appearance in the swamp. Our ammunition came, but one box (1,000), marked "Hall's
carbine," proved to be musket cartridges, and entirely useless. I then held a hasty consultation
with my officers, all of whom agreed that an effort to clear the swamp against such fearful odds
and the consequent loss of life on our side was not expedient, especially as half of our men had
not arms that could be used to advantage. I then formed both battalions in the field for battle.
Every fourth man of my battalion was detailed to hold the horses. I took their carbines and those
of the dead and wounded and armed all of the Iowa men possible and ordered them forward, also
the howitzer, supported by about 50 of the Iowa Cavalry. I then ordered the quartermaster to load
the dead and wounded and start our wagons back. Our boys made a brilliant charge, Iowa and
Missouri vying with each other in bravery. The enemy had advanced to and were sheltered by
the fence and our men had to advance through an open field, but our men advanced through a
terrible fire, drove them from the fence and back into the swamp, Sergeant Moody throwing shell
and canister by turns with terrible effect. The enemy having again disappeared I ordered the men
to retire, which they did in good order, when we commenced our march back to Missouri.
Our loss was 3 killed and 12 (1 mortally) wounded, all of whom we brought with us. The
enemy's loss we could not ascertain, but know it to be very large. Prisoners taken report among
the dead Colonel Woodside. They also say that one shell killed and wounded over thirty. The
grape told with terrible effect; besides, scores dropped before our carbines as our boys advanced
from tree to tree, whose dead bodies lay in the swamp. I am satisfied their loss is not less than
100. This I regard as a small estimate. As to their numbers, they reported 600 when below
Thomasville. In their retreat for 35 miles everybody had joined them. They certainly had 100
men at the Simmons place, where they camped the night before the fight, and were re-enforced
250 during the fight, making near 1,000 men according to their own estimate.
Had it not been for the causes set forth above I am satisfied, in a swamp as it was where no
human being would go to fight, it would have been a complete rout. As it was I regard it as a
signal victory, and feel confident Southern Missouri is now cleared of the traitors. The Union
prisoners we released were taken within a few miles of Rolla---one of them within 7. I am very
strongly impressed with the importance of keeping a force here for the time being to watch the
south. At least I shall be compelled to do so at present to provide for the sick and wounded, who
cannot be moved. A squad of cavalry has been to Mountain Grove, 25 miles southwest, and the
country is certainly clear of rebels west. Yet if I get no counter orders I will send a scout in that
direction Monday.
I cannot close this communication without testifying to the gallantry and bravery of both
officers and men in our late fight. Where all did so well to make distinction is invidious, yet I
must mention Adjutant Cutler, of the Third Iowa Battalion, who bravely stood by my side; also
Major Drake and Lieutenants McDannal and Horton, of Company I, and Lieutenant Cherrie, of
Company K, Third Iowa Battalion, who did their whole duty. That they were not in the thickest
of the fight was no fault of theirs. Horses could not charge into the swamp and I could not use
them on foot without carbines. Lieutenant Mack entered the Army last summer as a private, and
died nobly leading his men to victory. Sergeant Horine deserves especial mention for his
coolness and daring. Sergeant Moody, of Company A, also deserves much praise for his daring.
His bravery alone saved our howitzer. The fire of the enemy had driven almost every man from
his position, even the One with the rammer; and a determination being manifested to take the
piece, Sergeant Moody rammed a canister in with his saber, touched it off, and scattered all
before him. Lieutenant Wood, of Company B, although his first fight, led his men into the
thickest. Corporal Moore, with John Gartland to load, fired his carbine sixty-odd times, half of
Which was after being severely wounded. Captain Hopper, of Company C, and Captain
Spillman, of Company D, bravely led their men into action. Sergeant Rottaken, of Company D,
after being knocked from his horse, immediately recovered, fell into the ranks, and was among
the bravest. Young Stein, of Company C, was shot through the leg, put his hand to the wound a
moment, but returned the fire in time to kill his assailant.
But I could fill a page with such acts of heroism. I only mention those who came under my
own notice. We commenced the fight at 10 a.m. Thursday; left the field at 2 p.m., and arrived
here this evening, having traveled 190 miles in six days, driving Coleman, Woodside, and
MacFarlane into an Arkansas swamp, and, as I hope, completely used them up. I inclose a list of
killed and wounded.
I have the honor, colonel, to be, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant-Colonel Sixth Mo. Cav., Comdg. Expedition.
Colonel BOYD,
Commanding Post, Rolla, Mo.
P. S.--Captain Miller, left in command here, and acting provost-marshal, deserves credit for
the ability with which he has performed his duty. I asked the people last Sunday of this county
who were loyal citizens and wished protection to come in and take the oath. Over 400 out of a
voting population of 800, and the banner secession county of the State, have been in and taken
the oath. Another week and secession is squelched in this part of Missouri.
No. 1. -- Reports of Brig. Gen. James Totten, U. S. Army.
Jefferson City, Mo., March 23, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report for the information of the major-general commanding
the following facts, which I have received from Col. Fitz Henry Warren, commanding First Iowa
Cavalry, at Clinton, Henry County, Mo.:
On the night of the 18th two detachments were sent out from Clinton--one into Johnson
County and the other in the direction of Robinson's Mill. The latter command under Captain
Ankeny, had a sharp skirmish 4 miles southeast of Leesville, killing 2 of the worst of the rebels,
Swykiffer and John Raftre, both desperate characters, and wounding 1. Four of our men were
wounded and 1 horse killed and 1 wounded. They captured 10 men, 7 guns, 10 horses, and 7
saddles. Captain Ankeny behaved with great spirit and did himself high credit. The other detail,
under Captain Caldwell, brought in 10 pistols, 10 horses, 1 mule, and 48 packages of powder.
Colonel Warren adds:
We have captured over 75 prisoners in all. Many of them have been released on bond of from
1,000 to $5,000.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Capt. N.H. MCLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Saint Louis, Mo.
Jefferson City, Mo., March 31, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to report for the information of the major-general commanding
that on the 24th instant Col. Fitz Henry Warren, commanding First Iowa Cavalry, moved from
Clinton across Grand River and Deep Water towards the Osage, encountering several scattering
bands of marauders, capturing 52 prisoners, a number of horses, males, and arms. In marching
down the hills of the Osage near Monagan Springs they had some brisk skirmishing, in which 2
of the enemy were wounded fatally and 3 severely. Three of the First Iowa Cavalry were
wounded, but none seriously. One company was left to pursue a band who were said to have
taken the bush near the mouth of Salt Creek.
Later advices report the return of the detachment last mentioned, bringing 16 prisoners, who
were taken near Musgrove Ferry, on the Osage. One rebel was badly wounded in the leg. None
of our men injured. One company of cavalry moved to Butler, Bates County, on the morning of
the 29th. The others were to move, in accordance with Special Orders, No. 10, March 26, this
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Capt. N. H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Clinton, Mo., March 28, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have to report the return of a detachment of my command to which I referred in
my letter of this morning. They brought in 16 prisoners taken near Musgrove Ferry, on the
Osage. One rebel was badly wounded in the leg. None of our men injured.
Individuals from Bates County who arrived this morning have induced me by their
representations to hurry forward one company of my cavalry in advance of the main command.
They march at 7 o'clock to-morrow morning. I shall follow on Monday with one company of
infantry and three companies of cavalry. The battery of Captain Murphy has not yet reported.
I am, sir, very truly, your obedient servant,
Colonel First Iowa Cavalry, Commanding Post.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
No. 1. -- Reports of Brig. Gen. James Totten, U. S. Army.
Jefferson City, Mo., March 28, 1862.
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to state that last evening I received the following telegram:
SEDALIA, March 27, 1862.
Brig. Gen. JAMES Totten,
Commanding District Central Missouri, Jefferson City:
Just learned that Major Foster, of Warrensburg, with 60 men, attacked on yesterday a band of
200 secessionists near that place, when approaching to burn it, and defeated the rebels. Loss on
the rebel side 9, on ours 2. Major Foster and brother were wounded; Lieutenant Jewell mortally.
We captured 9 horses, &c. A second attack is imminent with much larger force. Re-enforcements
badly needed. Can we have a company of Colonel Warren's regiment?
Lieutenant-Colonel of Regiment, M. S. M.
I at once sent the following orders by telegraph. Special Orders, No. 13, mentioned herein,
had previously gone up by train. A copy is inclosed in this mail:
To Maj. W. M. G. TORRENCE,
First Iowa Cavalry, Commanding Post, Sedalia, Mo.:
Send two companies of cavalry and the section of the First Missouri Light Artillery by a
forced march immediately to Warrensburg, Johnson County, to re-enforce Major Foster's
Missouri State Militia. The march must be made to-night at all hazards, and if you have no
reliable officer to send in command you must go yourself. Do not fail to carry out this order at
once. Telegraph me the time the command leaves. Report important matters by telegraph.
By order of Brig. Gen. James Totten, commanding district:
Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General.
Twenty-Sixth Indiana Volunteers, Commanding Post, La Mine Cantonment:
Move your troops up to Sedalia, as per Special Orders, No. 10, of March 26, immediately,
and await orders there. Your presence there with these re-enforcements may be wanted at any
moment, and you must move to-night without fail. Report your departure by telegraph and your
arrival also. Be in readiness to march at a moment's warning with your force to the relief of
Johnson County.
By order of Brig. Gen. James Totten, commanding district:
Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General.
To W. M. G. TORRENCE, Commanding Sedalia, Mo.:
Send the following at once to Col. J. F. Philips, Georgetown, by express:
"Sent you an order to-day to re-enforce Major Foster at Warrensburg, Johnson County, with
one company of Missouri State Militia. It is important your re-enforcement should move
immediately to-night without fail. Two companies and a section of artillery move at once from
Sedalia to Warrensburg, and your company should join them. Make haste.
"By order of Brig. Gen. James Totten, commanding district:
"Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General."
Maj. W. M. G. TORRENCE, Commanding Sedalia:
Send the following by express at once:
"Maj. EMORY S. FOSTER, Warrensburg, Mo.:
"Hold on bravely, gallant Foster. You shall have immediate re-enforcements, and enough to
crush out and exterminate all robbers, guerrillas, and murderers. When these come do not spare
those who seek to destroy and lay waste Johnson County.
"By order of Brig. Gen. James Totten, commanding district:
"Captain and Assistant Adjutant-General."
I next received the following from Sedalia:
General TOTTEN, Commanding District, Jefferson City:
Just received your Special Orders, No. 13, to Colonel Philips. Have only one company in
Georgetown, badly armed. If that place is vacated, liable to be attacked by Woodson's gang.
Have ordered in men from Saline.
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding.
To which I replied as follows:
Lieut. Col. T. T. CRITTENDEN, M. S. M., Sedalia:
Send the company from Georgetown to Warrensburg as well armed and as strong as possible.
The commanding officer at Sedalia will take care of Georgetown in the absence of the State
militia. There will be re-enforcements at Sedalia to-morrow from La Mine Cantonment. Show
this to the commanding officer at Sedalia.
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Later in the night I received the following:
General TOTTEN Jefferson City:
Dispatches received. Orders obeyed. Captain Thompson, First Iowa Cavalry, 120 men, 2
pieces Missouri artillery, left 12 o'clock midnight. Will be joined at Georgetown with 30 men,
State troops.
This record is sent for the information of the major-general commanding.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding District.
Capt. N.H. McLEAN,
Assistant Adjutant-General, Saint Louis.
WARRENSBURG, MO., March 30, 1862.
SIR: Agreeably to your order of the 27th instant I assumed command of the forces stated by
you, consisting of parts of Company A, under command of Captain McQueen; Company F,
Captain Elliott; Company G, Lieutenants McDermott and Foster, and two pieces of First
Missouri Artillery, in all 130 men, and marched from Sedalia at 1 o'clock of that night and by a
forced march reached Warrensburg on the next morning. Finding everything comparatively quiet
we went into camp during the day, and sending out scouts from the State Militia during the night,
received information of a body of the rebels, supposed to be some 300 or 400, at a camp some 12
or 15 miles distant from Warrensburg, on the Blackwater, at a place known as Murray's Ford.
Major Foster, of the State Militia, taking Captain Elliott's company and 50 of his command,
proceeded to the south of the supposed camp, while I took one piece of artillery and a portion of
State troops, under Lieutenant Ceathe, with the balance of my command, and proceeded in a
more direct route to the north of the camp. We each made a rapid march and soon arrived at the
supposed camp, but found no enemy. Again dividing our forces, I took my own command and
started on my return, being satisfied that no very large body of the enemy were in that immediate
About 4 o'clock p.m. of the 29th, as we emerged from the timber, I discovered a body of
what I at first took to be State Militia, but which proved to be Colonel Parker and some 60 or 70
rebels passing south along the edge of the timber, at right angles to the road on which I was
moving, and the length of his column to my right, and some 80 to 100 rods distant. Their leader
discovered my command about the same moment that I became satisfied of the nature of his
forces. I immediately ordered Captain Elliott, who was in advance, to charge, which he did,
gallantly followed by Lieutenant McDermott and his command. I then ordered Captain McQueen
to right-about his command and endeavor to intercept the rebels at the ford. In executing this
order the guide led him past the point of intersection to the lower ford, which prevented him
from effectually cutting them off. Discovering that the enemy had taken to the upper ford, he
retraced his steps and charged after the fleeing rebels. A severe running fight of some 4 miles,
through thick and almost impenetrable thickets, told fearfully upon the fleeing enemy. Our men
charged gallantly, leaving from 10 to 15 of the enemy dead upon the field and wounding from 5
to 10 others.
We took 15 prisoners, besides 1 severely wounded, and some 10 or 15 horses--the exact
number I am not able to give, as Company F has not yet reported in reference to the same.
Among the prisoners is the notorious rebel leader Colonel Parker, who has so long been the
terror of the more northern counties. We lost 1 man killed, Private Gerrard, of Company F, and 2
wounded, one of whom, Corporal Johnson, of Company F, is dangerously if not mortally
Though perhaps not essentially requisite in a report of this kind, yet I cannot refrain from
calling the attention of the commanding general through you to certain matters which I deem of
vital importance to the well-being of that portion of this State among which is the wanton
destruction of life and property of citizens of that section by the State Militia. A few nights
before my arrival at Warrensburg they set fire to Colonel McCowan's residence in Warrensburg,
and entirely destroyed the house, furniture, &c., leaving the family, consisting of his wife and
some four or five children, without anything to support or protect them. About the same time a
body of them proceeded, as I am informed by the Union men of Warrensburg, to the house of
one Mr. Burgess, and shot him and his brother and burned the house over the heads of his family.
Again on Sunday, the 30th, Captain Thomas W. Houts, while out with a party of some 50 men,
killed one Mr. Piper, and burned five dwellings, turning the families out of doors and destroying
everything in the houses. I learn this from Lieutenant Ceathe, who was with him, and who
positively refused to permit his men to engage in the nefarious business. The Union men of the
town are highly incensed at such outrages, and desired me to lay the matter before the proper
authorities. The sufferers in these instances none of them belong to the bushwhackers, and were
all, with the exception of Colonel McCowan, peaceable citizens, though of Southern or secession
principles. The Union men are fearful, and truly so, that the bushwhackers will retaliate, and
between the two lay the whole country in ruins.
I would suggest the policy of a united movement from the north, south, east, and west,
driving the rebels towards Johnson County, and endeavor by concerted action to destroy their
whole forces. As we have done heretofore they flee before us from Johnson to Henry and back to
some other point, and thus baffle our best endeavors.
Very respectfully,
Captain First Iowa Cavalry.
Commanding Post, Sedalia, Mo
SAINT LOUIS, April 6, 1862.
Detachment of First Iowa Cavalry, sent out from Clinton, Mo., had a skirmish with rebels on
the 30th. Captured 19 prisoners, 8 wagons, and a number of horses, mules, &c., belonging to
Price's army. One rebel killed and 7 wounded. Our loss 1 man seriously wounded.
Secretary of War.
Linn Creek, Mo., April 22, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of scouts:
Captain Cosgrove, Company B, under date April 11, informs me that Private James G.
Bobbitt, while in company with 5 others, was fired upon from ambush in the vicinity of Quincy,
Hickory County, and wounded, and died in eight hours. Also that Corporal Edward Powers, who
had, contrary to orders, separated from a detachment of twenty, was taken prisoner on the Little
Niangua, Hickory County, by a band of marauders, and murdered. That Sergeant Enos Halbert,
who had been fired upon from the brush and seriously wounded, had recovered. That about 40
compose that band of guerrillas in Hickory County, plundering, stealing, and ordering off Union
Captain Gravely, Company D, under date of 17th instant, informs me that he left
Humansville on the morning of the 13th instant with 100 men, and joined Colonel Moss, of
Osceola, with 75 men; that Colonel Moss that night left the whole command within 5 miles of
Montevalle, Vernon County, and with 25 men went to the town and remained during the night.
About daybreak of the 14th 15 rebels rushed up and fired upon Colonel Moss, killing 2 men and
badly wounding 4 others. He fired on the rebels, but only wounded 1 man. The whole command
was sent forward, rushed into town, and pursued the retreating rebels, killing 2 of them and
capturing 1. Our men, while absent, captured about 10 men who were in the Humansville fight,
found several horses which had been stolen from Union men and returned them to their owners,
and returned themselves to Humansville on the night of the 16th instant. Captain Gravely says:
"Our guns are not efficient" (meaning the Austrian carbines), and adds, "I wish to change them
for rifles." He closes with this language:
The secessionists in Cedar are yet embodied in sufficient force to resist the law against our
command, and we have no chance to disperse them, armed as we are at present. They have the
advantage of us in arms greatly and greatly outnumber us. If my company was armed with rifles
and I could get 100 other men, we could drive them from the brush.
Lieutenant Reeder, under date of April 18, instant, says in substance:
Captain Ludlow, of Lebanon, of Colonel Waring's command, with 85 men, met us to the
hour. We found the captain competent for the work. We left Morgan's Mill (2 miles from Black
Oak Point, Hickory County) on the 9th instant for Urbana. There Captain Menifee proceeded to
Bolivar with his command. Captain Ludlow then changed his route, and again camped near
Morgan's Mill. We started on the 10th for the Niangua and gave it a thorough scouring, capturing
several prisoners. At one house we found two knapsacks, one containing three United States
jackets, two pairs pants, one saddle and bridle, supposed to be Edward Powers', the murdered
man above spoken of. We then turned for Shiloh Camp, on Hoyle's Creek, north of Quincy, and
reached it on the 12th instant. The rebels had been dispersed by the Iowa boys on the 11th
instant, who killed 11 men and captured several prisoners. We took one prisoner, and ascertained
from him that 27 of the rebels had passed the night half a mile from us. Captain Ludlow sent me
with my men to examine. We found the statement true. The rebels had fled to the brush. By order
of Captain Ludlow I had the houses all burned, five in number. The place was a rebel
headquarters in those parts. Captain Ludlow then started for Lebanon. I accompanied him as far
as North Prairie, where I was left to work my way. The rebels are in the brush and hard to find. I
learn that they are collecting at James Tipton's, on Hoyle's Creek. If so, we will disperse them
soon. The short guns are no go; several of them have no tubes from the first fire, and others will
not stand more than one more.
Captain Moore, Company H, writes in substance:
After crossing Osage River in the rain we marched all evening through the rain. Next day we
arrived at Rains' Mill at 2 o'clock p.m., and found him willing to render us every assistance in his
power. There are no guerrilla bands in this immediate vicinity. There are, however, some
secessionists who are yet encouraging rebellion. I expect to attend to them. I don't think it will be
necessary for us to remain here long, as we can hear of no secessionists embodied anywhere.
Numbers of them have gone to Tipton and taken the oath, and are now perfectly quiet and quite
I herewith inclose a letter from Lieutenant Reeder.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Second Battalion M. S. M.
Commanding Central District of Missouri, Jefferson City, Mo.
Fort Heiman, March 13, 1862.
SIR: In accordance with your instructions I left Fort Heiman during the night of the 11th.
Proceeded with Bulliss' battery of Saint Louis and the First Battalion of Curtis' Horse [Fifth Iowa
Cavalry] to Henry County, Tennessee, to afford protection to Union men, friends, and citizens of
that county, who wished protection from being drafted on the 12th at Paris, Tenn. Large numbers
fell in and traveled in our rear for such protection. Our advance guard came upon the outer
pickets about 6 miles from the town; on seeing them killed 2, taking their arms. I then detailed 20
men, under Lieutenant Williams, to advance cautiously and secure their pickets. This he did
successfully, surprising them, taking 8 prisoners, with their horses and equipments. Among them
was Captain Couts, of Stock's mounted infantry. Ascertaining about the enemy's force, I made a
charge upon the town. About 5 p.m. I ordered one section of Bulliss' battery, the cavalry in
advance, for a charge on the town, which we did successfully, driving the enemy before. We
passed down Main street, with white flags hanging in every window, driving the enemy into their
intrenchments, about a mile and a half west, in the timber on a high hill. Then we planted our
battery, and soon shelled them from that portion of their grounds. Thinking it vacated, I ordered
a charge up the hill with two companies of cavalry (Companies A and B, under Captain Lower
and Lieutenant Summers). About two-thirds the way up the hill we discovered the ambuscade.
About 300 opened a terrible fire on us, but it passed over our heads. Companies A and B, much
to their credit, returned a successful fire with revolvers and carbines of three volleys, returning
with a loss of 5 killed and 3 wounded. I had the battery open a fire on them, causing a sad havoc
among them. Captain Bulliss was mortally wounded in this fire. The action lasted a little more
than an hour, then firing ceased. We fell back upon the town, cut off the telegraphic
communication, took possession of the court-house and a large hotel for our sick and wounded,
During the night I thought best to fall back here. We expected to find General Grant with a
force of infantry.
[Captain], Commanding.
General GRANT.
Steamer Continental, March 15, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report that in obedience to the order of the major-general
commanding, received at 10 a.m. on the 14th instant, I started from Savannah at 12 m. with my
division, embarked in nineteen steamboats, escorted by the gunboat Tyler, Commander Gwin.
We proceeded steadily up the river to the mouth of Yellow Creek, reaching that point at Tyler's
Landing at 7 p.m. I ordered the immediate debarkation of the cavalry, consisting of six
companies of the Fifth Ohio, under command of Maj. E.G. Ricker, and ordered him, under the
guidance of a man named Bird, to proceed by the way of the Red Sulphur Springs to a point on
the Memphis and Charleston road near Burnsville, there to tear up and destroy some trestle-work
and as much of the railroad as time and the circumstances would permit. I ordered him to take
axes, crowbars, and picks, and sent with him one of my chief aides, Major Sanger. It was 11
o'clock at night before he got off, but as the estimated distance of 19 miles caused to be traveled
in five hours, I dispatched him that he might execute his work before the news of an arrival could
possibly reach Corinth or Iuka, the two points on the railroad held by the enemy in force. The
night was very stormy, heavy rain having fallen all day, but at the time of his departure it seemed
to clear away; but the rain again began to fall, and continued all night and passed off to-day. The
guide was of opinion that the Sandy, the only stream of consequence that had to be passed,
would offer no serious obstacle, but the amount of rain was so great that ravines became rapid
torrents, creeks became as rivers, and streams such as the Sandy were utterly impassable.
My plan was to follow up with the four brigades of my division to a point about half way,
where the road branches to Iuka, and there await the return of the cavalry force, and accordingly
ordered the First Brigade, Colonel Hicks, to move at 3 a.m.; the Second Brigade, Colonel Stuart,
at 4; the Third Brigade, Colonel Hildebrand, and the Fourth Brigade, Colonel Buckland, at
Notwithstanding the pouring rain and snow-storm the brigades were put in motion at the
hours appointed, but upon examination of the ground between the landing and the foot-hills I
determined to halt the last two brigades and proceed to the appointed place with the first two, and
by daylight took the road, leaving word to send forward frequent reports of the effect of the
storm and rain upon the streams between the landing and high ground. These reports overtook
me frequently, reporting the water as rising at the rate of 6 inches per hour. This and the terrible
condition of the roads induced me to order back one of the two batteries.
The head of the column was brought to a halt by the swollen creek without name 4 miles
out. Colonel Hicks partially bridged it, but the water soon rose above the timbers, and as our
cavalry had passed it quite early in the night and had gone on, I ordered the construction of
another bridge. While at work on this a messenger returned from the cavalry, stating that they
had found it impossible to proceed and were returning. I awaited their return, received the verbal
report of my aide, Major Sanger, and was satisfied that no human energy could have overcome
the difficulty. The streams were impassable, save by the slow process of bridging, which was
inconsistent with the object of our expedition. The rain was still falling and the slough to our rear
rising rapidly. I saw no other alternative but to return to our boats. On reaching the slough the
water had risen so that the battery could not pass, and had to be taken to pieces and carried on
boats down to the steamboat. The severity of the storm and amount of rain which fell in those
few hours are shown by the fact that the Tennessee rose 15 feet from 7 p.m. of yesterday till 6
p.m. to-day. The landing, which was last evening ten feet above water, is now submerged from
the bank back to the bluff.
Disappointed in this result, I determined to proceed farther up the river (Tennessee) to
another landing, at the mouth of Indian Creek, almost in sight of the enemy's redoubt at
Chickasaw, and Commander Gwin politely offered me the use of his gunboat. I found the
landing utterly inaccessible-- entirely under water. To keep the enemy in mind of our presence
the gunboat was run up to the point within range of their rifled guns of the battery at Chickasaw,
but we could see little or nothing of a force there, although Captain Gwin had on a former
occasion drawn their fire from five guns, two of which are rifled and of heavy caliber. Finding
the whole shore under water from Chickasaw down to Pittsburg, I had no alternative but to run
down to the latter place and report to you.
The object of our expedition failed on account of the severe rain, but we obtained much
information useful for future operations. Lieutenant Jenney, of Engineers, of your staff, who was
on board the gunboat, has compiled a map, which embraces all the authentic data collected,
which he will hand you.
I understand the enemy has fortified Chickasaw, and has there a force of some 3,000 or
4,000. Back of Chickasaw, at the Bear Creek Bridge, is also represented a large camp, but the
main force is quartered at Iuka and Corinth. They are shifted from one to the other and back
again, but the accounts of the actual force vary so widely that I do not pretend to form an
opinion, but knowing the importance to them of the safety of the Charleston and Memphis
Railroad, no one can doubt that between those two points will be gathered all the force they can
command. The bridges and trestle-work are generally guarded, not with least care, at the point I
aimed at near Burnsville, as no doubt the fact of our landing and marching into the interior has
reached them. We should not expect any further neglect on their part. For the present the
condition of the boat will prevent her going to Pittsburg, from which point there can be but one
point of attack, and that is Corinth. All the Union people whom I found (and they were few)
represent Corinth as the place where they expect an attack. Yet, by seemingly advancing on
Corinth with a well-appointed force, and sending off a small party of cavalry to the left, by
Farmington, it may be still that the interruption of the road without a general engagement could
be successfully accomplished. I am willing to undertake it with such force as the general may
designate. Inclosed please find the report of Major Ricker. The return of the division for
yesterday gives the strength, to which has been added six companies Fifth Ohio Cavalry, one
battery of four rifled 10-pounder Parrott guns, Captain ------,and Colonel McDowell, Sixth Iowa
Infantry, from none of which have morning reports yet been submitted. I await the general's
further orders at Pittsburg Landing.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant-General, Savannah, Tenn.
FORT HENRY, TENN., March 28, 1862.
SIR: Agreeably to Special Orders, No. 10, I proceeded forthwith, with 20 men, on March 25,
at 8 o'clock p.m., to what is known as Agnew's Ferry, and there and on the road learned to my
satisfaction that his steam ferry-boat was at some point down the river in possession of the
United States forces. I also learned that small parties of the enemy's cavalry were in the habit of
crossing the river at that point daily in a small ferry-boat, and thought it best to leave a guard
there, which I did, of I sergeant, 1 corporal, and 6 privates, with instructions to examine all who
passed, and arrest all who could not give a satisfactory account of themselves; also to remain
there until further orders.
On my return, at the urgent request of the Union citizens, I arrested and have now under
guard, subject to your orders, 10 prisoners, 5 of whom have been soldiers in the Confederate
Army and 5 notorious rebels. The soldiers are: John Beaugard, who has been nine months in
Bissell's Arkansas Cavalry, first duty sergeant in Captain Thomas' company; W. W. Wiggins,
two months in Forrest's Cavalry, Pope Walker's Rangers, Alabama, Captain Bacot; George W.
Saunders, five months in Colonel Forbes' Infantry, Fourteenth Tennessee, Captain Buckner's
company; Albert C. Brigham and John P. Rushings, who were both in the artillery service two
months each, with Colonel Heiman and Captain Taylor, Tennessee Volunteers.
The foregoing is their own statement to me, and I will here say that John Beaugard and W.
W. Wiggins have conducted themselves very badly while here, swearing that the time would
come when they would have their revenge.
The other five, consisting of Samuel Downs, John U. Downs, Frank M. Downs, Green H.
Wiggins, and A. G. Rushings, I learned to my satisfaction have been very prominent
secessionists, driving Union citizens from their homes, threatening to hang them if they did not
leave, and the latter making public speeches for disunion, and never disguising the fact that their
whole sympathies were with the Confederates.
I am, with profound respect, yours, truly,
First Lieutenant, Company K, Curtis' Horse.
Col. W. W. Lowe.
CAMP LOWE, TENN., April 3, 1862.
Pursuant to verbal orders received I started from Camp Lowe, 75 horses strong (including
two guides), at noon on the 31st March, 1862, and proceeded toward Paris, taking the road to
Paris Landing, and turning to the southwest. I found a very broken and timbered country, with
tolerably good roads, often crossed by small creeks; the timber consisting of small oak trees with
but little underwood, so that all infantry force would be able to operate as skirmishers. Cavalry
can only fight in the same way. There are but a very few and small places where charges could
be made. The whole road is practicable for teams and artillery. About 14 or 15 miles this side of
Paris I found a swamp land for the distance of about a mile and a half, where the road forms a
dam, at the end of which is a narrow wooden bridge, about 250 feet long, in not a very good
condition, but I consider it strong enough to pass light artillery and other trains. This place is able
to be held by a most inferior force.
I proceeded farther, until about 4 3/4 miles this side of Paris, to an open place, about 1 mile
long and 1 mile wide, called "Horten's farm," where I passed the night, after sending out pickets
at a distance from the camping place. During the night I sent several patrols towards Paris and
the south, to scout the country and visit the pickets. Nothing transpired during the night. I have to
observe that from the above-mentioned bridge to Paris there will be found more open places
where cavalry could charge.
In the evening I received a visit from a neighboring farmer and leading citizen Major Porter,
who seemed a little alarmed about our presence, and asked me the favor of extending my
protection toward his widowed sister, Mrs. Dawson. I told him and all the countrymen present
that I never would suffer my men to commit any depredation, and that we, the so-called Yankee
troops, were in the country not to molest or harm the citizens, but to assist and protect the
peaceable and loyal. Upon his special invitation I went with Major Porter to his lady sister,
whom I assured in regard to the good conduct of our soldiers.
I cannot complain about any of the people I met with. All showed themselves kind and
friendly, but very anxious to hear Northern news. There is no display of feeling favorable to the
Union, but a kind of neutrality. We have been asked for papers, to see themselves the difference
between Southern and our own statements. Myself and other officers did all in our power to
rectify the misstatements of the rebel leaders and editors. It seems to me that the good conduct of
our soldiers did very much to give the citizens the opportunity to judge both parties.
I started at about 6 a.m. April 1, 1862, for Paris, and entered town at 7 a.m. in order of battle;
occupied the court-house and public square, and passed through the principal streets to show to
the citizens the muzzles of our pieces. Then coming back to the court-house, I sent out pickets to
avert surprise.
Paris is a small town of about 800 to 1,000 inhabitants, situated upon a little plateau, which is
surrounded by steep hollows, of a depth varying on the north and east sides between 20 and 50
feet. On the south and west the plateau is sloping, with steep descents. Against a force not too
numerous and without artillery this position, I believe: is tenable for weeks. The Ohio and
Memphis Railroad passes the northern limits of the town, and the embankment forms another
rampart for the place.
I inquired for the key of the court-house, which was handed to me. I entered it and planted
my company flag, the Stars and Stripes of our glorious country, on the top, which was received
by my boys with cheers and hurrahs, but by them alone. The citizens (but a small portion of
them remain) were gathering in front of their houses viewing the things going on, but their
countenances showing that these acts were not indifferent to them.
I had occupied the public square upon which the court-house is erected awaiting the events.
By and by people began to gather around the place, then came inside the fence, looking at and
admiring our horses, and at last, finding out that the Yankee troops are no "Caribs," they began
to converse, first with the boys, then with myself. They seemed at first to have been afraid of
their town being pillaged and destroyed, but were highly pleased in learning from me that we did
not come for the purpose of molesting them or for destruction of any kind, but in order to protect
them. Here I met with several prominent citizens, who professed, not, it is true, to be Union men,
but to have had nothing to do with secession. I told them that I planted our banner over their
court-house, and wished those who professed to be peaceable citizens to see that our flag was not
torn down; that I expected to see it still floating there on my next visit to Paris, and that they
might rest assured of being protected by us as long as they did not molest the flag, but should
they disgrace that said flag they would be held responsible for their bad acts.
The information I got was that the Southern party was afraid that the Union men would rise
in arms to get up a counter-revolution; that a former Congressman, Etheridge, was to help in that
undertaking with a force raised in Kentucky. I heard further that several young men spoke out
their intention to resist the drafting operations, just going on for the third time; that the second
draft brought only 15 men from the county. The officer commissioned to carry out the draft was
designated to me as a Mr. Mitchell, captain of militia, residing in town. I paid a visit to this man
with a squad of my men, but Mr. Mitchell had preferred to leave town at our approach. I am
thinking that his flying away and our presence will do much good in encouraging the young men
to persist in their resistance.
Another man, by the name of Van Dyk, was marked to me as one who took a great, if not the
greatest, part in arresting a Union guide, who afterwards is reported to have been sentenced to be
hung. I could not ascertain that this sentence has been carried out because of nothing having been
heard of him since his transportation to Memphis. Van Dyk was arrested.
A third citizen, Mr. Cummins, an actual member of the rebel Legislature of Tennessee, was
reported to me as being concealed in his house, but after a minute investigation he could not be
During these proceedings I sent out patrols to scout the vicinity from Paris to Humboldt,
about 5 miles in advance, who did not find or see anything; on the contrary, reported the country
clear of any armed troops.
Regarding rebel forces, I was informed by several individuals, at different places and
different times? that--
1. Clay King, with his force, 500 to 600 strong, has been ordered to Lexington, toward the
Mississippi, about 55 miles from Camp Lowe.
2. Two companies of independent cavalry, or mounted men, poorly armed and equipped,
were stationed at Humboldt, sending out scouting parties toward Paris.
3. The last party of this kind was seen at Paris last Thursday.
4. The troops garrisoned at Memphis were diminishing daily by being ordered toward
Corinth. In my opinion the occupation of Paris by a few companies of cavalry and infantry
would do much good to the cause of the Union and strengthen the undecided citizens, amongst
whom I found several whom I believe worthy of confidence when they assert themselves to be
Union men.
At 3 p.m. I started from Paris, with the prisoner Van Dyk, westward, turning northward to
Camp Lowe, scouted the country about 20 miles, to the farm and tan-yard of a Mr. Ray, where
we stopped overnight. Mr. Ray, having been reported to me as being a strong Southern man,
tried to refuse us shelter, but seeing my force, he gave way to better feelings and received us with
seeming kindness. During the conversation in his parlor his family expectorated strong secession
opinions. Notwithstanding, we were treated very well and furnished with all the necessaries. Mr.
Ray, according to reports made to me by several individuals, had furnished the Southern
Confederacy with boots and shoes manufactured by himself at his own expense, he being a very
wealthy man. I inquired into the matter, and ascertained from his own negroes that on Saturday,
the 29th of March, 1862, he sent off a full wagon load of said articles. (Mr. Ray used to abuse his
negroes, and they consequently entertain no friendly feelings for him; therefore I would
respectfully suggest not to tell him who informed me.) In the morning of April 2, 1862, I put to
Mr. Ray the question frankly and plainly whether he did send off any boots or shoes to the
Confederacy. He denied it. He denied even to have had any such intercourse with the rebel party.
His behavior, while questioned, was such that my suspicions of his guilt advised me to bring him
before my superiors to be judged, and so I did.
From there we started at about 8 a.m., directing our course to Camp Lowe, through a small
place called Coynesville, situated about 10 miles west of the above-mentioned camp. This
village contains about 300 inhabitants, represented as professing no Union feelings. We passed
through. Nobody seemed to observe us nor to care about our presence, but one of my officers
told me afterward that two or three citizens had told him that they wished for us to put up the
Union flag.
The country from Paris to Camp Lowe, on our way back, as above described, is more broken,
timbered, and hilly than the first described. The road is bad and not kept in repair. I crossed no
swamps and but a few creeks. I would not, if I could do it otherwise, direct a transportation train
by this road. In regard to operations for cavalry, I consider it a very poor terrain from Paris to
Coynesville. From here to Camp Lowe I found several open places, but no prairies.
About 6 miles from Coynesville we stopped at the farm of a blacksmith named Oliver,
reported as a strong Southern man, who had furnished bowie-knives and forwarded them to the
Southern Confederacy Army at his own expense, and that he had expressed himself that he never
would be brought to take the oath of allegiance. I asked him if such was the case, but he
answered in the negative, saying that he only made a few for his sons and their friends. Our
guide, being present, told him that there was no use denying it, because he had done what I
charged him to be guilty of. Four sons of his being in the Confederate Army, and his family
having professed openly their sympathy for the South in my presence, I thought it my duty to
bring him, too, before my superiors.
I feel myself bound to aver that the whole command under my direction did enjoy
themselves in doing the duty to be performed and kept up perfect discipline.
W. A. HAW,
Captain Company F, Curtis' Horse.
Lieut. Col. M. T. PATRICK,
Commanding Regiment
Camp near Pittsburg, Tenn., April 24, 1862.
I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the First Division of the
advance forces of the United States in the battle of Shiloh, near Pittsburg Landing:
Early on the morning of Sunday, the 6th of April, hearing sharp firing at short intervals on
my left and front, in the direction of Sherman's and Prentiss' divisions, I sent a messenger to
General Sherman's headquarters to inquire into the cause of it. Soon after my messenger returned
with General Sherman's request that I should send a battalion of my cavalry to join one of his, for
the purpose of discovering the strength and design of the enemy.
Before my cavalry had reached General Sherman's camp his was seen retiring to the rear of
his line, which was now being formed nearly parallel with and within a short distance of the left
of my camp. Hastening forward, General Sherman informed me that the enemy had attacked him
in large force and that he desired support. At the same time the firing in the direction of General
Prentiss' division indicated a partial abatement of the resistance offered by his division.
Before my left, consisting of the Third Brigade, could form for the support of General
Sherman, the enemy had pierced General Prentiss' line, afterward taking him and a number of his
men prisoners, and rapidly forcing back General Sherman's left wing, was pressing upon my left
with a mass five regiments deep, bearing the American flag. Discovering that this honored
emblem was not borne by General Prentiss' retiring forces, but was used by the enemy as a
means of deception, I ordered the Third Brigade to form in line of battle, fronting the enemy's
advance, nearly at a right angle with General Sherman's line; but before this order had been fully
executed the enemy had approached within short musket-range and opened a deadly fire upon us.
Col. L. F. Ross, of the Seventeenth Illinois Infantry, being absent, the command of the Third
Brigade had devolved on Col. J. S. Reared, Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry, whose illness in the
morning preventing him from taking part in the engagement, it next devolved on Col. Julius
Wraith, Forty-third Illinois Infantry, whom I instructed to take command at the very moment he
was forming his regiment. Although thus unexpectedly called upon to assume the functions of
brigade commander, by forming the line of battle in the face of an overwhelming foe, he did so
promptly and skillfully.
While the line was being formed Captain Stewart, of my staff, brought information that the
enemy, whose fire he had wonderfully escaped, were advancing in line of battle in strong force
to the left of the brigade.
Colonel Wraith, having completed his line, ordered a charge upon the enemy, in which he
fell mortally wounded while encouraging his men by his heroic and daring example. The charge,
although successful in repulsing the enemy in front, left the flanks of his command liable to be
turned by the superior numbers of the enemy, which was only prevented by changing the fronts
of the two flank regiments, the Seventeenth and Forty-ninth Illinois Infantry. Besides Colonel
Raith several other officers were killed or wounded in this charge.
The situation of the Third Brigade at this juncture was most critical. Generals Prentiss' and
Sherman's divisions had retired, leaving the brigade exposed to combined attack. The enemy in
front was recovering from the disorder of his repulse, and the forces of Beauregard and Polka
were sweeping around on the right and left. In obedience to my order the brigade fell back, under
command of Lieutenant-Colonel Engelman, Forty-third Illinois, about 300 yards, and reformed
in front of my headquarters, joining the Second Brigade, under command of Col. C. C. Marsh,
Twentieth Illinois, and the First Brigade, under command of Col. A.M. Hare, Eleventh Iowa, on
the left, the Eleventh Iowa being formed as a reserve, to support the center and left. Burrows'
Ohio battery was advanced to the center, at a point on the Corinth road, near my headquarters;
Schwartz's battery, in support of Sherman, to the right, and McAllister's battery to the left, to
command the approach across a field. While this disposition was being completed the enemy
were rapidly advancing at all points, supported by several batteries. The action, both by infantry
and artillery, became general all along the line, and the conflict was desperate. In the course of
twenty minutes Schwartz's battery had silenced the enemy's battery in front, and to repel the
enemy, whose left was still bearing back General Sherman's division on my right, Major
Schwartz, chief of my staff, joined the Thirty-fourth and Forty-third Illinois, and boldly charged
the enemy, receiving a severe wound in the leg, which caused him to be taken from the field. Our
resistance, however, was overborne by superior numbers, which still continued to flank the right
of my line. All of Schwartz's battery except one caisson was brought off--a portion of it by hand.
Burrows' battery opened a brisk fire from its position at the center, but from the near
approach of the enemy, and the deadly fire opened on it both by infantry and artillery, was soon
lost., including 70 horses killed. The battery was recovered in a damaged condition next day.
Captain Burrows and a number of his officers were wounded, and in the same part of the field,
and about the same time, my orderly was severely wounded near me. The underbrush and trees
bear abundant and impressive evidence of the sanguinary character of this engagement.
McAllister's battery opened from the corner of the field referred to, and by a well-directed
and effective fire kept the enemy from crossing it until his battery was nearly surrounded and his
support forced back, when, after silencing a battery in the woods on the opposite side of the field,
he withdrew three of his pieces along the Corinth road towards Pittsburg Landing. The fourth
piece was left behind for want of horses to take it off, but was recovered next day. In this
engagement Captain McAllister was four times slightly wounded, but kept the field. An acting
sergeant and 7 men were severely wounded and a number killed.
During this bloody contest, which raged for some time with fluctuating success, Colonel
Haynie, an officer of distinguished merit, and Lieutenant-Colonel Sanford, of the Forty-eighth;
Lieutenant-Colonel Ransom and Major Nevins, of the Eleventh; Major Bartleson, of the
Twentieth, and Major Bishop, of the Forty-ninth Illinois, were severely wounded. The
Eighteenth was so hotly engaged that Major Eaton, Captain Brush, and Captain Dillon, who
rapidly succeeded each other in command, as rapidly fell, the first two dangerously wounded and
the last instantly killed.
Wholly unsupported on the left, and still outflanked on the right by increasing numbers, to
save my command from being surrounded I ordered it to fall back about 200 yards and reform at
a right angle with the center of my camp. The order was promptly and successfully executed,
save by the Forty-third Illinois, which had failed to receive it. This gallant regiment still
continued the conflict until it was surrounded, and cut its way through the enemy to the right and
rear of my third line.
Making another stand upon the ground indicated, Timony's battery joined in the action. The
contest was continued for some time by infantry and artillery. Trees of considerable size were cut
off or scathed by the round shot of opposing batteries, and considerable loss in killed and
wounded was sustained on both sides, including four guns of Timony's battery, two of which
were replaced by a capture made next day. At length, checking the enemy in front, I pressed the
advantage, driving him back some distance; but, re-enforced by fresh troops his wavering line
was strengthened, and again he commenced turning my right and left, forcing me back about 200
yards to the fourth position in an open wood, skirting a large field. Here, joined by the Fortythird
Illinois, by a portion of Timony's battery, by a portion of Taylor's battalion, and by a
portion of General Sherman's division, the contest was again renewed with increased fury on
both sides. Accompanied by Major Brayman, acting assistant adjutant-general, and by Captain
Stewart and Lieutenant Freeman, acting aides-de-camp, I rode along my line and gave the order,
"Forward;" responsively to which it rapidly advanced, driving the enemy a first and second time
for half a mile with great slaughter over the ground occupied by my artillery and a portion of my
infantry camps. Within a radius of 200 yards of my headquarters the ground was almost literally
covered with dead bodies, chiefly of the enemy.
Here the Eleventh and the Twentieth Illinois, Lieutenant-Colonel Ransom and Lieutenant-
Colonel Richards, and the Eleventh Iowa, Lieutenant-Colonel Hall, charged a hostile battery and
took it, killing most all the artillery horses. Under the fire of the same regiments Albert Sidney
Johnston, commanding general of the rebel forces, fell within 30 yards of my headquarters. Here
Colonel Hare, commanding the First Brigade; Colonel Marsh, commanding the Second Brigade,
and Lieutenant-Colonel Engelmann, commanding the Third Brigade, heedless of danger, led
their men to the charge amid a storm of bullets and in the face of a battery; and here Lieutenant-
Colonel Richards, of the Twentieth Illinois; Lieutenant-Colonel Pease, of the Forty-ninth Illinois,
and Captain Stewart and Lieutenant Freeman, of my staff, were wounded, while Lieutenant-
Colonel Ransom, of the Eleventh, although reeling in the saddle and streaming with blood from a
previous wound, performed prodigies of valor.
Continuing this sanguinary conflict until several regiments of my division had exhausted
their ammunition and its right flank had been borne back, and it was in danger of being turned,
the remainder of my command, with the exception hereafter noticed, also fell back to the camp
of the First Brigade. Here the portion which had first fallen back reformed, in obedience to my
order, parallel with the camp and fronting the approach of the enemy from the west, while the
other portion formed at right angle with it, still fronting the approach of the enemy from the
south. The Forty-fifth Illinois, being the last to fall back, only escaped being surrounded and
captured by boldly cutting their way through the closing circle of the enemy's lines and joining
the division, under the daring lead of Colonel and Major Smith, of that regiment.
In thus awarding honor to the meritorious it is but just to recognize the good conduct of the
portion of General Sherman's division participating in this protracted and desperate conflict,
while to him is due great credit for the gallant, skillful, and important part he took in it.
It was 2 o'clock p.m. when my fifth line had been thus formed. By that time Lieutenant
Jones, ordnance officer of my division, had come up at great peril with ammunition, which was
rapidly distributed among some of the most convenient regiments. As the enemy's artillery was
already playing upon us, I continued my preparations to meet him by ordering up McAllister's
battery, which was put in position in front and toward the right of the camps of my First
Brigade. This done, I kept the enemy in check for some time by the fire of these batteries.
Deterred from direct advance, he moved a considerable force by the right flank, with the evident
intention of turning my left. To defeat this purpose I ordered my command to fall back in the
direction of the landing, across a deep hollow, and to reform on the east side of another field in
the skirts of a wood. This was my sixth line. Here we rested a half hour, continuing to supply our
men with ammunition, until the enemy's cavalry were seen rapidly crossing the field to the
charge. Waiting till they approached within some 30 paces of our line, I ordered a fire, which
was delivered with great coolness and destructive effect. First halting, then wavering, they turned
and fled in confusion, leaving behind a number of riders and horses dead on the field. The
Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry, inspired by the courageous example of their commanding officer,
Lieutenant-Colonel Ferrell, bore the chief part in this engagement. Captain Millington, of
Company I, and others of the same regiment, also distinguished themselves.
In the mean time, under cover of this demonstration, strengthened by large additions from
other portions of the field yielded by our forces, the enemy continued his endeavors to turn the
flanks of my line and to cut me off from the landing. To prevent this I ordered my left wing to
fall back a short distance and forth an obtuse angle with the center, opposing a double front to
the enemy's approach. Thus disposed, my left held the enemy in check, while my whole line
slowly fell back to my sixth [seventh?] position. Here I reformed the worn and famishing
remnant of my division on favorable ground, along a north and south road, supported on my right
by fragments of General Sherman's division, and on my left by the Fifteenth and Forty-sixth
Illinois, under command of Colonel Veatch, acting brigadier. Hastily completing this disposition
I ordered up McAllister's battery, which took position about the center of my line, supported by
the Eighteenth Illinois, Captain Anderson, Company F, commanding. The Seventh Illinois, being
separated from the Second Division, was formed by me as a reserve. The enemy renewed the
contest by trying to shell us from our position. McAllister's battery replied with great spirit, first
alone, and soon after in conjunction with another battery unknown to me. Attempting in vain so
often to turn the flanks of my line and gain its rear, the enemy now gave evidence of a change of
tactics. Advancing in heavy column, led by the Louisiana Zouaves, to break our center, we
awaited his approach within sure range, and opened a terrific fire upon him. The head of the
column was instantly mowed down; the remainder of it swayed to and fro for a few seconds, and
turned and fled. This second success of the last two engagements terminated a conflict of ten and
a half hours' duration, from 6 o'clock a.m. to 4.30 o'clock p.m., and probably saved our army,
transports, and all, from capture.
Strange, however, at the very moment of the flight of the enemy the right of our line gave
way, and immediately after, notwithstanding the indignant and heroic resistance of Colonel
Veatch, the left, comprising the Fifteenth and Forty-sixth Illinois, was irresistibly swept back by
the tide of fugitive soldiers and trains seeking vain security at the landing.
Both officers and men were alive to the importance of this last struggle of Sunday. They felt
that the issue of the battle depended upon it, and hence fought with unshaken determination. Col.
A.M. Hare, commanding the First Brigade, who had borne himself through the day with great
constancy and courage, was here wounded, and the command of the brigade devolved on his
able and gallant successor, Colonel Crocker. Major Abercrombie, of the Eleventh Iowa, was also
severely wounded while faithfully performing his duty; and Captain Harvey, of the Eighth,
Adjutant Thompson, of the Twentieth Illinois, and Captains Burnett and Sprague, of Companies
E and H, Twenty-ninth Illinois, besides many other gallant and meritorious officers, were killed.
Left unsupported and alone, the Twentieth and Seventeenth Illinois, together with other
portions of my division not borne back by the retreating multitude, retired in good order, under
the immediate command of Colonel Marsh and Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, and reformed under
my direction, the right resting near the former line and the left at an acute angle with it. A more
extended line, comprising portions of regiments, brigades, and divisions, was soon after formed
on this nucleus by the efforts of General Sherman, myself, and other officers. Here, in the eighth
position occupied by my division during the day, we rested in line of battle upon our arms,
uncovered and exposed to a drenching rain during the night. Yet night, inclement as it was, and
the arrival of re-enforcements, which came, were prayed for as the assurance of better fortune
next day.
Having been directed by you on the evening of the 6th to assume command of all detached
and fragmentary corps in the vicinity of my line, your order of the morning of the 7th for a
forward movement found the Forty-sixth Illinois on my right and portions of Generals Hurlbut's
and Buell's troops on my left. The Fifty-third Ohio was formed as a reserve, the Twenty-ninth
Illinois having been ordered by you still farther to the left and near the landing, for the purpose
of driving and keeping back fugitives. Moving forward obliquely to the left I passed
unobstructedly over the scene of my last engagement and reached the scene of the cavalry
charge. Here I ordered a halt, and adjusted my line in a wood, extending to the left and skirting a
field in front. Meanwhile McAllister's battery was brought near the corner of the field, and
replied to a battery posted beyond the camp of my First Brigade. After this fire had been
continued for a few minutes I pushed on to my old camp and readjusted my line just behind it.
The Twenty-eighth Illinois, Colonel Johnson, here joined me, and was formed on my left
obliquely to the rear.
McAllister's battery was again brought up to the center of my line, and again replied to the
battery in front and to another to its left. A few minutes after I discovered troops to my right,
near Owl Creek, which I was informed were General L. Wallace's. One or more batteries,
supposed to belong to his command, were advanced in the field in front and near the right of my
camp, and also opened fire upon the battery in front of my line.
Thus clearing the woods in front in that direction, preceded by skirmishers, my line advanced
through my camp obliquely to the southwest, thus retaking it. At the same time Generals
Sherman and Wallace were seen advancing in the same general direction. Approaching a hasty
and rude breastwork of logs formed by the enemy during Sunday night, his skirmishers opened
an irregular fire, which caused the Fifty-third Ohio to retire in disorder, breaking my line. My
right staggered for a moment, recovered itself, and, under the lead of Colonel Marsh, opened an
oblique fire, which immediately dispersed the enemy in that direction, leaving us in possession
of my recaptured camp.
About the same time information was brought that the enemy were advancing in strong force
to turn the left of my line. To prevent this I ordered my command to move by the left flank,
which, being promptly done, confronted the opposing forces. Here one of the severest conflicts
ensued that occurred during the two days. We drove the enemy back and pursued him with great
vigor to the edge of a field, a half mile east and to the left of my headquarters, where reserves
came to his support. Our position at this moment was most critical and a repulse seemed
inevitable, but fortunately the Louisville Legion, forming part of General Rousseau's brigade,
came up at my request and succored me. Extending and strengthening my line, this gallant body
poured into the enemy's ranks one of the most terrible fires I ever witnessed. Thus breaking its
center, it fell back in disorder, and henceforth he was beaten at all points until our successful
pursuit was staid. The generous response of General Rousseau to my request for succor, no less
than the gallant bearing of himself, Colonel Buckley, Lieutenant-Colonel Berry, and Major
Treanor, officers of the same command, challenge my gratitude, while commanding my
admiration. Crossing the field referred to, portions of my own and other divisions again
encountered the enemy, who had rallied and offered obstinate resistance. Some of our men
temporarily retired, while others persisted until the enemy was again driven back.
Pressing our advantage and moving obliquely to the south in the direction of General
Sherman's camp, we came to another field, where Lieutenant Hammond, of General Sherman's
staff, brought information that the enemy was hovering upon our left in considerable force.
Riding forward from a point on the edge of the field I found this to be so. Directing Lieutenant
Hammond to bring up a battery, it was posted near the field, and, opening fire, drove the enemy
into the woods. Meeting Brigadier-General McCook, I returned with him to the field, and,
showing him the direction the enemy had withdrawn, proposed that he should move a portion of
his command around the field and fall upon his flank. This was skillfully and successfully done,
driving the enemy in the direction his center and left were already retreating.
Meantime, overtaking the enemy's center, we again engaged it. Our forces to the left not yet
having come up, Colonel Gibson, ----- Indiana, found himself hard pressed and in danger of
being flanked. Instructing Lieutenant Hitt, of the Fourth Illinois Cavalry, to inform General
McCook accordingly, and to request of him re-enforcements, they were promptly sent forward,
and the enemy again driven back with loss. In this engagement the Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois
charged and took a section of one of the enemy's batteries, which they afterward brought to my
The next and last stand of the enemy was in a wood skirting a field still farther south. Here he
brought into action a number of guns, which were used with most annoying effect until silenced
by McAllister's battery of 24-pounder howitzers. Although the enemy was further pursued, this
artillery engagement actually terminated the conflict, which had passed over a space of some 3
miles, and had been continued from 7 o'clock a.m. to about 4 o'clock p.m. of the second day. So
protracted, obstinate, and sanguinary a battle has rarely occurred. In magnitude and importance
his second to but few.
Had our army been captured or destroyed on Sunday the rebellion would have rolled back
over Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri before another army could have been raised and
equipped adequate to retrieve the disaster. Indeed, months would have elapsed before this could
have been done. Meantime the rebellion would have gathered fresh courage and strength.
Considering that our numbers were probably less than one-half of the enemy's; that he had
selected his own time and mode of attack; that our position was isolated and some 200 miles
from our base of operations at Paducah and Cairo; that a portion of our forces were in a manner
surprised and driven back in confusion, it is marvelous, may I not say providential, that we were
not captured or destroyed--nay, more, that my division should have been able to fight the enemy
all day within the narrow limits of a mile.
My effective force on the day of commencement of the battle was 7,028, of which, during the
two days following, 1,861 were killed and wounded, including comparatively few missing,
giving a proportionate loss of 37 2/3 per cent. The loss of that portion of the enemy encountered
by my command is doubtless doubly as great.
In the course of the battle I captured 3 6-pounder guns and 2 gun-carriages, 13 6-pounder
caissons, 10 limbers, 622 rounds of fixed 6-pounder canister shot, 20 rounds of fixed 12-pounder
spherical case shot, 16 stands 12-pounder grape shot, a considerable quantity of wagon and
artillery harness, and 3,560 stand of small-arms.
In thus noticing the incidents of this great battle it is but just and proper that I should bear
testimony to the general good conduct of my command. Exhorting them in the beginning to add
to the glory they had won at Belmont and Forts Henry and Donelson, and to stand by the beloved
flag of their country in every extremity, they were kindled with ardor, and throughout the battle
evinced a firm resolution to do so.
Colonels Hare and Crocker, who successively commanded the First Brigade, and Colonel
Raith and Lieutenant-Colonel Engelmann, who successively commanded the Third Brigade,
distinguished themselves by the coolness, courage, and skill with which they maneuvered their
Colonel Raith, falling an honored martyr in a just cause, will be mourned by his friends and
adopted country, while Colonel Marsh, a hero at Fredericktown, Donelson, and Shiloh; Colonel
Crocker, an able and enterprising officer, and Lieutenant-Colonel Ransom are respectively
recommended for promotion.
It already appears that Colonel Smith and Major Smith, of the Forty-fifth Illinois, signally
distinguished themselves by their exemplary constancy and indomitable courage. The same
commendation is due Lieutenant-Colonel Hall, of the Eleventh Iowa, and Lieutenant-Colonel
Pease, of the Forty-ninth Illinois.
Captain Sturgess, Company H, a brave and intelligent officer, succeeded to the command of
the Eighth Illinois upon the fall of Captain Harvey. Captain Morgan, Company A, Forty-ninth
Illinois, although severely wounded, mounted a horse, and continued with his company until the
horse was shot under him. Captains Wilson, Reed, and Brush, Companies A, B, and F,
Eighteenth Illinois, added to the laurels they had won at Fort Donelson. Captain Frisbie,
Company H, Twentieth Illinois; Captain Burrows, Ohio Artillery; Captain McAllister, Captain
Timony, Lieutenants Barger and Nispel, Illinois artillery, and the officers generally of those
batteries are all honorably mentioned for their fearless conduct in the face of danger.
To this list I might add many other meritorious names, including Adjutants Cadle, Hotchkiss,
and Ryan, of the First, Second, and Third Brigades, if limit could be found to make more special
reference to them.
In this, as in former actions, my staff afforded most valuable assistance. Major Schwartz,
Captain Stewart, and Lieutenant Freeman, as already mentioned, were seriously wounded while
in the fearless and faithful performance of duty. Major Brayman, my acting adjutant-general,
displayed his usual courage and sagacity, often inspiring the troops by his gallant bearing,
particularly in a crisis toward the close of the battle, when he seized a flag and carried it in front
of the enemy.
Lieutenant Jones, ordnance officer and aide, won the applause of all by his characteristic
diligence and fearlessness in bringing up and supplying ammunition to our men, often within
range off the enemy's musketry, and still oftener in range of his artillery. A similar tribute is due
to Lieutenant Tresilian, acting engineer and aide, for unsurpassed activity and daring throughout
the battle.
The casualties of the first day having left me almost without a member of my staff,
Lieutenants Hitt and Hall, of Companies B and C, of the Fourth Illinois Cavalry, joined me next
day, and performed most active and valuable services. While commending them for their zeal,
courage, and intelligence, it may be added, as one of the proofs of Lieutenant Hitt's exposure to
danger, that his horse was shot under him.
Having already noticed the good conduct of the Fifteenth, Twenty-eighth, and Forty-sixth
Illinois, and their heroic commanders, Lieutenant-Colonel Ellis and Colonels Johnson and Davis,
a similar acknowledgment is justly due the Fourteenth Illinois and their commander, Colonel
Hall, all of whom at different times co-operated with me under the lead of their gallant chief,
General Hurlbut.
The same meed of justice is due to the Fortieth Illinois and their daring commander, Colonel
Hicks, who was severely wounded near me, and to Colonels Veatch, commanding a brigade, and
Brigadier-General Sherman, who zealously and actively co-operated with me during the two
days' battle. I am also indebted to Captains Fox and Hammond, members of their staff, for
prompt and valuable assistance several times afforded during the battle.
In commemorating this great victory as a historical event, challenging honorable comparison
with most signal triumphs of arms, it is impossible for me to close this imperfect account of it
without the expression of heartfelt grief for the loss of so many brave and faithful men whom I
find enrolled in the list of honored dead; of my sympathy for the suffering wounded and the
bereaved kindred and friends, and offering grateful acknowledgments to a kind Providence for
the eminent success which has crowned our labors in the cause of liberty and constitutional
Yours, respectfully,
Major-General, Commanding.
Major-General GRANT,
Commanding District Western Tennessee.
Pittsburg, Tenn., April 8, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the First Brigade of the First Division in the
engagement with the enemy on the 6th instant.
Early in the morning of the 6th, upon the alarm being given, the brigade, composed of the
Eighth and Eighteenth Regiments Illinois Infantry, the Eleventh and Thirteenth Regiments Iowa
Infantry, and Dresser's battery, were formed in the open field in front of their respective
encampments. I received orders about 8 o'clock a.m. to move three regiments to the left of the
Second Brigade. The Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois and Thirteenth Iowa were accordingly
ordered to form in line of battle in that position, and moving in double-quick formed in good
order in a skirt of woods bordering on a field, the Eighteenth Illinois on the left and the
Thirteenth Iowa on the right. At the same time I was ordered to form a regiment on the right of
the Second Brigade, which position, by my orders, the Eleventh Iowa, under command of
Lieutenant-Colonel Hall, immediately took, and, with a battery, formed a reserve for the time
being. After seeing the order executed I joined the three regiments at their position on the left, as
above stated. Upon arriving at that point I found this portion of my brigade there formed under
the fire of the enemy's cannon and musketry. On the right was a battery of our guns, supported
by infantry still on its right. Against this battery the principal fire of the enemy was directed, and
large bodies of infantry were moving around the field in its direction. A charge being made by
these bodies of the enemy's infantry, directed upon the battery and our infantry on the right, they
broke and retired in great disorder. Seeing the enemy approaching in great numbers, and our
troops on the right having given way, my regiments also broke and retired in confusion.
Having retired to the distance of about 100 yards I succeeded, with the assistance of the field
officers of my regiments, in rallying them and forming them in line in the same order as before.
Here we maintained our position in good order, under a constant fire of the enemy, until 12
o'clock m., when, discovering that the enemy were approaching in great numbers, and that our
troops on the right and left had retired, I ordered my regiments to retire and take up a new
position about 200 yards to rear, which they did in good order and without confusion. We
remained in this position, repelling charge after charge of the enemy, until 4.30 o'clock p.m., all
the officers and men behaving with the greatest gallantry. At that hour, my regiments having
exhausted their ammunition and great numbers of them having been killed and wounded and the
forces on my fight and left having retired, I again ordered them to fall back, which was done in
good order as before. At this time I received a severe wound in the hand and arm, which
compelled me to retire from the field.
Dresser's battery and my own regiment, the Eleventh Iowa, I did not see after they took their
position in the morning, but I am satisfied that they behaved with great gallantry, and their
reports, herewith submitted, fully attest the bravery with which they acted.
To Lieut. Col. William Hall, who commanded the Eleventh Iowa, great praise is due for the
bravery and skill shown by him on the field of action. Major Abercrombie, of the Eleventh Iowa,
who was wounded severely during the early part of the engagement, displayed that coolness and
bravery which characterize a good soldier.
To Col. M. M. Crocker, of the Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers, I wish to call especial attention.
The coolness and bravery displayed by him on the field of battle during the entire action of the
6th, the skill with which he maneuvered his men, and the example of daring and disregard to
danger by which he inspired them to do their duty and stand by their colors, show him to be
possessed of the highest qualities of a commander, and entitle him to speedy promotion. His
adjutant, Lieutenant Wilson, who accompanied him on the field during the day and shared all its
dangers, I wish to mention as the bravest of the brave.
Capt. William H. Harvey, of Company K, Eighth Illinois, was instantly killed while
commanding his regiment, and died the death of a brave man. Capt. Robert H. Sturgess, of
Company H, took command of the regiment and led them gallantly through the day. Maj. Samuel
Eaton was badly wounded while commanding his regiment--the Eighteenth Illinois. Capt. D. H.
Brush, next in command, was soon after also severely wounded. Captain Dillon, of Company C,
arrived on the field at this moment and took command, but was almost instantly killed. From that
time the regiment was led on by Captain Anderson, who did his duty nobly.
My thanks are due to my volunteer aide, Lieutenant Caldwell, of General Oglesby's staff,
who assisted me during the day; and I express my very great obligations to my adjutant, C.
Cadle, jr., who accompanied me on the field and rendered me most efficient service, and during
the whole action, by his promptness, energy, and activity, exhibited all the best qualities of a
Respectfully, &c.,
Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Camp near Pittsburg Landing, April 8, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the First Brigade of the First Division in the
action of the 6th and 7th instant, after 4.30 o'clock p.m. of the 6th, at which time Col. A.M. Hare
was wounded and carried off the field and the command of the brigade devolved upon me. At
this time the Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers, Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois Volunteers retired
together, in obedience to command of Colonel Hare, and were rallied by me, and formed after
we had retired to position in front of the camp ground of the Fourteenth Iowa Volunteers, and for
the rest of the day and until the enemy was repulsed they maintained that position under constant
and galling fire from the enemy's artillery. The fire of his guns ceased at dark, and during the
night we remained under arms in that position.
On the morning of the 7th we were ordered to advance with the division, at that time
commanded by Colonel Tuttle, of the Second Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and form a reserve to the
advance of our forces that were driving back the enemy and to support our batteries, which we
did during the day, most of the time exposed to the cannon and musketry of the enemy. Just
before the rout of the enemy the Eighteenth and Eighth Illinois Regiments were ordered to
charge upon and take a battery of two guns that had been greatly annoying and damaging our
forces. They advanced at a charge bayonets, took the guns, killing nearly all the horses and men,
and brought the guns off the field. The enemy having retreated, and there being no further need
of the regiments under my command in the field, Colonel Tuttle directed me to return with my
regiments, the Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois and Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers, together with the
guns captured, to our encampment, which we had left Sunday morning. This I did, arriving at
the camp at 8 o'clock p.m. of Monday. During this day our loss was small, the principal loss of
the brigade having occurred in the action on the 6th instant.
The entire loss of the brigade in this action during the two days engaged is: Killed, 92;
wounded, 467; missing, 18. A list of the killed, wounded, and missing is herewith submitted. We
went into action with 2,414 men, and came out of it on the evening of the second day with 1,795.
Most of the officers and men behaved with great gallantry and coolness.
Of Dresser's battery and the Eleventh Iowa Volunteer Infantry I can say nothing, excepting
that I found what was left of them in camp upon my return on the evening of the 7th, they having
been separated from the brigade during all the time that it was under my command.
Respectfully, &c.,
Colonel, Commanding Brigade.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Camp near Pittsburg, Tenn., April 8, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the Eighth Regiment Illinois Volunteers in
the engagement with the enemy on the 6th and 7th instant.
Early in the morning of the 6th heavy firing was heard in the distance, which indicated that
an attack was being made by the rebel force near the right center of our lines. At 7.30 a.m. the
Eighth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, James M. Ashmore, senior captain, commanding, was
drawn up in line of battle on the regimental parade. Soon the regiment, in common with other
regiments of the First Brigade, Col. A. M. Hare, of the Eleventh Iowa Volunteers, commanding,
moving by column of companies, was ordered to take position in line of battle on a ridge running
perpendicular to the front of the camp line of the Second Brigade. From some misunderstanding
the 8th took position on the left of the Eighteenth Illinois and on the left of the brigade, which
was kept during the day. In taking the position assigned it the regiment moved in good order
through a heavy fire from the enemy, losing several men. Immediately after forming in line, the
left resting in an open field, Captain Ash more, commanding, was slightly wounded, and left the
field. The command of the regiment devolved on Capt. William H. Harvey, of Company K,
second in rank, and then acting lieutenant-colonel, who in a few moments received a shot
through his body, killing him instantly, while gallantly leading and stimulating the men by his
noble conduct, and displaying the greatest bravery and activity.
At this time the whole line on my right gave way, and had fallen back some distance before I
was made aware of the fall of the brave Captain Harvey. Knowing that I was next in rank, I
immediately assumed command, and gaining an open field directly to the left and rear, and
assisted by the company commanders, I succeeded in rallying the regiment, and ordered it to fall
back a short distance and take position behind a fence, with the open field between my line and
the enemy. In a few moments the enemy appeared in force on the opposite side of the field, with
the evident design of charging upon our lines, but receiving a severe enfilading fire from the
Seventh Illinois Volunteers, posted on the left behind a fence running perpendicular to my line,
and a destructive fire from our lines, they immediately retreated into the woods.
Receiving an order to move the regiment by the right flank, file right, for several hundred
yards, I took position on the left of the division, immediately in front of a rebel battery of ten
guns, which played upon our lines for an hour with but little damage, although the infantry
annoyed us greatly. I was again ordered to the right, to support a battery planted in the open
woods. The enemy made a desperate charge upon this battery, but our men, falling back a few
yards, rallied, and drove the enemy back with great loss. The Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois were
advancing slowly, and the enemy retiring, when the regiment on my right was driven back,
leaving my flank exposed to an enfilading fire from the enemy. Our men, seeing their peril,
immediately fell back in disorder, and the company officers lost control of their men from the
promiscuous mingling together of the different regiments. After retreating about a mile I
succeeded in rallying a portion of the regiment, and took up position on the right of the Fortieth
Illinois Volunteers, and remained on the field during the night.
On the morning of the 7th I was again ordered to the right to support a battery, after reaching
which I advanced to support a regiment to me unknown. The enemy, seeing re-enforcements
coming up, retreated. Taking position immediately in the rear of that regiment, Captain Leib's
company, B, was deployed as skirmishers. Moving rapidly to the front about 400 yards, and no
enemy being discovered, I moved farther to the right, and took position with my right resting on
the Purdy road.
While awaiting orders General Crittenden ordered the Eighth and Eighteenth Regiments to
take a rebel battery., which some regiment had endeavored to capture, but had been driven back
with heavy loss. The men received the order with a cheer, and charged on a double-quick. The
enemy, after firing a few shots, abandoned his guns and retreated to the woods. My color-bearer
rushed up and planted his colors on one of the guns, and the color-bearer of the Eighteenth took
possession of another. There was a portion of a regiment, to me unknown, on the left, but it did
not come up until we had possession of the battery. Captain Reed, of the Eighteenth Illinois,
assisted by Captain Wilson, of the same regiment and several others, turned the guns upon the
enemy, and fired several shots into his ranks with fatal effect, causing him to retreat in disorder,
and leaving us in possession of the field. We kept this position until the day was won, and our
victorious brigade, having fought valiantly, was ordered to its accustomed camp, under
command of Col. M. M. Crocker, of the Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers, Col. A. M. Hare having
been wounded early in the action, and left the field.
Under circumstances so inauspicious I can but say that the conduct of the officers and men of
the regiment, except in a few individual cases, was highly satisfactory and commendable. Where
all acted the noble part it were invidious to mention individual daring and courage. Captains
Leeper, Company A, and Wheaton, Company E, were severely wounded, and left the field.
Lieutenants Shaw, Company H; Monroe, Company A, acting adjutant; McClung, Company K,
and Smith, Company I, were each wounded, severely enough to leave the field. Lieutenant
Taylor was upon the field on Sunday without any of his company, it having left the field. To him
I am indebted for valuable assistance during the action. Lieutenant Caldwell, Company E, acting
as aide-de-camp on General Oglesby's staff, also rendered me much service.
The regiment went into action with 23 commissioned officers and 453 enlisted men, and had
23 killed on the field, 91 wounded, and 3 missing. Inclosed is a list of the names of those killed,
wounded, and missing.
I have the honor to be, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain Company H, Commanding Eighth Illinois Volunteers.
C. CADLE, Jr.,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen. First Brigade, Firs
Pittsburg, Tenn. April 11, 1862.
SIR: I respectfully submit the following report of the part taken by the Eighteenth Regiment
Illinois Volunteers in the action of the 6th and 7th instant:
Our position was assigned us on the left of the center of the First Brigade, First Division, the
Thirteenth Iowa Volunteers on our right, the Eighth Illinois Volunteers on our left. We were
marched to the left and rear of General McClernand's headquarters, and were fired upon by the
rebel forces while marching by the left flank, by which we had several men wounded before our
line of battle was formed. We gave the enemy a volley from the left flank, when they retired in
We retained our position here for some time, when the enemy advanced in force, and we
were ordered to retire without giving the enemy a single volley. We retired, skirmishing a quarter
of a mile, receiving a galling fire from the enemy, in which our commander, Maj. Samuel Eaton,
fell badly wounded, and was carried from the field. At the same time Adjutant Heath received a
severe wound. The command then devolved upon senior Capt. Daniel H. Brush, who was soon
after severely wounded. The command now devolved upon myself, assisted by Capt. H. S.
We were again moved to the right, where we were joined by Captain Dillon, of Company C,
who had been absent on account of wounds received at Fort Donelson. He received a shot in the
head, killing him instantly; a brave and efficient officer.
We remained in this position some time, exposed to a galling fire of canister from a rebel
battery planted near General McClernand's headquarters. We were ordered to retire, and fell back
about 1 mile. We again made a stand, with a battery (the First Missouri) in our rear. The rebels
advanced in large force. A charge, ordered by General McClernand, and led by Assistant
Adjutant-General Brayman with great gallantry, was made, in which charge the regiment
participated, but being overpowered by superior numbers, was compelled to retire. Captain Reed,
with his company (E), being detailed to assist in manning a battery, by their efficient aid dealt
destruction in the rebel ranks. The regiment retired to siege batteries in front of the landing, and
formed a part of the advance line during the night.
On the morning of the 7th we fell in rear of General Crittenden's brigade, being in reserve.
After the brigade, the Eighth and Eighteenth Illinois, by command of Generals Boyle and
Crittenden, gallantly charged a rebel battery, capturing two 6-pounder brass field pieces, one of
which Captain Reed loaded and brought to bear upon the retreating enemy, giving them three
shots unassisted, which told with good effect. Being assisted by Captain Wilson and Lieutenants
Flick and Davis, he fired 15 or 20 rounds into the retreating cavalry, for which they deserve the
highest praise.
The officers and men of this regiment who remained with their colors acted in a manner
becoming men and soldiers. I am sorry to say there were exceptions. William L. Cross, second
lieutenant of Company D, absented himself from his company during the early part of the fight
on the morning of the 6th of April, and, although informed of the position occupied by his
company and regiment by a sergeant of his company, made no effort to rejoin it; neither did he
make any effort to rally or encourage the stragglers to return to the help of their comrades. On
the contrary, he permitted some of the members of his regiment to accompany him, and did not
order them to return to the field. He did not rejoin his company or regiment until it returned from
the field in pursuit of the enemy on the night of the 7th of April, when he was found in his
company quarters unhurt. William M. Thompson, second lieutenant of Company F, acted in a
similar manner, leaving the field on the morning of the 6th of April, and not rejoining his
regiment during the two days' fight. During his absence he said, "He would be damned if he
would fight in such a cowardly regiment." C.C. Weaver, first lieutenant Company B, left the
field on the night of the 6th of April, and did not rejoin his regiment until our return to our
quarters on the night of the 7th of April. Kelso, second lieutenant of Company A, ran behind a
tree and was ordered from there by the commander of his company and by Captain Reed, of
Company E, during the early part of the action, on the morning of the 6th of April. He was again
guilty of some unofficer-like conduct, and would not join his company when ordered to do so by
his captain.
I respectfully submit their conduct to your action, hoping you will take immediate steps to
bring them to rigid account for the manner in which they have acted. Number engaged on the
first day, 400.
Very respectfully,
Captain Comdg. Eighteenth Regiment Illinois Volunteers.
Colonel CROCKER,
Commanding First Brigade.
April 9, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the Eleventh Regiment Iowa Volunteers in
the action of the 6th and 7th instant as follows:
At between 7 and 8 a.m. on the 6th instant I received orders from you to form my regiment,
consisting of an aggregate of 750 officers and men, and march them in close column about 200
yards to the front and there await orders, which I did. In about half an hour I received orders
from you to march about one-fourth of a mile to the left and there form as a reserve. On arriving
at the place indicated I immediately deployed in line of battle. In a very few moments I received
orders from Major-General McClernand to advance to the front, which I did at a double-quick
for a distance of over a quarter of a mile, my right resting on a pond and supporting Dresser's
battery, my left resting along a road and on another battery. I had scarcely got into position
before the enemy appeared in force, and I opened fire immediately, throwing them into
confusion. They soon reformed and opened on me a very destructive fire of musketry and
artillery, which I sustained for nearly two hours, during which time my loss in killed and
wounded was very severe. Major Abercrombie, who commanded the right wing and who
rendered me the most gallant and efficient aid, here received a severe wound in the head, which
necessitated his retiring from the field, remaining, however, during the time above mentioned.
My horse was here shot under me, and I received while on foot a slight wound in my left ankle.
A large force of the enemy appearing on my right and apparently endeavoring to turn it, I
received orders to retire, which I did, forming about 100 yards from the left of the regimental
parade ground with Companies A, B, C, E, G, H, and K, the left wing and Company C retiring in
good order. Companies D, F, and I, while retiring, were exposed to a most galling fire of artillery
and musketry, which swept the open space through which they had to go, and were thrown into
confusion and did not form. I immediately received orders from Major-General McClernand to
take my position about 50 yards in advance, where I remained under cover for a short time until
the enemy approached quite close, when I fired and advanced at double-quick, driving them
before me and capturing a standard from the enemy.
When about 50 yards in the rear of my position, when supporting Dresser's battery, in the
morning, I received report from the commanders of companies that the men were out of
ammunition, which fact I immediately reported to Major-General McClernand in person, and
held my position until I was re-enforced, when I received orders from General McClernand to
retire and procure ammunition. Before I issued the order to retire the troops ordered to occupy
my ground broke in confusion, throwing my men into temporary disorder, but they rallied and
formed at my camp, where I learned that my ammunition had been taken to the river half an hour
before, and I could not learn, after repeated inquiries, where I could procure any, and the fire
becoming very hot, I retired until I received ammunition, and was joined by part of Companies
D, F, and I. While issuing ammunition I received orders from Major-General Grant to advance
immediately, and ordering Companies B and C, who were armed with rifles and were then
unable to procure cartridges of a suitable caliber, to remain until they procured them and rejoin
the regiment, I immediately moved forward, taking the first road to the left, until I found a line,
and formed on its right, opening fire on the enemy, where I remained until ordered to retire and
form on the left of a battery of heavy guns placed behind corn sacks. I held that position until I
received orders from General Grant to advance and deploy skirmishers and feel of the enemy. I
advanced some hundred yards or more, deploying Company A, Captain Grant, with instructions
to find the enemy, and remained until the batteries in my rear opened fire, when I returned to the
rear of the batteries, and remained until ordered to advance and support a battery placed on the
left of the heavy guns before mentioned. Here I detailed 12 men from Company G and ordered
them to take charge of two 12-pounder howitzers which I found without officers or men, and
which they used with good effect. I remained in this position until the enemy were repulsed and
during the night.
On the morning of the 7th I received orders from General Grant to move out on the main
road leading from the river and to take the first road leading to the left, and to advance until I
found the line. After marching about a mile and a half I found a heavy gun which was playing
upon the enemy. I immediately formed on its left in support and remained until ordered to move
to the right and front, where I formed in line of battle, when I received orders from General
Hurlbut to advance and deploy skirmishers to the left and front. I immediately advanced,
deploying Company B to the left and Company A to the front. The firing after some time
becoming more remote, I recalled my skirmishers and remained in line of battle until ordered to
return to my camp.
With but few individual exceptions all my officers and men conducted themselves with the
greatest gallantry. I make special mention of Capt. John C. Marven, of Company K, who rose
from a sick bed, not having been able to do duty for ninety days.
Respectfully submitted.
Lieutenant-Colonel Eleventh Regt. Iowa Volunteers, Comdg.
Lieut. C. CADLE, Jr.,
A. A. A. G., First Brig., First Div., Army of the Tennessee.
Camp near Pittsburg, Tenn., April 8, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the Thirteenth Regiment Iowa Volunteer
Infantry in the engagement with the enemy on the 6th and 7th instant.
Early in the morning of the 6th the alarm was given, and heavy firing in the distance
indicated that our camp was attacked. The regiment was formed in front of its color line, its full
force consisting of 717 men, rank and file. It was at once ordered to form on the left of the
Second Brigade, and proceeded to that position at a double-quick, and was then formed in line of
battle in a skirt of woods bordering on an open field to the left of a battery. Here it remained for
some time inactive, while the enemy's guns were playing on our battery. In the mean time a large
force of the enemy's infantry were filing around the open field in front of our line, protected by
the woods and in the direction of our battery, opening a heavy fire of musketry on the infantry
stationed on our right and charging upon the battery. The infantry and battery to the right having
given way, and the enemy advancing at double-quick, we gave them one round of musketry and
also gave way. At this time we--as, indeed, all our troops in the immediate vicinity of the battery-
-were thrown into great confusion, and retired in disorder. Having retired to the distance of 100
or 200 yards we succeeded in rallying and forming a good line, the Eighth and Eighteenth
Illinois Volunteers on our left, and having fronted to the enemy, held our position there under a
continual fire of cannon and musketry until after 12 o'clock, when we were ordered to retire and
take up a new position. This we did in good order and without confusion. Here, having formed a
new line, we maintained it under incessant fire until 4.30 o'clock p.m., the men conducting
themselves with great gallantry and coolness, and doing great execution on the enemy, repulsing
charge after charge, and driving them back with great loss.
At 4.30 o'clock p.m. we were again ordered to fall back. In obeying this order we became
mixed up with a great number of regiments falling back in confusion, so that our line was broken
and the regiment separated, rendering it very difficult to collect it; but finally, having succeeded
in forming, and being separated from the brigade, we attached ourselves to the division
commanded by Colonel Tuttle, of the Second Iowa Volunteers, and formed with his division in
front of the encampment of the Fourteenth, Second, and Seventh Iowa Volunteers, where we
sustained a heavy fire from the enemy's battery until dark, and there remained during the night
on our arms. During the day we were under fire of the enemy for ten hours, and sustained a loss
of 23 killed and 130 wounded.
On the morning of the 7th we were ordered to continue with Colonel Tuttle's division and to
follow up and support our forces that were attacking and driving back the enemy. We followed
them up closely, moving to support the batteries until the enemy was routed, after which we were
ordered to return to the encampment that we had left on Sunday morning, where we arrived at 8
o'clock p.m.
Our total loss in the action of the 6th and 7th is: Killed, 24; wounded, 139; missing, 9; total,
172. The men for the most part behaved with great gallantry, and the officers exhibited the
greatest bravery and coolness; and I call especial attention to the gallant conduct of my field
officers, Lieutenant-Colonel Price and Major Shane, who were both wounded in the action of the
6th, and acknowledge my great obligations to my adjutant, Lieutenant Wilson, who during the
entire action exhibited the highest qualities of a soldier.
Respectfully, &c.,
Colonel Thirteenth Iowa Infantry.
C. CADLE; Jr.,
A. A. A. G., First Brigade, First Division
Pittsburg, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
GENERAL: I have the honor to report the part taken by the First Brigade in the action of the
6th and 7th instant, as well as such other regiments and corps as were under my command during
the engagement.
On the morning of the 6th I proceeded with my brigade, consisting of the Second, Seventh,
Twelfth, and Fourteenth Iowa Infantry, under the direction of Brig. Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, and
formed line on the left of his division. We had been in line but a few moments when the enemy
made their appearance and attacked my left wing (Twelfth and Fourteenth Iowa), who gallantly
stood their ground and compelled the assailants to retire in confusion. They again formed under
cover of a battery and renewed the attack upon my whole line, but were repulsed as before. A
third and fourth time they dashed upon us, but were each time baffled and completely routed. We
held our position about six hours, when it became evident that our forces on each side of us had
given way, so as to give the enemy an opportunity of turning both our flanks. At this critical
juncture General Wallace gave orders for my whole brigade to fall back, which was done in good
order. The Second and Seventh Regiments retired through a severe fire from both flanks and
reformed, while the Twelfth and Fourteenth, who were delayed by their endeavors to save a
battery which had been placed in their rear, were completely cut off and surrounded and were
compelled to surrender.
In passing through the cross-fire General Wallace fell mortally wounded, and as you were
reported wounded, and Captain McMichael informing me that I was the ranking officer, I
assumed command of the division and rallied what was left of my brigade, and was joined by the
Thirteenth Iowa, Colonel Crocker; Ninth Illinois, Colonel Mersy; Twelfth Illinois, Lieutenant-
Colonel Chetlain, and several other fragments of regiments, and formed them in line on the road,
and held the enemy in check until the line was formed that resisted the last charge just before
dark of that day.
On Monday morning I collected all of the division that could be found and such other
detached regiments as volunteered to join me, and formed them in column by battalion, closed in
mass, as a reserve for General Buell, and followed up his attack until we arrived near the position
we had occupied on Sunday, when I deployed into line in rear of his force, and held my
command subject to his orders. The Second Iowa and Twelfth Illinois were called on at one time.
The Second was sent to General Nelson's division, and was ordered by him to charge bayonets
across a field on the enemy, who were in the woods beyond, which they did in the most gallant
manner, the enemy giving way before they reached them. The Seventh Iowa, under orders from
General Crittenden, charged and captured one of the enemy's batteries, while the Thirteenth Iowa
rendered General McCook valuable service near the close of the engagement.
On Tuesday, the 8th, when our forces were again called to arms, I called out the Second
Division, and all obeyed the call with alacrity except Col. Crafts J. Wright, of the Thirteenth
Missouri, who refused to obey orders, and did not make his appearance during the day. The
division remained on the field all day, and were ordered to return to camp after dark.
The officers and men under my command behaved nobly and gallantly during the whole
time, with the exception above named. The officers deserving special mention in this report are
so numerous that I will confine myself to field officers alone: Lieutenant-Colonel Baker, of the
Second Iowa; Lieutenant-Colonel Parrott and Major Rice, of the Seventh Iowa; Colonel Woods,
Twelfth Iowa; Colonel Shaw and Lieutenant-Colonel Lucas, of the Fourteenth Iowa, particularly
distinguished themselves for bravery and ability on the field. Colonel Crocker, of the Thirteenth
Iowa, although not belonging to my command originally, was attached to it on Sunday evening,
and remained with my division until Monday evening. He proved himself to have all the qualities
of a good and efficient officer, and was prompt to duty when the enemy was to be met. Colonel
Mersy, Ninth Illinois, also proved himself a brave and efficient officer. Colonel Morton,
commanding Second Brigade, and Colonel Baldwin, Third Brigade, on the last day turned out
their brigades promptly and marched in column to the outposts. Colonel Woods, of the Twelfth
Iowa, was twice wounded, and when the enemy was driven back on Monday he was recaptured,
and is now here, unfit for duty.
Appended I send you a list of the casualties of the brigade only, as others will report directly
to you.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel, Commanding First Brigade, Second Division.
Commanding Second Division.
Army in the Field, Pittsburg, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
SIR: In compliance with your order, dated April 8, 1862, I have the honor herewith to make a
report of the part taken by the Seventh Regiment Iowa Infantry in the battle of Pittsburg, Tenn.,
on April 6, 7, and 8.
On the morning of the 6th, at 8 o'clock, I received your order to hold the regiment in
readiness for a forward movement, the rebels having attacked our outposts. The regiment was
formed immediately, and at about 9 a.m. it was ordered to move forward, and it took position on
the left of the Second Iowa Infantry. It then moved forward by the flank until within a short
distance of the advancing rebels, where it was thrown into line of battle, being in heavy timber,
when it advanced to the edge of a field, from which position we got a view of a portion of the
rebel forces. I ordered my men to lie down and hold themselves in readiness to resist any attack,
which they did, and remained in that position until ordered to fall back at about 5 p.m., holding
the rebels in check and retaining every inch of ground it had gained in the morning, being all the
time under a galling fire of canister, grape, and shell, which did considerable execution in our
ranks, killing several of my men and wounding others. The regiment, when ordered, fell back in
good order and passed through a most galling flank fire from the enemy. When it gained cover of
the timber it rallied in good style and helped to hold the enemy in check for some time, when it
was again ordered to fall back upon the main river road, and there it bivouacked for the night,
exposed to a heavy rain of several hours' duration.
On Monday morning, the 7th, I was so completely stiffened by fatigue and exposure that it
was impossible for me to advance with the regiment, but I knew it was placed in good hands
when I turned the command over to Major Rice, who led them on that day to the enemy's
stronghold, and from him I was proud to learn it did its duty unflinchingly not only against the
rebels, but in keeping many of our troops from falling back and leaving the field in disorder. At
night the regiment returned to camp, and for the first time in two days had warm food and a good
night's rest.
On Tuesday morning, the 8th, I again moved the regiment forward about 2 miles and
remained in line all day, not getting in sight or hearing of the enemy. At night it returned to camp
in good order.
In conclusion, I am proud to say that the officers and men of the Seventh Iowa Volunteers,
with a few exceptions, did their duty nobly, and sustained the proud position won for it on
former occasions, of which our State may feel proud. The delinquents, although few, will be
strictly dealt with according to the Articles of War.
Our casualties are as follows: One lieutenant and 10 privates killed; 17 privates wounded and
6 privates missing; making an aggregate of 34 killed, wounded, and missing.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding Seventh Iowa Infantry.
Col. J. M. TUTTLE,
Commanding First Brigade, Second Division
April —, 1862.
On the morning of April 6, the rebels having attacked our advanced lines at Shiloh, Tenn.,
the Twelfth Iowa Infantry was rapidly formed and joined the other regiments— -the Second,
Seventh, and Fourteenth— of the Iowa brigade, being the First Brigade, under Brigadier-
General Tuttle, of the Second Division, under General Wallace. The brigade was marched to
near the field beyond General Hurlbut's headquarters and formed in line of battle, the Second and
Seventh on our right, the Fourteenth on our left. The Eighth Iowa, of Prentiss' division, was on
the left of the Fourteenth, forming an angle to the rear with our line. An open field lay in front of
our right. Dense timber covered our left. A small ravine was immediately behind us. In this
position we awaited the approach of the enemy. Soon he made a bold attack on us, but met with
a warm reception, and soon we repulsed him. Again and again repeatedly did he attack us, trying
vainly to drive us from our position. He failed to move us one inch from our position. On the
contrary, we repulsed every attack of the enemy and drove him back in confusion.
Thus matters stood in our front until about 4 p.m., at which time it became evident, by the
firing on our left, that the enemy were getting in our rear. An aide-de-camp rode up and directed
me to face to the rear and fall back, stating, in answer to my inquiry, that I would receive orders
as to the position I was to occupy. No such orders reached me, and I suppose could not. The
Second and Seventh Iowa had already gone to the rear, and on reaching the high ground between
our position and General Hurlbut's headquarters we discovered that we were already surrounded
by the enemy, caused by no fault of our own, but by the troops at a distance from us on our right
and left giving way before the enemy. Seeing ourselves surrounded, we nevertheless opened a
brisk fire on that portion of the enemy who blocked our passage to the Landing, who, after
briskly returning our fire for a short time, fell back. A brisk fire from the enemy on our left
(previous right) was going on at the same time. Seeing the enemy in front fall-big back, we
attempted by a rapid movement to cut our way through, but the enemy on our left advanced
rapidly, coming in behind us, pouring into our ranks a most destructive fire. The enemy in front
faced about and opened on us at short range, the enemy in our rear still closing in on us rapidly. I
received two wounds, disabling me from further duty. The command then devolved on Captain
Edgington, acting as field officer. The enemy had, however, already so closely surrounded us
that their balls which missed our men took effect in their ranks beyond us. To have held out
longer would have been to suffer complete annihilation. The regiment was therefore compelled
to surrender as prisoners of war.
Lieutenant-Colonel Coulter was much reduced by chronic diarrhea and Major Brodtbeck was
suffering from rheumatism. Being myself the only field officer on duty, at my request Captain
Edgington acted as a field officer, the duties of which he performed in an able and efficient
Quartermaster Dorr, though his position did not require him to go into action, volunteered to
do so, and throughout the day behaved in a brave and gallant manner, daringly, if not recklessly,
exposing his person to the enemy. He made himself very useful in carrying messages and spying
out the positions and movements of the enemy and firing on them as occasion offered. Energetic
and efficient in his own department, he would fill a higher one with credit to himself and honor
to the service.
Adjutant Duncan proved himself on this, as on all occasions, a faithful and efficient officer.
Captains Earle, Warner, Stibbs, Haddock, Van Duzee, and Townsley performed well their
part, as did all the lieutenants in the action, in a prompt and willing manner.
The non-commissioned officers and men stood bravely up to their work and never did men
behave better.
In the death of Lieutenant Ferguson, of Company D, the regiment lost one of its best-drilled
officers and a gallant soldier. It also lost a good man and a good officer in the death of
Lieutenant Moir, of Company A.
Colonel Twelfth Iowa Volunteers.
First Brigade, Second Division.
ANAMOSA, IOWA, October 26, 1862.
SIR: As by the terms of my parole I am precluded from making as yet any official report of
the part borne by my regiment, the Fourteenth Iowa, in the battle of Shiloh, on the 6th of April
last, and as I feel it due alike to the regiment and to myself, after so long an imprisonment, that
their conduct shall be fully reported, I take the liberty of laying before you, unofficially, the
following statement:
You will remember that the regiment then formed a part of the brigade of Gen. W. H. L.
Wallace, included in the division of Gen. Charles F. Smith. On that day, however, in
consequence of General Smith's illness, General Wallace commanded the division, and Colonel
Tuttle, of the Second Iowa, our brigade, which consisted of the Second, Seventh, Twelfth, and
Fourteenth Iowa Regiments. Our division occupied the center of the line, having that of General
Prentiss on its left, with General Hurlbut beyond him, while the divisions of Generals Sherman
and McClernand were on its right. Our brigade occupied the left of the division, and was
arranged in the order given above, from the right, so that the Fourteenth occupied the extreme
left of the division, next to General Prentiss' command.
Our line of battle was formed about half past 8 o'clock a.m., about 500 yards from the
enemy's artillery, which at once opened a severe fire upon us. The ground was rolling and
wooded, but free from underbrush, interspersed here and there with cleared fields and cut up by
several roads.
In a short time the enemy's infantry made their appearance, advancing in line of battle. I at
once perceived that the line of our brigade was not parallel with theirs, but inclined to it at an
angle of about 45 degrees, the left in advance, thus exposing my left flank to the enemy some
distance in advance of General Prentiss' line, upon which it should have rested, and about 200
yards from his extreme right. After consulting with Colonel Woods, of the Twelfth, who was
next to me on the right, I threw back my regiment and the left wing of the Twelfth, so as to bring
our part of the line parallel to the advancing enemy and in line with General Prentiss' division,
but still failing to connect with it by an interval of about 200 yards. This also improved our
position, which had previously been directly upon a ridge, exposed to the enemy's artillery, and
gave us that ridge as a partial shelter. The enemy advanced steadily in two lines, about 200 yards
apart. I ordered my men to lie down and hold their fire until they were within thirty paces. The
effect of this was, that when the order to fire was given, and the Twelfth and Fourteenth opened
directly in their faces, the enemy's first line was completely destroyed. Our fire was only
returned by a few, nearly all who were not killed or wounded by it fleeing in every direction. I
then immediately advanced my regiment, in which I was gallantly joined by the left wing of the
Twelfth. Passing almost without opposition over the ground which had been occupied by the first
lines, we attacked and drove back their second for some distance, until I was forced to recall my
men for fear of my left flank being turned, no part of General Prentiss' division having advanced
with us. In this movement we took a number of prisoners, including I captain, whom I sent to the
rear. Returning, the Fourteenth took up its old position in the line of battle, and Colonel Geddes,
of the Eighth Iowa, now formed his regiment on our left, in line with us and General Prentiss'
division, filling up the gap which had previously existed there. That division, however, with the
one beyond it, materially changed its position in the course of the forenoon, its left falling back
repeatedly, until the line of these two divisions had swung around almost at right angles to us. I
now perceived a large force of the enemy approaching from the left and front, and immediately
reported the fact to Colonel Tuttle, who, at my request, sent me a couple of brass 6-pounders,
which were near by. These I got into position just in time to receive the enemy. They advanced
with the most desperate bravery, the brunt of their attack falling upon the Eighth Iowa, by whom
it was most gallantly borne. I have good authority for saying that the firm resistance of the center
at that time was the chief means of saving our whole army from destruction. The fighting
continued with great severity for about an hour, during which we repelled what General
Beauregard in his official report counts as three of the five distinct charges made by the rebels
that day upon our center, and at the end of that time the enemy facing us fell back fully repulsed.
Colonel Geddes now withdrew a short distance to take care of his wound, and at his request, as
his position was more important and exposed than my own, I moved to the left and occupied it,
thus leaving an interval on my right between us and the Twelfth. When Colonel Geddes
reformed it was on the right of General Prentiss, with whom Colonel Geddes fought during the
rest of the day.
General Prentiss' line had now swung around so far as to be almost parallel with ours, and
back to back with us, about 150 yards in our rear, at our end of the two lines. In this position he
was again engaged by a large body of the enemy, who had advanced from the left, having driven
in General Hurlbut's division. At about a quarter to 5 p.m. I received an order from Colonel
Tuttle to about-face and proceed to engage the same body of the enemy. In order not to interfere
with General Prentiss' lines I marched by an oblique, passing close to the Eighteenth Wisconsin
in his line, and here for the third time that day the Fourteenth engaged with the enemy. After less
than half an hour we repulsed them and made a short advance, which revealed to me the facts of
our position. The enemy's center had advanced over the ground defended by us before our
change of front and were now attacking us in the rear. Both wings of their forces had advanced
so far as to form a junction between us and Pittsburg Landing, their right, which we were now
facing, meeting at an angle with their left, which had driven in McClernand's and Sherman's
divisions on our right, and into this angle we were about being pressed by this new attack on our
rear. General Prentiss having already surrendered with a part of his command, the Fourteenth
was left in advance of all that remained, but completely inclosed, receiving the enemy's fire from
three directions. The regiment still kept its ranks unbroken and held its position facing the
enemy, but the men were almost completely exhausted with a whole day of brave and steady
fighting and many of them had spent their whole stock of ammunition. It was therefore useless to
think of prolonging a resistance which could only have wasted their lives to no purpose, and at
about a quarter to six p.m. I surrendered them and myself prisoners of war. I have only to add
that I feel under the deepest obligations to both officers and men of my regiment for their
admirable conduct through the day. This was so complete and free from exception, that it would
be impossible to mention individuals without doing injustice to the rest. Their steadiness and
courage, the accuracy of their fire, and precision of all their movements entitle them to the
highest credit, and their general demeanor, both upon the battle-field and in the trying scenes
through which we passed as prisoners of war, will always be remembered by me with pride and
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Fourteenth Iowa Volunteers.
Governor of Iowa.
Pittsburg Landing, April 13, 1862.
SIR: The following is a report of the part taken in the action of the 6th and 7th instant by the
Ninth Regiment Illinois Infantry, which I have the honor to command:
About 8 o'clock on Sunday morning, there having been heavy firing in progress for some
time previously along the left or center of our lines, the regiment was ordered to form and await
orders. We formed with the brigade on the open ground near the camp of the Second Iowa
Infantry, and found our force to be an aggregate of 600 officers and men. At 9 o'clock the
regiment, in company with the Twelfth Illinois Infantry, were ordered by Brigadier-General
McArthur to a part of the lines about one-fourth of a mile in advance of General Hurlbut's
headquarters. We there formed, and afterward marched about half a mile by the left flank, when
we encountered a heavy force of the enemy, strongly posted in a deserted camp and skirt of
While taking up a position in a ravine to the left of the Twelfth Illinois we received a severe
fire of musketry and shell, which killed and wounded a number of men. After taking up this
position we maintained a steady and destructive fire upon the enemy for an hour and thirty
minutes, when our ammunition began to fail, and at the same time a most murderous cross-fire
poured into our ranks from the left, which we were unable to silence by a partial change of front
of the two left companies. We were then compelled to fall back some five hundred yards to the
rear. The enemy were constantly re-enforced during this period, and fresh regiments were seen
deploying to relieve those which had been some time under fire. Our loss up to this time was
about 50 killed and over 200 wounded. We were ordered at this time by General W. H. L.
Wallace, commanding our division, to retire to our camp, replenish the cartridge-boxes, clean the
guns, and be in readiness for action as speedily as possible.
At about 3 o'clock p.m. we were again ordered forward to support the right wing of General
Sherman's division. Here we again entered action, our regiment numbering about 300 men, and
for about an hour aided in checking the advance of the enemy's force, disputing the ground inch
by inch, until compelled to retire on account of a flank movement of the rebels and a destructive
artillery fire, in all which the enemy suffered terribly.
On Sunday night the regiment laid in line of battle near the camp of the Fourteenth Iowa
Infantry, on the main road leading to Pittsburg Landing, and during the greater part of Monday
were stationed as a reserve on the right of the Forty-first Illinois Infantry. At about 4 o'clock we
were ordered forward, but the enemy having been driven from our lines, we were ordered to
return and re-enforce the position of Colonel Marsh, after which we were ordered to our camp.
The gallantry of all the officers under my command admits of no discrimination, and I bear
cheerful testimony to the heroic courage and fortitude with which they, without exception, stood
the enemy's fire, the severity of which is fully attested by the loss of our regiment. This terrible
destruction was only caused by the most determined bravery, such as I have never seen equaled.
To the men under my command I must also award the praise of bravery not excelled by their
officers. They stood unflinchingly until ordered to retire, and I have to state that but very few
were to be numbered among the stragglers.
I have only to add that the report of casualties was forwarded several days ago, but regret to
say that since that time 6 or 8 of my wounded have died of their wounds.
Respectfully submitted.
Colonel, Commanding Ninth Illinois Volunteers.
A. A. A. G., Second Brig., Second Div., Dist. West Tenn.
November 13, 1862.
SIR: In compliance with your request I have the honor to submit for your information a
report of the part taken by the Eighth Iowa Infantry at the battle of Shiloh, fought on April 6:
About 8 o'clock on the morning of the 6th I ordered the regiment under arms and formed line
of battle in front of my encampment, awaiting orders to proceed to the front. At this time the
firing on our advanced line had become general, and it appeared to me evident that we were
being attacked in force by the rebel general. After remaining under arms about half an hour,
during which time I had ordered the baggage belonging to the regiment to be loaded on the
wagons and an extra supply of ammunition to be issued to the men, I was ordered by Colonel
Sweeny, Fifty-second Illinois, brigade commander, to proceed to the front. On arriving at our
advanced line I was ordered by Colonel Sweeny to take my position on the left of the brigade to
which I was attached, for the purpose of protecting a battery immediately in front. Here the
regiment remained about one hour exposed to a severe fire from artillery of shell and grape,
killing and wounding several of my men.
About 11 a.m. I was ordered by Colonel Sweeny, through his aide, Lieutenant McCullough,
Eighth Iowa, to leave my position and take ground to my left and front. This change of position
brought my regiment on the extreme right of General Prentiss' division and left of General
Smith's, the latter being the division to which my regiment belonged. I was thus entirely
detached from my brigade, nor did I receive any order from my brigade or division commander
during the remainder of that day. On arriving at the point I was ordered to defend I formed my
regiment in line of battle, with my center resting on a road leading from Corinth to Pittsburg
Landing and at right angles with my line. Here I immediately engaged a battalion of the enemy,
and after a severe conflict of nearly an hour’s duration, in which I lost many of my men, the
enemy were driven back with heavy loss. At this time Captain Hogin, Company F, was shot
dead, and Captain Palmer, Company H, severely wounded.
About 1 p.m. General Prentiss placed a battery in position immediately in front of my
regiment, with instructions to defend it to the last. The precision of its fire, which was directed
by the general in person, made great havoc in the advancing columns of the enemy. It therefore
became an object of great importance to them to gain possession of the battery. To this end they
concentrated and hurled column after column on my position, charging most gallantly to the very
muzzles of the guns. Here a struggle commenced for the retention and possession of the battery
of a terrific character, their concentrated and well-directed fire decimating my ranks in a fearful
manner. In this desperate struggle my regiment lost 100 men in killed and wounded.
The conspicuous gallantry and coolness of my company commanders (Captains Cleaveland,
Stubbs, and Benson on the left; Captains McCormack and Bell in the center, and Captains
Kelsey and Geddes and Lieutenant Muhs on the right, by reserving the fire of their respective
companies until the proper time for its delivery with effect and the determined courage of my
men) saved the battery from capture, and I had the satisfaction of sending the guns in safety to
the rear.
In this attack I was wounded in the leg, Major Andrews severely in the head, and do here
take pleasure in acknowledging the courage and coolness displayed by my field officers— Lieut.
Col. J. C. Ferguson and Maj. J. Andrews— and the able assistance rendered by them on that
About 3 p.m. all direct communication with the river ceased, and it became evident to me
that the enemy were driving the right and left flanks of our army and were rapidly closing behind
us. At this time I could have retreated, and most probably would have saved my command from
being captured had I been ordered back at this time; but I received no such order, and I
considered it my duty to hold the position I was assigned to defend at all hazards.
General Prentiss' division having been thrown back from the original line, I changed front by
my left flank, conforming to his movements and at right angles with my former base, which was
immediately occupied and retained for some time by the Fourteenth Iowa, Colonel Shaw. In this
position I ordered my regiment to charge a battalion of the enemy (I think the Fourth
Mississippi), which was done in good order, completely routing the enemy. We were now
attacked on three sides by the rebel force, which was closing fast around us. The shells from our
own gunboats in their transit severing the limbs of trees hurled them on my ranks.
It now became absolutely necessary, to prevent annihilation, to leave a position which my
regiment had held for nearly ten consecutive hours of severe fighting, successfully resisting and
driving back the enemy in every attempt to take the position I was ordered to hold and defend.
With a loss of near 200 in killed and wounded I ordered my regiment to retire. On retiring about
300 yards I found a division of the rebels under General Polk thrown completely across my line
of retreat. I perceived that further resistance was useless, as we were now completely
surrounded. Myself and the major portion of my command were captured at 6 p.m. of that day,
and I claim the honor for my regiment of being the last to leave the advanced line of our army on
the battle-field of Shiloh on Sunday, April 6.
I cannot conclude this report without bearing testimony to the gentlemanly conduct and
dignified bearing of my officers and men during their captivity. Our captors had felt the effects
and well knew the courage of my regiment in the field, but had yet to learn they could conduct
themselves as well under other and very trying circumstances.
Not having received any reliable information as to the true amount of casualties at the battle
and during our imprisonment, I shall forward an official list as soon as practicable of killed and
wounded and of such as died in Southern prisons through privation and neglect.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Colonel Eighth Iowa Infantry.
His Excellency SAMUEL J. KIRKWOOD,
Governor of Iowa.
April 12, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report in brief the part taken by my division in the battle of the 6th
and 7th of April.
On Sunday morning, April 6, about 7.30 a.m., I received a message from Brigadier-General
Sherman that he was attacked in force, and heavily, upon his left. I immediately ordered Col. J.
C. Veatch, commanding the Second Brigade, to proceed to the left of General Sherman. This
brigade, consisting of the Twenty-fifth Indiana, Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and Forty-sixth Illinois,
was in march in ten minutes, arrived on General Sherman's line rapidly, and went into action. I
must refer to Colonel Veatch's report for the particulars of that day.
Receiving in a few moments a pressing request for aid from Brigadier-General Prentiss, I
took command in person of the First and Third Brigades, respectively commanded by Col. N. G.
Williams, of the Third Iowa, and Brig. Gen. J. G. Lauman. The First Brigade consisted of the
Third Iowa, Forty-first Illinois, Twenty-eighth Illinois, and Thirty-second Illinois; the Third
Brigade, of the Thirty-first Indiana, Forty-fourth Indiana, Seventeenth Kentucky, and Twentyfifth
Kentucky. In addition I took with me the First and Second Battalions of the Fifth Ohio
Cavalry, Mann's light battery, four pieces, commanded by First Lieut. E. Brotzmann; Ross'
battery, Second Michigan, and Myers' battery, Thirteenth Ohio. As we drew near the rear and left
of General Prentiss' line his regiments, in broken masses, drifted through my advance, that
gallant officer making every effort to rally them.
I formed my line of battle--the First Brigade thrown to the front on the southerly side of a
large open field, the Third Brigade continuing the line with an obtuse angle around the other side
of the field, and extending some distance into the brush and timber; Mann's battery was placed in
the angle of the line, Ross' battery some distance to the left, and the Thirteenth Ohio Battery on
the right and somewhat advanced in cover of the timber, so as to concentrate the fire upon the
open ground in front---and waited for the attack. A single shot from the enemy's batteries struck
in Myers' Thirteenth Ohio Battery, when officers and men, with a common impulse of
disgraceful cowardice, abandoned the entire battery, horses, caissons, and guns, and fled, and I
saw them no more until Tuesday. I called for volunteers from the artillery. The call was
answered, and 10 gallant men from Mann's battery and Ross' battery brought in the horses, which
were wild, and spiked the pieces. The attack commenced on the Third Brigade, through the thick
timber, and was met and repelled by a steady and continuous fire, which rolled the enemy back
in confusion, after some half hour of struggle, leaving many dead and wounded.
The glimmer of bayonets on the left and front of the First Brigade showed a large force of the
enemy gathering, and an attack was soon made on the Forty-first Illinois and Twenty-eighth on
the left of the brigade, and the Thirty-second Illinois and Third Iowa on the right. At the same
time a strong force of very steady and gallant troops formed in columns, doubled on the center,
and advanced over the open field in front. They were allowed to approach within 400 yards,
when fire was opened from Mann's and Ross' batteries, and from the two right regiments of the
First Brigade and the Seventeenth and Twenty-fifth Kentucky, which were thrown forward
slightly, so as to flank the column. Under this withering fire they vainly attempted to deploy, but
soon broke and fell back under cover, leaving not less than 150 dead and wounded as evidence
how our troops maintained their position. The attack on the left was also repulsed, but as the
ground was covered with brush the loss could not be judged.
General Prentiss having succeeded in rallying a considerable portion of his command, I
permitted him to pass to the front of the right of my Third Brigade, where they redeemed their
honor by maintaining that line for some time while ammunition was supplied to my regiments. A
series of attacks upon the right and left of my line were readily repelled, until I was compelled to
order Ross' battery to the rear, on account of its loss in men and horses. During all this time
Mann's battery maintained its fire steadily, effectively, and with great rapidity, under the
excellent handling of Lieut. E. Brotzmann.
For five hours these brigades maintained their position under repeated and heavy attacks, and
endeavored, with their thin ranks, to hold the space between Stuart and McClernand, and did
check every attempt to penetrate the line, when, about 3 o'clock, Colonel Stuart, on my left, sent
me word that he was driven in, and that I would be flanked on the left in a few moments. It was
necessary for me to decide at once to abandon either the right or left. I considered that Prentiss
could, with the left of General McClernand's troops, probably hold the right, and sent him notice
to reach out toward the right and drop back steadily parallel with my First Brigade, while I
rapidly moved General Lauman's from the right to the left, and called up two 20-pounder pieces
of Major Cavender's battalion, to cheek the advance of the enemy upon the First Brigade. These
pieces were taken into action by Dr. Cornyn, the surgeon of the battalion, and Lieutenant
Edwards, and effectually checked the enemy for half an hour, giving me time to draw off my
crippled artillery and to form a new front with the Third Brigade. In a few minutes two Texas
regiments crossed the ridge separating my line from Stuart's former one, while other troops also
advanced. Willard's battery was thrown into position, under command of Lieutenant Wood, and
opened with great effect upon the "Lone Star" flags, until their line of fire was obstructed by the
charge of the Third Brigade, which, after delivering its fire with great steadiness, charged full up
the hill and drove the enemy 300 or 400 yards. Perceiving that a heavy force was closing on the
left, between my line and the river, while heavy fire continued on the right and front, I ordered
the line to fall back. The retreat was made quietly and steadily and in good order. I had hoped to
make a stand on the line of my camp, but masses of the enemy were pressing rapidly on each
flank, while their light artillery was closing rapidly in the rear. On reaching the 24-pounder siege
guns in battery near the river I again succeeded in forming line of battle in rear of the guns, and,
by direction of Major-General Grant, I assumed command of all troops that came up. Broken
regiments and disordered battalions came into line gradually upon my division. Major Cavender
posted six of his 20-pounder pieces on my eight, and I sent my aide to establish the light artillery,
all that could found, on my left. Many officers and men unknown to me, and whom I never
desire to know, fled in confusion through the line. Many gallant soldiers and brave officers
rallied steadily on the new line.
I passed to the right and found myself in communication with General Sherman and received
his instructions. In a short time the enemy appeared on the crest of the ridge, led by the
Eighteenth Louisiana, but were-cut to pieces by the steady and murderous fire of our artillery.
Dr. Cornyn again took charge of one of the heavy 24-pounders, and the line of fire of that gun
was the one upon which the other pieces con-centered. General Sherman's artillery also was
rapidly engaged, and after an artillery contest of some duration the enemy fell back. Captain
Gwin, U.S. Navy had called upon me by one of his officers to mark the place the gunboats might
take to open their fire. I advised him to take position on the left of my camp ground and open fire
as soon as our fire was within that line. He did so, and from my own observation and the
statement of prisoners his fire was most effectual in stopping the advance of the enemy on
Sunday afternoon and night. About dark the firing ceased. I advanced my division 100 yards to
the front, threw out pickets, and officers and men bivouacked in a heavy storm of rain.
About 12 p.m. General Nelson's leading columns passed through my line and went to the
front, and I called in my advance guard. The remnant of my division was reunited, Colonel
Veatch, with the Second Brigade, having joined me about 4.30 p.m. It appears from his report,
which I desire may be taken as part of mine, that soon after arriving on the field of battle, in the
morning, the line of troops in front broke and fled through the lines of the Fifteenth and Fortysixth
Illinois without firing a shot, and left the Fifteenth exposed to a terrible fire, which they
gallantly returned. Lieutenant-Colonel Ellis and Major Goddard were killed here early in action,
and the regiment fell back. The same misfortune from the yielding of the front line threw the
Forty-sixth Illinois into confusion, and, although the fire was returned by the Forty-sixth with
great spirit, the opposing force drove back this unsupported regiment, Colonel Davis in person
bringing off the colors, in which gallant act he was severely wounded. The Twenty-fifth Indiana
and Fourteenth Illinois changed front, and held their ground on the new alignment until ordered
to form on the left of General McClernand's command. The Fifteenth and Forty-sixth were
separated from the brigade, but fell into line with General McClernand's right. The battle was
sustained in this position, the left resting near my headquarters until the left wing was driven in.
The Second Brigade fell back towards the river, and was soon followed by the First and Third,
and reunited at the heavy guns. This closes the history of Sunday's battle, so far as this division
was concerned.
On Monday, about 8 a.m., my division was formed in line close to the river bank, and I
obtained a few crackers for my men. About 9 a.m. I was ordered by General Grant to move up to
the support of General McClernand, then engaged near his own camp. With the First Brigade and
Mann's battery I moved forward under the direction of Captain Rowley, aide-de-camp, and
formed line on the left of General McClernand's, with whom that brigade and battery remained
during the entire day, taking their full share of the varied fortunes of that division in the gallant
charges and the desperate resistance which checkered that field. I am under great obligations to
General McClernand for the honorable mention he has personally given to my troops, and have
no doubt that his official report shows the same; and as they fought under his immediate eye, and
he was in chief command, I leave this to him.
The Second and Third Brigades went into action elsewhere, and again I am compelled to
refer to the report of their immediate commanders, only saying that the Second Brigade led the
charge ordered by General Grant until recalled by Major-General Buell, and that the Third
Brigade was deeply and fiercely engaged on the right of General McClernand, successfully
stopping a movement to flank his right and holding their ground until the firing ceased. About 1 -
o'clock of that day (Monday) General McCook having closed up with General McClernand and
the enemy demonstrating in great force on the left, I went, by the request of General
McClernand, to the rear of his line to bring up fresh troops, and was engaged in pressing them
forward until the steady advance of General Buell on the extreme left the firmness of the center
and the closing in from the right of Generals Sherman and Wallace determined the success of the
day, when I called in my exhausted brigades and led them to their camps. The ground was such
on Sunday that I was unable to use cavalry. Colonel Taylor's Fifth Ohio Cavalry was drawn up in
order of battle until near 1 o'clock, in hope that some opening might offer for the use of this arm,
and none appearing, I ordered the command withdrawn from the reach of shot. They were not in
action again until the afternoon of Monday, when they were ordered to the front, but returned to
their camps. Their subsequent conduct will be no doubt reported by the officer who conducted
the special expedition of which they made a part. On Sunday the cavalry lost 1 man killed, 6
wounded, and 8 horses before they were withdrawn. The greater portion of Ross' battery were
captured on Sunday in the ravine near my camp.
For the officers and men of my division I am at a loss for proper words to express my
appreciation of their courage and steadiness. Where all did their duty so well I fear to do injustice
by specially naming any. The fearful list of killed and wounded officers in my division shows the
amount of exposure which they met, while the returns of loss among the privates, who fell
unnamed but heroic, without the hope of special mention, shows distinctly that the rank and file
were animated by a true devotion and as firm a courage as their officers. Colonel Williams, Third
Iowa, commanding First Brigade, was disabled early in the action of Sunday by a cannon-shot,
which killed his horse and paralyzed him, from which he has not yet fully recovered. The
command of the brigade devolved on Colonel Pugh, of the Forty-first Illinois, who held it
steadily and well through the entire battle. Colonel Pugh desires special mention to be made of
Lieut. F. Sessions, of Third Iowa, acting assistant adjutant-general. My own observations
confirm his report, and I recommend Lieutenant Sessions to the favorable consideration of the
Department. Col. A. K. Johnson, of Twenty-eighth Illinois, was under my own eye during both
days. I bear willing testimony to his perfect coolness and through handling of his regiment
throughout the whole timer and to the fact that his regiment halted as a rear guard on Sunday
afternoon during the retreat by his personal order and reported to me for orders before he closed
into the line. Colonel Logan, of the Thirty-second, was severely wounded on Sunday; the
lieutenant-colonel of the Forty-first fell about the same time, both in discharge of duty. So great
were the casualties among officers, that the Third Iowa Regiment went into action on Monday in
command of a first lieutenant. To Colonel Veatch, commanding the Second Brigade, my thanks
are due for the skill with which he handled his brigade on detached duty, and I refer to his report
for the conduct and special notice of his officers. The Government, as I am informed, has
recognized his former services by promotion ; if not, he has won it now. Brig. Gen. J. G.
Lauman, commanding the Third Brigade, took command only the day before the battle. The
brigade and their commander know each other now. I saw him hold the right of my line on
Sunday with his small body of gallant men, only 1,717 strong, for three hours, and then, when
changed over to the left, repel the attack of twice his force for a full hour of terrible fighting,
closing by the most gallant and successful charge, which gave him time to draw off his force in
order and comparative safety. His report renders full justice to his officers, among whom Colonel
Reed, of the Forty-fourth Indiana, was especially distinguished.
My own thanks have been personally tendered on the field of battle to First Lieut. E.
Brotzmann, commanding Mann's battery, and to his command. This battery fought both days
under my personal inspection. It was always ready, effective in execution, changing position
promptly when required, and officers, men, and horses steady in action. Having lost one piece on
Sunday, it was easy to distinguish the fire of this battery throughout Monday; in position first on
General McClernand's right, then on his center, then on the left, they everywhere fulfilled their
duty. I specially recommend this officer for promotion. Captain Mann, of this battery, was
unable to be in action. I recommend that the officers of the Thirteenth Ohio Battery be mustered
out of service, and that the men and material remaining may be applied to rifling up the ranks of
some battery which has done honor to the service.
My personal thanks are due to my personal staff. Capt. S. D. Atkins, acting assistant adjutantgeneral,
rose from a sick bed, and was with me until I ordered him to the rear. He was absent
about three hours, and returned and remained throughout the battle. Lieut. J. C. Long, Ninth
Regular Infantry, my aide, was peculiarly active, energetic, and daring in conveying my orders
under heavy fire. He was fortunate in receiving no wound, although one ball passed through his
cap and one through his sleeve. Lieutenant Benner, my acting assistant quartermaster, acted as
aide with great coolness and courage, and had his horse killed under him. Lieut. W. H.
Dorchester joined me as volunteer aide on Sunday, and rendered valuable aid on Monday.
I add statement of killed, wounded, and missing of the artillery so far as reported.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Fourth Division.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Camp near Pittsburg, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
SIR: I herewith send you a statement of the operations of the brigade under my command on
the 6th and 7th days of April, 1862, in the battle of Pittsburg, Tenn.
Early on the morning of the 6th of April, while I was at breakfast, I heard heavy firing in
front. I immediately ordered out the Forty-first Illinois Regiment of Volunteers, who were in line
in ten minutes. At the same time I ordered my horse, and by the time I was mounted I received
orders from Colonel Williams, Third Iowa, commanding First Brigade, Fourth Division, to take
my position on the left of the brigade, which I did, and marched to the scene of action, forming
my regiment in line of battle on the left of the brigade, and at about 9 a.m. received the first fire
of the enemy, which was returned by my regiment with great spirit. I then, in connection with the
brigade, fell back about 100 yards and formed in line of battle, and awaited the renewal of the
attack by the enemy, at which time I received a message from General Hurlbut to assume the
command of the brigade. I then placed the command of the Forty-first Illinois Volunteers in the
hands of Lieutenant-Colonel Tupper, and went to the right of the brigade, when I found that
Colonel Williams, Third Iowa, had been wounded by a cannon-shot, I believe the first fired, and
had to leave the field. I then discovered the enemy in large force across an old field, when I
ordered a battery to be placed in position and the enemy shelled, which they effected in thirty
minutes. I then ordered a detachment of cavalry to spike three of our guns, which had been left
on the opposite side of the field when Colonel Williams was wounded, which duty they
About 11 o'clock a.m. I ordered Colonel Johnson, Twenty-eighth Illinois Volunteers, to
change position on the field, which was promptly done; about which time General Hurlbut
ordered Colonel Logan, Thirty second Illinois Volunteers, to support the Forty-first Illinois
Volunteers on the left, who were being hard pressed by the enemy, and Colonel Johnson was
ordered to support the Third Iowa on the right, at which time the enemy attempted to cross the
field, but were driven back by the Third Iowa and Twenty-eighth Illinois Volunteers, with some
pieces of artillery, with great slaughter. We maintained our position at that point until 1 o'clock
p.m., when we fell back about 200 yards. The troops under my command manifested great
coolness. The enemy advanced cautiously and slowly, and at the same time pushing their forces
on our left flank. About this time Captain Benner had his horse killed, and Colonel Johnson had
his horse badly wounded, so that he had to abandon him.
We maintained this position until 3 o'clock p.m., when we fell back slowly, forming lines of
battle frequently, and making great slaughter among the enemy, as the ground over which we
retired showed on Monday evening, as I rode over the ground, by the large number of rebels that
were killed at each point where we made a stand. I conducted the right wing of the brigade in
good order until we arrived in the encampment of the Third Iowa Volunteers, when we came in
contact with some twenty regiments on the retreat, when my command became somewhat
entangled with the retiring mass. I conducted the brigade to the rear of the large siege guns, and
awaited orders. About dark I received orders to form a line of battle on the right of Colonel
Veatch's brigade, which order was promptly executed, and the men remained in line of battle all
night, and on the morning of the 7th I was ordered to take position in the rear of the new lines
that had been formed during the night and await further orders.
At about 10 o'clock a.m. I received orders from General Hurlbut to move to the right and
support General McClernand, which order was promptly obeyed, under the direction of General
Hurlbut. When we arrived at the scene of action we were ordered to charge the enemy, which
was done with great spirit. I was then ordered to fall back about 300 yards to form a line of battle
in conjunction with some of General McClernand's troops and await further orders. At about 4
o'clock we received the joyful news that our troops had driven the enemy from the field, and the
troops under my command were ordered back to their old quarters.
I must in this connection, without disparagement to any one--for all under my immediate
command acted with great bravery--be permitted to mention the name of F. Sessions, acting
assistant adjutant-general, as acting with great gallantry, bravery, and self-possession in
conveying my orders to the various points on the battle-field during the engagement. The killed
and wounded and missing of each regiment are as follows: Third Regiment of Iowa Volunteers,
22 killed, 135 wounded, and 36 missing; Twenty-eighth Illinois Volunteer Regiment, 26 killed,
151 wounded, and 9 missing; Thirty-second Illinois Volunteer Regiment, 38 killed, 151
wounded, and 33 missing; Forty-first Regiment of Illinois Volunteers, 25 killed, 88 wounded,
and 10 missing ; in all, 724 in killed, wounded, and missing.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Col. 41st Regt. Ill. Vols., Comdg. 1st Brig., 4th Div.
Assistant Adjutant-General.
Pittsburg Landing, April 12, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to make the following report:
On the 6th instant, at 8 o'clock a.m., I formed my regiment on the color line of my
encampment, and by your order filed in and formed on the left of the Third Iowa, and marched to
the first open field on the right of the road. A line of battle was formed, one-half of my command
in the field, the other half in the woods, thus marching in line of battle through a skirt of woods
to another open field, through which we passed to within 100 yards of the timber. Here our
column was halted, and I ordered my men to lie down, and to be sure not to fire till they were
commanded, there being no enemy in sight, except some that were filing off to our left. At this
time firing commenced on the left of our brigade, all my command following suit except
Company B, which was on the extreme left of my regiment. This company fired in a very short
time afterwards. I went up to the left and inquired by whose authority the regiment fired. They
told me that they fired because the Twenty-eighth did. Captain Pierce, of Company B, told me he
fired after the others had fired by order of one of General Hurlbut's aides. I again cautioned them
not to fire without command. At this time the horse of Major Hunter was frightened and became
unmanageable. The major was thrown, and had to be taken off the field. Here we were ordered
by General Hurlbut in person to fall back to the peach orchard, which was done in good order.
We were then ordered to fall farther back, and take a position in the edge of the woods behind
the fence, which was also done in good order, with a battery on our right and another on our left.
I had been notified, however, prior to this time, that you had been disabled and compelled to
leave the field; that Colonel Pugh was in command of the brigade.
At this place I went to the colonel and inquired what arrangements there were to supply us
with cartridges. His reply was, none that he knew off He asked me if I was not supplied. I told
him, yes; that we had 40 rounds to the man, but that my boys expected to use more than that if
the battle continued. Colonel Pugh said that was enough. In this position we remained an hour or
more. I frequently cautioned the men to lie flat on the ground, they being in range of the enemy's
battery and trying to shell us out. I passed up and down the lines frequently, encouraging the men
and telling them not to fire until they had the order, and then not unless they had good sight on a
At length the enemy advanced in the open field and the order to fire was given. The boys
gave them such a dose of blue pills that they sickened at the stomach, and changed their course
toward the left of our brigade and warmly engaged the Forty-first. At this time General Hurlbut
came up and ordered me to take my command and march by the left flank to support the Fortyfirst;
that I would be led by a guide to the proper position. We started immediately, following the
guide. I marched in advance of my regiment, with the guide, to the place pointed out as our line
of battle. By some means, in our march down, the three left companies had outmarched the
others and got into position before the others arrived. I sent Lieutenant Rider, of Company K, to
tell Lieutenant-Colonel Ross to bring forward the remainder of the regiment to its place in line,
which was done in good order, and we engaged the enemy in real good earnest, every officer and
man, with one or two exceptions, doing their whole duty. Here we continued between one and
two hours, the enemy pouring a most galling shower of balls the whole time. There being no
support on the left whatever, the enemy attempted to turn our left flank. Being informed of this
fact, I directed Company B to direct its fire obliquely to the left, which for the time being drove
them back. At this time the regiment in front of ours and to our right gave way and ran, many of
them through our lines. This I feared would cause my men to break, but it had no such effect;
they closed up and continued the deadly strife.
In a few minutes I was notified we were getting out of cartridges. I rode along the line, and
the report was, "We are out of cartridges." I then ordered my command to fix bayonets, being
determined to fight them in every way possible. Here, seeing we were neither supported right nor
left, and to charge the enemy up the steep hill would be to rush my command into certain
destruction, I therefore, as the only means left us to prevent our falling into the enemy's hands,
gave the order to fall back over the hill, and, well knowing that my place at such a time was in
the rear of the last man, I remained until all had left and then followed them, the enemy's line
being within 40 feet of me. I was soon wounded in the left shoulder; saw the adjutant, and
directed him to inform Lieutenant-Colonel Ross that he must take command of the regiment. The
lieutenant-colonel had fallen, mortally wounded, a minute before, but I knew it not. My loss in
officers was so great that it was difficult to rally and form the regiment.
I am aware that I subject myself to the criticism of military men by changing my position
without an order from my superior officer, knowing it to be the duty of every officer to remain
with his command where, he is put until he is ordered from there by the proper officer--believing
as I did, for good reasons, that our situation had been overlooked or our brigade commander had
fallen, having received no orders during the whole contest.
There are many individual cases of merit that I would be glad to mention, but they being so
numerous I cannot do it only at the expense of being too tedious. There is one case, however, so
peculiar in itself that I will be pardoned for giving it. Charles Rogers, a corporal in Company C,
a member of the color guard, was severely wounded, the ball striking in above the shoulder,
passing deep through the back of the neck, coming out at the point of the opposite shoulder, fell
on the field, and was taken prisoner, was placed under guard of a single sentinel, and when the
enemy had to retreat he seized the sentinel's gun, wrested it from him, made him a prisoner, and
marched him into camp. This closes the matter of the first day's engagement.
I learned from my company officers after the battle that they collected what men they could,
and fought both Sunday evening and Monday with other regiments.
Below you have a list of the killed, wounded, and missing. Colonel, my apology for the
lateness of this report is my wound.
Your obedient servant,
Colonel Thirty-second Regiment Illinois Volunteers.
Comdg. -First Brigade, Fourth Division, U.S. Forces
April 17, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report the part taken by the Third Iowa Infantry in the action of the
6th and 7th instant.
The Third Iowa occupied the extreme right of the Fourth Division, being the first regiment of
Col. and Actg. Brig. Gen. N. G. Williams' brigade, and was posted during a greater portion of
Sunday at the fence near the cotton field. The enemy repeatedly threw large bodies of infantry
against us, but never with success. He was repulsed every time, and with great slaughter. The
regiment was also subjected to a storm of grape, canister, and shell, which lasted several hours.
The Third Iowa maintained its ground until evening and did not then give way until the troops on
their right and left had been broken and we were entirely outflanked and almost surrounded. The
regiment was then compelled in a great measure to cut its way out.
Of the firmness, coolness, and courage of the men under a heavy fire it will be unnecessary
for me to speak, as they were almost constantly during the battle under the immediate eye of the
general commanding the division.
The regiment went into battle on the second day under the command of First Lieut. G. W.
Crosley, of Company E, and, as I am well assured, nobly maintained the honor of the flag.
Should I designate meritorious officers I should have to name nearly every officer in the
regiment. I think, however, none will feel envious if I specially mention Lieutenant Crosley.
I desire to call the attention of the general commanding the division to the gallantry and good
conduct of Sergt. James Lakin, of Company F, who carried the colors on the first day, and of
Corp. Anderson Edwards, of Company I, who carried the colors on the second day, of the battle.
Our loss is heavy. I herewith inclose a list of our killed, wounded, and missing.
I have the honor to remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Captain, Third Iowa Infantry, Commanding Regiment.
Commanding Fourth Division, Army of the Tennessee.
Camp Sinloh, April 10, 1862.
SIR: I have the honor to report that on Friday, the 4th instant, the enemy's cavalry drove in
our pickets posted about a mile and a half in advance of my center, on the main Corinth road,
capturing 1 first lieutenant and 7 men; that I caused a pursuit by the cavalry of my division,
driving them back about 5 miles and killing many.
On Saturday the enemy's cavalry was again very bold, coming well down to our front, yet I
did not believe that he designed anything but a strong demonstration.
On Sunday morning early, the 6th instant, the enemy drove our advance guard back on the
main body, when I ordered under arms my division, and sent word to General McClernand
asking him to support my left; to General Prentiss, giving him notice that the enemy was in our
front in force, and to General Hurlbut, asking him to support General Prentiss. At that time (7
a.m.) my division was arranged as follows: First Brigade, composed of the Sixth Iowa, Col. J. A.
McDowell; Fortieth Illinois, Colonel Hicks; Forty-sixth Ohio, Colonel Worthington, and the
Morton Battery, Captain Behr, on the extreme right, guarding the bridge on the Purdy road over
Owl Creek. Second Brigade, composed of the Fifty-fifth Illinois, Col. D. Stuart; Fifty-fourth
Ohio, Col. T. Kilby Smith, and the Seventy-first Ohio, Colonel Mason, on the extreme left,
guarding the ford over Lick Creek. Third Brigade, composed of the Seventy-seventh Ohio,
Colonel Hildebrand; Fifty-third Ohio, Colonel Appler, and the Fifty-seventh Ohio, Colonel
Mungen, on the left of the Corinth road, its right resting on Shiloh Meeting-House. Fourth
Brigade, composed of the Seventy-second Ohio, Colonel Buck-land; Forty-eighth Ohio, Colonel
Sullivan, and Seventieth Ohio, Colonel Cockerill, on the right of the Corinth road, its left resting
on Shiloh Meeting-House. Two batteries of artillery (Taylor's and Waterhouse's) were posted,
the former at Shiloh and the latter on a ridge to the left, with a front fire over open ground
between Mungen's and Appler's regiments. The cavalry, eight companies of the Fourth Illinois,
under Colonel Dickey, was posted in a large open field to the left and rear of Shiloh Meetinghouse,
which I regarded as the center of my position.
Shortly after 7 a.m., with my entire staff, I rode along a portion of our front, and when in the
open field before Appler's regiment the enemy's pickets opened a brisk fire on my party, killing
my orderly, Thomas D. Holliday, of Company H, Second Illinois Cavalry. The fire came from
the bushes which line a small stream that rises in the field in front of Appler's camp and flows to
the north along my whole front. This valley afforded the enemy a partial cover, but our men were
so posted as to have a good fire at him as he crossed the valley and ascended the rising ground on
our side.
About 8 a.m. I saw the glistening bayonets of heavy masses of infantry to our left front in the
woods beyond the small stream alluded to, and became satisfied for the first time that the enemy
designed a determined attack on our whole camp. All the regiments of my division were then in
line of battle at their proper posts. I rode to Colonel Appler and ordered him to hold his ground at
all hazards, as he held the left flank of our first line of battle. I informed him that he had a good
battery on his right and strong supports to his rear. General McClernand had promptly responded
to my request, and had sent me three regiments, which were posted to protect Waterhouse's
battery and the left flank of my line. The battle began by the enemy opening a battery in the
woods to our front and throwing shells into our camp. Taylor's and Waterhouse's batteries
promptly responded, and I then observed heavy battalions of infantry passing obliquely to the
left across the open field in Appler's front; also other columns advancing directly upon my
division. Our infantry and artillery opened along the whole line and the battle became general.
Other heavy masses of the enemy's forces kept passing across the field to our left and directing
their course on General Prentiss. I saw at once that the enemy designed to pass my left flank and
fall upon Generals McClernand and Prentiss, whose line of camps was almost parallel with the
Tennessee River and about 2 miles back from it. Very soon the sound of musketry and artillery
announced that General Prentiss was engaged, and about 9 a.m. I judged that he was falling back.
About this time Appler's regiment broke in disorder, soon followed by fugitives from Mungen's
regiment, and the enemy pressed forward on Waterhouse's battery, thereby exposed.
The three Illinois regiments in immediate support of this battery stood for some time, but the
enemy's advance was so vigorous and the fire so severe, that when Colonel Raith, of the Fortythird
Illinois, received a severe wound and fell from his horse, his regiment and the others
manifested disorder, and the enemy got possession of three guns of this (Waterhouse's) battery.
Although our left was thus turned and the enemy was pressing on the whole line, I deemed
Shiloh so important that I remained by it, and renewed my orders to Colonels McDowell and
Buckland to hold their ground, and we did hold those positions till about 10 o'clock a.m., when
the enemy got his artillery to the rear of our left flank, and some change became absolutely
Two regiments of Hildebrand's brigade--Appler's and Mungen's---had already disappeared to
the rear, and Hildebrand's own regiment was in disorder, and therefore I gave directions for
Taylor's battery, still at Shiloh, to fall back as far as the Prude and Hamburg road and for
McDonnell and Buckled to adopt that road as their new line. I rode across the angle and met
Beer’s battery at the cross-roads, and ordered it immediately to unlimber and come into battery,
action right. Captain Beer gave the order, but he was almost immediately shot from his home,
when the drivers and gunners fled in disorder, carrying off the caissons and abandoning five out
of six guns without firing a shot. The enemy pressed on, gaining this battery, and we were again
forced to choose a new line of defense. Hildebrand's brigade had substantially disappeared from
the field, though he himself bravely remained. McDowell's and Buckland's brigades still retained
their organization, and were conducted by my aides so as to join on General McClernand's right,
thus abandoning my original camps and line, This was about 10.30 a.m., at which time the
enemy had made a furious attack on General McClernand's whole front. Finding him pressed, I
moved McDowell's brigade directly against the left flank of the enemy, forced him back some
distance, and then directed the men to avail themselves of every cover--trees, fallen timber, and a
wooded valley to our right. We held this position for four long hours, sometimes gaining and at
other times losing ground General McClernand and myself acting in perfect concert and
struggling to maintain this line.
While we were so hardly pressed two Iowa regiments approached from the rear, but could
not be brought up to the severe fire that was raging in our front, and General Grant, who visited
us on that ground, will remember our situation about 3 p.m.; but about 4 p.m. it was evident that
Hurlbut's line had been driven back to the river, and knowing that General Wallace was coming
from Crump's Landing with re-enforcements, General McClernand and I, on consultation,
selected a new line of defense, with its right covering the bridge by which General Wallace had
to approach. We fell back as well as we could, gathering, in addition to our own, such scattered
forces as we could find, and formed a new line. During this change the enemy's cavalry charged
us, but was handsomely repulsed by an Illinois regiment, whose number I did not learn at that
time or since. The Fifth Ohio Battery, which had come up, rendered good service in holding the
enemy in check for some time; and Major Taylor also came up with a new battery, and got into
position just in time to get a good flanking fire upon the enemy's columns as he pressed on
General McClernand's right, checking his advance, when General McClernand's division made a
fine charge on the enemy, and drove him back into the ravines to our front and right. I had a clear
field about 200 yards wide in my immediate front, and contented myself' with keeping the
enemy's infantry at that distance during the rest of the day.
In this position we rested for the night. My command had become decidedly of a mixed
character. Buckland's brigade was the only one with me that retained its organization. Colonel
Hildebrand was personally there, but his brigade was not. Colonel McDowell had been severely
injured by a fall from his horse and had gone to the river, and the three regiments of his brigade
were not in line. The Thirteenth Missouri, Col. Crafts J. Wright, had reported to me on the field
and fought well, retaining its regimental organization, and it formed a part of my line during
Sunday night and all of Monday; other fragments of regiments and companies had also fallen
into my division, and acted with it during the remainder of the battle. General Grant and Buell
visited me in our bivouac that evening, and from them I learned the situation of affairs on the
other parts of the field. General Wallace arrived from Crump's Landing shortly after dark, and
formed his line to my right and rear. It rained hard during the night, but our men were in good
spirits and lay on their arms, being satisfied with such bread and meat as could be gathered from
the neighboring camps, and determined to redeem on Monday the losses of Sunday.
At daylight on Monday I received General Grant's orders to advance and recapture our
original camps. I dispatched several members of my staff to bring up all the men they could find,
and especially the brigade of Colonel Stuart, which had been separated from the division all the
day before, and at the appointed time the division, or rather what remained of it, with the
Thirteenth Missouri and other fragments, marched forward and reoccupied the ground on the
extreme right of General McClernand's camp, where we attracted the fire of a battery located
near Colonel McDowell's former headquarters. Here I remained, patiently waiting for the sound
of General Buell's advance upon the main Corinth road. About 10 a.m. the heavy firing in that
direction and its steady approach satisfied me, and General Wallace being on our right flank with
his well-conducted division, I led the head of my column to General McClernand's right, formed
line of battle facing south, with Buckland's brigade directly across the ridge and Stuart's brigade
on its right in the wood, and thus advanced slowly and steadily, under a heavy fire of musketry
and artillery. Taylor had just got to me from the rear, where he had gone for ammunition, and
brought up three guns, which I ordered into position, to advance by hand, firing. These guns
belonged to Company A, Chicago Light Artillery, commanded by Lieut. P. P. Wood, and did
most excellent service. Under cover of their fire we advanced till we reached the point where the
Corinth road crosses the line of McClernand's camps, and here I saw for the first time the wellordered
and compact columns of General Buell's Kentucky forces, whose soldierly movements at
once gave confidence to our newer and less-disciplined forces. Here I saw Willich's regiment
advance upon a point of water-oaks and thicket, behind which I knew the enemy was in great
strength, and enter it in beautiful style. Then arose the severest musketry fire I ever heard, which
lasted some twenty minutes, when this splendid regiment had to fall back. This green point of
timber is about 500 yards east of Shiloh Meeting-House, and it was evident that here was to be
the struggle. The enemy could also be seen forming his lines to the south, and General
McClernand sending to me for artillery, I detached to him the three guns of Lieutenant Wood's
battery, and seeing some others to the rear, I sent one of my staff to bring them forward, when,
by almost Providential decree, they proved to be two 24-pounder howitzers, belonging to
McAllister's battery, served as well as ever guns could be. This was about 2 o'clock p.m.
The enemy had one battery close by Shiloh and another near the Hamburg road, both pouring
grape and canister upon any column of troops that advanced toward the green point of wateroaks.
Willich's regiment had been repulsed, but a whole brigade of McCook's division advanced
beautifully, deployed, and entered this dreaded woods. I ordered my Second Brigade, then
commanded by Col. T. Kilby Smith, (Colonel Stuart being wounded), to from on its right, and
my Fourth Brigade, Colonel Buckland, on its right, all to advance abreast with this Kentucky
brigade before mentioned, which I afterwards found to be Rousseau's brigade of McCook's
division. I gave personal direction to (he 24-pounder guns, whose well-directed fire first silenced
the enemy's guns to the left, and afterwards at the Shiloh Meeting-House. Rousseau's brigade
moved in splendid order steadily to the front, sweeping everything before it, and at 4 p.m. we
stood upon the ground of our original front line and the enemy was in full retreat. I directed my
several brigades to resume at once their original camps. Several times during the battle cartridges
gave out, but General Grant had thoughtfully kept a supply coming from the rear. When I
appealed to regiments to stand fast, although out of cartridges, I did so because to retire a
regiment for any cause has a bad effect on others. I commend the Fortieth Illinois and Thirteenth
Missouri for thus holding their ground under a heavy fire, although their cartridge boxes were
I am ordered by General Grant to give personal credit where it is due and censure where I
think it merited. I concede that General McCook's splendid division from Kentucky drove back
the enemy along the Corinth road, which was the great central line of this battle. There
Beauregard commanded in person, supported by Bragg's, Johnston's, and Breckinridge's
divisions. I think Johnston was killed by exposing himself in front of his troops at the time of
their attack on Buckland's brigade on Sunday morning, although in this I may be mistaken.
My division was made up of regiments perfectly new, nearly all having received their
muskets for the first time at Paducah. None of them had ever been under fire or beheld heavy
columns of an enemy bearing down on them as they did on us last Sunday. They knew nothing
of the value of combination and organization. When individual fears seized them the first
impulse was to get away. To expect of them the coolness and steadiness of older troops would be
wrong. My Third Brigade did break much too soon, and I am not yet advised where they were
during Sunday afternoon and Monday morning. Colonel Hildebrand, its commander, was as cool
as any man I ever saw, and no one could have made stronger efforts to hold men to their places
than he did. He kept his own regiment, with individual exceptions, in hand an hour after Appler's
and Mungen's regiments had left their proper field of action. Colonel Buckland managed his
brigade well. I commend him to your notice as a cool, judicious, intelligent gentleman, needing
only confidence and experience to make a good commander. His subordinates, Colonels Sullivan
and Cockerill, behaved with great gallantry, the former receiving a severe wound on Sunday, and
yet commanding and holding his regiment well in hand all day, and on Monday, till his right arm
was broken by a shot. Colonel Cockerill held a larger portion of his men than any colonel in my
division, and was with me from first to last. Col. J. A. McDowell, commanding the First Brigade,
held his ground on Sunday till I ordered him to fall back, which he did in line of battle, and when
ordered he conducted the attack on the enemy's left in good style. In falling back to the next
position he was thrown from his horse and injured, and his brigade was not in position on
Monday morning. His subordinates. Colonels Hicks and Worthington, displayed great personal
courage. Colonel Hicks led his regiment in the attack of Sunday, and received a wound which is
feared may prove mortal. He is a brave and gallant gentleman, and deserves well of his country.
Lieutenant-Colonel Walcutt, of the Forty-sixth Ohio, was wounded on Sunday, and has been
disabled ever since.
My Second Brigade, Colonel Stuart, was detached near 2 miles from my headquarters. He
had to fight his own battle on Sunday, as the enemy interposed between him and General
Prentiss early in the day.
Colonel Stuart was wounded severely, and yet reported for duty on Monday morning, but
was compelled to leave during the day, when the command devolved on Col. T. Kilby Smith,
Fifty-fourth Ohio, who was always in the thickest of the fight and led the brigade handsomely. I
have not yet received Colonel Stuart's report of the operations of his brigade during the time he
was detached, and must therefore forbear to mention names. Lieutenant-Colonel Kyle, of the
Seventy-first, was mortally wounded on Sunday, but the regiment itself I did not see, as only a
small fragment of it was with the brigade when it joined the division on Monday morning. Great
credit is due the fragments of men of the disordered regiments who kept in the advance. I
observed and noticed them, but until the brigadiers and colonels make their reports I cannot
venture to name individuals, but will in due season notice all who kept in our front line, as well
as those who preferred to keep back near the steamboat landing.
I will also send a full list of the killed, wounded, and missing, by name, rank, company, and
regiment. At present I submit the result in figures :
O Officers. A Aggregate
M Enlisted Men.
--Killed-- -Wounded- Missing.
Command.O M O M O M A
First Brigade:
40th Illinois 1 42 7 148 .... 2 ....
6th Iowa 2 49 3 117 .... 39 ....
46th Ohio 2 32 3 147 .... 52 ....
Morton Battery 1 .... .... .... .... .... ....
Total First Brigade 6 123 13 412 .... 93 647
Second Brigade
55th Illinois 1 45 8 183 .... 41 ....
54th Ohio 2 22 5 128 .... 32 ....
71st Ohio 1 12 .... 52 1 45 ....
Total Second Brigade 4 79 13 363 1 118 578
Third Brigade
53d Ohio .... 7 .... 39 .... 5 ....
57th Ohio 2 7 .... 82 .... 33 ....
77th Ohio 1 48 7 107 3 53 ....
Total Third Brigade 3 62 7 228 3 91 394
Fourth Brigade
48th Ohio 1 13 3 70 1 45 ....
70th Ohio .... 9 1 53 1 39 ....
72d Ohio 2 13 5 85 .... 49 ....
Total Fourth Brigade 3 35 9 208 2 133 390
Barrett's battery .... 1 .... 5 .... ....6
Taylor's battery (no report).... .... .... .... .... ....
Waterhouse's battery 1 3 14 .... .... 18
Orderly .... 1 .... .... .... .... 1
Grand Total 16 302 45 1,230 6 435 2,034
The enemy captured seven of our guns on Sunday, but on Monday we recovered seven guns-
--not the identical guns we had lost, but enough in numbers to balance-the account. At the time
of recovering our camps our men were so fatigued that we could not follow the retreating
masses of the enemy, but the following day we followed up with Buckland's and Hildebrand's
brigades for 6 miles, the result of which I have already reported.
Of my personal staff I can only speak with praise and thanks. I think they smelt as much
gunpowder and heard as many cannon-balls and bullets as must satisfy their ambition. Captain
Hammond, my chief of staff, though in feeble health, was very active in rallying broken troops,
encouraging the steadfast, and aiding to form the lines of defense and attack. I recommend him
to your notice. Major Sanger's intelligence, quick perception, and rapid execution were of very
great value to me, especially in bringing into line the batteries that co-operated so efficiently in
our movements. Captains McCoy and Dayton, aides-de-camp, were with me all the time, and
acting with coolness, spirit, and courage. To Surgeon Hartshorn and Dr. L'Homroedieu hundreds
of wounded men are indebted for kind and excellent treatment received on the field of battle and
in the various temporary hospitals created along the line of our operations. They worked day and
night, and did not rest till all the wounded of our own troops, as well as of the enemy, were in
safe and comfortable shelter. To Major Taylor, chief of artillery, I feel under deep obligations for
his good sense and judgment in managing the batteries, on which so much depended. I inclose
his report and indorse his recommendations. The cavalry of my command kept to the rear and
took little part in the action, but it would have been madness to have exposed horses to the
musketry-fire under which we were compelled to remain from Sunday at 8 a.m. till Monday at 4
p.m. Captain Kossak, of the Engineers, was with me all the time, and was of great assistance. I
inclose his sketch of the battle-field, which is the best I have seen, and will enable you to see the
various positions occupied by my division, as well as of the others that participated in the battle.
I will also send in during the day the detailed reports of my brigadiers and colonels, and will
indorse them with such remarks as I deem proper.
I am, with very much respect, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, Commanding Fifth Division.
Assistant Adjutant-General to General Grant.
Camp, Shiloh, Tenn., April 9, 1862.
At the first alarm of the enemy's attack, Sunday, the 6th, the line of the First Brigade was
formed, as per previous orders, to hold the Purdy road and the right front. Two companies of the
Sixth Iowa were detached to defend the bridge crossing Owl Creek and one of the 12-pounder
howitzers of the Morton Battery placed to command the crossing on the hill at the right of our
encampment. About 8 o'clock the line was thrown forward to the brow of the hill, and the
remaining guns of the Morton battery brought up to command the several openings to the front,
and from this position several shots were fired on the enemy's masses, not then formed into line,
and the Fortieth Illinois Infantry were ordered forward and to the left to support the right of the
Fourth Brigade, in which position they became warmly engaged, when the order came to fall
back to the Purdy road. This was accomplished with difficulty, from the extended front of our
line, at that time three-quarters of a mile in length, on and over a broken and wooded surface,
and at the time when the only passable (the main) road was filled by the teams of the brigade.
Yet the change of position and front was just accomplished when the order to send the battery to
the center was received. The five guns were immediately dispatched. The other, from the
position of guarding the bridge, not coming up in time, remained with the brigade, as the passage
by the road had in the mean time been cut off.
In this position and front a few rounds were exchanged, and the skirmishers were again
thrown forward. When it was known that we were cut off from the center by the enemy in force
on the center and across the road and by a large force in the old field on our left and their cavalry
to the left and rear, the howitzer was placed on our left front under cover, and the enemy driven
from the field by a few discharges of canister. Soon after, at about 10 o'clock, Major Sanger
brought the order to move to the center and rear. This was accomplished as soon as possible
under the annoyance of the enemy's skirmishers. Here our front was again changed to the former
front of the general line of engagement.
By the general's order the Fortieth Illinois was advanced to support of the batteries in the
center, and the opening filled by the Sixth Iowa, being flanked from its position on the right to
the center, leaving the Forty-sixth Ohio on the right and a little to the rear. These dispositions
remained unchanged for a period of nearly two hours, when, at about 12.30 o'clock, the enemy,
finding no opposition on the right, brought a large force to our right and fronting our flank,
causing us to suffer a cross-fire from superior numbers both on the front and flank. It was here
that the brigade suffered its greatest loss.
In passing to the right through the thicket and crossing the ravine I was thrown from my
horse and severely shocked, and was at that time moving to have the Forty-sixth fall back behind
the crest, when Colonel Worthington changed front and gave the enemy the first fire. The
Fortieth had gone forward against the enemy's battery so far as to become entirely separated
from the rest of the command. At a little past 1 o'clock the Forty-sixth were ordered to retreat,
and lost in this retreat 14 killed and a large proportion of their wounded. The Sixth fell back with
less loss.
Afterwards, during the day and the day following, different portions of each regiment were
attached to other commands, and of the Sixth Iowa and Fortieth Illinois these fragments were
detained with Colonel Garfield and General Nelson, by the order of the general commanding,
until Tuesday and Wednesday respectively.
The behavior of my men and of their officers, almost without exception, was creditable, and
of this I shall in another manner properly notice.
Colonel Sixth Iowa, Commanding First Brig
Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 10, 1862.
COLONEL. Having assumed command of the regiment by your order, I have the honor to
make the following official report of the Sixth Iowa Infantry during the recent engagement:
On Sunday morning, when the attack was made on General Grant's center, the regiment was
immediately brought into line of battle, and was then moved about 50 yards to the front along the
edge of the woods. Company I was thrown out as skirmishers, and Companies E and G were
moved to the left and front of our line to support a battery just placed there. We were in this
position for more than two hours, when we were ordered to fall back to the rear of our camp on
the Purdy road.
The battle at this time was raging fiercely in the center and extending gradually to the right.
The line was slowly yielding to a vastly superior force, and it now became evident that we must
change our position or be entirely cut off from the rest of the army. The regiment then marched
by the left flank about 600 yards; crossed an open field about 150 yards wide; took a position in
the edge of the woods, and formed a new line of battle, which was again succeeded by another
line nearly perpendicular to the former, the right resting close to the Purdy road.
It was here Lieutenants Halliday and Grimes were wounded and carried from the field, thus
preventing them from distinguishing themselves, as they undoubtedly would have done had they
been spared to take part in the desperate and severe struggle that soon ensued. It was here that
Companies D and K, on picket duty at Owl Creek, joined the regiment by a circuitous route, the
enemy having already got between them and the regiment.
The regiment did not remain here long, however, but moved by the left flank in an easterly
direction about half a mile, over a broken and open field, and again entered the woods. A new
line was formed, and the regiment moved forward to meet the advancing foe. The line of battle--
at this time diagonal to the enemy's---was immediately changed to front them, and it was here
that the regiment withstood a shower of leaden hail and bullets which now was pouring in upon
it with deadly effect. Notwithstanding a vastly superior force and with no support, the regiment
gallantly maintained this position for more than two hours, and when it became apparent that no
succor was coming to it, and after the enemy had already turned our right flank and began
pouring a galling cross-fire upon it, the regiment was ordered to retire. It fell back in good order
and was assigned to the support of batteries near the river. At this stage of the battle I was
wounded and carried from the field. From authentic sources I learn, however, that the regiment,
under Captain Walden, remained at the batteries all night.
The next day the regiment was not formed as a regiment, but a detachment, under
Lieutenants Minton and Allison, was connected to an Illinois regiment, and the major portion,
under Captain Walden, voluntarily joined Colonel Garfield's command, and participated in the
engagement throughout the day until the enemy fled in great confusion.
In regard to the bravery, coolness, and intrepidity of both officers and men too much cannot
be said. Where all did so well to particularize would seem invidious; suffice it to say the
officers, with one or two exceptions, are deserving the highest praise. The men were at all times
cool and as free from fear or confusion as if they were on dress-parade.
The list of casualties, which I append below, fully attests the severity of the contest.
The following is the number of killed, wounded, and missing in the two days' engagement :
Killed 64
Wounded 100
Mining 47
Total 211
Total number engaged less than 650.
I have the honor to be, yours, respectfully,
Captain, Commanding Regiment
QUINCY, ILL., November 17, 1862.
COLONEL: Upon my return from captivity in the hands of the public enemy I have the
honor to submit my report of the part taken in the battle of the 6th of April last, near Pittsburg
Landing, by the Sixth Division, Army of West Tennessee, the command of which had been
assigned to me. I have the honor to transmit field return of the force which was subjected to my
control, as it appeared upon the morning of the engagement, the same being marked A.
Saturday evening, pursuant to instructions received when I was assigned to duty with the
Army of West Tennessee, the usual advance guard was posted, and in view of information
received from the commandant thereof, I sent forward five companies of the Twenty-fifth
Missouri and five companies of the Twenty-first Missouri Infantry, under command of Col.
David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri. I also, after consultation with Col. David Stuart,
commanding a brigade of General Sherman's division, sent to the left one company of the
Eighteenth Wisconsin Infantry, under command of Captain Fisk.
At about 7 o'clock the same evening Colonel Moore returned, reporting some activity in the
front--an evident reconnaissance by cavalry. This information received, I proceeded to
strengthen the guard stationed on the Corinth road, extending the picket lines to the front a
distance of a mile and a half, at the same time extending and doubling the lines of the grand
At 3 o'clock on the morning of Sunday, April 6, Col. David Moore, Twenty-first Missouri,
with five companies of his infantry regiment, proceeded to the front, and at break of day the
advance pickets were driven in, whereupon Colonel Moore pushed forward and engaged the
enemy's advance, commanded by General Hardee. At this stage a messenger was sent to my
headquarters, calling for the balance of the Twenty-first Missouri, which was promptly sent
forward. This information received, I at once ordered the entire force into line, and the remaining
regiments of the First Brigade, commanded by Col. Everett Peabody, consisting of the Twentyfifth
Missouri, Sixteenth Wisconsin, and Twelfth Michigan Infantry, were advanced well to the
front. I forthwith at this juncture communicated the fact of the attack in force to Major-General
Smith and Brig. Gen. S. A. Hurlbut.
Shortly before 6 o'clock, Col. David Moore having been severely wounded, his regiment
commenced falling back, reaching our front line at about 6 o'clock, the enemy being close upon
his rear. Hereupon the entire force, excepting only the Sixteenth Iowa, which had been sent to
the field the day previous without ammunition, and the cavalry, which was held in readiness to
the rear, was advanced to the extreme front, and thrown out alternately to the right and left.
Shortly after 6 o'clock the entire line was under fire, receiving the assault made by the entire
force of the enemy, advancing in three columns simultaneously upon our left, center, and right.
This position was held until the enemy had passed our right flank, this movement being effected
by reason of the falling back of some regiment to our right not belonging to the division.
Perceiving the enemy was flanking me, I ordered the division to retire in line of battle to the
color line of our encampment, at the same time communicating to Generals Smith and Hurlbut
the fact of the falling back, and asking for re-enforcements.
Being again assailed, in position described, by an overwhelming force, and not being able
longer to hold the ground against the enemy, I ordered the division to fall back to the line
occupied by General Hurlbut, and at 9.05 a.m. reformed to the right of General Hurlbut, and to
the left of Brig. Gen. W. H. L.Wallace, who I found in command of the division assigned to
Major-General Smith. At this point the Twenty-third Missouri Infantry, commanded by Colonel
Tindall, which had just disembarked from a transport, and had been ordered to report to me as a
part of the Sixth Division, joined me. This regiment I immediately assigned to position on the
left. My battery (Fifth Ohio) was posted to the right on the road.
At about 10 o'clock my line was again assailed, and finding my command greatly reduced by
reason of casualties and because of the falling back of many of the men to the river, they being
panic-stricken--a majority of them having now for the first time been exposed to fire--I
communicated with General W. H. L. Wallace, who sent to my assistance the Eighth Iowa
Infantry, commanded by Col. J. L. Geddes.
After having once driven the enemy back from this position Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant appeared
upon the field. I exhibited to him the disposition of my entire force, which disposition received
his commendation, and I received my final orders, which were to maintain that position at all
hazards. This position I did maintain until 4 o'clock p.m., when General Hurlbut, being
overpowered, was forced to retire. I was then compelled to change front with the Twenty-third
Missouri, Twenty-first Missouri. Eighteenth Wisconsin, Eighteenth Missouri, and part of the
Twelfth Michigan, occupying a portion of the ground vacated by General Hurlbut. I was in
constant communication with Generals Hurlbut and Wallace during the day, and both of them
were aware of the importance of holding our position until night. When the gallant Hurlbut was
forced to retire General Wallace and myself consulted, and agreed to hold our positions at all
hazards, believing that we could thus save the army from destruction; we having been now
informed for the first time that all others had fallen back to the vicinity of the river. A few
minutes after General W. H. L. Wallace received the wound of which he shortly afterwards died.
Upon the fall of General Wallace, his division, excepting the Eighth Iowa, Colonel Geddes,
acting with me, and the Fourteenth Iowa, Colonel Shaw; Twelfth Iowa, Colonel Woods, and
Fifty-eighth Illinois, Colonel Lynch? retired from the field.
Perceiving that I was about to be surrounded, and having dispatched my aide, Lieut. Edwin
Moore, for re-enforcements, I determined to assail the enemy, which had passed between me and
the river, charging upon him with my entire force. I found him advancing in mass, completely
encircling my command, and nothing was left but to harass him and retard his progress so long
as might be possible. This I did until 5.30 p.m., when, finding that further resistance must result
in the slaughter of every man in the command, I had to yield the fight. The enemy succeeded in
capturing myself and 2,200 rank and file, many of them being wounded.
Col. Madison Miller, Eighteenth Missouri Infantry, was during the day in command of a
brigade, and was among those taken prisoner. He acted during the day with distinguished
courage, coolness, and ability. Upon Col. J. L. Geddes, Eighth Iowa, the same praise can be
partly bestowed. He and his regiment stood unflinchingly up to the work the entire portion of the
day during which he acted under my orders. Col. J. S. Alban and his lieutenant-colonel, Beall, of
the Eighteenth Wisconsin, were, until they were wounded, ever to the front, encouraging their
command. Col. Jacob Fry, of the Sixty-first Illinois, with an undrilled regiment fresh in the
service, kept his men well forward under every assault until the third line was formed, when he
became detached, and fought under General Hurlbut. Colonel Shaw, of the Fourteenth Iowa,
behaved with great coolness, disposed his men sharply at every command, and maintained his
front unbroken through several fierce attacks. Colonel Tindall, Lieutenant-Colonel Morton, and
Major McCullough, of the Twenty-third Missouri, are entitled to high meed of praise for gallant
It is difficult to discriminate among so many gallant men as surrounded me when we were
forced to yield to the overpowering strength of the enemy. Their bravery under the hottest fire is
testified to by the devotion with which they stood forward against fearful odds to contend for the
cause they were engaged in. To the officers and men who thus held to the last their undaunted
front too much praise cannot be given.
Captain McMichael, assistant adjutant-general, attached to the division commanded by
General Wallace, joined me upon the field when his gallant leader fell. He is entitled to special
mention for his conduct while so serving. Col. David Moore is entitled to special mention. Capt.
A. Hickenlooper, of the Fifth Ohio Battery, by his gallant conduct, commended himself to
general praise.
My staff consisted of but three officers. Brigade Surg. S. W. Everett was killed early in the
engagement, gallantly cheering the Eighteenth Missouri Regiment to the contest. Lieut. Edwin
Moore, aide-de-camp, during the entire battle, was by my side, unless when detached upon the
dangerous service of his office. Capt. Henry Binmore, assistant adjutant-general, was with me,
performing his duty to my great satisfaction, until, being exhausted, I compelled him to leave the
I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Brigadier-General, U.S. Volunteers.
Col. J. C. KELTON,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.